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DEATHS: 1551 GENGA — 1916 WOUTERS — 1901 GUFFENS — 1593 ARCIMBOLDO — 1946 NASH 1931 FORAIN 
BIRTHS: 1885 FRESNAYE — 1694 COYPEL
^ Died on 11 (or 31) July 1551: Girolamo Genga, Urbino region Italian painter and architect, born in 1476.
— He was first apprenticed to Luca Signorelli, probably when the latter went to Urbino in 1494. From 1498 until 1501 Genga was active in the workshop of Pietro Perugino, where he probably met Raphael. He later went to Florence, remaining there for some years, before going to Siena, though the sequence of his movements between 1501 and 1513 is disputed. He probably had a relatively mobile career, moving between different artistic centers. — Genga's students included his son Bartolommeo Genga [1518 – July 1558], Baldassare Lanci, Francesco Paciotto.

LINKS
–- Madonna and Child(1374x1064pix, 122kb — .ZOOM to 2404x1862pix, 232kb)
–- Madonna and Child with Saint John the Baptist and saint Anthony of Padua (1510, round; 1213x1164pix, 128kb — .ZOOM to 2124x2055pix, 236kb)
–- The Son of Quintus Fabius Maximus buys from Hannibal the freedom of the Roman Prisoners (1104x1186pix, 188kb — .ZOOM to 1932x2075pix, 317kb)
–- Aeneas Fleeing from Troy (1509, 1097x1176pix, 168kb — .ZOOM to 2160x2302pix, 384kb)
–- Madonna and Child, with the Child Saint John the Baptist (60x49cm; 800x657pix, 36kb) was at one time attributed to Raphael.
–- S#> Madonna and Child, with the Child Saint John the Baptist, and Saint Francis behind (109x93cm; 400x341pix, 37kb)

—(090710)
^ Died on 11 July 1916: Rik Wouters, Belgian painter and sculptor born on 02 August 1882.
— Rik Wouters was one of the most striking figures in Brabant Fauvism. His paintings (e.g. Woman Ironing, The Education) are a feast of color. Wouters’ optimism and vitality contrast sharply with the work of the Flemish Expressionists, of which the museum also has a valuable collection. This movement, which was born during the First World War under the influence of French Cubism, Italian Futurism and German Expressionism, played a significant part in Western European art up to 1945. Frits van den Berghe, Gust de Smet and Constant Permeke each in his own way offers a penetrating view of Flemish life between the wars. — Né à Malines en 1882, Henri Wouters commence sa formation artistique à 12 ans dans l'atelier de son père où il travaille le bois et réalise des sculptures pour meubles. Mais il désire en connaître plus sur la sculpture et s'inscrit en 1897 à l'Académie de Malines où il poursuit ces leçons jusque 1901. En 1900, il s'inscrit à l'Académie de Bruxelles et notamment dans le cours de "sculpture d'après nature"donné par Charles Van der Stappen. A 22 ans, il rencontre la femme de sa vie, Nel. Elle est modèle pour différents artistes et devient la muse qu'il ne cessera jamais de représenter. Il l'épouse et le couple s'installe à Watermael. Malheureusement, les temps sont durs et l'année d'après, ils sont déjà contraints de retourner à Malines chez le père de Rik. A cette époque, il est conquis par le luminisme en peinture : ses baigneuses nues sont éclairées par les derniers rayons du soleil. Peu à peu, les jeux de la lumière le déçoivent et il est mécontent de son travail. Après des tensions avec le père de Rik, ils reviennent à Bruxelles et s'installent à Saint-Josse-ten-Noode où leur misère est grande. L'année suivante, Rik obtient malgré tout un deuxième prix au concours Godecharles avec sa sculpture Rêverie. Il se réinscrit à l'Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts de Bruxelles en vue de préparer le prix de Rome. Nel est atteinte de la tuberculose et le couple s'installe à la campagne. Ce sera Boitsfort où l'artiste fait plusieurs essais de peinture et des études de lumière en utilisant des couleurs claires appliquées sur du carton, les toiles étant trop chères.

LINKS

–- Portrait de Rik au cigare (1913)
–- Les rideaux rouges (1913)
–- Femme Assise (1915, 96x74cm; 880x667pix, 52kb)
Réflections (1912; 1064x867pix, 232kb)
 
^Born on 11 July 1885: Roger-Noël-François de la Fresnaye, French Cubist-Fauvist painter and draftsman who died on 27 November 1925.
— Although he was born at Le Mans, where his father, an officer in the French army, was temporarily stationed, he came from an aristocratic family whose ancestral home, the Château de la Fresnaye, was near Falaise. His education, which was thorough and classically based, was followed by studies in Paris at the Académie Julian (1903–1904) and at the École des Beaux-Arts (1904–1905 and 1906–1908); from 1908 he studied at the Académie Ranson under Maurice Denis and Paul Sérusier, whose joint influence is evident in early works such as Woman with Chrysanthemums (1909), which has the dreamlike Symbolist atmosphere and stylization characteristic of work by the Nabis.

LINKS

–- Married Life (1912, 99x119cm; 812x1000pix, 95kb — .ZOOM to 1625x2000pix, 383kb)
Le 14 Juillet (1914; 835x1047pix, 121kb)
L'Homme au Foulard Rauge (1922; 1061x692pix, 157kb)
Castor et Pollux (1922; 947x628pix; 109kb)
Vaches dans un Pâturage (1909; 856x1063pix, 199kb)
White House at Audierne (1909; 749x1084pix, 208kb) _ No President ever lived there. However, if you want a picture of the US president's official mansion, click here.
La Cheminée d'Usine, Paysage de Meulan (1912; 898x1111pix, 290kb)
Paysage à La Ferté-sous-Jouarre final version (1911; 755x1023pix, 74kb) _ Aux confins de la Brie et de la Champagne La Ferté-sous-Jouarre, bâtie sur les deux rives de la Marne, est située au confluent de la Marne et du Petit-Morin. Ses paysages sont très variés, vallonnés, boisés. Au IXe siècle une forteresse, bâtie sur une île au milieu de la rivière, veillait sur les religieux et paysans locaux. Anculfus, chef de guerre franc, lui donna son nom, Firmitas Anculfi, et construisit une ville fortifiée dans une île de la Marne, entre les hameaux de Saint Martin et de Condetz. Plusieures fois au cours des siècles le nom de la ville a été modifiée. Après Firmitas Anculfi elle deviendra Ferté-Ausculphe, puis La Ferté-Ancoul, La Ferté-Aucoul, Ferté-Aucol (nom qu'elle portera jusqu'à la Révolution française), La Ferté-sur-Marne, et La Ferté-sur-Morin. C'est en 1797 que l'administration municipale décidera l'actuelle dénomination de La Ferté-sous-Jouarre.
     Charles de Bourbon [22 Dec 1523 – 09 Sep 1590] est né à La Ferté. Il est devenu évêque à 16 ans, cardinal à 24 ans, a été mis en prison à 65 ans et y est resté jusqu'à sa mort, ayant été entretemps proclamé roi de France Charles X par le Parlement de Paris.
     Dès le XVIe siècle l'industrie meulière donna à La Ferté une certaine renommée, grâce à la qualité de sa pierre (Meulière, de "Meule", 1566: pierre à surface rugueuse, variété de calcaire siliceux) et au savoir-faire de ses meuliers (les moulins, de ce fait, fournissaient une farine d'excellente qualité).
 
^ Died on 11 July 1901: Godfried Egide Guffens, Belgian painter born on 22 July 1823.
— In 1838 op 15 jarige leeftijd volgde hij een opleiding "Monumentale Schilderkunst" aan de Academie van Antwerpen (in het atelier "De Keyser"). Tijdens deze opleiding maakte hij kennis met Jan Swerts (1820-1879) met wie hij nadien veel zou samenwerken. Zo kregen ze in 1855 de opdracht om in de Antwerpse Handelsbeurs een aantal monumentale muurschilderingen te maken. Samen werkten ze aan diverse muurschilderingen en ondernamen ook verschillende studiereizen (Parijs, Rome, Napels, Sicilië en verschillende plaatsen in Duitsland). In 1871 verliet hij Antwerpen, waar hij sinds zijn studies woonde en verhuisde naar Schaarbeek. Guffens is vooral bekend voor zijn monumentale, religieuze en historische werken, maar was ook een portretist, vooral in opdracht van de gegoede burgers. In de periode 1886-1899 kopierde hij ook fresco's van Italiaanse meesters uit de 13° tot 16° eeuw.
     Vanaf 1842 tot 1898 stelde hij werk tentoon in binnen-en buitenland. Een postume tentoonstelling ingericht door zijn dochter Hubertine vond plaats eind 1901 in Brussel. In 1981 werd een retrospectieve gehouden in Galerij Tamara (Cultureel Centrum) te Hasselt. Eind 2001 liep er in het Stedelijk Museum Stellingwerff-Waerdenhof te Hasselt, een tentoonstelling "Godfried Guffens en het historisme in Limburg". Deze schilder overleed 100 jaar geleden. Er verscheen ook een publicatie. Er waren ook werken te zien van Louis Hendrix en Jan Willem Rosier. Werk van hem is te zien o.a. in de pas gerestaureerde Sint-Quintinuskathedraal muurschilderingen in het koor en doopkapel te Hasselt, de Raadszaal van het Hasseltse stadhuis ("De overhandiging van de privileges van Graaf Arnold IV aan de stad Hasselt) en in de St. Ursulakerk te Lanaken (muurschilderingen). Verder ook nog in de Sint-Joris kerk te Antwerpen en de O-L-V van Bijstandkerk te Sint-Niklaas (muurschilderingen).
     Spijtig genoeg is er ook werk verloren gegaan : muurschilderingen in de Handelsbeurs te Antwerpen en Hallen van Ieper. In Hasselt werd een laan naar hem genoemd (1903) : Guffenslaan. Ook in Schaarbeek is er de Godfried Guffensstraat (zie links). Op deze link krijgt men verder een overzicht van andere werken en kan men tevens een bezoek brengen aan de Schepenenzaal van Kortrijk. Hier illustreren muurschilderingen van Guffens en Swerts uit 1875 de hoogtepunten uit de geschiedenis van deze stad.

A Bedouin Chieftain (1846, 130x102cm)
A Young Oriental Woman (1848, 130x102cm)
Rouget De Lisle Chantant la Marseillaise (1849, 130x187cm; 770x1000pix, 148kb) _ Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle [10 May 1760 – 26 Jun 1836], a captain of the engineers and amateur musician, quartered in Strasbourg, is shown singing “le chant de guerre de l'armée du Rhin” on the night he composed it, 24 to 25 April 1792, in the home of the mayor, baron Philippe-Frédéric de Dietrich [14 Nov 1748 – 29 Dec 1793 guillotined], who had requested a marching song for the French troops. The anthem came to be called “la Marseillaise” because of its popularity with volunteer army units from Marseille marching to Paris in July 1792. The Convention accepted it as the French national anthem in a decree passed on 14 July 1795. “La Marseillaise” was banned by Napoléon during the empire and by Louis XVIII on the Second Restoration (1815) because of its Revolutionary associations. Authorized after the July Revolution of 1830, it was again banned by Napoléon III and not reinstated until 14 March 1879.
the music — the words:
I.
Allons enfants de la Patrie
Le jour de gloire est arrivé !
Contre nous de la tyrannie
L'étendard sanglant est levé (bis)
Entendez-vous dans nos campagnes
Mugir ces féroces soldats ?
Ils viennent jusque dans vos bras.
Égorger vos fils, vos compagnes !

Refrain :
Aux armes citoyens
Formez vos bataillons
Marchons, marchons
Qu'un sang impur
Abreuve nos sillons



II.
Que veut cette horde d'esclaves
De traîtres, de rois conjurés ?
Pour qui ces ignobles entraves
Ces fers dès longtemps préparés ? (bis)
Français, pour nous, ah ! quel outrage
Quels transports il doit exciter ?
C'est nous qu'on ose méditer
De rendre à l'antique esclavage !
(refrain)

III.
Quoi ces cohortes étrangères !
Feraient la loi dans nos foyers !
Quoi ! ces phalanges mercenaires
Terrasseraient nos fils guerriers ! (bis)
Grand Dieu ! par des mains enchaînées
Nos fronts sous le joug se ploieraient
De vils despotes deviendraient
Les maîtres des destinées.
(refrain)
IV.
Tremblez, tyrans et vous perfides
L'opprobre de tous les partis
Tremblez ! vos projets parricides
Vont enfin recevoir leurs prix ! (bis)
Tout est soldat pour vous combattre
S'ils tombent, nos jeunes héros
La France en produit de nouveaux,
Contre vous tout prêts à se battre.
(refrain)
V.
Français, en guerriers magnanimes
Portez ou retenez vos coups !
Épargnez ces tristes victimes
À regret s'armant contre nous (bis)
Mais ces despotes sanguinaires
Mais ces complices de Bouillé
Tous ces tigres qui, sans pitié
Déchirent le sein de leur mère !
(refrain)
VI.
Amour sacré de la Patrie
Conduis, soutiens nos bras vengeurs
Liberté, Liberté chérie
Combats avec tes défenseurs ! (bis)
Sous nos drapeaux, que la victoire
Accoure à tes mâles accents
Que tes ennemis expirants
Voient ton triomphe et notre gloire !
(refrain)
VII. (couplet des enfants, pas par Rouget)
Nous entrerons dans la carrière
Quand nos aînés n'y seront plus
Nous y trouverons leur poussière
Et la trace de leurs vertus (bis)
Bien moins jaloux de leur survivre
Que de partager leur cercueil
Nous aurons le sublime orgueil
De les venger ou de les suivre !
Carmenelle (1851, 139x77cm)
 
^ Died on 11 July 1593: Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Italian painter, draftsman and tapestry designer, active also in Austria and Bohemia. He was the first Surrealist (officially “Mannerist”) (human faces made up of vegetables, or fish, or birds, etc.) (born approximately in 1527).
— He came from a distinguished Milanese family that included a number of archbishops of the city; his father was the painter Biagio Arcimboldo. Giuseppe is first documented in 1549, working with his father for Milan Cathedral; he received payments until 1558 for supplying paintings, designs for an altar baldacchino and stained-glass windows for the cathedral: The Story of Lot and The Life of Saint Catherine in the south transept windows are usually attributed to him. He collaborated with Giuseppe Meda in designing the gonfalone of Saint Ambrose in Milan, probably sometime soon after 1558. In 1556 he received a commission to paint the south wall and vault of the south transept of Monza Cathedral, also in Lombardy, a work that must have been completed by 1562. Portions of a fresco of the Tree of Jesse on the south wall there can be attributed to him. In 1558 he was paid for designing tapestries for Como Cathedral. On the basis of stylistic comparison with the windows in Milan and the frescoes in Monza, the design of a tapestry representing Saint John the Baptist Preaching and Baptizing can be attributed to Arcimboldo. The Archbishop of Milan, Carlo Borromeo, probably paid for this tapestry.
— Arcimboldo was painter and general factotum for the court in Prague from 1562 to 1587. Arcimboldo was one of the first, or maybe "the first" Renaissance painter to be more interested in objects other than people. Of course, all his pictures of things are pictures of people. This interest in painting things would evolve, in another 20 years -- at the beginning of the Baroque era, into in what is now called the still-life picture.... that is a picture of flowers and vegetables without people, for example by the relatively unknown Roman artist Francesco Zucchi [1562–1622], who brought the Arcimboldo style to Rome. At about the same time Caravaggio [28 Sep 1573 – 18 Jul 1610] began to paint realistic still-life pictures, perhaps prompted by seeing the Zucci pictures. Or maybe as an exercise trying to copy images projected by a concave mirror. Arcimboldo did some painted portraits as well as the composite pictures shown here. If anyone has some of his standard portrait work it would be nice to include them here. He also designed tapestries and stainedglass windows... tapestries, now there is something we don't have at all... where are the tapestries?
— In the middle of the sixteenth century Arcimboldo made a normal debut with youthful works including designs for window s and tapestries respectively in Milan and Monza cathedrals and frescos for the cathedral of Como. None of these gave any inkling of the bizarre originality he would soon develop. In 1562 he was summoned to the Imperial court in Prague and almost immediately his original and grotesque fantasy was unleashed. He invented a portrait type consisting of painted animals, flowers, fruit, and objects composed to form a human likeness. Some are satiric portraits of court personages, and others are allegorical personifications.
      Arcimboldo's style has been so often imitated over the centuries that it is sometimes difficult to make exact attributions. He has been seen by some as the forerunner of Surrealism in the 20th century, but, more to the point, he should be seen in his own context at the end of the Renaissance. This was a time when people (collectors and scientists alike) were beginning to pay more attention to nature. Arcimboldo really created the fantastic image of the court in Prague, creating costumes, set designs, and decorations. Emperor Rudolf II set him the task of researching and buying works of art and natural curiosities, as well as giving him countless commissions for paintings. In 1587 Arcimboldo went back to Milan but stayed in contact with the Emperor. Towards the end of his life, he sent the Emperor the idiosyncratic portrait of him in the guise of the Greek god Vertemnus.
—      Although Arcimboldo was extremely famous during his lifetime, he was soon forgotten after his death. We do not know why people ever lost interest in his art. Perhaps he was misunderstood by the generations that followed. The interest to his abstruse and fantastic pictures, of which we only have a very few originals, nowadays, revived only at the end of the 19th century. Apart from the fantastic pictures, he probably painted quite a few more traditional ones. But many of these, too, seem to have disappeared.
      Giuseppe Arcimboldo was born into the family of a painter for the Milan Cathedral in 1527. The other variants of the name: Josephus, Joseph or Josepho Arcimboldi or Arcimboldus. It is uncertain which version is the correct one, because the painter used all these variants to sign his works. Many art historians agreed to use the variant of Giuseppe Arcimboldo.
     In 1549, at the age of 22, Arcimboldo made his debut as an artist. The records of the Milan Cathedral tell us that, together with his father, he was paid for designing several stained glass windows. He went on to work for the Milan Cathedral after his father’s death, until 1558. During this period he designed stained glass windows for the Milan Cathedral and several gobelin tapestries for the Como Cathedral.
     In 1562, Arcimboldo became a court painter of Emperor Ferdinand I (Habsburg) and left for Vienna, then moved to Prague. During the 2 years, when  Arcimboldo served Ferdinand I, he painted several portraits of the Imperial family as well as the first series of his Four Seasons. The artistic concept of these pictures of 1563 was unique and laid the foundation of Arcimboldo’s success as a painter. The documents of the time bear witness to the fact that monarchs and his contemporaries in general were quite enthusiastic about his art.
     When Ferdinand I died, in 1564, and was succeeded by Emperor Maximilian II (1527-1576), Arcimboldo continued as his court artist. There is little doubt that a large number of pictures were painted between 1564 and 1576, but only very few of them are known to us: Water and Fire (1566), The Lawyer (1566), The Cook (1570) another series of the Four Seasons in 1572, two series of Four Seasons in 1573, including Spring (1573), Summer (1573), Autumn (1573), Winter (1573). In 1575 Arcimboldo made several paintings for the private chambers of the Emperor. We do not know of any other works. But apart from painting, Arcimboldo also had other duties at the Imperial court. As he was a man of many talents he also served the Emperor as an architect, stage designer, engineer, water engineer and art specialist. Because of his extensive knowledge he was able to exert his influence on Maximilian II.
      Like his 2 predecessors, Emperor Rudolph II (1552-1612) also took Arcimboldo into his service. The eleven years, which the artist spent with Rudolph II, were probably the peak of his career. The Emperor was extremely fond of Arcimboldo and showed great appreciation for him. All we know about Arcimboldo’s activities as an artist at the Imperial court is that  he painted The Four Seasons twice in 1577, that he dedicated a red leather folio containing 150 pen-and-ink drawings to the Emperor in 1585, and that he organized a number of festive processions and tournaments in the same year. We have no knowledge of any further pictures, which he might have painted, at the court in Prague after 1585.
     In 1587, after 11 years of service and a number of urgent requests, Arcimboldo finally received permission from Rudolph II to return to his native Milan. And so he went back in the same year, but honored the Emperor’s request to continue working for him even, though he was no longer in his service. In 1591 he painted two of his most famous pictures, Flora (1591) and Vertumnus (1591), which he sent to Prague. Vertumnus was particularly appreciated by everyone, especially by Rudolph himself. It is a head-and-shoulder portrait of the Emperor, showing him in the form of Vertumnus, the ancient Roman god of vegetation and transformation. Rudolph consists entirely of magnificent fruits, flowers and vegetables. Delighted with these paintings, Rudolph II  awarded Arcimboldo one of his highest orders in 1592.

LINKS
Self-Portrait (1575, blue and black ink and wash; 444x345pix, 16kb).
–- Vertumnus _ (1591, 70x57cm) _ There is no mistaking this masterpiece of fantasy and virtuoso imagination by Arcimboldo. The mythical Vertemnus (or Vortumnus), god of harvests and abundance, is in fact a bizarre portrait of the Habsburg Emperor Rudolf II, who may not have been a couch potato (he never watched TV), but is here depicted as a bunch of vegetables. In the sixteenth century the emperor's cosmopolitan court in Prague became a centre of international art, where Arcimboldo moved in the refined and exclusive circles of late European Mannerism. His painting might appear almost irreverent, but in fact is the manifestation of his eager search for new ideas and his exploration of different ways of expression. (It also gives quite a good impression of the Emperor.) This led him to break the usual rules in order to provoke uncensored reactions and emotions. The paintings and objects contained in Rudolf of Habsburg's Wunderkammer (room of wonders) were unfortunately scattered after a Swedish army sacked Prague during the Thirty Years' War (1618-48).
–- Flora
–- Spring (1563)
Summer (1573, 76x64cm) _ The painting is one of the series representing the four seasons. There exists several other versions of the series.
_ Summer (1563, 67x51cm) _ Part of an early version of the cycle dedicated to the four seasons. Each one is symbolically represented by a startling and evocative juxtaposition of fruits and objects typical of that time of the year. Arcimboldo found this subject particularly congenial and often painted groups of pictures on a theme. Not only did he paint the four seasons, but also the four elements (Earth, Air, Water, and Fire)
–- Autumn (1573)
–- Winter
–- Air
–- Water
–- Earth
–- Fire
Eve and the Apple with Counterpart, both (1578) on one page.
The Librarian (1566, 97x71cm) _ Arcimboldo's most famous works are the fantasy paintings representing human faces and composed from flowers, fruits, fishes and other objects. Sometimes these paintings have allegoric or moral references.
Vegetables in a Bowl or The Gardener _ When rotated 180 degrees the vegetables in a bowl are transformed into the portrait of a gardener.
The Cook (1570) _ Another picture that can be viewed upside down. But, for this one, you won't need to turn your monitor over or to stand on your head: the rotated image is shown on the same page.
 
^ >Born on 11 July 1694: Charles~Antoine Coypel, French painter, tapestry designer, and writer who died on 14 March 1752, grandson of Noël Coypel, half-nephew of Noël-Nicolas Coypel [1690-1734]
— Coypel had precocious success as a painter, as his father and teacher Antoine Coypel [1661-1722] was the Premier Peintre du Roi. Upon his father's death in 1722, Charles inherited the elder Coypel's painting and design responsibilities at court, became the chief painter of the duc d'Orléans, and received lodgings at the Louvre. He eventually became Premier Peintre himself in 1747, as well as director of the Académie Royale. Besides talents in painting and engraving, Coypel possessed some literary talent: he produced two tragedies, several comedies, prose, and some poetry. He also excelled as a tapestry designer for the Gobelins manufactory; the twenty-eight scenes he created for the Don Quixote series woven continuously between 1714 and 1794, were his most successful. He received several commissions for paintings for the Palais de Versailles, and he worked for the king's mistress, Madame de Pompadour. In 1747 Coypel received an order to design a series of theatrical scenes for tapestries for the queen of Poland.
— Coypel had a resoundingly successful career, largely due to his administrative capacity in the various official positions that he held. In 1747 he became director of the Académie Royale and chief painter to the king. He also was an accomplished writer of verse and plays as well as art criticism. As a painter he was versatile and prolific, but his worst painting, Supper at Emmaus (1746), is pathetically inept.

LINKS
–- Self-Portrait (1734, 98x80cm; 720x578pix, 28kb) _ Wearing the official academy costume — a brown velvet waistcoat, lace shirt, and long powdered wig — Coypel gracefully turns towards the viewer. When he made this half-length self-portrait, Coypel was forty years old and already a full professor at the Académie Royale in Paris. With an open-handed gesture, Coypel presents both himself and his work to the viewer. He stands against a portfolio containing colored paper; underneath, a silver holder contains sharpened pieces of chalk, the medium essential to his profession. Written on the portfolio is a dedication: “Charles Coypel has painted himself for Philippe Coypel, his brother and his best friend, 1734.”
      Coypel's younger brother was a valet de chambre to King Louis XV, so the picture served also as a tool for self-promotion. Displayed in the Philippe's house, the self-portrait would have boldly presented the confident image of Charles to the powerful members of the king's inner circle. A brilliant portraitist, Coypel excelled in the medium of pastel. He first drew a detailed underdrawing lightly in pencil, then made crisp outlines using a sharpened pastel crayon. The soft, harmonious coloring completes the work and conveys the differences in texture between his thick velvet waistcoat, the gossamer white lace, and the smooth and shiny buttons.
Philippe Coypel brother of the artist (1732, 75x61cm; 962x752pix, 98kb) _ Ce portrait représente Philippe Coypel [1703-1777], Ecuyer du Roi, frère et “ami qui plus est” de l'artiste. Peint l'année de son mariage, il a peut-être été peint comme cadeau à cette occasion, puisqu'il était associé à un pendant, Portrait de Madame Coypel (1732).
Perseus and Andromeda (1727, 131x196cm; 498x760pix, 48kb)
France Offering Thanks to Heaven for the Recovery of Louis XV (1744, 59x50cm; 985x760pix, 72kb)
–- Scène de l'histoire antique (152x172cm; 871x1001pix, 56kb) _ On bended knee, a patrician woman begs a general to stop his soldiers from doing violence to her people (specific incident is not specified).

—(090710)
^Died on 11 July 1946: Paul Nash, English Surrealist painter born on 11 May 1889.
— Nash, the son of a successful lawyer, was born London. Nash was educated at St. Paul's School and the Slade School of Art, where he met Stanley Spencer, Mark Gertler, William Roberts and C. R. W. Nevinson. Influenced by the work of William Blake, Nash had one-man shows in 1912 and 1913.
     On the outbreak Nash enlisted in the Artists' Rifles and was sent to the Western Front. Nash, who took part in the offensive at Ypres, had reached the rank of lieutenant in the Hampshire Regiment by 1916. Whenever possible, Nash made sketches of life in the trenches. In May, 1917 he was invalided home after a non-military accident. While recuperating in London, Nash worked from his sketches to produce a series of war paintings. This work was well-received when exhibited later that year.
     As a result of this exhibition, Charles Masterman, head of the government's War Propaganda Bureau (WPB) recruited Nash as a war artist. In November 1917 he returned to the Western Front where he painted several more pictures. Nash's work during the war included The Menin Road, The Ypres Salient at Night, The Mule Track (1918), A Howitzer Firing, Ruined Country and Spring in the Trenches. Nash was unhappy with his work as a member of War Propaganda Bureau. He wrote at the time: "I am no longer an artist. I am a messenger who will bring back word from the men who are fighting to those who want the war to go on for ever. Feeble, inarticulate will be my message, but it will have a bitter truth and may it burn their lousy souls." After the war Nash experimented with surrealism and abstract art. Nash also taught at the Royal College of Art and worked as a designer and book illustrator. During the Second World War Nash was employed by the Ministry of Information and the Air Ministry and paintings produced by him during this period include The Battle of Britain and Totes Meer.

LINKS
Wood on the Downs (1929) _ Nash helped organise and exhibited in the first surrealist exhibition of 1936. He is ranked as one of the greatest lyric artists of the English School - alongside Turner and Blake. It has been said of him that he was: Essentially a landscape painter, no artist has interpreted the beauty and rhythm of the English countryside as perfectly as he. Wood on the Downs is an articulate and monumental treatment of a vivid but unsensational subject. It is described in English Art & Modernism as a painting that summarises the first three decades of twentieth century British painting. There is an emphasis on a substantial paint surface, a feature of the best work of the Camden Town Group and a clear formal structure testifies to a continued recognition of the importance of Cezanne. The continental influences of Surrealism and Cubism were being gradually adopted into a context that became entirely appropriate to English painting.
Northern Adventure (1929) _ This is the second version of a view from the window of Nash's flat in London which overlooked St. Pancras Station, across a vacant lot, containing an advertising hoarding. The work demonstrates Nash's increasing interest in architectural landscapes and in Surrealism. In the first version, oval windows line the station building. In Northern Adventure these have been removed, substituted for an outsized window which floats in space at an angle. This strange displacement of the window calls to mind the work of the Surrealists. It was a device used by the Italian artist, Giorgio De Chirico and its inclusion in Nash's work provides a reflection of the sky which is otherwise cut from the composition. In Nash's autobiography, 'Outline', his notes under the chapter titled 'Searching' read; "A new vision and a new style. The change begins. Northern Adventure and other adventures."
Winter Sea (71x97cm) _ Muted shades of green and white are combined with black to create an impression of the sea at night. As well as suggesting moonlight, the palette of steely colors conveys a sense of somberness and cold. Concentrating on color and form, Nash represented nature as a pattern that verges on the abstract. The sharp, angular shapes of the waves evoke the forbidding nature of the winter sea.
A Howitzer Firing (71x91cm) _ Along with Nevinson and Wyndham Lewis, Nash (1889-1946) was one of the major British war painters who, like them, had been influenced by Cubism and Futurism prior to 1914. He signed up in 1914, was made a lieutenant in 1916, and fought near Ypres. An accident led to his repatriation in May 1917. He then set down to work from memory and from his sketches. Nash's paintings rely on detailed observation, from which he extracts the substance of his pictorial, lyrical and tragic effects. This is the case with this picture, where Nash is not content merely with a representation of the gun under camouflage nets. The initial flash of light and the reddening of the sky in contrast with the shadow of the foreground heighten the picture's expressiveness.
Night Bombardment (1919, 183x214cm) _ Produced for the Canadian War Memorial, this painting is reminiscent of the work of Vallotton, in spite of the difference in the two painters' ages, training and experience of the war. In this commemorative picture, Nash combines figurative elements - mainly tree trunks, barbed wire and the dark entrance to a dugout - with geometrical elements - now curved, like craters and smoke etc., now angular, like the explosion, parapets and wooden frames. It reminds one of early Nevinson, which relies on the same pictorial system. However, faced with a monumental format, Nash introduces a further element, with the brutality of his earthy colors, the muddy grey-browns, the red of the barbed wire and the whitish lights, forming sharp contrasts against the backdrop of an opaque sky.
The Ypres Salient at Night (1918, 71x91cm) _ Void (1918, 72x92cm) _ The Menin Road (1919, 183x317cm) _ The battle around Ypres lasted as long as the war itself. This appalling blood-bath was for the Commonwealth troops like Verdun for the French: an endless carnage in a marshy landscape where the wounded were swallowed up in the mud. These three paintings by Paul Nash, while showing how he moved from Cubo-Futurism towards descriptive naturalism, bear witness to the extreme violence of the destruction, in the wetlands, in the mutilated woodlands and around the town, itself destroyed. Void can be seen as the archetype of the Great War landscapes: not a soldier to be seen, abandoned lorries and guns, flooded trenches, a limp corpse among the shells and rifles, smoke and, in the distance a plane, either dropping bombs or falling to the ground, we cannot tell. On top of everything, it rains continually. There can be no more hope of coming back alive from such a place which no longer has a name, which has become a field of death.
–- S#> The French Farm (1926, 54x73cm; 660x900pix, 142kb)
Behind the Inn (1922, 63x76cm)
–- S#> Swanage, Low Tide (1935, 38x56cm; 510x753pix, 94kb) _ Nash painted this when he and his wife Margaret were living in lodgings at No.2 The Parade, on the Swanage seafront. Nash was fascinated by this part of the Dorset coast and its varied surrounding landscapes and he worked tirelessly to capture its mysterious geological character. The Swanage period was undoubtedly one of Nash's most productive and is distinguished by his exploration into Surrealist imagery (The chapter that deals with this period in his autobiography is entitled Swanage or Seaside Surrealism). However, even the simpler views such as the one captured in this painting are progressive works of acute observation. Nash had an immensely heightened perception in the two crowded years spent in Swanage, during which time he also carried out a commission to compile and edit The Shell Guide to Dorset (1936). Nash was initially captivated by Swanage and its environs, so much so that he employed an architect to design a house in the town; but the attraction was short-lived. This may have been partly due to the weather which proved highly detrimental to Nash's asthmatic condition, as well as to a delayed distaste for the vulgarity of the architecture, the inhabitants of the town, and those who came by the coachload to visit.
–- S#> Nymph in a landscape (1916, 28x37cm; 420x554pix, 76kb)
 

Died on a 11 July:


^ >1954 Albert André, French painter, writer, and museum curator, born on 24 May 1869. He received his initial art training in Lyon and began his career designing patterns for silk, the city’s principal industry. After moving to Paris in 1889, he attended the Académie Julian and subsequently met Louis Valtat, Paul Ranson, Georges D’Espagnat and Henri Bataille [1872–1922]. Perhaps the most important influence on his work was Auguste Renoir, who first saw André’s paintings in 1894 at the Salon des Indépendants and was so favorably impressed that he recommended André to the dealer Paul Durand-Ruel. The two artists struck up a close relationship, which lasted until Renoir’s death in 1919. André’s monograph Renoir (1919) is one of the most accurate contemporary accounts of the Renoir’s work.
Jeune femme cousant (1913, 64x64cm; 480x484pix, 45kb _ ZOOM 1 to 981x881pix, 167kb _ .ZOOM 2 to 1577x1542pix, 200kb)
–- Renoir et sa femme, intérieur (1916, 47x58cm; 1128x1351pix, 122kb)
Nue, intérieur (1897, 57x48cm; 994x747pix, 671kb)
Sur la terrasse, Laudun (54x65cm; 480x351pix, 46kb)
Au Jardin (1943, 38x46cm; 480x640pix, 74kb) —(090710)

1931 Jean~Louis Forain, French painter born (full coverage) on 23 October 1852. —(051018)

^ 1697 Abraham Janszoon Begeyn (or Begeijn, Bega, Begein, Begheyn), Dutch Baroque painter and draftsman born in 1637. In 1655 he became a member of the Guild of Saint Luke in Leiden. He was registered in Amsterdam in 1672, but the following year, or a little later, he was recorded in London, where he painted at Ham House, Surrey, together with Willem van de Velde the younger and Dirck van den Bergen. In 1681 he was in The Hague, where he had a student called P. Romburch and where two years later he became a member of the painters’ confraternity Pictura. From 1688 Begeyn was court painter to Frederick III, Elector of Brandenburg (later Frederick I, King of Prussia). The Elector commissioned him to draw views of his country estates and of villages and towns in Germany. Begeyn thus traveled extensively in Germany, visiting Halberstadt, Minden, Bielefeld, Wesel, Cleves, and Regenstein. LINKS
–- Seashore (1662)
Landscape with goats at the foot of a statue (50x61cm)
–- S#> Wooded Landscape with piping shepherds in a ruin, and their flocks (59x71cm; 407x510pix, 36kb)
–- S#> Flowers in a Stone Vase (78x74cm; 900x745pix, 147kb) there are roses, tulips, and chrysanthemums, also butterflies and a lizard. _ This is one of only two known signed flower still lifes by Begeyn. The other is smaller in size, with a much simpler arrangement of blooms. The different and typically English canvas size would furthermore suggest that this still life may have been painted in England, where Begeyn had settled after 1672. He probably stayed only a decade or so as he is next recorded as working in The Hague by 1681. Begeyn's only securely documented works from his English period are a pair of paintings of plants (of which he evidently made something of a speciality) commissioned by the Countess of Dysart about 1674.


Born on a 11 July:


^ >1899 (11 Jan?) Maurice Brianchon, French painter, illustrator and stage designer who died on 01 March 1979. He studied briefly at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Bordeaux and from 1917 at the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs in Paris under Eugène Morand [1885–], whose innovative teaching influenced his later work. Maurice Brianchon was born in the village of Fresnay-sur-Sarthe to Parisian parents. After a classical education, he began his official art training at the Ecole des Arts Dcoratifs in Paris in 1917. Early public recognition of his talent came when, at the age of 23, he was appointed a member of the committee of the Salon d'Automne. The following year he won the Prix Blumenthal which enabled him to live in Spain for a time where he studied the paintings of the Spanish Masters, with a particular interest in Velasquez. 1927 was a pivotal year for the young artist. His first one-man exhibition took place at Galerie Le Portique in Paris which led to two significant shows at Galerie Marcel Bernheim in 1930 and 1932. He also became a regular participant in important salons of the time including the Salon d'Art Contemporain d'Anvers. By 1934 Brianchon's career was established. He exhibited at the 'Artistes de ce Temps' at the Muse du Petit-Palais in Paris as well as the Venice Biennale. In this same year Brianchon married fellow artist Marguerite Louppe. Destiny returned Brianchon to his alma mater, the Ecole des Arts Dcoratifs, in 1936 where he assumed the role of teacher. Demand for the artist's talents soon grew; however, not always in the traditional form of paintings on canvas. Brianchon embarked on a variety of endeavors at this time. These included designing stage settings for opera productions and ballets at The Paris Opera. Large mural commissions were executed along with Mrs. Brianchon for the Conservatoire de Musique et Art Dramatique de Paris. Also, during this busy period Brianchon produced illustrations for several books and cartoons for tapestries. In 1949 Brianchon was appointed Chef d'Atelier de Peinture at the I'Ecole Nationale des Beaux Arts in Paris. His teachings there would profoundly influence the next generation of artists, most notably, Bardone, Brasilier, Cathelin, Genis, and Guiramand. The 1950s brought Brianchon national and international acclaim. The Muse des Arts Dcoratifs presented a retrospective exhibition of his work at the Palais du Louvre in 1951. This led to a one-man exhibition at the Wildenstein Gallery in London later that year. In June of 1953 Brianchon received a request from the British Government to attend the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in order to document the ceremony in paintings. His first US exhibition was hosted by David Findlay Galleries in New York in 1959. In the following two decades Brianchon began spending less time in Paris and more time at his country home 'Les Truffiers' in Périgord which eventually affected his paintings. The dynamic images of horse races, theater stages and street scenes painted by the young artist enamored with city life were gradually replaced by the equally beautiful, though more relaxed and contemplative, landscapes, and still lifes of a mature artist savoring his elder years in the country. Brianchon continued to exhibit regularly in the art-centers of the world until his death.
–- Bouquet de fleurs dans l'atelier (1268x1575pix, 186kb)
–- S#> Vue de plage avec cabines (27x35cm; 660x872pix, 156kb)
–- S#> Les tulipes (65x36cm; 800x554pix, 70kb)
–- S#> Paris, Métro (1926, 81x99cm; 636x800pix, 90kb) dark gray, nearly monochrome.
–- S#> Les marguerites (81x65cm; 800x640pix, 56kb)
–- S#> La plage ensoleillée (60x92cm; 510x786pix, 97kb)
–- S#> La plage (1960, 92x65cm; 800x552pix, 62kb)
–- S#> Nature morte au compotier (1955, 90x110cm; 422x550pix, 46kb)
–- S#> Nature morte aux poires (1960, 79x98cm; 402x500pix, 35kb _ /S#*>ZOOM to 1207x1500pix, 171kb)
Saint-Jean-de-Luz, la plage (1964 color lithograph; 610x465pix, 44kb)
THE OPAL SEA, by Ritschel^
1864 William Frederick Ritschel, German US marine painter who died on 11 March 1949. Born in Nuremberg, Germany, Ritschel was educated at the Latin and Industrial School in Nuremberg. As a youth he worked as a sailor and it was during this time that he began sketching marine subjects. He studied art at the Royal Academy in Munich under Raupp and Kaulbach before immigrating to NYC in 1895. In 1911, he settled in Carmel CA, while continuing to exhibit on the East Coast and in Europe. His paintings of the sea earned him international acclaim and in 1914 he was elected a member of the National Academy. In 1918 he began construction on his ocean view studio-home in the Carmel Highlands. This castle-like stone structure was to remain his home for the rest of his life except for trips throughout the world, especially the South Seas where he frequently visited. Ritschel died at his Carmel home.
— Best known as a marine and coastal landscape painter who captured the varying moods of the water, William Ritschel was an eccentric who dressed in flowered sarong and perched on cypress-covered cliffs in California with brushes and easel.
     He was born in Nuremberg, Bavaria, Germany, and was educated at the Latin and Industrial School in Nuremberg. As a young man, he roamed the sea as a merchant seaman, and reflected on canvas what he saw and experienced. He studied at the Royal Academy in Munich as the student of F. Kaulbach and C. Raupp and earned great renown in Europe for his paintings.
     In 1895, he emigrated to New York City and from there was nationally recognized for his marine subjects. He was closely associated with Childe Hassam, J. Alden Weir, Edward Redfield, and Willard Metcalf, and others who were pursuing the Impressionist style of painting. He joined the Salmagundi Club and the New York Watercolor Society.
     Beginning in 1901, he traveled the US West including Arizona where he painted the Grand Canyon and scenes of Navajo country. In 1911, he settled in Carmel, California, where in 1918, he built a studio-home called The Castle, overlooking the ocean. He lived there the remainder of his life, although he frequently traveled including to the South Seas.
China Cove -- Point Lobos (1923; 776x1065pix, 90kb)
Rocks and Breakers, Monterey CA (1914, 76x91cm; 600x718pix, 44kb)
Morning Litany

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