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ART “4” “2”-DAY  31 January v.10.00
^ Died on 31 January 1891: Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier, French Academic painter specialized in historical scenes, sculptor, and illustrator, born on 21 February 1815.
— Although he was briefly a student of Jules Potier [1796–1865] and Léon Cogniet, Meissonier was mainly self-taught and gained experience by designing wood-engravings for book illustrations. These included Léon Curmer’s celebrated edition of J.-H. Bernardin de Saint-Pierre’s Paul et Virginie (1838), the series Les Français peints par eux-mêmes (1840–1842) and Louis de Chevigné’s Les Contes rémois (1858). Such images, typically measuring 6x9cm and composed of still-life motifs (books or drapery cascading from a chest, intricately arranged and exhaustively detailed), helped form the style for which Meissonier became famous as a painter.
— 1830s Earning a livelihood as a book illustrator with Tony Johannot _ 1834 Salon debut _ 1838 Marries Jenny Steinheil _ 1859 Commissioned to paint the Battle of Solferino _ 1861 Elected to the Académie des Beaux-Arts _ 1870s Serves as president of the Institut de France _ 1870s Serves as president of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts _ 1888 Jenny dies in June _ 1889 Is the first artist to receive the Grand Cross of the Légion d'Honneur _ 1890 Marries Mlle Bezançon

— Meissonier was born at Lyon. From his schooldays he showed a taste for painting, to which some early sketches, dated 1823, bear witness. After being placed with a druggist, he obtained leave from his parents to become an artist, and, owing to the recommendation of a painter named Jules Potier, himself a second class Prix de Rome, he was admitted to Leon Cogniet's studio. He paid short visits to Rome and to Switzerland, and exhibited in the Salon of 1831 a picture then called Les Bourgeois Flamands (Dutch Burghers) but also known as The Visit to the Burgomaster, subsequently purchased by Sir Richard Wallace, in whose collection (at Hertford House, London) it is, with fifteen other examples of this painter. It was the first attempt in France in the particular genre which was destined to make Meissonier famous for microscopic painting, miniature in oils. Working hard for daily bread at illustrations for the publishers — Curmer, Hetze and Duboclier — he also exhibited at the Salon of 1836 the Chess Player and the Errand Boy. After some not very happy attempts at religious painting, he returned, under the influence of Chenavard, to the class of work he was born to excel in, and exhibited with much success the Game of Chess (1841), the Young Man playing the Cello (1842), The Painter in his Studio (1843), The Guard Room, the Young Man looking at Drawings, the Game of Piquet (1845), and the Game of Bowls — works which show the finish and certainty of his technique, and assured his success. After his Soldiers (1848) he began A Day in June, which was never finished, and exhibited A Smoker (1849) and Bravos (Les Bravi, 5852). In 1855 he touched the highest mark of his achievement with The Gamblers and The Quarrel (La Rixe), which was presented by Napoleon III, to the English Court. His triumph was sustained at the Salon of 1857, when he exhibited nine pictures, and drawings; among them the Young Man of the Time of the Regency, The Painter, The Shoeing Smith, The Musician, and A Reading at Diderot’s. To the Salon of 1861 he sent The Emperor at Solferino, A Shoeing Smith, A Musician, A Painter, and M. Louis Fould; to that of 1864 another version of The Emperor at Solferino, and 1814. He subsequently exhibited A Gamblers’ Quarrel (1865), and Desaix and the Army of the Rhine (1867). Meissonier worked with elaborate care and a scrupulous observation of nature. Some of his works, as for instance his 1807, remained ten years in course of execution. To the great Exhibition of 5878 he contributed sixteen pictures: the portrait of Alexandre Dumas which had been seen at the Salon of 1877, Cuirassiers of 1805, A Venetian Painter, Moreau and his Staff before Hobenlinden, a Portrait of a Lady the Road to La Salice, The Two Friends, The Outpost of the Grand Guard, A Scout, and Dictating his Memoirs. Thenceforward he exhibited less in the Salons, and sent his work to smaller exhibitions. Being chosen president of the Great National Exhibition in 1883, he was represented there by such works as The Pioneer, The Army of the Rhine, The Arrival of the Guests, and Saint Mark. On the 24th of May 1884 an exhibition was opened at the Petit Gallery of Meissonier’s collected works, including 146 examples. As president of the jury on painting at the Exhibition of 1889 he contributed some new pictures. In the following year the New Salon was formed (the National Society of Fine Arts), and Meissonier was-president. He exhibited there in 1890 his picture 1807; a1so in 1891, shortly after his death, his Barricade was displayed there. A less well-known class of work than his painting is a series of etchings: The Last Supper, The Skill of Vuillaume the Lute Player, The Little Smoker, The Old Smoker, the Preparations for a Duel, Anglers, Troopers,’ The Reporting Sergeant, and Polichinelle, in the Hertford House collection. He also tried lithography, but the prints are now scarcely to be found.
      Of all the painters of the century. Meissonier was one of the most fortunate in the matter of payments. His Cuirassiers, now in the late duc d’Aumale’s collection at Chantilly, was bought from the artist for £10,000 sold at Brussels for £11'000, and finally resold for £16'000 Besides his genre portraits, he painted some others: those of Doctor Lefevre, of Chenavard, of Vanderbilt,’ of Doctor Guyon, and of Stanford. He also collaborated with the painter Français in a picture of The Park at St Cloud.
      In 1838 Meissonier married the sister of M. Steinbeil, a painter Meissonier was attached by Napoleon III to the imperial staff, and accompanied him during the campaign in Italy and at the beginning of the war in 1870. During the siege of Paris in 1871 he was colonel of a marching regiment. In 1840 he was awarded a third-class medal, a second-class medal in 1841 first-class medals in 1843 and 1844 and medals of honor at the great exhibitions. In 1846 he was appointed knight of the Legion of Honor and promoted to the higher grades in 1856, 1867 (June 29), and 1880 (July 12), receiving the Grand Cross in 1889 (Oct. 29). He nevertheless cherished certain ambitions which remained unfulfilled. He hoped to become a professor at the École des Beaux Art, but the appointment he desired was never given to him.
— The students of Meissonier included Édouard Détaille, Daniel Ridgway Knight, Herman Frederik Carel ten Kate, Enrique Mélida y Alinari.

Self-Portrait (1889, 600x402pix, 68kb)
Head and Shoulders Self-Portrait (1881, 600x432pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1008pix, 463kb)
Self-Portrait sitting straight (1881, 600x446pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1041pix, 447kb) with sleeping greyhound.
Self-Portrait with headache (1881, 600x727pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1697pix, 739kb)
L'Empereur Napoléon III à la Bataille de Solférino (600x1067pix _ ZOOM to 1400x2489pix, 965kb) _ After its defeat at the Battle of Magenta on 04 June 1859, the Austrian army of about 120'000 men had retreated eastward and Emperor Francis Joseph I had arrived to dismiss General Count Franz von Gyulai and take personal command. The Franco-Piedmontese army, of approximately equal size, under the command of Napoleon III of France and Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia-Piedmont, pursued the Austrians. Neither side had accurate information about the other's troop movements, and on 24 June 1859 they unexpectedly clashed, in and around Solferino, 6 km southeast of Castiglione della Stiviere, in Lombardy, at a time when the French expected to engage only the Austrian rear guard and the Austrians expected to engage only the French advance units. The battle developed in a confused and piecemeal fashion until midday. After extremely costly fighting, the French broke the Austrian center in midafternoon. Smaller actions, including a vigorous delaying action by the Austrian general Ludwig von Benedek, continued until dark, leaving the French and Piedmontese too exhausted to pursue the defeated Austrians. The Austrians lost 14'000 men killed and wounded and more than 8000 missing or prisoners; the Franco-Piedmontese lost 15'000 killed and wounded and more than 2000 missing or prisoners. These heavy casualties contributed to Napoleon III's decision to seek the truce with Austria that effectively ended the second War of Italian Independence. The bloodshed also inspired Henri Dunant to lead the movement to establish the International Red Cross.
Le Portrait du Sergent (1874, 73x62cm; 600x503pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1174pix, 516kb)
1814Le Général Desaix et le Paysan (1867)
La Campagne de France (1861)

1814 (1862, 32x24cm) [shown here >] _ After accompanying the French army in the Austro-Italian War of 1859, Meissonier abandoned the small Dutch 17th-century genre subjects for which he had become known and turned with even greater success to depicting events in the career of Napoléon I. In this small painting commissioned by the subject's nephew, Prince Napoléon, the emperor is portrayed in a forbidding landscape just after his last, hard-won victory in the 1814 French campaign, which was fought at Arcis-sur-Aube, near Troyes: 23'000 French troops withstood the onslaught of 90'000 Austrians, but were unable to capitalize on their victory.

82 images at Bildindex
^ Buried on 31 January 1635: Willem Corneliszoon Duyster, Amsterdam Dutch painter of genre scenes and portraits , baptized as an infant on 30 August 1599. — {Why a Y in his name? you ask. Simple: without it, he'd be a Duster, buster, without any luster, and that wouldn't pass muster.}
— Duyster was active mainly in his native Amsterdam. Most of his paintings depict soldiers, sometimes in action, but more usually drinking, gaming, or wooing. His delicate skill at painting textiles, his ability to characterize individuals, and his power to express subtle psychological relationships between them, suggest that if he had not been carried off by the plague in his mid 30s he might well have rivalled Terborch.
— He was the eldest of four children of Cornelis Dirckszoon and his second wife, Hendrikge Jeronimus, from Gramsberge, Norway. His father is recorded as a textile cutter, house carpenter and minor Amsterdam official. In 1620 the family, which also included two children from Cornelis’s first marriage, moved into a house in the Koningstraat named ‘De Duystere Werelt’ (‘The Dark World’), which gave Duyster and his half-brother Dirck their adopted surname. The family name first appears in a document dated 01 July 1625 concerning a violent quarrel between Duyster and Pieter Codde, a fellow Amsterdam artist. The argument took place at Meerhuysen, a country house rented by Barent van Someren [1572–1632], the painter, dealer and inn-keeper who was a patron of Adriaen Brouwer and a good friend of Frans Hals. Most of the paintings by Duyster depict soldiers, sometimes in action, but more usually drinking, gaming, or wooing. His delicate skill at painting textiles, his ability to characterize individuals, and his power to express subtle psychological relationships between them, suggest that if he had not been carried off by the plague in his mid 30s he might well have rivaled Terborch.

Soldiers beside a Fireplace (1632, 540x607pix, 35kb _ ZOOM to 1067x1200pix, 91kb) _ During the second quarter of the 17th century a group of artists began to specialize in painting the life of soldiers. Scenes of plunder and battle were depicted but the ancient battle of sexes, where the field of action was a room in an inn or a barrack, and in which the outcome of the struggle is not much in doubt, was more frequently represented. Other popular subjects were soldiers drinking, smoking and gambling at cards or tric-trac, activities that contemporary predicants and moralists condemned as vices that endanger salvation. But it is doubtful if the painters of these scenes and their clients viewed them as pictorial reminders of the perils of sin and the inexorable need to lead a virtuous life. Pictures of the life of off-duty soldiers were called by the Dutch 'cortegaardjes' a corruption of the French term 'corps de garde'. The better ones show little movement or overt action. Painters of them had a special feeling for tonal values and their pictures take on a certain still-life quality. In their half-dark interiors the light glitters over uniforms, and a fine subdued play of colors, mostly broken and harmonized by delicate half-tones, betrays the Dutch gift for intimate pictorial qualities and a subtle rendering of textures. Some even anticipate the achievement of the high society painters of the following generation, when well-to-do burghers rather than soldiers and their friends became the favoured subject of genre painters. Specialists in this category worked in Amsterdam, Utrecht, Delft, but seldom in Haarlem. The leading ones in Amsterdam were Willem Duyster and Pieter Codde. What sets Duyster's rare pictures apart from those made by his contemporaries is his distinct chiaroscuro and the refinement of his colors. He was also better able than any of them to convey the fascinating visual drama which can take place when people do little more than confront each other. It is difficult to think of a painter of his time who surpasses his penetrating characterization of the personalities of the men gathered round a fireplace in the modest nocturnal scene in the Soldiers beside a Fireplace. There are other versions of the same (next two). Duyster's approach is always original. His cortegaardjes and small pictures of dignified full-length single figures seen against dark backgrounds served as one of the points of departure for Terborch's great accomplishment in these branch of painting.
— almost identical to the preceding: Soldiers in a Guardroom (1632, 42x47cm; 525x607pix, 36kb _ ZOOM to 1038x1200pix, 119kb)
— a third, practically identical version: Soldiers Beside a Fireplace (1633, 43x45cm; 575x607pix, 46kb _ ZOOM to 1136x1200pix, 99kb) you can click from each version to the next.
The Marauders (50x37cm;522x700pix, 62kb)
Carnival Buffoons (1625; 600x780pix)

Died on a 31 January:

^ 1991 Kurt Fridrihsons, Riga Latvian painter born on 07 September 1911.
Rokas Nost No Latvijas (1944 lithograph poster, 85x60cm; 400x289pix, 63kb)
— (sea and sky travel?) (300x224pix, 33kb) —(060119)

^ 1977 Henri-Victor Wolvens (or Wolvenspergens), Belgian painter born on 06 June 1896. His style can best be described as post-impressionist with expressionist aims. His favorite subjects were hotels, terraces and dining rooms, depicted in bright colors under a heavy use of paint. Typically, Wolvens applied his paint either with a knife or directly from the tube thereby giving the expressive and vivid impression that characterizes his work.
Flower bouquet on a terrace (60x100cm; 418x700pix, 164kb)
A large flower bouquet (1970, 100x79cm; 872x700pix, 229 kb)
La vague lourde (1949; 402x597pix, 39kb)
Sunny terrace (1943, 50x60cm; 418x499pix, 346kb) —(060130)

1967 Oskar W. Fischinger, in Los Angeles, German painter born on 22 June 1900.
Untitled (1944, 45x30cm; 928x606pix, 67kb) _ This has stimulated the pseudonymous Raxo Dubya Fishfinger to create
    _ Untilted 4491 (screen filling, 211kb _ ZOOM to 1000x1414pix, 462kb) —(060119)

^ 1960 Auguste Herbin, French painter born (main coverage) on 29 April 1882. —(070428)

>1945 Beck Otvos Fulop [23 Jun 1873–], Hungarian sculptor and medallist. —(100130)

>1914 René Pierre Charles Marie Princeteau, [18 Jul 1843–] French painter, first art teacher of Toulouse-Lautrec.
Boar Hunt (1914; 884x658pix, 151kb) —(100130)

1913 Joseph Lyman Silsbee [25 Nov 1848–], US architect. —(100130)

1904 Luc Raphaël Ponson, French painter born on 12 May 1835. (main coverage) on 12 May 1835. —(100130)\

1903 “Giovanni “Nino” Costa, Italian painter born on (full coverage) on 15 October 1826. —(100130)

1896 Mikhail Osipovich Mikeshin, Russian artist born on 21 February 1836. —(060121)

1894 Gourlay Steell, Scottish artist, whose Steell-life was first seen on 22 March 1819. — {He had a will of Steell}\

1882 Alexander Hugo Bakker Korff, Dutch artist born on 31 Sepember 1824. —(060118)

1845 Jean-Daniel Huber, Geneva Swiss painter and printmaker born on 09 October 1754. He was trained by his father Jean Huber [13 Feb 1721 – 21 Aug 1786] and by Nicolas Henri Joseph Fassin [1728–1811], a Franco-Flemish painter who exerted a seminal influence on Jean-Daniel’s Romantic coevals Pierre-Louis De La Rive [21 Oct 1753 – 7 Oct 1817] and Louis Ducros. In 1773 Huber went to Rome, where he compromised a cloistered daughter of the noble Ludovisi family. A wedding ensued, but the bride remained confined and the union was not consummated until Rome fell to the French in 1797. — Relative? of the Basle artist Johann-Rudolf Huber [1668 – 28 Feb 1748]? of Carl Rudolf Huber? of Léon Huber? of Wolfgang Huber [1485 – 03 Jun 1553]? of Jean Huber [13 Feb 1721 – 21 Aug 1786]? —(081002)

1834 Zacarías González Velázquez, Madrid Spanish artist born in 1763. —(060121)

1832 Amos Doolittle, Connecticut artist born in 1754 (best guess). —(060119)

1825 (Julian or Gregorian?) Feodosy Fyodorovich Shchedrin, Saint-Petersburg Russian sculptor born in 1751. Brother of Semyon Fyodorovich Shchedrin [1745-1804], and father of Sil'vestr Feodosievich Shchedrin [1791-1830]. —(060119)

1822 Ridolfo (or Rudolf) Schadow, Rome German artist born on 09 June 1786; son of the German sculptor Johann Gottfried Schadow [20 May 1764 – 27 Jan 1850] and brother of the painter Wilhelm Schadow [06 Sep 1788 – 19 Mar 1862]. —(060121)

1786 Robert Michel I, in Madrid, French artist born in 1720. —(060121)

1765 (oc 30 Jan) George Lambert, English artist born in 1700 (best guess). —(060121)

1738 Ehregott Bernhard Bendl (or Bendel), German artist born in 1660. —(060118)

1736 Filippo Juvarra, in Madrid, Italian architect, draftsman, and designer, born on 16 June 1678. — LINKS —(060120)

1669 Anthony van Ravesteyn, Dutch artist born in 1580.

1669 (burial) Dirck van der Lisse, Dutch artist.

1546 Gaudenzio Ferrari [1470–], Italian painter, the greatest of the Piedmontese School; he was also a sculptor and architect. — LINKS
Nativity (1289x1666pix, 1264kb)
— The Assumption detail (1171x1048pix, 498kb _ .ZOOM to 2049x1834pix, 209kb) the lower part of the painting, showing the apostles, below putti in clouds with the lower half of Mary.
Crucifixion (1513; 1029x720pix, 182kb)
Expulsion of Joachim from the Temple (1400x919pix, 306kb) _ Joachim is expelled from the temple, his offering is deemed to be unacceptable because he and his wife Anna are childless (an apocryphal story). But they would become the parents of the Virgin Mary. See the same scene as painted
      _ by Giotto di Bondone (1313; 691x729pix, 172kb)
      _ by Domenico Ghirlandaio (1490; 750x1241pix, 186kb _ detail 830x1085pix, 173kb)
      _ by Benozzo Gozzoli (1491; 716x948pix, 175kb _ .ZOOM to 1193x1580pix, 211kb)
The Annunciation to Joachim and Anna (1545, 190x135cm; 1000x702pix, 212kb)
13 images at Wikimedia —(071222)

Born on a 31 January:

^ 1952 Nadezhda Nikolayevna “Nadya” Rusheva, in Outer Mongolia, Russian illustrator and graphic designer who died in Moscow on 06 Mar 1969. The phenomenon of Nadya Rusheva arose as the result of the exploitation of a child talent and the demand for positive achievements that accorded with the Soviet myth. Her death at the age of 17 from a brain haemorrhage acted as a final sad chord in her cultural role. Her first drawings became known in 1964 when the Moscow intellectual elite was seeking an embodiment of the political thaw caused by Nikita Khrushchev. She exhibited in the offices of the famous opposition periodical Yunost’ (‘Youth’). She produced over 10'000 works in a number of series, most of which were essentially the line illustrations of a gifted, developing child for the classics from world literature. This work, created mostly in ink, felt-tip pen and crayon, was inspired by the amateur illustrations of 19th- and 20th-century writers, most notably Aleksandr Pushkin and Antoine de Saint-Exupéry. Typical of her most mature work was her illustration of Apollo and Daphne, reproduced in Yunost’ (no. 9, 1969, p. 112), and her Pushkin studies, comprising 400 sheets (1964–1968), in which form is delicately delineated by bold, flowing, and sparse strokes. Her best-known work was for Lev Tolstoy’s War and Peace (1968) and Mikhail Bulgakov’s Master and Margarita (1968). As with the Pushkin drawings, the Master and Margarita illustrations led to philosophical interpretations of Rusheva’s art. This created the enigma of how a child could create such ‘adult work’. For the Moscow opposition, Rusheva’s art was an impenetrable domain, safe from the all-pervasive aspirations of the proletarian dictatorship. The state, however, chose to use her as a symbol of the Soviet nurturing of young artistic talent, and it furthered this role after her death with a highly prestigious exhibition (1970) in the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow, and an unprecedented exhibition tour throughout the Soviet Union from 1970 to 1974. — Enigmatic Nadia RushevaBiografiya i tvorchestvo. — Links to photos
Self-Portrait and 4 small images.
10 drawings
12 drawings
12 more drawings
9 drawings
9 more drawings
12 Pushkin drawings
8 Pushkin drawings
14 Master and Margarita drawings
Links to 94 line drawings
Other links —(060121)

1945 Joseph Kosuth, US .SELF~DEIFIED AND SELF~DEFILED so~called artist.
— He was deeply interested in philosophy and the social sciences and conducted a sustained, methodical inquiry into the rules that govern art. He was trained {very poorly it seems} at the Toledo Museum School of Design (1955–1962), also taking private lessons, and completed his studies as a painter at the Cleveland Art Institute (1963–1964). In 1965 he began to produce works with a basis in language, some fashioned from neon and glass, others linking objects, images, and texts into simple and self-referential series. The work One and Three Chairs (1965), for example, consists of a full-scale photograph of a chair, an actual chair and a dictionary definition of the word ‘chair’ lined in a row, together forming a closed system that resists any kind of transcendent meaning.
— Conceptual artist born in Toledo, Ohio. Studied at the Toledo Museum School of Design and with the Belgian painter Line Bloom Draper 1955-62, then at the Cleveland Art Institute 1963-1964. Moved in 1964 to New York and studied 1965-1967 at the School of Visual Arts; afterwards joined the faculty. In 1965 began making word pieces in neon and his first Conceptual works (such as T01909) consisting of an object, a photograph of it and dictionary definitions of the words denoting it. These were followed by a series of 'investigations' comprising propositions on/about/of 'art' with the subtitle 'Art as Idea as Idea', including definitions from a dictionary or categories from the Thesaurus presented in the form of photostats or published in space purchased in newspapers. Co-founder in 1967 of an exhibition area in New York known as the Museum of Normal Art, and had his first one-man exhibition there the same year. Became in 1969 a member of the Editorial Board of the Art and Language Press, England, and US editor of the journal Art-Language. From 1971 studied anthropology and philosophy at the New School for Social Research, New York, and traveled throughout the world. Lives in New York.
— His work generally strives to explore the nature of art, focusing on ideas at the fringe of art rather than on producing art per se {no danger of that!}. Thus his art is very self-referential, and this is a typical statement of his: "The 'value' of particular artists after Duchamp can be weighed according to how much they questioned the nature of art." One of his most famous works is "One and Three Chairs", a visual expression of Plato's concept of The Forms. The piece features a physical chair, a photograph of that chair, and the text of a dictionary definition of the word "chair". All three representations are merely physical abstractions of the one true idea of the chair, thus the piece is both the three physical representations of a chair, and the one universal notion of a chair. In an addition to his artwork, he has written several books on the nature of art and artists, including Artist as Anthropologist. In his essay "Art after Philosophy" (1969), he argued that art is the continuation of philosophy, which he saw at an end. Like the Situationists, he rejected formalism as an exercise in aesthetics, with its function to be aesthetic. Formalism, he said, limits the possibilities for art with minimal creative effort put forth by the formalist. Further, since concept is overlooked by the formalist, "Formalist criticism is no more than an analysis of the physical attributes of particular objects which happen to exist in a morphological context". He further argues that the "change from 'appearance' to 'conception' (which begins with Duchamp's first unassisted readymade) was the beginning of 'modern art' and the beginning of 'conceptual art'." Kosuth once declared that art is art if someone calls it art; he explains that works of conceptual art are analytic propositions. They are linguistic in character because they express definitions of art. This makes them tautological. In this vein is another of his well-known pieces: In Figeac, Lot, France, on the "Place des écritures" is a giant copy of the Rosetta stone.
— Since the copyright people don't want you to see here the nonsensical non-art of Kosuth (click on the * for that) , the pseudonymous Joe Forsooth provides here examples in the same manner and almost as worthless, but reduced to a reasonable size and free.
— (*)
–- (*)
 That kind knows not that what gives me pleasure is laughing at him. 
–- (*)
Table Mountain
kitchen table TABLE OF CONTENTS  by Greenbaum
1 : tablet
2 a plural : backgammon b) : one of the two leaves of a backgammon board or either half of a leaf
3 a : a piece of furniture consisting of a smooth flat slab fixed on legs b(1) : a supply or source of food (2) : an act or instance of assembling to eat : meal (sit down to table) c(1) : a group of people assembled at or as if at a table (2) : a legislative or negotiating session: the bargaining table
4 : string course
5 a : a systematic arrangement of data usually in rows and columns for ready reference b) : a condensed enumeration : list: a table of contents
6 : something that resembles a table especially in having a plane surface: as a) : the upper flat surface of a cut precious stone — b(1) : tableland (2) : a horizontal stratum: water table
— Not content with Forsooth's failed attempts at worthlessness, his friend the equally pseudonymous Joseph Cossu, a maximalist, has collaged every which way one of Kosuth's sentences, slightly modified, to produce the remarkable
      _ Self Descried and Self Defiled Again and Again (2007; 724x1024pix, 142kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 267kb _ ZOOM+ to 2636x3728pix, 1594kb) and then amazingly enhanced it by endowing it with a variety of colors and into finely detailed symmetrical designs free of wordage, resulting in the two related abstractions
      _ Again a Gain (2007; 724x1024pix, 328kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 654kb _ ZOOM+ to 2636x3728pix, 4815kb) and
      _ A Gain Again (2007; 724x1024pix, 328kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 654kb _ ZOOM+ to 2636x3728pix, 4815kb).
— (070130)

^ 1930 Zbigniew Makowski, Polish painter, illustrator, and poet. He studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw (1950-1956) under the painter Kazimierz Tomorowicz [1893-1961]. His first works, such as An Interior with a Stool (1956), were paintings influenced by Polish Colorism, though he also made structural compositions of plaster casts with metal and wooden elements. He abandoned these experiments and in the 1960s began to explore the mysterious world of magic, astrology and the cabbala (e.g. Vertical Garden, 1962). His calligraphic compositions, which he described as letters written to unknown addressees, make use of graphic signs, numerals, letters and geometrical figures. Meticulously done in various techniques, such as ink on parchment or oil on panel, these compositions convey a whole range of symbolic meanings. They are bordered with long, written texts that introduce the artists philosophical thoughts on existence and our cultural traditions, and evoke the world of pagan beliefs and Greek mythology, as in Image (1965). He also painted Surrealist compositions with motifs of city landscapes, as in Horizon of Consciousness (1968). With a similar multitude of graphic signs and the same care for detail, he created colorful images of an imaginary world. Inspired by literature, he included in some of his paintings appropriate quotations, for example from Homer.
— Studiowal w ASP w 1950-56 w Warszawie, gdzie mieszka i tworzy - maluje, rysuje, uprawia twórczosc poetycka. Swój indywidualny, liryczny styl o nostalgicznym klimacie uksztaltowal pod wplywem fascynacji surrealizmem i egzystencjalizmem. W obrazach i rysunkach budowanych z okreslonych przedmiotów, które utracily funkcjonalnosc na rzecz wartosci symbolicznych, laczy znakomicie konkret i umownosc, wprowadza takze pismo jako znak graficzny i forme przekazu tresciowego. Charakterystyczna jest tez dla jego sztuki precyzja warsztatowa, laczenie róznych starych i wspólczesnych technik malarskich (olej, tempera, gwasz, akwarela, akryl) i rysunkowych, obejmujacych takze sztuke preparowania papieru. — His web site. not much there. — Relative? of Tadeusz Makowski [1882-1932]? of Eugeniusz Markowski?
Horyzont swiadomosci (Horizon of Consciousness) (1968; 533x750pix, 86kb)
Wysokie drzewo - gleboki mrok (Tall Tree - Deep Darkness) (1973; 1007x750pix, 103kb)
— kowski, Hesperos 1991, Gouache, handgemachtes Papier, 168 x 41 cm; 656x175pix, 27kb)
Praca (1962; 364x530pix, 37kb)
pod lampa (2005; 413x530pix, 34kb)
ksiazka recznie robiona (2005; 351x500pix, 27kb)
Noc Listopadowa (36×28cm; 71kb)
Finasowane przez Unie Europejska w ramach programu PHARE (334x440pix, 38kb) almost monochrome.
Is Big News Make All Ski aka Gibe Big (2006; 707x1000pix, 263kb _ ZOOM to 1681x2378pix, 1371kb) is the picture into which the pseudonymous Mark Owlski has metamorphosed his collage of collages and other works of Makowski, few of which are of much artistic value when seen separately in their original state. —(070131)

1928 Dusan Dzamonja, Yugoslav sculptor. — His web site —(060119)

^ 1924 Irene Chou (= Chou Lu-yun; Zhou Luyun), Chinese artist.
Rotation (1996, 98x61cm; 640x398pix, 246kb) _ To the pseudonymous Lou-June Cabbage it seemed that something more rotational is called for. So she produced Rotator (2006; 692x692pix, 178kb _ ZOOM to 1038x1038pix, 581kb).
The Universe is My Heart #101 (2001, 30x38cm; 557x457pix, 245kb)
The Universe is in My Mind #278 (2002, 66x68cm; 600x591pix, 215kb)
52 iMages at iPreciation — (060118)

>1894 Bruna Tamaro Forlati, Italian archeologist and museum official. —(100130)

^ >1881 Max Hermann Pechstein, German Expressionist painter and printmaker who died on 25 (19?) June 1955. — Painter and printmaker who was a leading member of the group of German Expressionist artists known as Die Brücke. Best known for his paintings of nudes and landscapes. He was apprenticed as a decorator in Zwickau from 1896 to 1900, when he moved to Dresden to enrol at the Kunstgewerbeschule, where he met the architect Wilhelm Kreis and the painter Otto Gussmann [1869–1926] and obtained decorative commissions. He continued his studies from 1902 until 1906 as Gussmann’s student at the Dresden Kunstakademie. Through Kreis, Pechstein was introduced to Erich Heckel in 1906 and was invited by him to join Die Brücke, a group founded in the previous year that was quickly to become a major force in the rise of German Expressionism. The founders of the group were all architecture students, leaving Pechstein as the only member to have received formal academic training as a painter. He remained closely involved with the group until 1910, drawing and painting in the studios of Heckel and Ernst Ludwig Kirchner in Dresden and also working communally with them en plein-air; together with Heckel and Kirchner, for example, he spent some weeks during summer 1910 painting naked bathers at the Moritzburg lakes near Dresden. Paintings produced by Pechstein at this time, such as Girl in Red at a Table (1910), are very close in style to work by other Brücke artists and are among the most important paintings of the group’s communal period. — LINKS
Selbstbildnis mit Pinsel und Pfeife (1926; 600x496pix)
–- Bathers (1917, 51x55cm; 966x1059pix, 135kb)
–- Flute Playing in the Country (1908, 36x46cm)

>1879 Hugo Ehrlich [–21 Sep 1936], Zagreb Croat architect. —(100130)

^ 1878 Pio Semeghini, Italian painter who died on 11 March 1964. Having studied sculpture at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence and in Modena (1897–1898), he moved to Paris (1899), where he began to paint under the influence of Impressionism and, subsequently, Fauvism. In 1912 he met Gino Rossi, whose circle he joined in Burano on his return to Italy (1914); their coloristic experiments, together with those of Umberto Maggioli [1886–1919] and Luigi Scopinich [1885–1959], were championed by the avant-garde Ca’ Pesaro association (active 1908–1820) headed by Nino Barbantini [1885–1952]. Semeghini underpinned his heightened color with a solid geometry to capture the fall of light on the urban fabric (e.g. The Enchanted House, 1913). His work changed following an important retrospective at the Ca’ Pesaro in 1919 and participation in the Mostra dei dissidenti di Ca’ Pesaro (1920). He introduced figure studies influenced by Quattrocento frescoes and simplified his cityscapes (e.g. S Giorgio, Venice, 1927), painting on panel which often remained exposed. Under financial pressure, Semeghini moved to Monza to teach at the Scuola di Nudo (1930–1939), where he encouraged the ‘chiarismo lombardo’ of Gian Filippo Usellini [1903–1971]. After returning to Venice in 1938 he won the Premio Bergamo in 1939 for his cityscapes. He settled in Verona in 1942, but illness subsequently restricted him to producing figures and still-lifes (e.g. Still-life, 1948) — The following look like hurried, very rough, washed-out colored sketches:
Soldati (1915)
Donne sotto la pergola (1911)
Natura morta (1949)
Laguna veneta (Chioggia) (1939, 55x66cm, 286x340pix, 20kb)

^ 1876 Josef Anton von Gegenbaur, German painter born on 06 March 1800. Ein Künstler, der sich mit seiner Geburtsstadt zeitlebens verbunden fühlte, obwohl er die meiste Zeit in der Ferne verbrachte, war Josef Anton von Gegenbaur. Als 20jähriger verehrte er seiner Heimatgemeinde ein Sebastiansgemälde (1820; 348x244pix, 62kb gif), das im linken Nebenaltar von Sankt Martin Platz fand. Dazu kam 1823 ein Dreikönigsblatt für den Hochaltar. 1845 folgte für die Südseite das drei Jahre zuvor in Stuttgart ausgeführte Madonnenbild. Umgekehrt zeigten sich ihm gegenüber auch die Wangener wiederholt erkenntlich. So ließ der Stadtrat 1887 in der Langen Gasse an seinem Elternhaus eine Gedenktafel anbringen. Auf dem Frauentorplatz wurde am 19.5.1901 außerdem ein Denkmal enthüllt. 1906 erhielt die neue, zwischen Lindauer und Ravensburger Tor gebaute Umgehungsstraße ihren Namen nach ihm. Damit nicht genug, veranstaltete die Stadt zu seiner Ehre zwei Gedächtnisausstellungen: 1887 und 1976.
     Josef Antons Vater war der Spitalverwalter Stefan Gegenbaur, seine Mutter Magdalena eine geborene Rudhard. Da der begabte Bub am liebsten zeichnete oder einen Pinsel zur Hand nahm, ihm jedoch auch der Stadtmaler Jakob König nur das Handwerkliche beibringen konnte, schickten die Eltern den unterdessen 15jährigen nach München. Akademiedirektor Peter von Langer [1756-1824] nahm ihn unter seine Kunstschüler auf. 1818 erhielt er mit Hilfe des Stuttgarter Bildhauers Johann Heinrich von Dannecker [1758-1841] ein königliches Stipendium. Es ermöglichte ihm das Weiterstudium und einen ersten Romaufenthalt (1823-1826). Dort beschäftigte er sich mit Werken alter Meister, übte sich in der Freskomalerei und lernte auch die Nazarener kennen. Danach beauftragte ihn König Wilhelm I. von Württemberg, die Ballsaalkuppel und ein Lesezimmer von Schloß Rosenstein mit auszumalen.
     l829-1835 wieder in Rom, wo der Allgäuer Künstler zahlreiche Aufträge ausführte und anläßlich eines Besuchs in Stuttgart zum Württembergischen Hofmaler ernannt wurde, siedelte Gegenbaur 1836 ganz in die neckarschwäbische Residenzstadt über. Hier schmückte er 1837-1854 fünf Säle des Neuen Schlosses mit Fresken aus der Geschichte des Hauses Württemberg aus. Als Vorlagen dienten ihm vor allem die Balladen Ludwig Uhlands. 1859-1860 versah er auch den Weißen Saal mit sieben Ölbildern, auf denen antike Sagengestalten dargestellt waren. Daneben porträtierte der unermüdliche Künstler aber auch Persönlichkeiten, wie König Wilhelm oder Diözesanbischof Carl Joseph Hefele. Im Sommer 1865 bereicherte er den Speisesaal des Friedrichshafener Schlosses durch vier Ölmedaillons. Die Wintermonate führten ihn jeweils in die Ewige Stadt zurück. Dort ereilte ihn schließlich am letzten Januartag 1876 der Tod. Auf dem deutschen Friedhof bei Sankt Peter beigesetzt, wird sein Grab dort bis heute auch von Wangenern immer wieder gern besucht. Da sein Stuttgarter Hauptwerk Ende Juli 1944 durch britische Luftangriffe stark beschädigt wurde, sind die in Wangen erhalten gebliebenen Gemälde um so beachtenswerter. Ein Teilstück seines Freskos aus der Szene, wie der württembergische Graf Heinrich der Erlauchte 1309 nach einem Einspruch den Speyrer Reichstag verläßt, konnte noch 1958 von einem Restaurator geborgen und später im Stadtmuseum ausgestellt werden. Weitere Bilder von ihm finden sich in Sankt Martin und der Spitalkirche.
Selbstbildnis (1044x845pix, 83kb)

^ 1870 Mariya Vasil'yevna Yakunchikova-Weber, Russian artist born in Wiesbaden, Germany, who died on 27 December 1902. — Not to be confused with Mariya Fedorovna Yakunchikova (née Mamontova) [1864-1962], the subject of portraits by Serov and by Korovin. — Russian painter, decorative artist and designer. She was a major Symbolist artist in Russia and played a significant role in the revival of folk traditions in Russian art in the late 19th century. She grew up in Moscow and studied (1885–1888) under Yelena Polenova [25 Nov 1850 – 19 Nov 1898] and Vasily Polenov [01 June 1844 – 18 August 1927] as an external student at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. Subsequently she joined Yelena Polenova’s group for the study of the historical and archaeological monuments of Moscow and became closely associated with the Abramtsevo group. From 1888 she spent winters in Paris, where she enrolled as a student at the Académie Julian. Her paintings, sometimes consisting of melancholic depictions of decaying mansions in the manner of Viktor Borisov-Musatov, were dominated by decorative landscapes. Always striving to express the synthetic inner vitality of organic life, she concentrated on forest motifs (e.g. The Window and Aspen and Fir Tree (both 1896). In 1894 she organized an exhibition in Paris of women’s applied art and from 1895 organized and participated in exhibitions of folk art, such as that of the Russian pavilion at the Exposition Universelle in Paris, for which, with Aleksandr Golovin [01 March 1863 – 17 April 1930] and Natal’ya Davydova [1873-1926], she designed the interior inspired by folk craft. She also exhibited from 1899 with the World of Art and in 1901–1902 with the Moscow group known as 36 Artists. In 1899 she designed the cover of issues 13–24 of Mir iskusstva. The asymmetrical arrangement of juniper berries, ancient orthography and a stylized depiction of a swan in a lake surrounded by fir trees culminating in a variety of Christian crosses is one of the most evocative expressions of Russian Art Nouveau. Her decorative work encompassed pokerwork, furniture design, toys, ceramics and embroidery, as in the appliqué panel Little Girl and the Wood Spirits (1899). —(060130)

1857 Ernesto Basile, Palermo Italian artist who died on 26 August 1932. —(060119)

1852 Costantino Barbella, Italian sculptor who died: on 05 Dec 1925. —(060118)

1845 Bernardus Johannes Blommers, The Hague Dutch painter who died (main coverage) on 15 December 1914. —(060119)

1841 Hugo Wilhelm Fritz Schaper, German artist who died on 19 November 1919. —(060121)

^ 1824 Willem Vester, Dutch artist who died in July 1871. Vester is know for his rural and genre landscapes. He lived in Heemstede and Haarlem and painted in the surrounding countryside.
–- Landscape With Cows on a Riverbank (45x72cm; 637x1000pix)
Summer Landscape (1871, 62x94cm; 418x640pix, 26kb)
Dutch Farm with Animals (52x60cm; 285x442pix, 82kb) _ detail 1 (612x800pix, 141kb) _ detail 2 (574x800pix, 125kb) _ detail 3 (603x800pix, 146kb)
Cows and Farmer in Landscape (46x71cm; 405x654pix, 96kb) _ detail (544x603pix, 95kb)
Cows Next to a Canal and Farmhouses

1799 Rodolphe Topffer, Geneva Swiss artist who died on 08 Jun 1846. —(060121)

^ 1796 Nathaniel Jocelyn, New Haven, Connecticut, painter, engraver, and abolitionist, who died on 13 January 1881. He learnt the rudiments of engraving while apprenticed to his father, Simeon Jocelyn, a clockmaker. This talent was encouraged by the inventor and manufacturer Eli Whitney, who saw to it that Jocelyn received further training in Hartford CT. Jocelyn had wanted to study portrait painting in England, but his plan was thwarted by John Trumbull (a distant relative). He concentrated on engraving instead, forming in 1818 the N. & S. S. Jocelyn Co. with his brother Simeon Smith Jocelyn [1799–1879], James A. Thome, 1809-1873 Abolitionist and author of Emancipation in the West Indes Nathaniel Jocelyn (1796-1881), the Mendians of the Amistad. — LINKS
James A. Thome [1809-1873] (512x409pix, 21kb) _ The sitter was an abolitionist and the author of Emancipation in the West Indes..
Cinque (1840; 360x313pix, 25kb) _ Singbe-Pi'h (renamed José Cinqué by the slave traders) was a Mendi rice farmer who was captured on the way to his farm and sold into slavery. On 02 July 1839, on the slave ship Amistad in Cuban waters he led a mutiny of the 53 slaves, who killed most of the crew. The Africans won their freedom after a lengthy battle in US courts.
William Lloyd Garrison (1833; 350x288pix, 7kb) Garrison [10 Dec 1805 – 24 May 1879], editor of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator and a key figure in the American Anti-Slavery Society, was an important catalyst in the upsurge of northern opposition to slavery that began in the 1830s. This portrait was commissioned by the artist's brother Simeon, who planned to sell engravings of it to raise money for the abolitionist movement, as well as to heighten Garrison's public image. Garrison wrote about the portrait: “I think Jocelyn has succeeded in making a very tolerable likeness. To be sure, those who imagine that I am a monster, on seeing it, will doubt or deny its accuracy, seeing no horns about the head; but my friends, I think, will recognize it easily.”
Cornelius Vanderbilt (1846, 76x64cm; 512x419pix, 22kb) _ Vanderbilt [27 May 1794 – 04 Jan 1877] was already a millionaire at the time of this portrait and went on to acquire a personal fortune of more than $100'000'000 from his shipping and railroad businesses. — (060120)

1739 Henry Howard, English artist who died: on 05 October 1847. —(060120)

1736 Vincent Janszoon van der Vinne, Dutch artist who died on 15 January 1811. He and his brother Jan Janszoon van der Vinne [1734-1805] seem to have been the last of some 10 artists which the Haarlem Mennonite van der Vinne family produced during the 17th and 18th centuries. Vincent and Jan were sons of Jan Laurenszoon van der Vinne [1699–1753], and nephews of Vincent Laurenszoon van der Vinne II [1686–1742] and of Jacob Laurenszoon van der Vinne [23 Jun 1688 – 17 Jan 1737]. They were the grandsons of Laurens Vincentszoon van der Vinne [1658–1729], and the grandnephews of Jan Vincentszoon van der Vinne “des Nageoires” [03 Feb 1663 – 01 Mar 1721] and of Izaak Vincentszoon van der Vinne [1665–1740]. And they were the great-grandsons of Vincent Laurenszoon van der Vinne I [11 Oct 1628 – 26 July 1702]. — {If any of them, other than the great-grandad, vas really a vinne, vhy isn't there any sample of his vork in the vorld vide veb?}

^ 1735 T. Kettle, British painter, active in India {where people drink much tea}, who died in July 1786 in Aleppo, Syria. — {OK, OK, so the first name is Tilly.} {He is not known to have painted A Fine Kettle of Fish or any other still-life, but if that is what you want, you might look at A Fine Kettle of Fish (1994, 64x68cm; 500x534pix, 192kb _ ZOOM to 1000x1068pix, 197kb) by M.A. Klein} — He received a varied training at Shipley’s, St Martin’s Lane, and the Duke of Richmond’s Academies. One of his teachers was Charles Lennox. Kettle then painted portraits, reminiscent of Reynolds’s, in Oxford and the Midlands. His most ambitious portrait, stylistically similar to the work of Francis Cotes, is Lady Frances Harpur and her Son Henry (1767). Kettle went to India in 1768, probably at the suggestion of Admiral Sir Samuel Cornish, who sat for him with Thomas Parry and Rear-Admiral Sir Richard Kempenfeldt in the same year. — LINKS
Rear-Admiral Richard Kempenfelt [1718 – Aug 1782] (1782, 244x152cm; 1103x700pix, 116kb) _ A full-length portrait facing to left in flag officer's undress uniform, circa 1774-83. A fighting sword is by his left side and he leans on a long telescope that rests on his left foot. Painted in the year of the sitter's death, it may have been done posthumously. The beach on which he stands is littered with naval stores and in the left background are two first-rates, the nearer probably the Victory, 100 guns, with a blue ensign and a Union at the mizzen, apparently to distinguish him from the rear-admiral of the blue when at sea without the fleet admiral commanding-in-chief. At the end of 1781 Kempenfelt was sent in the Victory, the fleet flagship, with a squadron to intercept an important French convoy which was sailing to reinforce their holdings in the West Indies. Although Kempenfelt found the French escort much stronger than his force, it had been carelessly placed ahead and to leeward of the convoy. He was therefore able to rout the merchantmen undisturbed, taking fifteen and destroying four. The rest were scattered and almost all the survivors returned to Brest. After Howe assumed command in 1782, Kempenfelt shifted to the Royal George, 100 guns, as a junior flag officer and he was drowned in her when she sank at anchor at Spithead in August, together with over 800 other people. Kempenfelt was also the inventor of a numeral signal code that helped to revolutionize naval tactics.
Mrs. Yates as Mandane in The Orphan of China (1765, 192x129cm) _ Mary Ann Yates is shown in the role that raised her to eminence as a tragic actress, that of the Chinese princess, Mandane, in Arthur Murphy's adaptation of Voltaire's play L'Orphelin de la Chine. She performed the part many times between 1759 and 1767. The actress was admired for her majestic manner and deportment, which the artist has captured here. This is one of the first examples of Kettle's Grand Manner, modeled on that of Reynolds.Perhaps to escape Reynolds's dominance of London society portraiture, Kettle went to India in 1769, one of the first serious painters to do so. He built up a flourishing portrait practice there but never recaptured his early success when he returned to Europe in 1776.
Choudja-a-ed-Doulah and his Son Myrza-Mani (1772, 243x167cm; 512x358pix, 54kb) _ Shuja'-ud-Daulah (or Sujah Dowlah) was nabob-vizier of Aoudh province, and viceroy of the Mogul empire (1729-1775).
Shuja'-ud-Daulah (600x468pix, 57kb)

1731 Étienne-Pierre-Adrien Gois, Parisian sculptor who died on 03 Feb 1823 —(060119)

Prussian blueHappened on a 31 January:

^ 2003 The US Food and Drug Administration determines that Prussian blue (ferric hexacyanoferrate) [sample >] swallowed in a 500-mg capsule, can reduce by half the time the body takes to eliminate radioactive cesium and thallium, which might be used in a radiation-spreading bomb. Prussian blue is the first modern, artificially manufactured color. It was first made by the colormaker Diesbach of Berlin in about 1704. Diesbach accidentally formed the blue pigment when experimenting with the oxidation of iron. Dutch painter Simon Eikelenberg [16 Mar 1663 – 04 Nov 1738] wrote on the knowledge of Prussian blue in his Notes on Paint and Painting in 1722. By 1724 the manufacturing process of the pigment had spread to England and appeared in an artists' manual by Woodard. In The Handmaid to the Artists, Robert Dossie quoted the preparation of Prussian blue in its entirety in 1764. The pigment has been extremely popular until 1970 when it was largely replaced by another pigment, phthaloryanine blue. Prussian blue has been used by Pablo Picasso [25 Oct 1881 – 08 Apr 1973], Christen Købke [26 May 1810 – 07 Feb 1848], Albert Bierstadt [07 Jan 1830 – 18 Feb 1902], Giovanni Antonio Canal [17 Oct 1697 – 10 Apr 1768], Antoine Watteau [10 Oct 1684 – 18 Jul 1721], William Hogarth [10 Nov 1697 – 26 Oct 1764], Thomas Bardwell [1704 – 09 Sep 1767], and William Blake [28 Nov 1757 – 12 Aug 1827], just to name a few (they never suffered any ill effects from radioactive cesium or thallium). The original name of the pigment came from its use as a dye in the uniforms of the Prussian Army (which never suffered any ill effects from cesium or thallium bombs). The generic name is iron blue. Iron blue has a variety of hues due to the different processes of manufacture. Some of its commonly used names include Hamburg Blue, Paris Blue, bronze blue, celestial blue, cyanine, Haarlem blue, oriental blue, and potash blue. The chemical formula is Fe[Fe3+Fe2+(CN)6]3.

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updated Sunday 31-Jan-2010 5:26 UT
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