ART 4 2-DAY 26 January v.9.20
DEATH: 1824 GÉRICAULT
Born on 26 January 1582: Giovanni
Lanfranco (or Lanfranchi) di Stefano, Italian Baroque
painter who died on 30 November 1647. He studied under Agostino
Carracci in Parma and worked in Rome and Naples. His main rival was
Lanfranco was born near Parma, where he was a student of Agostino Carracci, and was also much influenced by the domes by Correggio. He was in Rome in 1612, and about 1616 decorated the ceiling of the Casino Borghese in a manner derived entirely from the Farnese Gallery. He developed Correggio's sotto in sù type of illusionism to an extravagant point, and painted several domes and apses in Roman and Neapolitan churches in this manner. To him Domenichino lost part of the commission for the decoration of San Andrea della Valle in Rome, a slight he resented so bitterly that - so the story goes - he weakened part of the scaffolding, hoping that Lanfranco would break his neck. Lanfranco completed the dome with an Assumption, Correggiesque in inspiration, between 1625 and 1627, and such was its success that he was then employed at Saint Peter's until 1631.
From 1633 or 1634 to 1646 he was in Naples, and in 1641-1643 painted the dome of the San Gennaro chapel in the Cathedral, which by its more up-to-date illusionism and greater showiness appealed far more to local tastes than Domenichino's works there. His dome is based on Correggio's type of illusionism and replaces one actually begun by Domenichino. He died in Rome, where his last work was the apse of San Carlo ai Catinari.
Hagar in the Wilderness (138x159cm) _ Sarah, Abraham's childless wife, brought her Egyptian maid Hagar to him so that he would produce an heir with her. However, when she herself bore Isaac, she demanded of her husband: "Cast out this bondwoman and her son: for the son of this bondwoman shall not be heir with my son, even with Isaac." (Genesis 21:10) Hagar and Ismael wandered in the wilderness, dying of thirst. Yet God heard the lamentations of the mother and sent her an angel who showed her the way to a spring and prophesied that her son would be the founder of a great nation.
In the painting, Hagar, who has been crying, is just lifting her head to look up at the angel in astonishment; her child, half hidden behind her shoulder, is also looking up incredulously at the kindly angel who has taken Hagar by the arm and is showing her the way to the water. It is the handling of color, in particular, that highlights the unexpected aspect of the occurrence so clearly: against the gloomy brown of the wasteland, the sumptuous red and midnight-blue of Hagar's robes radiate like a lamentation of pathos. Her pale, exhausted face is turned towards the shining figure of the angel that seems to have brought light with it. Light bathes the figure, and radiates from the angel towards Hagar, rising in a pale cloud behind the angel and inflaming the orange of his hair and robe.
Miracle of the Bread and Fish (1623, 229x426cm)
Coronation of the Virgin with Saint Augustine and Saint William of Aquitaine
Banquet with a Gladiatorial Contest (1638)
Erminia tra i pastori (146x196) _ Della tela esistono altre due versioni autografe. Il soggetto è tratto dalla Gerusalemme Liberata di Torquato Tasso: figlia di un re saraceno, Erminia crede che il suo innamorato, il cristiano Tancredi, sia ferito; mentre lo cerca, rivestita con un'armatura, incontra un pastore che le rivela le gioie della vita umile e pacifica. Allievo di Annibale Carracci e attivo in particolare a Roma e a Napoli, l'artista è uno dei principali interpreti del gusto pittorico barocco.
Gesù servito dagli angeli (1605) _ Annibale Carracci, ammalatosi, suggerì per la decorazione del Camerino degli Eremiti - uno dei cinque presenti nel Palazzetto di via Giulia direttamente collegato con quello Farnese tramite un arco - il nome de giovane Lanfranco, suo collaboratore nella precedente impresa della Galleria. Il Gesù servito dagli angeli, con altri nove dipinti che lo circondavano, decorava dunque il soffitto del camerino, prima opera autonoma dell'artista che già dimostra, con l'adozione della prospettiva aerea e di una grande libertà nella definizione degli spazi e nell'uso della luce, una sua personalità, distinta da quella del maestro. Intorno alla metà del seicento il soffitto del camerino fu smembrato ed i quadri, forse sostituiti in loco da copie non ancora rintracciate, trasferiti a Parma.
Born on 26 January 1877: Cornelis Theodorus Maria Kees van Dongen,
Dutch-born French Fauvist
painter and printmaker who died on 28 May 1968. He was a member of Die Brücke.
— He took evening classes in geometric drawing from 1892 to 1897 at the Akademie voor Beeldende Kunsten in Rotterdam. In 1895 he began working intermittently for the newspaper Rotterdamsche Nieuwsblad, for which he made, among other things, a series of bright watercolor drawings of Rotterdam’s red-light district and illustrations of Queen Wilhelmina’s coronation. Van Dongen’s first paintings used dark tones in imitation of Rembrandt, who remained the most important model for his work; his later book on Rembrandt was, in fact, a projection of his own life. By the mid-1890s he was using more vivid contrasts of black and white, for example in Spotted Chimera (1895), his palette soon becoming brighter and his line more animated. In Le Muet Windmill (1896), a red ochre monochrome painting, he successfully enlivened the color by means of broad, energetic brushstrokes.
— From the moment van Dongen arrived in Paris in 1897, he immersed himself in the sensuality, rawness and vulgarity of the city's low-life haunts and avant-garde art. He was to become associated with two key modern movements,Fauvism and Expressionism , and yet always to remain essentially a figurative artist, with a febrile eroticism that gives his best paintings (including this one and his 1926 Portrait of Lily Damita, the Actress ) a spectacular bad taste. Modern art in Paris in the early 20th century is often thought of as being almost boringly tasteful, but this is a terrible misunderstanding. Artists flirted not just with popular subject matter but with popular art. From 1903 Van Dongen painted at the Moulin de la Galette dancehall. In 1904 he had an exhibition at the influential commercial gallery of Ambroise Vollard, and in 1905 he showed this painting in the Salon d'Automne, in the same exhibition that saw works by Matisse, Vlaminck and Derain sectioned off in Salle VII.
Seeing a traditional sculpture uncomfortably situated in this room with its hotly colored paintings, the critic Louis Vauxcelles joked to Matisse (who was exhibiting his Open Window, Collioure) “Tiens! Donatello chez les fauves!”. The nickname stuck. And Salle VII got called “la cage”.
–- A Young Woman (55x33cm; 928x548, 43kb)
–- Aux Folies Bergères (81x60cm; 1/3 size, 115kb)
–- Head of a Woman (1930 drawing, 33x26cm; 5/6 size, 127kb)
–- Woman with a fan (1920 drawing, 35x29cm; full size, 156kb)
–- Woman watching a steeplechase (59x40cm; 1177x843pix, 84kb) _ The pseudonymous Amatheo Modigre-Lianico has exaggerated the elongating tendencies of Dongen and otherwise enhanced this picture, resulting in
_ Woman experiencing a steeple stretch (2007, 1176x211pix, 31kb _ ZOOM to 4706x844pix, 447kb) also seen here in this tiny thumbnail image >>>.
— Le Coquelicot (1919, 55x46cm) _ not a flower but a woman with a big red hat.
— La vasque fleurie (1917)
— La Comtesse Anatole de Brémond d'Ars (1947, 62x50cm; 480x365pix, 33kb)
–- Venise No. II, le Manteau de Cygne (1930, 196x131cm; 799x527pix, 39kb)
–- Paysage au Clair de Lune (1912, 38x46cm; 754x900pix, 156kb) this half-moon is at least as bright as the whole sun.
–- L'Élégante au Chapeau (1913, 78x37cm; 800x376pix, 26kb) _ The female form was a constant source of inspiration for van Dongen. Fascinated with their strength and sensuality, he painted women from all walks of life, employing broad bands of often contrasting color to depict the figures. By the time this work was painted, van Dongen was a sought-after, fashonable portraitist. L'Élégante au Chapeau was painted during his late Fauve period, as is evident in the electric aquamarines ringing the woman's piercing eyes, the streaks of blue within her hair and her bright red, sensuous lips, further highlighted by the reds in her haloed hat. The woman strikes an elegant three-quarter pose repeated in several of van Dongen's Fauve portraits. Her hands are thrust into the pocket of her perfectly tailored suit while she confidently looks into the distance, her hat fashionably tilted to one side. Même dans les portraits délicatement fantomatiques des femmes du monde, les figures sont comme des masques, d'une lueur de phosphore, avec des bouches cerise-feu et des orbites d'un bleu de poupée peint.
–- a different L'Élégante au Chapeau (1908, 46x33cm; 799x561pix, 51kb) _ This elegant portrait of a woman perfectly exemplifies van Dongen's love for the exotic. Depicted wearing an extravagant hat and dramatic eye make-up, the woman in the present work demonstrates the Orientalist flare and exoticism that characterized most of van Dongen's Fauvist depictions of women. European or exotic at his leisure, van Dongen had a personal and violent feel for orientalism. His painting often smelled of opium and amber. We are struck by the extraordinary chromatic subtlety which goes far beyond Van Dongen's earlier accomplishments. The determination to emphasize the plastic values on the modeling is the second characteristic of these works which extol the model's sensual beauty. “I exteriorize my desires,” van Dongen] said, “by expressing them in pictures. I love anything that glitters, precious stones that sparkle, fabrics the shimmer, beautiful women who arouse carnal desire ... paintings lets me possess all this most fully”..
–- Jeune Fille à sa Toilette (1942, 24x16cm; 800x497pix, 37kb) rough sketch
–- Les Escarpins Mauves (1921, 100x150cm; 523x800pix, 42kb) _ An example of Van Dongen’s art of the 1920s, that became known as the ‘années folles’, Les Escarpins Mauves depicts an unidentified sitter, whose striking pose, clothes and jewelry, give her an air of vibrancy and boldness characteristic of Van Dongen’s most accomplished portraits. Although fully clothed in a white dress symbolizing purity, the alluring model is depicted in a seductive pose, her beauty accentuated by her hair, her fashionable purple shoes, and the large bracelet executed in dabs of paint applied directly from the tube. The figure’s identity, however, remains obscure, as Van Dongen’s primary interest lay in the feminine allure of her figure. The subtlety of the woman’s skin is emphasised by the contrast with the painting’s background rendered in wide brushstrokes of various shades of blue, grey and green, this lack of reference in the setting underlining the mysterious character of the composition. The green highlights of the figure’s skin demonstrate the artist’s disregard for anatomy and naturalistic representation, in favor of depicting the physicality and sensual presence of his sitter.
Known as the principle portraitist among the Fauve artists, Van Dongen executed portraits inspired by his visits to the cabarets and cafés where dancers performed in exotic costumes, as well as those of members of the high society. In 1917, the artist began a relationship with Léa Jacob, also known as Jasmy, who helped launch his career among the Parisian fashion circles. In 1922 the couple moved to a new residence in rue Juliette Lamber, where Van Dongen held exhibitions and Jasmy hosted extravagant parties attended by influential members of the society. During the 1920s, Van Dongen became one of the most talked of figures in the French art world. He was frequent visitor to Deauville, where the smart world gathered, and to the cabarets and restaurants of Paris. What appealed to him about the années folles were their movement and gaiety. He once said: ‘I passionately love the life of my time so animated, so feverish! Ah! Life is even more beautiful than painting’’
–- Jean-Marie au Port (1950 lithograph, 56x47cm) a boy, about 3, half-length.
–- Polo à Alexandrie (lithograph 50x65cm)
–- Anita - la Belle Fatima et sa Troupe (1907, 100x81cm; 799xpix, kb) _ Orientalist themes dominated van Dongen's work throughout his Fauve period providing an exoticism and intensity that perfectly suited the artist's temperament, as illustrated in this painting of circa 1905-07. In his predilection for the theme, van Dongen followed a long tradition of Orientalism in French art from Delacroix and Ingres to Matisse. In 1906, Matisse made his first trip to Morocco, and the visit had a profound effect on the development of his style. Matisse and van Dongen were the two Fauve artists most influenced by the Arab world and most capivated by the human figure. The exoticism of the cultures of North Africa and the Ottoman Empire and intensity of the color and light made a tremendous impact on their motifs and techniques at this time. Van Dongen's particular achievement, as exemplified in the present work, was to achieve a synthesis of the brilliant and pure chromatic vision of the Fauves with a great sense of movement and compositional audacity.
While living at the Bateau Lavoir in Montmartre, van Dongen frequented the bals musettes and cabarets of the area, seeking out models for his paintings, and became one of the leading figures in bohemian circles. At this time van Dongen made a series of paintings using the model Anita la Bohémienne, a dancer he found at a club in Pigalle. The sensual dancer became the subject of some of van Dongen's most emotionally charged, energetic, and erotic paintings, including the present work, in which she is pictured as La Belle Fatima et sa troupe. In this period numerous models came to his studio in rue Lamarck including Anita la Bohémienne, who was a dancer at a dive in Pigalle. We are struck by the extraordinary chromatic subtelty which goes far beyond Van Dongen's earlier accomplishements.The determination to emphasize the plastic values of the modeling is the second characteristic of these works which extol Anita's sensual beauty. 'I exteriorize my desires' Van Dongen said, 'by expressing them in pictures. I love anything that glitters, precious stones that sparkle, fabrics that shimmer, beautiful women who arouse carnal desire. Painting lets me possess all this most fully'.
It was with works such as the present painting that van Dongen was to come closest to German Expressionist art, and it is possible to see the present work as a precursor to the wild dancing girls of Nolde and Pechstein. Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, the first owner of this painting, was van Dongen's dealer until 1908 when the artist signed a contract with Bernheim. Kahnweiler was instrumental in promoting the reputation of van Dongen not only in Paris, where he held an exhibition of the artist's work at his gallery in 1908, but also in Germany where later that year he organised an exhibition at the Galerie Flechtheim in Düsseldorf. Pechstein visited Paris in 1908 and invited van Dongen to collaborate with Die Brücke. The exhibition, organized by Kahnweiler, proved to be of substantial influence on the artists associated with Die Brücke and spread van Dongen's reputation into the German speaking world.
–- La Femme aux Bijoux (1929, 130x97cm; 799x589pix52kb)
–- La Femme à l'Orchidée (1928, 65x54cm; 1073x900pix, 60kb) _ In the years immediately following the First World War, Van Dongen mostly devoted himself to portraits and achieved sensational succes as a painter of beautiful and fashionable women. The richest US women, the most elegant French women, would dispute among themselves the honor of being portrayed by him. This is a powerful portrait of an elegant woman in a hat and a large exotic orchid which stands out brightly against her coat. Van Dongen plays on the contrasts between the sitter's pale face and orchid with the background and dark clothing that surrounds her.
–- L'Écuyer (63x48cm; 800x608pix)
–- L'Oiseau Solitaire (1908, 46x38cm)
–- Grand Bouquet de Fleurs (1910, 195x130cm) _ This painting reflects van Dongen's increased confidence as an artist. By this time he had established himself in Paris, frequenting the cafés and nightclubs of Montmartre, and establishing a friendship with Picasso and his mistress Fernande Olivier while living at the Bateau Lavoir. In Grand Bouquet de Fleurs, van Dongen's flowers erupt from the dark background and spill over the edges of the canvas, transforming a typically unassuming subject into a dynamic composition. The artist has balanced the bursts of color in the upper half of the picture plane with a band of subtle greens and browns at the bottom, while the more delicate flowers in the middle of the canvas link these positive and negative spaces.
By 1908, van Dongen's paintings had begun to receive widespread recognition. For a brief time, he was represented by the renowned dealer Daniel Henry Kahnweiler, who organized exhibitions of his work in Düsseldorf and Paris. Later that year, he was taken up by the Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, which represented many of the most prominent artists of the twentieth century, including Bonnard, Matisse, and Modigliani. Van Dongen's predilection for bold color and energetic compositions also prompted the artists' group Die Brücke to invite him to exhibit in a show of their work in Germany. The relationship of Van Dongen's painting to that of the German Expressionists is an interesting topic. There is an obvious relationship in subject-matter; the coarseness of his handling gives his painting more of a German than a French character. Indeed, the ambitious use of color and space in Grand Bouquet de Fleurs recalls the floral landscapes of Emil Nolde although on a much larger scale.
The highly saturated hues van Dongen employed in the present work reflect his affiliation with the Fauves. The artist's break-through occurred at a time when Fauvism was the dominant style in France. In 1904 Van Dongen was in touch with two of its principal exponents, Derain and Vlaminck. He was a painter who found a natural means of expression in the use of thickly applied color, bold stark reds, greens, and blues, colors which held for him an almost symbolical meaning.
–- Le Prince de Sagan au Bois (1947, 24x21cm; 892x688pix, 60kb) This is an illustration for Marcel Proust's A la recherche du temps perdu. The artist produced seventy-seven illustrations for the book, which was commissioned by Gallimard and published in three volumes in 1947 in an edition of 8750.
–- Au Cabaret Nègre (1925, 98x95cm; 892x868pix, 97kb) _ This is an instance of Van Dongen's fascination with the subject of café society and the world of entertainment, which he expolored throughout his career, and particularly in the years leading up to the First World War. In taking up the theme of the cabaret and depicting scenes of Moulin de la Galette, a favourite Montmartre haunt of many Impressionist artists, Van Dongen drew his inspiration from the French turn of the century painters such as Renoir and Toulouse-Lautrec. The present work demonstrates Van Dongen's fascination with high society, depicting the cabaret crowded with elegant, fashionably dressed ladies and cigar smoking men. The composition is built up of quick brushstrokes of brilliant colors, portraying the excitement of the night life of the metropolis and the vibrancy of Parisian beau-monde.
–- La Plage de Deauville (1935, 46x56cm; 675x800pix, 45kb) _ Deauville, a summer resort on the coast of Normandy, was a popular retreat for both artists and aristocratic vacationers from the mid-nineteenth century through the 1900s. A well-established artist within the beau-monde by the 1920s, Van Dongen was naturally attracted to this community, with it's fashionable crowd and its colorful and vivacious surroundings. His favorite subjects were often derived from the observation of these people at play on the beach, some riding horses, others swimming, and others simply sunning themselves.
Louis Chaumeis writes of Van Dongen's work from this period, ``One rediscovers the feeling of the sketch, the assurance of tone, the life of the crowd and of the racetrack beneath the skies treated like theatre sets. The beach and the ocean furnish inexaustible themes: On the Boardwalk, Sunbathing, The Trasparent Bathrobe, Dosville [sic], as well as pretexts for fixing on paper or on canvas, in almost bare silhouettes, the men and women of society and their hangers-on (mondaines et demi-mondaines) on vacation in the foubourg de Paris." (Louis Chaumeil, Van Dongen, l'homme et l'artiste- la vie et l'oeuvre, Geneva, 1967, pp. 208)
The present work perfectly encapsulates Chaumeis' summary of the Deauville pictures. Not only is it a depiction of the aristocratic vacationers at play, but it also demonstrates Van Dongen's mastery of color and atmosphere. The ominous, gray sky is juxtaposed against the vividly colored tents and figures in the foreground. While a portending storm brews on the horizon, the sea remains relatively calm and the carefree vacationers continue with their leisurely activities undisturbed.
–- Guus (1907, 100x81cm; 892x718pix, 42kb) _ This portrait of Van Dongen's wife, Guus, was painted just after the pivotal Salon d'Automne of 1905, when the Fauves first exhibited their revolutionary style of painting. Van Dongen shared with these artists an interest in the essentials of painting and the immediacy of images through aggressively gestural brushwork. His brush stroke was masterful and in complete control of his means, a gift ranging from the most delicate measures to the most brilliant colors with easy virtuosity. Of all the Fauves, he kept the longest the usage of pure, unblended colors, and these he juxtaposed without recourse to a neutral zone between them. He liked effects of violent contrasts where a dark tone adjoined to a bright one. He circumscribed the latter with darker lines so as to enhance its resonance. Such was his passion for pure color that he wholly disregarded any natural appearance and gave free rein to his imagination.
In the present work, Van Dongen has used the above means to convey an intimate and alluring portrayal of his wife. The varying shades of orange pigment he used for her dress persist and darken throughout her right arm, giving the illusion of depth while maintaining a uniform field of colour. Similarly, her backdrop is divided into wide bands of progressively lighter hues, suggesting a light source which illuminates her face and gracefully raised arm. Unlike other, more flamboyant portraits Van Dongen completed during this time, Portrait de Guus displays a level of intimacy achieved only by years of familiarity with his model. The delicate apricot tones of her face, her modest pose and her averted gaze suggest a level of sophistication that sets her apart from many of Van Dongen's other subjects, resulting in a unique and tender painting.
— Guus Preitinger, the Artist's Wife (1911, 146x114cm)
–- Harem (1917, 65x54cm; 800x660pix, 43kb) _ Van Dongen made at least two trips to North Africa. In 1910 he went to Morocco and in 1913 he visited Egypt where he also painted. Erotic themes have been associated with Van Dongen's oeuvre since his early days when he worked as an illustrator for two Dutch publicatons, Groenz and Rotterdamsche Nieuwesblad, and he portrayed prostitutes and exotic dancers as early as 1895.
After settling permanently in Paris in 1900, Van Dongen, still an unknown painter, survived by selling his drawings to French and Dutch papers. In 1905, after a financially successful exhibition with Ambroise Vollard, Van Dongen befriended Matisse, Vlaminck, Derain, and Marquet. Their group exhibition at the Salon d'Automne created a stir, and for the first time the word fauve was used in conjunction with their painitng. Van Dongen's brilliant hues were incorporated into works that had an exotic theme. Famous dancers of the era became his favorite models, among them Nini des Folies-Bergères and Anita la Bohémienne, who was painted in exotic Middle-Eastern attire in Van Dongen's 1908 Anita en Almée.
After his trip to Egypt in 1913, Van Dongen's interest in Orientalist themes was heightened. Harem is a work in which the artist's pursuit of the exotic is captured. The Villa Saïd on the Bois de Boulogne where he lived between 1916 and 1918 was decorated with paintings similar to Harem. Returning from Egypt, Van Dongen altered his use of vivid colors, moving away from the blazing reds and oranges employed during his fauve period. On the contrary, his palette became more subdued, with softer tones like the pinks and purples we see in the sensually exotic Harem.
C'est le veau
Soon Kibbutz Tag