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ART “4” “2”-DAY  27 January v.10.00
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DEATHS: 1669 CRAYER — 1747 VAN MIERIS — 1811 HUET 1851 AUDUBON  1651 BLOEMAERT
BIRTHS: 1630 BERCKHEYDE — 1832 HUGHES — 1805 PALMER — 1826 DE HAES 1824 ISRAËLS 
^ Born on 27 January 1630: Job Adriaenszoon Berckheyde, Dutch painter who died on 23 November 1693. — Job was the brother of Gerrit Adriaenszoon Berckheyde [06 Jun 1638 – 10 Jun 1698), his only known student. Job's work is similar to his brother's, it is also rarer and more varied, including genre and biblical scenes.
— Job Berckheyde was apprenticed on 02 November 1644 to Jacob Willemszoon de Wet, whose influence is apparent in his first dated canvas, Christ Preaching to the Children (1661), one of the few biblical scenes in his oeuvre. On 10 June 1653 he repaid a loan from the Haarlem Guild of Saint Luke, which he subsequently joined on 10 March 1654.
     During the 1650s the brothers Job and Gerrit made an extended trip to Germany along the Rhine, visiting Cologne, Bonn, Mannheim and finally Heidelberg. Whether this occurred before or after 1654, when Job became a master of the Guild of St Luke in Haarlem, is uncertain. According to legend, the brothers worked in Heidelberg for Charles Ludwig [–1680], Elector Palatine; however, their inability to adapt to court life led them to return to Haarlem, where Gerrit became a member of the Guild of Saint Luke on 27 July 1660. In Haarlem the Berckheyde brothers shared a house and perhaps a studio as well. The idea that Job was the superior artist and habitually contributed the figures to Gerrit’s architectural subjects has been discounted, but the degree of their mutual influence and involvement remains unclear. Confusion between them may have resulted from the similarity of their signatures, where Job’s j resembles Gerrit’s g. Job also signed his work with an H (for Hiob or Job) and with the monogram HB.
     During his stay in Heidelberg, Job painted portraits and hunting scenes at the court of the Elector Palatine, who rewarded him with a gold chain, perhaps the one he wears in his early Self-portrait (1655), his only documented work from the 1650s. Job is better known for his later work, which consists mainly of interior views of Saint Bavo’s church in Haarlem and simple genre scenes recalling those of his Haarlem contemporaries Adriaen van Ostade and Jan Steen.

LINKS
The Baker probable self-portrait (1681; 775x591pix, 122kb) _ A specialist in city scapes, Berckheyde painted several pictures of bakery shops, which were popular as a subject for Dutch artists from around 1650. This inviting scene shows the baker blowing a horn to announce the morning's freshly baked bread. He is surrounded by a mouth-watering assortment of goods, including pretzels displayed on a specially designed wooden rack. The number of bakeries was considerable in seventeenth-century Holland, and like most merchants, bakers usually set up their operations in their own homes. Because their ovens were considered fire threats to adjacent property, they were often forced to live and do business in stone buildings, which probably explains Berckheyde's choice of architecture for The Baker. As for the model he selected, while an artist would have had no difficulty finding a real baker to pose, Berckheyde, it seems, painted himself in the role.
The Bakery Shop (670x561pix, 95kb)
Interior of the Groote Kerk, Haarlem (1676 100x88cm; 591x495pix, 46kb) _ Dutch artists of the 17th century tended to specialize in the depiction of two or three genres, thus assuring themselves market recognition. One of Berckheyde's specialties was architecture portrayed with great fidelity. The Church of Saint Bavo, the Great Church in the artist's hometown of Haarlem, is the subject of numerous such architectural portraits. The view down the aisle towards the ambulatory is enlivened by the play of light and shadow from the windows, which leads the viewers eyes into the distance. Although the architectural details are accurately described, the figures of the women in the church are proportionately too small: the artist has tricked the viewer into believing that the building is even bigger than it actually is.
Interior of the Saint Bavo Church at Haarlem (1665, 61x85cm; 770x1078pix, 148kb)
_ Compare Interior of the Church of Saint Bavo in Haarlem (1636; 1600x933pix) by Pieter Janszoon Saenredam.
 
^ Born on 27 January 1669: Gaspar de Crayer, Flemish painter and draftsman born on 18 November 1584. — {Do NOT pronounce his name “Gaspar the Cryer”}
— De Crayer was born in Antwerp. He learned to paint at the workshop of the Brussels court painter Raphael Coxcie. Later, De Crayer also received commissions from court. His work is strongly influenced by Peter Paul Rubens. Like Rubens he prepared preliminary studies in pen and ink and oil sketches.
     De Crayer lived in the period of the Counter Reformation when the Catholic Church succeeded in recapturing the southernmost provinces of the Netherlands and many churches were built there.  So there was a great demand for altarpieces, which is what de Crayer painted primarily.
      The center of an altarpiece shows Christ, the Virgin Mary or a saint; the hinged side panels generally show scenes relating to the life of the central figure. The backs of the side panels, which are seen when the altarpiece is closed, are almost always painted. Sometimes there is a predella: a panel attached at the bottom.
      De Crayer also received commissions for portraits and other works. He contributed to the decorations for Huis ten Bosch in The Hague. De Crayer remained in the Southern Netherlands. The last five years of his life he lived in Ghent.
— De Crayer was active in the southern Netherlands at the time when demand was high for decorative schemes embodying the tenets of the Counter-Reformation: altarpieces and other religious paintings form the largest part of his considerable oeuvre. To a significant extent he owes his reputation to the fact that he was one of the earliest and most consistent followers of Rubens, whose formal idiom he disseminated beyond Antwerp’s artistic circles.
— Gerard Seghers was a student of de Crayer.

LINKS
Christ Lowered From The Cross (572x428pix) _ The 1600x1281pix, 352kb image shows the painting in a museum setting with other objects from a church. (ZOOM painting alone to 858x642pix, 42kb)
Alexander and Diogenes (196x278cm) _ The meeting between the classical ruler Alexander the Great and the philosopher Diogenes had been illustrated in the 15th and 16th centuries but was also a popular subject in Italian and Netherlands Baroque painting. Diogenes replied to Alexander, the conqueror of the world, when he asked him if he wanted anything: "Stand a little less between me and the sun." The contrast between the youthful and beautiful hero and the beggarly old man whose life exemplified asceticism is exploited in the composition and use of colors. The message of the painting is the meaninglessness of earthly power when confronted with ethical principles. The Antwerp artist de Crayer later became court painter to the archduke in Brussels. This work, reflecting his dealing with forms and themes in the work of Rubens, is one of his best.
The Cardinal Infante (1639, 219x125cm) _ Crayer was a student and continuator of Rubens, also influenced by Van Dyck. He was the accredited painter for the churches of Brabant and Ghent.
Head Study of a Young Moor (40x33cm) _ Rubens' style was imitated by many 17th-century artists, who devoted themselves to large-scale ecclesiastical commissions. Gaspar de Crayer, a Brussels master who settled in Ghent in 1664, was one of the most talented members of this group. A series of his paintings can be seen in local churches. De Crayer's best work is marked by the grandeur of its composition. Although he lacked Rubens' drive, he made up for it somewhat with his refined modeling and soft palette, and never descended into the tedium of most Rubens imitators.
 
^ Born on 27 January 1832: Arthur Hughes, English Pre-Raphaelite painter and illustrator who died on 22 December 1915.
— He studied under Alfred Stevens. In about 1850 he converted to Pre-Raphaelitism. Met Holman Hunt, Rossetti, Madox Brown, and later Millais. In 1852 he exhibited his first major Pre-Raphaelite picture Ophelia. Throughout the 1850s and 1860s Hughes continued to produce a series of delicately poetic pictures, which hover on the knife-edge between sentiment and sentimentality but are always redeemed by their brilliant color and microscopic detail. Some of the best known are Home from the Sea, The Long Engagement, Aurora Leigh's Dismissal of Romney and April Love which Ruskin thought "exquisite in every way". In 1857 he worked with other Pre-Raphaelites on the frescoes in the Oxford Union. About 1858, Hughes retired to live with his family in the suburbs of London. He lived at 284 London Rd, Wallington, Sutton, and at Eastside House, 22 Kew Green, Richmond. Hughes being of a quiet and retiring nature, very little is known of his later career. After about 1870 his work lost its impetus. Hughes was the original illustrator of Tom Brown's Schooldays, and George MacDonald's At the Back of the North Wind and The Princess and the Goblin. He also illustrated Allingham's Music Master and many other novels, children's books and periodicals. He worked with Christina Rossetti on Sing Song in 1871. A sale of his works took place at Christie's after his death on 21 November 1921.
— Hughes showed early artistic promise and enrolled in the Royal Academy Antique School in 1847. He was encouraged by Millais, who was always an affable individual. Hughes was inspired directly by The Germ, the short-lived Pre-Raphaelite magazine. He attended PRB meetings, in rather a junior hero-worshipping manner. Hughes was liked by the PRB, in fact he was throughout his long life, a well liked individual. He was also encouraged by Rossetti.
      Hughes main traits as an individual were his modesty and self-effacement. He suffered somewhat at the hands of the Royal Academy, having a number of ill-merited rejections, and very badly hung pictures. He was never even elected an Associate. Hughes married, in 1855 Tryphena Foord, the union was lasting, and happy. As well as the limits imposed by his diffidence and modesty, Hughes was motivated by the desire for a stable, happy family life. Ultimately he was prepared to compromise artistic ambitions for this.
      Many of his pictures were of ordinary scenes of life. They were painted with great delicacy, and feeling, and were often in greens and mauves. Like the great orchestral composers, the warm sympathetic character of the man shines through in his work. William Michael Rossetti, writing about Hughes said “If I had to pick out, from my once numerous acquaintances of the male sex, the sweetest and most ingenuous nature of all, the least carking and querulous, and the freest from envy hatred and malice, and all uncharitableness, I should probably find myself bound to select Mr. Hughes.” Should any human being have a better character reference, or epitaph than this I have yet to see it.
      Following the death of Tryphena Hughes in 1921, their daughter Emily had to move to a smaller house. There was, therefore, a shortage of space. As a result she had her father’s remaining preparatory sketches, and all his private papers and correspondence destroyed.
Drawing portrait by the artist's son, Arthur Foord Hughes.

LINKS
Self-Portrait (1851)
The Mower (1865)
Ophelia (1853; 68x124cm; framed 590x1000pix, 166kb) _ The writing outside the side arcs of this semicircular painting reads:
There is a willow grows ascaunt the brook, That shows his hoar leaves in the glassy stream; There with fantastic garlands did she come. Of crow-flowers, nettles, daisies, and
long purples. There on the pendant boughs her coronet weeds Clambering to hang an envious sliver broke. When down the weedy trophies and herself Fell in the weeping brook.

Home From the Sea (1857, 51x65cm; 723x950pix, 231kb) _ A young sailor boy has come back from the sea to find that his mother has died. With his sister he is mourning at her grave. Hughes began the picture in 1856, in the old churchyard at Chingford in Essex. At first the picture contained only the figure of the boy, and was entitled A Mother's Grave; later the sister was added, and the title was changed. The model for the boy may have been Hughes' nephew, Edward Robert Hughes.
Knight of the Sun (1861, 22x32cm) _ An aged warrior mortally wounded, being carried by his men-at-arms to the shelter of a religious house.
La Belle Dame Sans Merci (1863, 152x122cm) _ This painting is based on the poem La Belle Dame Sans Merci by John Keats [31 Oct 1795 – 23 Feb 1821]
 _ See other paintings on the same subject:
 _ La Belle Dame Sans Merci (1926; 604x594pix, 56kb) by Cowper
 _ La Belle Dame Sans Merci (1865, 46x56cm; 1249x1500pix, 141kb) by Crane [15 Aug 1845 – 15 Mar 1915]
 _ La Belle Dame Sans Merci (1926; 422x596pix, 71kb) by Dicksee
 _ La Belle Dame Sans Merci (1893; 800x580pix, 107kb) by Waterhouse
A Music Party (1864) _ When exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1864, the accompanying lines from John Keats' Ode on a Grecian Urn were included in the catalogue: 'Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard are sweeter Not to the sensual ear, but more endear'd Pipe to the spirit ditties of no tone.'
Good Night (1866, 99x65cm) _ 'Day's turn is over: now arrives the Night's.' from Robert Browning, Pippa Passes.
Sir Galahad (1869, 113x168cm) _ Inscribed on the back: 'The clouds are broken in the sky, And thro' the mountain-walls, A rolling organ-harmony Swells up, and shakes and falls, Then move the trees, the copses nod, Wings flutter, voices hover clear: Oh just and faithful knight of God! Ride on: the prize is near. So pass I hostel, hall, and grange; By bridge and ford, by park and pale, All-arm'd I ride, whate'er betide, Until I find the holy Grail'. .... A gentle sound, an awful sight! Three angels bear the holy grail: With folded feet, in stoles of white, On sleeping wings they sail.'
 
^ Died on 27 (26?) January 1747: Willem van Mieris, Leiden Dutch painter and draftsman born on 03 (02?) June 1662.
— Willem van Mieris was the younger son of Frans van Mieris the Elder [16 Apr 1635 – 12 Mar 1681]. Together with his brother Jan van Mieris [1660-1690] he continued his father's tradition. His paintings are similar to his father's, and his scrupulous attention to detail makes them fascinating. Willem's son and student Frans van Mieris the Younger [24 Dec 1689 – 22 Oct 1763] painted in a watered-down version of his grandfather's style.
— Willem van Mieris was trained by his father and probably contributed to several of his later works. It is almost certain, for example, that he finished his father’s signed painting of the Holy Family (1681). The earliest examples signed and dated by Willem himself are from 1682, after which there is a large oeuvre of dated works up to the 1730s, when he became partly blind. In 1693 he joined the Leiden Guild of Saint Luke, for which he served as headman several times and once as dean. About 1694, with the painters Jacob Toorenvliet [1635–1719) and Karel de Moor, he founded a drawing academy in Leiden, which he and de Moor directed until 1736.
— As the son and apprentice of the Leiden painter Frans van Mieris, Willem van Mieris grew up in the tradition of the fijnschilders. He adopted his father's smooth, enamel-like style, but besides genre pieces also produced portraits, landscapes and history pieces. After 1700 Van Mieris specialised in shop and kitchen interiors depicted behind an arched opening. He devoted much attention to detail, and many important collectors liked his dispassionate, meticulous style. For several years Van Mieris was leader of the St Luke's guild Guild A guild is a society of persons united by a particular aim or occupation. Guilds were first formed in the Middle Ages. Some guilds were founded as charities, others were societies of merchants, craftsmen, artists and militias. Craftsmen would have been unable to practice their profession without being a member of the guild. Members were bound by a code of quality and price, but could also obtain assistance from the guild. An extensive apprenticeship system developed. Only a fully qualified master could become a member of the guild. Each guild had its patron saint: the patron of the painters guild was St Luke. in Leiden. Around 1694 he set up a drawing academy with the artists Toorenvliet and De Moor. His apprentices included his son, Frans van Mieris II. The school remained in existence until 1736, by which time Van Mieris had become partially blind.

LINKS
The Peepshow (1718, 57x48cm; 1600x1346pix, 191kb) _ In a kitchen a traveling merchant is showing a few children his wares: a cabinet with all kinds of small dolls presenting an interesting show. Curious adults have also come to look. About the 1700s there were many of these French-speaking entertainers, popularly known as Savoyards. The painting's title, The Peepshow, probably refers to the cry they used to ply their wares. Willem van Mieris borrowed this subject from genre painting as a vehicle for the onlookers' various reactions. With its considered use of light, this work is a careful study of their amused and surprised looks and the differences in posture.
     Willem van Mieris was a son of the celebrated Leiden fijnschilder Frans van Mieris. Fijnschilders were painters who attempted to reproduce as realistically as possible the most diverse of materials, ranging from copper, glass and satin, to paper and skin. With their small, perfectly finished works these painters acquired a major reputation. Here Van Mieris demonstrates that there is nothing he cannot reproduce in paint: a cane basket, an earthenware jug and glistening fish.
The Greengrocer (1731, 40x34cm; 900x756pix, 138kb)
The Spinner
(1014x824pix, 131kb)
An Old Man Reading (1729, 15x13cm)
The Death of Cleopatra (1694, 23x20cm; 1205x1000pix, 606kb)
The Cook (1715, 47x38cm; 700x560pix, 182kb)
The Tea (42x34cm; 700x560pix, 198kb)
The Soap Bubbles (32x26cm; 700x560pix, 198kb)
The Venison Seller (31x26cm; 700x560pix, 180kb)
— Portrait of a Widow (oval 17x15cm; 600x460pix, 55kb)
Expulsion of Hagar (1724, 44x33cm; 575x461pix)
Joseph and Potiphar's Wife (27x35cm; 575x759pix, 152kb)
Militiaman with Empty Glass (1690, 30x24cm; 500x372pix, 40kb)
 
^ Born on 27 January 1805: Samuel Palmer, English Romantic landscape painter, draftsman, and etcher, who died on 24 May 1881.
— Palmer studied under John Varley. Palmer was a key figure of English Romantic painting who represented, at least in his early work, its pastoral, intuitive and nostalgic aspects at their most intense. He is widely described as a visionary and linked with his friend and mentor William Blake, though he stood at an almost opposite extreme in his commitment to landscape and his innocent approach to its imagery. He had none of Blake’s irony or complexity and was inspired by a passionate love of nature that found its philosophical dimension in unquestioning Neo-Platonism.
— Palmer painted from an early age, but it was his meeting with William Blake in 1824 that intensified the spiritual “visionary” qualities of his work in which landscapes were treated as visions of paradise. Soon he was leader of a group of artists who called themselves the Ancients, based in Shoreham, Kent. Although his work’s mystical qualities are less apparent by the 1830s, he continued to paint and make etchings of more conventional pastoral subjects until the end of his life.
— Palmer showed a precocious talent, exhibiting landscape drawings at the Royal Academy when he was 14. In 1822 he met Linnell, who introduced him to William Blake in 1824. Palmer had had visionary experiences from childhood and the effect of Blake upon him was to intensify an inherent mystical bent. In 1826 he moved to Shoreham, near Sevenoaks, Kent, where he was the central figure of the group of artists known as the Ancients and produced what are now his most famous works, landscapes charged with a sense of pantheistic fecundity and other-worldly beauty.
      In about 1832 what he called his ‘primitive and infantine feeling’ for landscape began to fade, and after returning to London in 1835, marrying Linnell's daughter in 1837, and spending a two-year honeymoon in Italy, the break with his visionary manner was complete. His later paintings were in a much more conventional topographical or pastoral mode, highly-wrought and often sentimental in feeling. In his etchings, however, something of his early genius remained; at his death he was working on an edition of Virgil's Eclogues, translated and illustrated by himself. His early work was virtually forgotten until the 1920s, but it has subsequently influenced modern romantic landscape artists such as Paul Nash and Graham Sutherland.

LINKS
Self-Portrait (1825, 29x23cm; 864x700pix, 82kb) _ This self-portrait, with hollow and haunted eyes, seems an attempt to understand the processes at work within the artist and projected on to the pages of his sketchbooks. It is a revolutionary image of the artist as seer, as mystic, as poet. Forget painting portraits of country gentlemen, or views of their estates. Forget art that wants to play a part in the ordinary affairs of market and court. This is a portrait of the artist with no responsibility, almost no awareness beyond his own intense engagement with what he sees and dreams.
      Palmer's eyes are wide and powerful, and yet strangely unfocused, almost drugged; he has the power to see, but he is not that interested in the surface appearance of things. His painting of his own appearance is oddly unaffirmative and weightless; he seems to be made of cloud rather than flesh, his white collar a cumulus of soft lines, his jacket formless, his face and hair shaggy. He's half-formed, a distracted presence, or absence. A sleepwalker. His dirty face and his tangled, messy, awkward hair is enough to scare away society, he's really not bothered what you think of him. He's thinking about something else.
      In his heart, even as he paints himself in the mirror, he's hearing a hymn, feeling the evening breeze on his face in the meadow, seeing the moon's magic glow turning the woodland glade blue, green, purple. How can he make you see what he knows is there, the rapture of it? He feels lonely to be burdened with this vision and have no means to share it, except through the clumsy medium of paint.
–- The Magic Apple Tree (1830, 35x27cm; full size) _ As far as we know, Palmer himself did not call his picture The Magic Apple Tree, but it is hardly surprising that this is how we know it now. There is clearly something otherworldly about this tree laden with glowing fruit in a golden landscape. Although the landscape glows as if in sunlight the sky itself is dark, suggesting an almost supernatural presence. Nature appears transformed and the mood is similar to one of Palmer’s letters where he wrote that ‘sometimes, when the spirits are in Heav’n, earth itself, in emulation, blooms again into Eden.’
Early Morning (1825, 19x23cm; 700x872pix, 165kb) _ The sense of a new beginning, of spiritual rebirth, is hinted at through the rabbit climbing a sunlit path, and by the figures who have come out to hear the sounds of creatures greeting the dawn.
Harvesting (1863, 19x42cm; 283x635pix, 82kb) _ A dog stands transfixed in the center foreground, its attention caught by the dramatic sunset behind the ruined abbey. The all enveloping blaze of light, seen through the church window, suggests God’s bountiful presence in this harmonious, idyllic landscape. The harvesters, at the end of a day’s labor, suggest Biblical figures – a water-carrier and a mother and child. Palmer uses complementary blue and orange colors to increase the contrast and heighten the sunset’s visionary nature.
The Rest on the Flight into Egypt (1825, 150kb)
Coming from Evening Church (1830)
—(070126)
^ Died on 27 (27 Aug?) January 1811: Jean~Baptiste~Marie Huet I, French Rococo animal painter and engraver of some distinction, born on 15 October 1735, nephew of Christophe Huet [22 Jun 1700 – 02 May 1759].
      His three sons Nicolas Huet II [1770–], François Huet [14 Jan 1772 – 28 July 1813] and Jean-Baptiste Huet II [29 Dec 1772] were painters and engravers.
— Jean-Baptiste Huet I was trained by his father, Nicolas Huet [1718->1788], who had been a student of Jean-Baptiste Oudry and specialized in paintings of flowers and fruit. Jean-Baptiste was then apprenticed to the animal painter Charles Dagomer (fl 1762–4; d. <1768), a member of the Académie de Saint-Luc. He also studied under Francois Boucher. Huet’s interest in printmaking and his acquaintance with Gilles Demarteau, who later engraved many of his compositions, both date from this period. About 1764 Huet entered the studio of Jean-Baptiste Le Prince, where he further developed his skill as an engraver; most of his engravings and etchings were reproductions of his own work. On 30 July 1768 he was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale, and on 29 July 1769 he was received (reçu) as an animal painter with his painting of Un Dogue se Jetant sur des Oies.
      He first exhibited pictures at the Paris Salon in 1769. The most important of these were his morceau de réception, The Fox in the Chicken-run, and The Milkmaid. The latter is a good example of his work in the petite manière of genre painting popularized by François Boucher, whom he knew and admired. Huet’s exhibits of 1769 were well received by the critics, especially by Louis Petit de Bachaumont and des Boulmiers in Le Mercure de France. The quality of his animal pictures was widely praised, although Diderot made some criticisms of his draftsmanship. Huet wanted the Académie to recognize him as a history painter, so he submitted an Adoration by the Shepherds to the 1775 Salon and followed this in 1779 with a painting of Hercules and Omphale. Critical and academic opinion was unfavorable; however, evidence of his aspirations can be seen in his later works, an example being the Classical bas-relief in the background of the Spaniel Attacking a Turkey (1789). Huet exhibited regularly at the Salon until 1789.
— Relative? of bishop Pierre-Daniel Huet [08 Feb 1630 – 26 Jan 1721]?

LINKS

Un Dogue se Jetant sur des Oies (128x162cm)
–- Renard dans le poulailler (1766, 96x131cm, 874x1178pix, 88kb _ .ZOOM to xpix, 792kb _ .ZOOM+ to xpix, 3141kb)
Attributs Champêtres (68x63cm)
–- Churning Butter (1789, 8x13cm; 342x531pix, 35kb)

—(070126)
^ Born on 27 January 1826: Carlos de Haes, in Brussels, painter, specialized in landscapes, who died in Madrid on 17 June 1898.
— In 1835 he moved with his Belgian parents to Málaga, where he studied under the court portrait painter and miniature painter Luis de la Cruz y Ríos [1776–1853]. In 1850 de Haes returned to Belgium and studied under the landscape painter Joseph Quineaux [1822–1895]. During his studies there and on his travels in France, Germany, and Holland, he became acquainted with contemporary Realist trends.
      He returned to Spain in 1855, becoming a naturalized Spaniard, and the following year he exhibited numerous landscapes at the Exposición Nacional, Madrid, to much acclaim. In 1857 he won the competition for the fourth chair of landscape painting at the Escuela de Bellas Artes in Madrid with View of the Royal Palace from the Casa de Campo (1857), a work showing characteristics of the Barbizon and Fontainebleau landscape schools. In 1860 he was elected Académico de mérito at the Real Academia de San Fernando in Madrid.
      By 1861 he was officiating and drawing up the regulations for the landscape competitions for aspiring pensionnaires. Consequently plein-air works came to be required in place of the previous tradition of submitting historical landscapes executed in the studio, a practice that discouraged the study of nature. De Haes suggested that only final corrections should be made in the studio, an attitude that indicates his timid initiation and acceptance of Realist trends.
— The students of de Haes included Ceferino Araujo, Aureliano Beruete, Bartolomé Maura y Montaner, Darío de Regoyos, Agustín Riancho.

LINKS
The Peaks of Europe: The Mancorbo Canal (1876, 113kb)
Tileworks in the Principe Pio Mountains (136kb)
Canal abandonné, Vriesland (567x800kb, 234kb)
Prairies (Villerville) (37x62cm; 467x800pix, 121kb)
Le Clocher de l'Église, Douarnenez (31x38cm; 800x635pix, 202kb) monochrome
 

Died on a 27 January:


2005 Marcelle Baron “Aurélie Nemours” [29 Oct 1910–], Paris French painter.
(untitled?) (1200x1600pix, 996kb)
Angle Noir No.4 (1981, 92x78cm; 1204x954pix, 784kb) —(090126).

>1927 Luigi Pastega, Italian painter born (main coverage) on 18 November 1858. —(100126)

1912 Charles Schreyvogel, US artist born (main coverage) on 04 January 1861. —(090104)

1864 Leo van Klenze, dies at age 79 one month and two days before his 19th birthday. He was a German painter born (main coverage) on 29 February 1784. —(100126)

1851 John James Audubon, US painter born (full coverage) on 26 April 1785. —(060126)

>1836 Ludwig Philipp Strack [10 Aug 1761–], German painter.
Classiscal Landscape with Ruins and Animals (1808, 76x108cm; 454x640pix, 41kb)
View of Weissenstein Castle (374x600pix) —(100126)

1738 Alessandro Marchesini, Verona Italian painter and agent born on 30 April 1663. He is traditionally believed to have trained with Biagio Falcieri (1628–1703). At the age of 17 he moved to Bologna, where he entered the workshop of Carlo Cignani. His first commission after his return to Verona was for the fresco decoration of the vault of S Domenico (1687), with scenes glorifying the saint, set in a quadratura framework by Carlo Tedesco. The style is heavily Baroque. In 1690–1691 Marchesini painted a Jonah for S Niccolò, Verona; this remains within a Veronese tradition, whereas his Assumption of the Virgin for S Biagio (1692; Breonio, SS Marziale e Giovanni) and his Purification of the Virgin (1699; Verona, Pal. Scaligero, Notai Chapel) contain references to the Bolognese art of the Carracci.
The Dedication of a New Vestal Virgin

1651 Abraham Bloemaert, US painter born (full coverage) on 25 December 1564. —(070126)


Born on a 27 January:


^ 1921 Georges Mathieu, French painter, sculptor, designer, and illustrator, one of the founders of "lyric abstraction". His paintings are created from dynamic movements generated by physical-psychic impulses (“tachisme”). He left his native Boulogne-sur-Mer in 1933 to attend the Lycée Hoche in Versailles, where he learnt Greek, Russian, and Spanish. Over the next few years he was educated at various secondary and university institutions in Rouen, Cambrai and Douai, studying law at Douai in 1941. He started to paint landscapes and portraits in oils in 1942 and the following year taught English at the Lycée in Douai. He worked as an interpreter for the US Army at Cambrai in 1944 and in that year read Edward Crankshaw’s Joseph Conrad: Some Aspects of the Art of the Novel (1936), which impressed upon him the importance of style; he cited it as an influence on his first experiments with abstraction, such as Inception (1944), with dark amorphous forms suggestive of primordial creation. The following year he began to use drip techniques, as in Evanescence (1945). After spending several months in Paris in 1945, later that year he became professor of French at the Université Americaine in Biarritz, a post he held until 1946.
— [Scribbles 1?] (772x575pix, 28kb) _ These pitiful scribbles in a small section of what is otherwise a flat red rectangle have been transformed by the pseudonymous Matthew Theroats into the stunningly colored and intricately detailed symmetrical abstractions (best appreciated at their highest zoom):
      _ Fromage à la Guillotine (2007; 724x1024pix, 326kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 644kb _ ZOOM+ to 2636x3728pix, 4439kb) and
      _ Sorcière Nordique Estivale (2007; 724x1024pix, 326kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 644kb _ ZOOM+ to 2636x3728pix, 4439kb)
Festival in Norwich (1957, 89x146cm; 248x407pix, 44kb)
Homage to Guillaume (400x303pix, 22kb) —(070126)

^ 1874 Harold Knight, British painter who died on 03 October 1961, in Nottingham. The son of an architect, he studied at Nottingham School of Art under Wilson Foster. It was at the School of Art that he met his future wife, Laura Johnson, who he married in 1903. Harold was a quiet character who is largely remembered, unfairly, as an adept but unexciting painter, while Laura Knight [04 Aug 1877 – 07 Jul 1970] was flamboyant in both her life and art and achieved greater public renown. After spending time in Paris and at Staithes on the North Yorkshire coast, Harold Knight moved to Newlyn, with Laura, in 1907. The couple mainly lived and worked in Lamorna, becoming key figures in the Lamorna group, and they remained in Cornwall until 1918. During the First World War, Knight’s high principles led him to be a conscientious objector, which earned him the rebuke of many of his colleagues and former friends, and put a strain on his physical and mental health as he was forced to work as a farm laborer. When the War ended, he and Laura moved to London, although they frequently returned to Lamorna to paint. — LINKS
The Green Book (51x46cm; 448x405pix, 43kb)
Gwen Ffrançon Davies [1891-1992] (152x122cm; 448x356pix, 15kb)

^ 1871 Samuel John Peploe, Scottish painter who died on 11 October 1935. — {one of the Peploe people}— He studied at the Royal Scottish Academy schools from 1893 to 1894, and then at the Académie Julian and Académie Colarossi in Paris, where he shared rooms with Robert Brough. The influence of the rustic realism of French painters and of the Glasgow Boys is clear in landscape drawings and paintings executed in Edinburgh from the mid-1890s. His still-life studies reveal the influence of the work of both Manet and Hals, which he saw in European galleries, with their combinations of thick impasto and fluid brushwork, dark background, strong lighting and meticulous handling of tones. Between 1900 and about 1910, when he moved to Paris, he painted in Edinburgh, on sketching holidays in Scotland and in northern France with John Duncan Fergusson, and exhibited in Edinburgh, Glasgow and London. — LINKS
Landscape, Cassis (63x53cm)

1851 Jan Wladyslaw “van” Chelminski, Polish painter who died in 1925, in New York where he was living since 1895.
Marshal Ney and Napoleon with soldiers during invasion of Russia (1902; 760x1024pix, 200 kb)
Horse Race (1900, 51x70cm; 645x900pix, 98kb)
— links to 10 images at wikimedia
— links to 9 images, to another 9 images , and to yet another 9 images at artyzm.com —(100126)

1824 Jozef Israëls, Dutch painter who died (full coverage) on 10 August 1911.

^ 1813 Johann Jakob Frey, Swiss painter who died on 30 September 1865 in Rome. He was taught first by his father, the painter and lithographer Samuel Frey [1785–1836]. He studied in Paris in the early 1830s, and then in Munich (1834); thanks to the sponsorship of Emilie Lindner, a patron of the arts, he was able to move on to Rome where he specialized in landscape painting (Mountains in the Roman Campagna). At the end of the 1830s he moved to Naples, and visited Sicily and Spain. In 1842 he set out for Egypt with the Royal Prussian Expedition led by Richard Lepsius but had to return to Italy, settling finally in Rome. Frey was very productive and his studio attracted many visitors. He had especially close links with the Prussian court, where his Italian landscapes found a ready market. He had considerable ability as a colorist, but there were some weaknesses in his draftsmanship. — Born in Basle, Frey studied under his father, the landscape painter and etcher Samuel Frey, and the Swiss history painter Hieronymus Hess. Thereafter he moved to Paris where he copied Dutch land- scapes of the seventeenth century. In 1834 he settled in Munich, then the most vibrant artistic centre in Germany. Thanks to the connections of his former tutor Hess, Frey entered the artistic circle of Emilie Linder, the Basle benefactor and patron of young artists in Munich. Her financial support and strong ties with the colony of German artists in Rome enabled Frey to move there permanently in 1835. He soon established himself at the heart of the artistic community near Monte Pincio, and became close friends with such German artists as Joseph Anton Koch, Johann Christian Reinhardt, Carl Philipp Fohr, and Johann Martin von Rohden. Frey made frequent excursions into the Roman countryside, particularly in the summer months, making plein-air landscape sketches, as well as costume studies for use in his works painted in the studio. According to the dates and inscriptions on some of the drawings shown in the monographic exhibition held in Rome in 1980, 1 Frey went to Tivoli, Grottaferrata, Ariccia and Civitella between November 1836 and August 1838. Towards the end of 1838 he visited Tuscany and Umbria, drawing and sketching at Viterbo, Narni, Spoleto and Assisi. It seems likely that our sketch dates to this period and its location could be the hilly terrain around Grottaferrata, Ariccia or Civitella. The present sketch is typical of Frey ’s early style and its composition shows the influence of the Nazarene School. Like the landscapes of Joseph Anton Koch or Franz Horny, it uses a well- defined foreground, with a curving footpath leading the eye into the distance. There are two further early sketches by Frey which are comparable in composition and treatment of the light. — Path in the Hills above Rome (22x28cm; 768x1024pix)
Pine Trees near Lake Nemi (44x55cm; 480x573pix, 69kb)
Aqueducts in the Campagna (62x92; 286x450pix, 26kb)

^ 1679 Jean-François de Troy (or Detroy), French painter and tapestry designer who died on 26 January 1752. — His successful career was based initially on large historical and allegorical compositions (Time Unveiling Truth, 1733), but he is now most highly regarded for his smaller and more spirited scenes of elegant social life. They are among the best of those that rode on the wave of Watteau's success - indeed The Alarm (1723) was attributed to Watteau in the 19th century.In 1738 he was appointed Director of the French Academy in Rome, and spent the rest of his life there. He was one of a family of painters, his father and teacher, François de Troy (1645-1730), being a successful painter of fashionable portraits and Director of the Academy in Paris. — LINKS
La Gouvernante Fidèle (1723)
Un déjeuner de chasse (1737, 241x170cm; 1070x787pix, 146kb)
(Une fête champêtre?) (1717) Two pendant pictures (565x686pix each) shown as one image _ a different flying ancient Greek deity intervenes in each of the two pictures: on the left, Mercury brings a baby to a woman, while quite a few women, one cow, and Jupiter (from a distant cloud) watch. On the right, Cupid, holding a torch, hovers over the loving couple of Bacchus and Ariadne, while quite a few other couples flirt and watch approvingly.
Pan and Syrinx (1733, 91x73cm; xpix, 640x511pix, 72kb)

1645 Michiel van Musscher, Dutch painter who died (main coverage) on 20 June 1858. —(100126)


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