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ART “4” “2”-DAY  02 July v.8.60
^ Died on 02 July 1660: Francesco Maffei, Italian Baroque painter, active mainly in the Veneto, born in 1610, give or take ten years.
— He probably was trained by his father, Giacomo Maffei, before joining the workshop of the Maganza family in Vicenza. His early works, such as the Ecce homo, were influenced by the eclectic style, between Veronese and the Bassani, of Alessandro Maganza. The Saint Nicholas and the Angel (1626), with colors like those of Veronese, yet lighter, suggests Maffei’s rapid development of an independent style that is both rugged and moving. His interest in narrative, already evident in scenes from the Life of Saint Cajetan, was developed in the later Martyrdom of the Franciscan Minors at Nagasaki (1630). Here, the contrast between the pale, silvery tones of the background and the darker foreground figures is derived from Tintoretto, but the exaggerated Mannerist treatment of the main figures also recalls the art of such French engravers as Jacques Bellange and Pierre Brébiette. At the same time there is also an echo of the extreme stylizations of Giovanni Demio and, in the angels above, the marked influence of Veronese.
— Maffei had a refreshingly individualistic style, carrying on the great painterly tradition of Tintoretto and Bassano, reinforced by the example of Liss, Feti, and Strozzi, to which he added his own note of mysterious and sometimes bizarre fantasy. He painted mythological scenes and also allegorical portraits of local officials.
     Maffei's fluid style combined the richness and splendor of the Baroque, the elegance and exaggeration of Mannerism, and his own flair for the visually dramatic. He probably trained in Vicenza with his father and with a local Mannerist painter. Active in Vicenza for most of his career, he also left intermittently to work in other Italian cities, including Venice, Rovido, and Brescia. Maffei specialized in civic allegories, elaborate machines that glorified the region's dignitaries. He painted religious works as well, like Crucifixion Supported by God the Father, where his debt to Jacopo Bassano's figure types and exaggerated lighting is evident.
      Maffei painted with a nervous and rapid brush in flashes of brilliant color, often achieving a hallucinatory effect. He studied a wide variety of Baroque and Mannerist painters, including Paolo Veronese, Alessandro Magnasco, Parmigianino, and Jacques Bellange. Tintoretto's attenuated forms and sudden lunges into space were also an influence. Maffei left Vicenza in 1657 and settled in Padua, where he died of the plague. A contemporary critic judged him a painter “not of dwarfs but of giants . . . whose style stupefied everyone.”

Perseus Cuts Off the Medusa's Head (1650, 130x161cm; 720x892pix, 118kb) _ After studying in Vicenza under Maganza, a late Mannerist painter of limited importance, Francesco Maffei turned to the paintings of Tintoretto, Paolo Veronese and Jacopo Bassano and soon achieved a personal style based on a Baroque reworking of the lessons taught by the great artists of the sixteenth century. Maffei moved to Venice in 1638, was attracted by the painters Liss, Fetti and Strozzi and developed his own version of their free and fanciful modern painting with a gifted, exuberant dreamlike quality. Amongst the most significant examples of this period is the painting of Perseus cutting the head off the Medusa. The figures, painted with impetuous, disdainful passion, crowd on the surface of the picture and are completely lacking in perspective relationship and in precise setting in their surroundings. The bright tones seem to swell as if as the result of some internal pressure, offering themselves as incandescent magma to the light which breaks them up into iridescent chromatic ornamental units. The sensual brightness of the colors underlines the emphatic strain on the links between the figures, lending the whole an emotional theatricality which was amongst the most visionary and unbiassed of the Baroque age in Venice.
–- Rinaldo and the Mirror-Shield (1655, 30x34cm; 845x960pix, 72kb) _ In the 1581 epic poem Gerusalemme Liberata [translation] of Torquato Tasso [11 Mar 1544 – 25 Apr 1595], the legendary medieval knight Rinaldo is bewitched by the beautiful sorceress Armida and lulled into a life of easy sensuality on the Fortunate Isles. His friends, the knights Carlo and Ubaldo, enter her garden and break her spell by showing Rinaldo a magic mirror-shield. His military spirit reawakened, he later rejoins his companions in the enchanted forest.
–- Rinaldo's Conquest of the Enchanted Forest (1655, 30x34cm; 844x960pix, 61kb) _ The medieval Christian knight Rinaldo has entered the enchanted forest, where monstrous apparitions have prevented his men from gathering wood to build their war-machines. Earlier, his companions had rescued him from the sorceress Armida's garden, and now they in turn require his assistance.
      Suddenly, hundreds of tree nymphs appear, surrounding Rinaldo, and the sorceress Armida appears from within a large myrtle tree, begging the knight to renew their love. His sword unsheathed, Rinaldo advances to strike the tree, thus overcoming the enchantment and enabling the Crusaders' liberation of Jerusalem to proceed.
      Combining themes of chivalric love with tales of Christian heroism, Tasso's poem Gerusalemme Liberata (1581) celebrated the First Crusade of 1099 nearly five hundred years after it had taken place. Some seventy years after the famous book was written, Maffei applied his energetic brushwork and rich color to enhance the drama of Tasso's Renaissance epic.
–- S#> Madonna and Child with Saints Dominic and Catherine, and Angels (39x44cm; 900x1025pix, 273kb) _ This late work by Maffei is a typical example of his somewhat idiosyncratic style. The expressive gestures of his figures and the fluent brushwork are typical of Maffei's mature work: compare, for example, his altarpiece Saint Martin of Tours Bringing a Baby back to Life (1652).
–- Joseph Sold by His Brothers (50x81cm; 775x1200pix, 53kb) — Compare:
_ .Joseph Being Sold by his Brothers (569x700pix, 147kb) by Overbeck [03 Jul 1789 – 12 Nov 1869]
_ Joseph Sold by his Brethren (1838, 31x41cm; 222x300pix, 16kb) by Decamps [1803-1860]
_ Joseph sold to Potiphar (1518, 58x50cm; 1023x875pix, 130kb) by Pontorno [1494-1557]

Died on a 02 July:

^ 1902 (05 Jul?) Geskel Sáloman (or Salomon), Swedish painter born on 01 April 1821 in Danish Schleswig. Soon after his birth his parents moved to Copenhagen, where Saloman received his education and attended the art school. While a student he painted, among other works, A Game of I'Hombre (1845), The First Violin Lesson (1846), and several portraits. For one of these, a portrait of the poet Overskov, he received in 1848 the Neuhauser prize of 400 Danish dollars. In 1849 appeared his Writing Instructions. After a stay in Paris, where he painted News from the Crimean War, he settled in Göteborg, Sweden. From 1860 to 1863 he lived in Algiers, where he painted The Chicken Sacrifice. In 1870 he moved to Stockholm, where he lived until hisdeath, often making trips abroad. In 1872 he became professor at the Stockholm Art Academy. Some of his other paintings are : The First-Born (1852), The Weaver Woman (1856), The Emigrants (1858), The Homecoming of the Victorious Troops (1881), Gustavus Vasa and the Dalecarlians (1886), The Blessing of the Sabbath Lights (1900). Saloman was an archeologist, who wrote: Die Statue der Venus von Milo, Die Statue des Belveder'schen und Vatikanischen Apollo, and other works. He was throughout his life a pious Jew.
— Geskel Saloman (eller ursprungligen Salomon) föddes i Tönder i danska Schleswig. Fadern var köpman, som senare blev kantor i Köpenhamns synagoga. I denna stad fick Geskel en god grundutbildning innan han påbörjade studier hos Eckersberg och Lundh vid den danska konstakademien i Köpenhamn. Geskel betraktades som en tradtionsbunden målare, tecknare och grafiker. 1850 var han i Göteborg för att närvara vid broderns giftermål. I samband med detta utställde han en del av sina verk. Utställningen blev en succé och S. fick omedelbart ett antal beställningar på porträtt, vilket ledde till att han stannade i staden. S var en av Göteborgs främsta porträttmålare. Under sina 20 år i staden målade han uppskattningsvis över 300 porträtt. 1855 gifte han sig med Ida (Göthilda) Jacobson, dotter till en av stadens förmögna köpmän, Morris Jacobson. Svärfadern bekostade S:s vidare studier i Paris vid Coutures ateljé. S var mycket aktiv i det göteborgska kulturlivet, vid den tiden koncentrerat till ett fåtal familjer. Tillsammans med den stor publicisten S. A. Hedlund (Göteborgs Handles- & Sjöfartstidning, GHT) startade han Göteborgs konstförening. Denna förening tillsammans med S. A. Hedlunds aktivitet ledde till att han beslutet att starta Göteborgs Musei Rit- och Målarskola, ursprunget till Valands konstskola, 1865. S. blev skolans förste föreståndare. Skolans lokaler inrymdes i Ostindiska huset (OIH), som idag är Göteborgs Stadsmuseum. S. var inte ensam som lärare: under de närmaste 30 åren anställdes andra personer för att genomföra speciella kurser. Att detta behövdes förstår man då man vet att skolan ansvarade för i stort sett alla Göteborgs skolors undervisning i teckning. S. var kvar som föreståndare i sex år, fram till 1871, då han flyttade till Stockholm. Hustrun hade gått bort och lönen var dålig. När han lockades av en tjänst som professor vid Konstakademien i Stockholm valde han att flytta till huvudstaden. Han hade då varit ledamot av Konstakademien i tre år. S. blev kvar som lärare vid akademien fram till 1888. 1876 förärades han titeln "Kunglig Hovmålare". Som kuriosum kan nämnas att S. var prins Eugens förste lärare i teckning. S. har främst gjort sig känd som porträttmålare. Vid sidan om detta har han också ägnat sig åt natur- och genremåleri. De främsta verken kom till under hans Göteborgstid och det kanske mest kända verket är "Utvandrare på väg till Göteborg", färdigställt 1869.
— {Wasn't it him who made a famous judgment?} — {No. He came too late. Nanni di Bartolo had already carved the Judgment of Salomon in 1438, and The Judgment of Solomon had been painted by Giorgione in 1496, Raphael in 1511, Nicolas Poussin in 1649, Leonaert Bramer, Nikolay Gay in 1854, and, most notably, by none other than Simeon Solomon. But that was not the end of it. Giotto de Bondone had painted in 1306 what he called The Last Judgment. But it was far from the last! He was followed by Giovanni Pisano in 1310, Jan van Eyck in 1425, Lorenzo Maitani in 1330, Stephan Lochner in 1435, Rogier van der Weyden in 1452, Hans Memling in 1471, Hieronymus Bosch, Mino da Fiesole, Nardo di Cione, Jan Provoost in 1525, Lucas van Leyden in 1526, Michelangelo Buonarroti in 1541, just to mention a few that come to mind... or, more exactly, to my computer screen. And that's without mentioning The Judgment of Paris by Lucas Cranach the Elder in 1514 and again in 1528, by Joachim Antoniszoon Wtewael in 1615, by Niklaus Manuel in 1518, by Marcantonio Raimondi in 1520, by Giovanni Sons, by Pieter Pawel Rubens in 1636 and 1639, by Pacecco de Rosa, by Claude Lorrain in 1646, by François Boucher; by Jacob de Wit; by James Barry; or The Judgment of Midas by John Sell Cotman], or The Judgment of Cambyses by Gérard David; or The Judgment of Jupiter by John Deare; or Judgement (1019x792pix, 274kb) by Lorraine Leslie
The Homecoming of the Victorious Troops (1881; 412x300pix, 53kb)
(Homecoming of the Bride and Groom?) (47kb)

1887 Wilhelm von Wright, Finnish Swedish zoological researcher and illustrator, born on 05 April 1810. Brother of Magnus von Wright [13 Jun 1805 – 05 Jul 1868] and Ferdinand von Wright [19 Mar 1822 – 31 Jul 1906]. In 1828 Wilhelm von Wright began work with Magnus in Stockholm on the illustrations for Svenska foglar, published between 1828 and 1838. Wilhelm remained in Stockholm, became a Swedish citizen and made an important contribution to zoological research and illustration in that country. Between 1835 and 1848 he was employed as the draftsman of the Academy of Sciences, and he was a member of the Academy of Fine Art. In the 1840s he moved to the island of Orust, on the west coast of Sweden, where he was appointed fisheries inspector.

1638 Charles Corneliszoon de Hooch (or Hoogh), Dutch artist. — Relative? of Pieter de Hooch [bapt. 20 Dec 1629 – 24 Mar 1684 buried]?

Born on a 02 July:

^ 1895 Eugène Paul “Gen Paul”, French painter who died in April 1975.
Self-Portrait with palette (44kb) on the cover of a museum catalog; it looks like a grimacing gunman.
–- S#> La Place du Tertre à Montmartre (x800pix, 133kb)
–- S#> L'Heure Douce (x800pix, 138kb)
— (Clothed man with arm around naked woman) (54kb) on the cover of the book Gen Paul by Carlo A. Marca.
Charleston au Moulin de la Galette à Montmartre (1926, 65x81cm; 432x538pix, 84kb)
Clowns - Musicians — (060701)

^ 1884 Félix Albrecht Harta, Hungarian painter who died on 27 November 1967. — {¿Es cierto que el arte de Harta harta? ¿y que por eso no se encuentra mucho de él en el internet?}— Studied at the Munich Academy and at the Academy Vitty in Paris; artistically close to Kokoschka, E. Schiele and A. P. Gütersloh. In 1919 founded the artists´ society called "Der Wassermann" in Salzburg. 1939-1950 lived in exile in England, later returned to Salzburg. His early works are marked by Expressionism whereas his later works show some post-Impressionist tendencies.
Praterstern mit Tegetthoffdenkmal und Zirkus Busch (75x112 cm; 300x455pix, 33kb) —(060701)

1855 Georg Vilhelm Pauli, Swedish artist who died in 1935.

^ 1828 Jules Jacques Veyrassat, French artist who died on 12 April 1893. — {Est-il vrai qu'il échappa de peu à un assassinat une fois qu'on demandait à sa femme s'il en finirait jamais avec un tableau qu'il avait en ébauche depuis des mois et qu'elle répondit: “Tu verras ça!”?}— LINKS
plus cher, veyrassat !Ploughing in the Nivernais (65x124cm)
Loading the Wagon (1890, 90x146cm)
A la Fontaine (1864, 41x50cm)
Chevaux s'Abreuvant dans la Seine Derrière Notre-Dame (38x51cm)
Haymaking (26x51cm)
The Return Home (76x61cm)
–- S#> Attelage (24x32cm; 510x668pix, 66kb)
–- S#> Le repos pendant la fenaison (40x75cm; 318x610pix, 68kb)
Bac Passe-Cheval
–- S#> Passage du Bac (46x55cm) _ Ce n'est PAS le baccalauréat.
   _ Compare:
   _ Le passage du bac à Roffit en 1866 by Edouard May [1807-1881]
   _ Het pontveer (1622, 75x113cm) by Esaias van de Velde I [bap. 17 May 1587 – 18 Nov 1630 bur.].
   _ The Arrival of the Ferry (70x96cm) and The Ferry Crossing (69x96cm) by Wilhelm Alexander Meyerheim [1815 – 13 Jan 1882] —(080701)

1810 Eduard Jakob von Steinle, Austrian painter who died on 18 (19?) September 1886. He studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna from 1823, where he was taught by Vincenz Georg Kininger. His training under Leopold Kupelwieser had a lasting influence on his work, for it was during this period (1826–1828) that he learnt about Italian painting of the Quattrocento. In 1828 he went to Rome, where he joined Philipp Veit, who influenced his style, Friedrich Overbeck and Joseph Führich. He sketched a Visitation, and an Annunciation for the church of Trinità dei Monti in Rome; these were painted as frescoes by his friend Josef Tunner.
— Steinle came successively under the influence of the painters Kupelweiser, Overbeck, and Cornelius, and was thus introduced into the new and vigorous methods of the German painters who had formed themselves into a school at Rome. Steinle went himself several times to Rome, but preferred to work in Germany. He received his first large commission, the painting of the chapel of the Castle of Rheineck, while living at Frankfort-on-the-Main; a second one was for work in the Hall of the Emperors (Kaisersaal) at Frankfort, where he painted the pictures of Albert I and Ferdinand III. These commissions and his friendship with Philip Veit and the Brentano family decided him to take up his permanent residence at Frankfort. From 1850 he was professor of historical painting at the Städel Art Institute of Frankfort. Like his friend Schwind he was one of the last of the great painters of the Romantic School and one of those of this school who were largest in their scope. Like Schwind also he was probably more a master in the art of painting ordinary subjects. Still Constant von Wurzbach was able to write an appreciation of Steinle with the title Ein Madonnamaler unserer Zeit (1879), for Steinle left more than a hundred religious panel pictures, besides numerous cartoons for church windows. He was also regarded as the great master of monumental fresco painting in the districts of the Rhine. Besides his work at Rheineck he painted cycles of pictures in the Castle of Klein-Heubach, in the Church of St.Æ;gidius in Münster, and in the Church of Our Lady in Aachen. He also painted the groups of angels in the choir of the cathedral at Cologne, and did part of the work in the apse of the choir of the Minster at Strasburg and in the imperial cathedral at Frankfort. Nevertheless, however striking these frescoes may be, too much stress is laid on detail, and the large, monumental character essential to such painting is not sufficiently apparent. This lack is still more evident in the frescoes showing the historical development of civilization on the stairway of the Wallraf-Richartz Museum at Cologne. Among Steinle's smaller religious pictures are some very fine ones, as that of the enthroned Madonna holding the Child while an angel plays a musical instrument in front of them, The Visitation, The Holy Family at the Spring, Mary Magdalen seeking Christ, Christ Walking with His Disciples, The Legend of St. Euphrosyne, and The Great Penitentiary. Steinle was not so willing to condescend to extremes in pleasing popular taste as Schwind, although he had a keen eye for ordinary life and a sense of humor. He placed the idea presented by the picture prominently in the foreground, so that at times the method of portrayal seems too artificial. Among his noblest and most universally admired paintings that are not directly religious are: The Warder of the Tower, The Fiddler, The Sibyl, The Lorelei, and the pictures of the story of Parsifal; no less remarkable are his illustrations of Shakespeare, and especially those to accompany Brentano's writings. Steinle's works show both graceful and well-defined composition, poetic conception, healthy religious feeling, and pleasing color.
Frederic Leighton [1830-1896] was a student of Steinle.— Portrait of Steinle (1846 monochrome lithograph, 599x474pix, 47kb _ ZOOM to 1497x1185pix, 314kb) by V. Schertle; left profile.
Virgin and Child with the Young Saint John the Baptist (1883, 79x110cm; 252x350pix, 22kb) —(060701)

^ 1800 Piotr Michalowski, Kraków Polish painter who died on 09 June 1855. — {Did Michalowski love ski?}— He studied at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, simultaneously taking drawing and painting with several local teachers. After going to Vienna, then Warsaw (1817–1818), he continued his studies (1821–1823) at Göttingen before entering the service of the Ministry of Finances of the Kingdom of Poland in Warsaw as an unsalaried official. In January 1826 he obtained a permanent position in the ministry, and in June 1827 he was appointed head of the whole of the state’s metal industry. In 1828 and 1830 he made official journeys to Germany, France and England and, during the Polish uprising of 1830–1831, organized the production of munitions for the Polish army in his factories. In February 1831 he married Julia Ostrowska and, after the failure of the uprising, resigned from his ministry post and left for Kraków, in March 1832 moving on to Paris with the intention of establishing himself as a professional painter.
Kawalerzysta na koniu (61x46cm; 1030x770pix, 126kb)
Bitwa pod Samosierra (69kb) _ The charge of the Polish Light Horse Guard, in Napoleon's army, at Samosierra in Spain, on 30 November 1808, led by Colonel Jan Leon Hipolit Kozietulski [04 Jul 1781 – 03 Feb 1821] _ Compare
      _ Szarza szwadronu 3-go pulku lekkokonnego polskiego w wawozie Samosierry (1835, 410x550pix, 57kb or 523x700pix, 224kb gif) by January Suchodolski [1797-1875] and
      _ Samosierra (430x600pix, 61kb) by Wojciech Kossak [31 Dec 1856 – 29 Jul 1942]
The Cardinal (1848; 1136x844pix, 64kb)
Portret ruskiego wiesniaka (tzw. Senki) (118kb)
Portret chlopa w kapeluszu (53x36cm; 113kb)
Portret Józefa i Romana Michalowskich, bratanków artysty (74x90cm; 39kb)
Stephan Czarniecki (800x608pix 123kb) _ The sitter was born in 1599 and died in 1665, at the age of 66, after a long and distinguished military career. He was a minor nobleman from southern Poland who studied as a young man to be a soldier. He fought in the wars with Sweden beginning in 1626, and against Russia in 1633. He garnered fame, however, in fighting the Cossacks during the Khmelnitsky Uprising. He was captured by the Cossacks at the Battle of Yellow Waters (1648) and released for ransom. He was reputed as the Polish military commander who received the most disfiguring marks fighting the Cossacks. Czarniecki cemented his immortality by fighting the Swedish Deluge during the Second Northern War (1655-1660); his exploits during this war are in the Polish national anthem. (See Polish National Anthem.) He continued to fight in the prolonged war for the Ukraine with Russia. He was married to Sophia Kobierzycka and had two daughters. In 1665, he was made Grand Crown Hetman (generalissimo). Despite all the wars he fought in, Czarniecki died of old age.

1871 Nicolás Rauric Petre, Barcelona Catalan painter who died (main coverage) on 16 June 1945. —(080701)

1693 Louis-Fabricius Dubourg (or du Bourg), Dutch artist who died on 16 September 1775.

1654, 1655, or 1656 Kaspar Jasper van Opstal, Flemish artist who died on 12 January 1717. — Relative? of sculptor Gerard van Opstal [1600-1668]?

1625 Jan Jacobszoon Jordaens, Flemish artist. — son? of Jacob Jordaens [19 May 1593 – 18 Oct 1678]; relative? of Symon Jordaens [1590- 23 Mar 1640], Hans Jordaens III “le long Jan” [1595 – 14 Jul 1643 or 21 Mar 1644]?

1597 Theodor Rombouts, Flemish painter who died (full coverage) on 14 September 1637. —(050913)

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