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ART “4” “2”-DAY  23 January v.10.00
^ Born on 23 January 1578: Bartolomeo Schedoni (or Schidone), Italian painter and draftsman who died on 23 December 1615.
— Schedoni's untimely death (perhaps suicide owing to gambling debts) brought an abrupt end to the career of one of the most attractive painters of the seventeenth century and an eccentric exponent of the Emilian school. He was connected to the Farnese courts in Parma and Modena where he both assimilated and reworked a variety of different influences. Among them we can see both a direct line to Correggio, the finely detailed way of working used by the Carracci cousins, and all of the latest trends from Rome. Ranuccio Farnese sent Schedoni to Rome at the close of the sixteenth century, but he soon returned to Emilia and settled in Parma. It was there that he painted a small but fascinating group of masterpieces in a severe and noble style. At the same time his works were warmed by a light that softened fabrics and added delicacy to expressions. Although the dates and places were different, Schedoni's personal story ran along similar lines to Caravaggio's. His violence and trouble-making got him into endless scrapes with the law, while his passion for tennis was so great that he almost lost the use of his right hand.
— He was the son of Giulio Schedoni, a mask-maker, who served the Este court in Modena and the Farnese in Parma; in 1598 Schedoni and his father are recorded as residing in Parma, both serving the court. In 1595 Ranuccio I, Duke of Parma, sent Bartolomeo to Rome, to be trained in the studio of Federico Zuccaro. Schedoni fell ill shortly after, however, and returned to Parma. His earliest surviving works show no evidence of Roman influence. He is said to have been a student of Annibale Carracci in Bologna, but there are reasons to doubt this. First, this would have been prior to Annibale’s departure for Rome in 1595, a period when Schedoni was still apparently under his father’s care. Secondly, the early pictures indicate that initially his style was formed primarily by studying the work of Correggio in Parma. To a lesser degree he was influenced by the Parmesan culture of Parmigianino, Girolamo Mazzola Bedoli, and Michelangelo Anselmi. As a boy in Parma he was also known to have frequented the studio of the Fleming Giovanni Sons [1548–1611]. His painting was also enriched by his knowledge of the work of Nicolò dell’Abate in Modena, and Dosso Dossi and Scarsellino in Ferrara. Once these initial influences were assimilated, however, Schedoni’s stylistic development was guided primarily by the innovations of the Carracci.
— Schedoni fu nel 1595 a Roma nella bottega di Federico Zuccari, ma la sua cifra espressiva appare influenzata piuttosto dalla cultura bolognese rinnovata dai Carracci. Fra il 1602 e il 1606 lavora per la corte estense di Modena; nel 1607 partecipa con Ercole dell'Abate alla decorazione con tele riportate del soffitto della Sala del Consiglio nel Palazzo Comunale. La sua gamma cromatica, squillante di colori, si rannuvola via via, attraverso un piu' serrato confronto con Ludovico Carracci. In opere come l'Annunciazione di Formigine o la Madonna e Santi, eseguita per la parrocchiale di Fanano, ma subito pretesa per se' da Ranuccio Farnese (1608), il ricupero di Correggio, che resta una delle costanti del percorso di Schedoni, si attua attraverso l'intenso chiaroscuro di Ludovico. Dal 1608 diviene pittore di corte di Ranuccio Farnese a Parma; numerosi dipinti di committenza farnesiana si trovano ora nella Pinacoteca di Capodimonte a Napoli. La sua opera godette di una straordinaria fortuna, al punto da dar luogo a una serie enorme di derivazioni e di copie, che rendono oltremodo difficile la ricomposizione del suo catalogo.

The Charity (1611, 1123x760pix, 107kb) _ This painting is also one of Schedoni's best-known works. The rather generic title is not really sufficient as the canvas appears to be describing a real episode.blind boy Schedoni gave his characters an amazing degree of consistency and peremptoriness. The blind boy staring out at us with empty eyes is one of the strongest images ever produced in the seventeenth century.little boy As always, Schedoni also drew on Correggio's legacy for touches of moving lyricism, such as the little boy on the right. But the real magic of the painting lies yet again in the highly personal way that Schedoni used light, both penetrating and delicate at the same time. His light brings out the colored fabrics while casting long shadows over parts of the faces.
The Deposition (1613, 821x1030pix, 115kb)
The Two Marys at the Tomb (1613, 770x1095pix 98kb) _ These two memorable masterpieces, The Two Marys and The Deposition, give us cause to regret the brevity of Bartolomeo Schedoni's tormented artistic life. They show that he really would have been able to point Baroque painting in an original and intense direction. The way he blocked out gestures, used violent light and dazzling whites, combined with perfect clarity of detail to produce an almost metaphysical effect.
Mary Teaches Reading to the Child Jesus (34x45cm; 366x497pix, 57kb) _ Con affettuosa inclinazione narrativa l'immagine mostra la Vergine intenta ad insegnare a leggere al Bambino. Un'atmosfera di domestica serenità si diffonde nel paesaggio rapidamente abbozzato, dove il cagnolino dorme acciambellato accanto al cestino da lavoro abbandonato.
detail     La dolcezza dell'ispirazione e' propria di Bartolomeo Schedoni, del quale si puo' richiamare a confronto la bella Annnciazione di Formigine analogamente ripensata in chiave di accostante naturalezza. E' evidente come allo Schedoni, al quale si deve l'avvio del moderno corso della pittura modenese, la dimensione affabile del racconto e la scioltezza della conduzione esibite dei modelli carraceschi furono determinanti per liberarsi dagli schemi ormai intellettualizzati e cifrati del tardo manierismo vigente ancora a Modena.
      Se nel dipinto alcuni dettagli rivelano un garbo non comune, talune incertezze dell'esecuzione potrebbero metterne in dubbio l'autografia. Ma i "difetti" del garbatissimo quadretto in realta' sono imputabili alla tecnica molto rapida; il supporto ligneo e' stranamente usato anche in altri casi da Schedoni per fermare una prima idea in vista di dipinti piu' impegnativi e si accompagna a una fattura di getto, quasi corsiva, ma di accattivante immediatezza.
     _ Schedoni painted also a The Holy Family with the Virgin teaching the Child to Read (1615, 34x28cm; 420x320pix, 35kb) where Jesus is much younger, still a baby certainly less than 2 years old. In it the close-knit composition, the golden light, and the natural gestures of the figures create a powerful sense of human intimacy and show the influence of Correggio [Aug 1494 – 05 Mar 1534].
Deposition (1613; 588x750pix, 53kb)
^ Died on 23 January 1810: John Hoppner, English painter born on 04 April 1758.
— He was the most important portrait artist in Britain in the period following the 1789 retirement of his teacher Joshua Reynolds. His parents were Bavarians employed at court in England; during his time as a chorister in the Chapel Royal he was noticed by George III as a ‘Lad of Genius’ for his drawing ability. As a result he was sent to live with the keeper of the King’s drawings and medals and given a royal allowance. This preferential treatment led to later speculation, for which there is no evidence , that he was an illegitimate son of the King; Hoppner, who knew very well the value of publicity, never discouraged the rumors.
— Augustus Wall Callcott was a student of Hoppner.

–- Charles, Fourth Duke of Richmond (77x64cm; 1177x982pix, 77kb _ .ZOOM to 2354x1964pix, 313kb)
–- Mrs. Hunter (71x59cm; 987x941pix, 57kb_ .ZOOM to 1974x1882pix, 199kb) severe crackling, in bad need of restauration.
–- Shakespeare - Cymbeline - Act III, Scene VI (50x63cm; 854x1142pix, 112kb _ .ZOOM to main detail; 1498x1533pix, 183kb) [Cymbeline by Shakespeare [bap. 26 Apr 1564 — 23 Apr 1616] — Act III, Scene VI alone]
Samuel Brandram [1743-1808] (75x62cm)
Lady Caroline Capel holding her Daughter Harriet (126kb)
Jupiter and Io (1785; 110kb)
Captain George Porter (1789; 114kb)
The Bowden Children (1803; 800x623pix, 144kb) _ The boy, about 6, is beginning to draw a portrait of the viewer, at whom the girl, about 5, is also looking.
Richard Brinsley Sheridan (75kb)
^ Born on 23 January 1938: Hans-Georg Kern “Georg Baselitz”
— Georg Baselitz was born Hans-Georg Kern, in Deutschbaselitz, in what was later East Germany. In 1956, Baselitz moved to East Berlin, where he studied painting at the Hochschule für bildende und angewandte Kunst. After being expelled, he studied from 1957 to 1962 at the Hochschule der bildenden Künste, West Berlin. During this period, he adopted the surname Baselitz, taken from the name of his birthplace. In searching for alternatives to Socialist Realism and Art Informel [more], he became interested in anamorphosis and in the art of the mentally ill. With fellow student Eugen Schönebeck, Baselitz staged an exhibition in an abandoned house, accompanied by the Pandämonisches Manifest I, 1. Version, 1961, which was published, together with a second version, as a poster announcing the exhibition. In 1963, Baselitz’s first solo exhibition at Galerie Werner & Katz, Berlin, caused a public scandal; several paintings were confiscated for public indecency.
      In 1965, he spent six months in the Villa Romana, Florence, the first of his yearly visits to Italy. Baselitz moved to Osthofen, near Worms, in 1966, and he began to make woodcuts and started a series of fracture paintings of rural motifs. During this time, he also painted his first pictures in which the subject is upside down, in an effort to overcome the representational, content-driven character of his earlier work. In 1975, Baselitz moved to Derneburg, near Hildesheim, and also traveled for the first time to New York and to Brazil for the São Paulo Bienal. In 1976, a retrospective of his work was organized by the Staatsgalerie Moderner Kunst, Munich. He established a studio in Florence, which he used until 1981. Baselitz was appointed instructor in 1977 and professor the following year at the Staatliche Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Karlsruhe, Germany. In 1980, his reputation established, Baselitz was chosen to represent Germany at the Venice Biennale. During the 1980s and into the 1990s, his work was frequently exhibited at the Michael Werner Galleries, Cologne and New York.
      In 1983, he left the academy in Karlsruhe to assume a professorship at the Hochschule der Künste, Berlin, which he gave up in 1988 but returned to in the early 1990s. The first volume of the catalogue raisonné of his graphic work was published in 1983 by Galerie Jahn, Munich. In 1987, Baselitz established a studio in Imperia, Italy. — In the art of Georg Baselitz the traditional boundaries between the categories of painting, drawing and printmaking are dissolved. Individual groups of works can be distinguished only in terms of the artist’s chosen technique, while all share the commom artistic goal of painterly intensity. In this way - depending on the choice of material - Baselitz creates either drawn pictures (drawings), painted pictures (paintings), printed pictures (prints) or plastic pictures (wooden sculptures). The different media are not only afforded equal value, they also merge into another.
Das grosse Pathos (1965)
Brauna (1975)
Bildelf (1992) _ This painting is one of a series of large-format paintings dating from 1991 onwards. Baselitz numbered the paintings in the series chronologically, and this number also appears in the title (Bildelf = Picture Eleven). In this cycle Baselitz attempts to explore his previous work in retrospect, "revisiting my paintings' past", as he describes it. Baselitz maintains that in the new works one can find "just about all the methods I have used over the years", likewise the motifs and themes. Bildelf has a geometric base of red and white squares arranged alternately in a chessboard-like pattern, upon which lies a figure made of painted black lines, a reference to the "Heldenbilder" (Hero Paintings) of the 1960s. The green bars superimposed on the figure recall the fractures which characterized the paintings of the period. Baselitz painted this work, and the others in the series, on the studio floor. There is a connection here to Jackson Pollock's 'drip' paintings, however, unilke Pollock, Baselitz takes the idea of being 'in the picture' quite literally; time and again one finds his shoeprints on the canvases. For Bildelf Baselitz climbed into a tub of green paint with his shoes on and then 'walked' the four green bars. The figure too was painted not with a brush, but with his fingers. This technique also refers back to Baselitz' earlier works, paintings he made in the 1970s which bore the words Finger Painting in the title.
The Gleaner (August 1978, 330x250cm) _ The dark of night laps at the edges of The Gleaner, a fire burns on the upper left, and a sunlike shape hovers beneath the lone figure. Yet Georg Baselitz’s monumental, somber work was painted during a decade of well-being in Germany, when the generation of the wirtschaftswunder — the economic miracle — was only interrupted in its relentless quest for stable prosperity by the occasional political scandal or terrorist attack. How does this image, so clearly a representation of an existentialist condition, address the complex issues facing postwar German art and society? The key lies in the orientation of the gleaner, searching for sustenance in a barren landscape: the figure is depicted upside down. Baselitz has used this device consistently since 1969–70, his intention being, in part, to subvert the criteria for viewing paintings. To this end, Baselitz inverts, and thus negates, the subjects of his work. He cites but does not pay homage to the mythic protagonists that, as in Wagner’s epic operas, have so often been the focus of German art and culture.
      For Baselitz, the individual is the locus of redemption and the cause for despair. He has painted a great number of his antiheroes in guises ranging from military costumes to stark nudity. Baselitz once termed his technique a nonstyle. The upside-down figure, brutality of gesture, and emotive yet distanced strokes have, however, long since become highly recognizable trademarks. Ironically, Baselitz, who initially sought to replace the congealed Expressionism sweeping Europe with a fresh, aggressive style, and comparably controversial subjects, is now regarded as one of the foremost artists of Germany and has been accorded retrospective exhibitions internationally. His work strongly influenced the generation of painters that came of age during the early 1980s. But unlike the Neo-Expressionists he inspired, Baselitz does not rehash past styles, nor is his milieu truly international. Baselitz’s painting remains a deeply felt and authentic engagement with the spiritual depletion of the postwar period in Germany.
^ Died on 23 January 1760: Giovanni (or Gian) Antonio Guardi, Italian painter born in 1698.
— Gian Antonio Guardi was a member of a family of artists. He was the elder brother of Niccolo Guardi [09 Dec 1715 – 26 May 1785]; and of Francesco Guardi [1712-1793], who is famous for his views of Venice, and is the best-known member of the family. They collaborated on some religious paintings. The only certain work by Gianantonio is the Death of St Joseph (in Berlin): this was thought to have been destroyed in 1945, but reappeared in 1965. Gianantonio was the head of the family studio. Giambattista Tiepolo [05 Mar 169627 Mar 1770] married Cecilia Guardi, sister of the Guardi brothers, and it was possibly through his influence that Gianantonio became a founder member of the Venetian Academy in 1756. The major problem in Guardi studies concern the authorship of paintings representing The Story of Tobit that decorate the organ loft of S. Raffaele in Venice. Critical opinion is sharply divided as to whether these brilliant works, painted with brushwork of breathtaking freedom, are by Francesco or Gianantonio (there is dispute also over the dating), but if they are indeed by Gianantonio, he too must rank as a major figure.

The Marriage of Tobias (1750) _ To the middle years of the eighteenth century belongs one of the most remarkable examples of decorative painting in Venice. The ancient church of the Angelo Raffaele (perhaps founded as early as the seventh century) is now rather out of the way and looks dull in its unfinished form, which dates from the sixteenth or seventeenth century. Inside, above the doorway, is a great Baroque organ loft, its parapet decorated with a cycle of seven brilliantly painted scenes. The scenes are episodes from the story of Tobias, who is guided by Archangel Raphael to catch a miraculous fish that will heal his father's blindness. The painting is by Gianantonio Guardi, one of the important artists 'rediscovered' by the twentieth century. Long almost forgotten, the painter here emerges as one of the most imaginative artists of the eighteenth century. Gianantonio trained his younger brother Francesco Guardi, who collaborated on these decorations. The picture shows the principal scene that occupies the parapet of the organ loft. The centre of the painting is empty, except for a distant landscape. Tobias and his wife, Sarah, are represented on the right in prayer before their nuptial bed.
The Angel Appears to Tobias (1750) _ The hovering angel is derived from a painting by Sebastiano Ricci in San Stae, Venice. Gianantonio Guardi often borrowed poses or motifs from other painters, recasting them in his own vivid manner.
The Departure of Tobias (1750) _ A close examination of the details of this painting reveals the brilliancy of its handling. The artist's rapid brush-work has created three vibrant, flickering figures and bathed the scene in shimmering light. The background and setting are barely suggested by a few indefinite forms.
The Healing of Tobias's Father (1750) _ What further possibilities could be squeezed from the rococo after Tiepolo were developed by the Guardi brothers and by Fragonard. Gian Antonio and Francesco Guardi represent the same phenomenon, probably active in the same studio and possibly in some sort of collaboration, until the death of Gian Antonio in 1760. Out of the art particularly of Pellegrini they produced a more dazzlingly colored, more melting style — but one that had none of Pellegrini's international success, being restricted chiefly to serving a decorative function in obscure churches and villas of the Veneto. In many ways the closest affinities of this style are with Maulbertsch, and it remains more typical of the Tyrol than of Venice. Their compositions are quite often shamelessly borrowed; when not borrowed they are often shamelessly incoherent. In them objects are splintered by light in a sort of proto-impressionism. Perspective, organized aerial space, the Palladian solidity of Tiepolo, these are exchanged for a personal style of colored handwriting - now brilliantly calligraphic, and now brilliantly cloudy, which uses reality as a sparking off point. The most perfect expression of this style remains in the Tobias series for the organ loft of the church of Angelo Raffaele in Venice. In them it is as if the brush had barely touched the surface of the canvas, so rapidly does it move, obeying its own laws, and leaving the whole surface crackling with vitality. Everything shares the same texture, given by the painter. The compositions, framed by trees, set within deliberately decorative fronds and branches, are as capricious as some fan-design by Watteau. Normal reality has been dissolved and replaced by a new luminous atmosphere in which everything exists only in so far as light defines it. Indeed, the lines run like electric wire broken here and there by flashes of fire which give a glowing softness even to wood or metal or stone.
Madonna and Saints (1748) _ Gianantonio Guardi's most important religious painting was also a work of astounding novelty. The scene seems to be accelerating at a vertiginous space. The seed is conveyed above all through the nervous brushstrokes which get continually shorter or are interrupted. The effect is brilliantly successful.
^ Born on 23 January 1832: Édouard Manet, French Realist Impressionist painter and printmaker who died on 30 April 1883.
— Manet made the transition from the realism of Gustave Courbet to Impressionism.
— Born into a prosperous middle-class family, Manet spent a year in the navy before entering the studio of Thomas Couture in 1850, where he stayed until 1856. Couture encouraged strong modeling through light and dark contrasts, and copies Manet made at the Louvre, after Velázquez, Titian, and Rubens among others, nurtured a painterly style of rich color and bold brushwork. Like the realist painters, Manet chose his subjects largely from modern life. His Déjeûner sur l'herbe ( 1863) and Olympia (1863) created scandals both for their unconventional subject matter and their broad handling. A series of paintings on Spanish themes culminated with a trip to Spain in 1865 and firsthand study of works by Velazquez and Goya. At the 1867 Universal Exposition, Manet held a private exhibition, which helped solidify his leadership within the avant-garde. Charles Baudelaire, Theodore Duret, and Émile Zola supported him critically. During the 1870s he worked outdoors like the impressionists, and his work became lighter and more colorful, but he maintained hope for acceptance at the official Salons and never contributed to the impressionist exhibitions. Success came in later years with numerous commissions and portraits. By about 1879, however, he began to feel the effects of a debilitating disease that would eventually cause his death.
—      Édouard Manet was born in Paris into the family of August Manet, an officer in the Ministry of Justice, and his wife Eugénie-Désirée, née Fournier, daughter of a diplomat. His uncle, Edmond-Édouard Fournier, gave the boy his first lessons in drawing. In 1844-1848, Manet studied at the College Rollin, where he met his lifelong friend Antonin Proust. In 1848-1849, he was trained as a sea cadet on a voyage to Brazil, but in April 1849 he failed his naval examinations and decided to switch to painting. He entered the studio of Thomas Couture, where he studied for 6 years, between 1850 and 1856. In 1856, he took a long travel through Europe.
      After traveling in Germany, Austria and Italy to study the Old Masters, Manet finally found the answer to all his questionings and aspirations for light and truth in the paintings of Velasquez and Goya at the Louvre. Influenced by these masters and by the example of Courbet, a French realist painter, he gradually evolved a new technique which presented modern aspects by modern methods.
      In 1861, his The Spanish Singer was accepted at the Salon and won an honorable mention. But his submissions to the Salon of 1863, The Picnic among them, were rejected and appeared at the Salon des Refusés. The large canvas became the focus of scandalized critical and public attention.
      In 28 October 1863, Manet married Suzanne Leenhoff in Holland (See her portrait The Reading, on which Mme Manet is depicted being read to by Léon Koëlla). Manet 's wife was Dutch, two years his senior, and an excellent musician. She had been employed by August Manet to give Édouard and his brother Eugène piano lessons. After a relationship lasting more than ten years, Manet finally married Suzanne after his father's death. Léon Koëlla was Suzanne 's son, born in 1852. His father was almost certainly Manet, but he was presented as Suzanne's younger brother. Manet painted Léon Koëlla several times, the most known canvas with him is Luncheon in the Studio, on which Léon Koëlla is the central figure.
      An even greater scandal than that aroused by The Picnic, was caused by Olympia, shown in 1865. The public was infuriated not only by the style, but also by the subject of the picture. 'A yellow-bellied courtesan ', 'a female gorilla made of india-rubber outlined in black ', 'the Queen of Spades after her bath ', 'a parcel of nude flesh or a bundle of laundry ', and other similar characteristics appeared in newspapers. When words were exhausted some 'enthusiasts ' tried to finish with the picture physically, and it was saved only thanks to being hung high, above the reach of the fanatics.
      Although Manet was frequently in the company of members of the Impressionist group, Berthe Morisot, his sister-in-law since December 1874, Degas, and Monet in particular, and they regarded him as a leader, he had no wish to join their group. He was naturally irritated by the critics ' tendency to confuse him with Monet. Manet 's stylistic discoveries, such as 'there are not lines in Nature ', which led to his abandoning of the conventional outline and his shaping the forms by means of color and subtle gradation of tints, decisively influenced the Impressionists, but their representation of light and optical reactions to color were different. Manet never painted what could be called a truly Impressionist picture.
     In 1869, Manet met Eva Gonzalés, who became his student. During the Franco-Prussian War he joined National Guard; when in May 1871 he finally returned to Paris he found his studio partly wrecked. In 1873, his Le Bon Bock achieved considerable success at the Salon. In 1881, Manet exhibited his portraits of Henri Pertuiset and of Rochefort at the Salon, and obtained second class medal. The same year he was received into the Legion of Honor. In 1882, he exhibited for the last time at the Salon, showing Spring and Bar at the Folies-Bergère. Manet died after a long illness, which had been exhausting him for about 5 years.
— Édouard Manet was born into the ranks of the Parisian bourgeoisie. His Mother, Eugenie-Desirée Fournier, was a woman of refinement and god daughter of Charles Bernadotte, the Crown Prince of Sweden. Édouard's father, Auguste Manet, was a magistrate and judge who hoped that Édouard would someday follow in his footsteps, but Édouard was destined to follow another path.
      Although well educated, Manet did not particularly excel within the academic environment but he showed a propensity toward drawing and the arts. His Uncle Charles Fournier encouraged Manet's appreciation for the arts and often took him and his childhood friend, Antonin Proust, on outings to the Louvre. In 1850 after serving in the merchant marines, Manet entered the studio of Thomas Couture where he studied until 1856. He was influenced by the old masters, particulary Velázquez and Goya, but Manet reasoned that ones art should reflect ideas and ideals of the present rather then the past. So disagreeing with Diderot's theory that great art only reflected the costume of the past, Manet sought instead to follow the advice of depict a contemporary realism, to be "le peintre de la vie moderne."
     It's worthwhile to note that it was during this time that Paris launched its massive revitalization and modernization of the city under the supervision of Baron Haussmann. Up until 1852, the city had retained its medieval infrastructure which was now becoming most inadequate due to the growing urban population. Haussmann's revitalization efforts not only affected the physical environment of Paris but the cultural and social atmosphere as well. Thousands of jobs were created as streets were widened and lengthened, store fronts redesigned, buildings torn down and redeveloped all in an effort to make Paris the most beautiful and culturally progressive city in the world. It was this modernity with which Manet chose to concern himself.
     Manet began his career with The Absinthe Drinker (1858), a painting depicting a debauched and solitary man amongst the shadows of the back streets of Paris. Paintings like the Absinthe Drinker, and the Old Musician (1862), portray a darker aspect of Parisian life which was quite removed from Manet's circle, but nonetheless very real. La Musique aux Tuileries (1862) peopled with Manet's friends and family celebrates fashionable society. His loose handling of paint and lack of subject separated this painting from the highly finished canvasses approved of by the academy, and accepted by the Salon. In addition, the painting's ambience anticipates the "snapshot" quality taken up so well by Degas, and developed further by the Impressionists.
     Spanish Guitar Player, also painted in 1862, reflected the Parisian love of "all things Spanish" and was one of Manet's first works to be accepted by the Salon. Manet put great emphasis on Salon acceptance. In fact, he believed that success as an artist could only be obtained through recognition at the Salon. Ironically, however, it was not Spanish Guitar Player which brought him his much sought after recognition but the rejected Déjeûner sur l'herbe (1863). The Salon jury of 1863 had been exceptionally brutal and thousands of paintings had been refused. To counter these refusals, the Salon des Refusés was established and it was here that Déjeûner sur l'herbe was exhibited. Although influenced by Raphael and Giorgione, Déjeûner did not bring Manet laurels and accolades. It brought criticism. Critics found Déjeûner to be anti-academic and politically suspect and the ensuing fire storm surrounding this painting has made Le Déjeûner sur l'herbe a benchmark in academic discussions of modern art. The nude in Manet's painting was no nymph, or mythological being...she was a modern Parisian women cast into a contemporary setting with two clothed men. Many found this to be quite vulgar and begged the question "Who's for lunch?" The critics also had much to say about Manet's technical abilities. His harsh frontal lighting and elimination of mid tones rocked ideas of traditional academic training. And yet, it is also important to understand that not everyone criticized Manet, for it was also Déjeûner which set the stage for the advent of Impressionism.
     Olympia, also painted in 1863, caused a similar uproar and the controversy surrounding these two paintings truly dismayed Manet. It was not at all his intention to create a scandal. Manet was not a radical artist, such as Courbet; nor was he a bohemian, as the critics had thought. Recently married to Suzanne Leenhoff, the well mannered and well bred Manet was an immaculately groomed member of high society. As Henri Fantin-Latour's Portrait of Manet suggests — this man was the quintessential Parisian flaneur. But Manet's unique technical innovations intrigued the likes of Pierre Renoir and Claude Monet and set free the traditional and conservative reigns of academic painting.
      Political events between the years 1867-1871 were turbulent ones for Paris, and the Franco-Prussian war left Paris besieged and defeated. Manet turned his eye to these events in his works entitled Execution of Maximilian, Civil War and The Barricade. In 1870, Manet sent his family south to protect them from the fighting in Paris and signed on as a gunner in the National Guard. There is much primary documentation in the form of letters to family and friends which expresses Manet's horror and dismay at the war and these paintings stand as testaments to Manet's sentiments. The Execution of Maximilian (1868) reaches out to Goya's Third of May but despite its masterly influence the painting was banned from being exhibited in Paris due to the "Frenchness" of the executioners costume. And yet along with his expressions of political disillusionment, Manet also continued producing works such as The Balcony (1868), Portrait of Émile Zola (1868), and The Railroad (1872).
     By 1874 Manet's reputation as experimental artist and leader of the Impressionists was firmly established. The Café Guerbois, near Manet's studio became the gathering spot for Monet, Renoir, Sisley, Degas and Pissaro and although Manet presided over the regular meeting and debates held at the café, he was not enthusiastic about his role as leader of the avant-garde. In 1874, when the Impressionists held their first exhibition at Nadar's studio, Manet refused to participate. He chose instead to remain focused on the Salon. He never exhibited in any of the eight Impressionist exhibitions and yet by no means did Manet abandon the Impressionists. He worked closely with Monet in Argenteuil during 1874 and often gave financial support to his friends who needed it. It was during this time that Manet came closest to painting in the Impressionist style. Paintings such as The Monet Family in Their Garden at Argenteuil (1874), The Banks of the Seine at Argenteuil (1874), and Monet's Boat Studio (1874) approach the notions of reflected light and atmosphere of Impressionism but Manet never becomes assimilated into the true Impressionist style.
     In his last great masterpiece, Bar at the Folies-Bergère (1882), Manet returns again to studio painting, a somber palette and eliminated mid tones. The café concert is a theme which Manet had been treating in the late 70's in paintings such as Corner in a Café Concert and The Café. But here at Bar at the Folies-Bergères, we are no longer spectators, but participants in the painting. While the Barmaid occupies the center of the piece, the painting is filled with a menagerie of characters from seated couples to trapeze artists. Glittering chandeliers and electric lights fill the upper portion of the work. Here, as in Déjeûner sur l'herbe, optical contradictions abound.
     Throughout his oeuvre Manet painted modern day life, yet many of his paintings are so much more than simple mimetic depictions. If Manet's work seems to be full of contradictions, or to employ a lack of perspective from time to time, then perhaps that was the true reality of Paris in Manet's time. Always controversial, Manet sought to record the days of his life using his own unique vision. From beggars, to prostitutes, to the bourgeoisie he sought to be true to himself and to reproduce “not great art, but sincere art.” He died in Paris.
Self-portrait with palette (1879; 600x488pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1139pix)
Execution of Maximilian of Austria by Mexican Rebels (1868, 252x305cm)
–- Head of Christ (1865, 47x39cm; 1045x851pix, 70kb) in pain from crown of thorns and whip marks on shoulder.
L'enfant aux cerises (1859; 600x496pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1157pix)
–- Chez la Modiste (1881; 85x74cm; 1088x948pix, 108kb _ .ZOOM to xpix, 954kb)
La corrida (1865; 600x720pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1680pix)
Jeune homme épluchant une poire (Léon Leenhoff) (1869; 600x492pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1147pix)
–- Bateaux de Pêche sur la Plage, Saint-Pierre-en-Porte, Normandie (1873, 48x64cm; 744x1017pix, 61kb _ .ZOOM not recommended to fuzzy 1116x1526pix, 144kb)
Le Déjeûner sur L'Herbe (1863, 214x269cm; 600x754pix, 193kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1760pix)
Stéphane Mallarmé (1876; 600x800pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1867pix)_ French poet Mallarmé [18 Mar 1832 – 09 Sep 1898] was an originator, with Paul Verlaine [30 Mar 1844 – 08 Jan 1896], and a leader of the Symbolist movement in poetry.
Emmanuel Chabrier (1880; 1121x705pix, 153kb) much paint flecked off, badly in need of restauration _ Chabrier [18 Jan 1841 – 13 Sep 1894] was a French composer whose best works reflect the verve and wit of the Paris scene of the 1880s and who was a musical counterpart of the early Impressionist painters.
Émile Zola (1868; 600x460pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1073pix, 527kb) _ Zola [02 Apr 1840 – 28 Sep 1902] was the most prominent French novelist of the late 19th century. As a critic he was noted for his theories of naturalism, which underlie his monumental 20-novel series Les Rougon-Macquart. As a political activist he is remembered for his intervention in the Dreyfus Affair through his famous open letter J'accuse. This portrait of Zola is essentially a Japanese work, achieved with the aid of exotic props, and more signficantly, by its pictorial organization. The shallow space, silhouetted figure, and strong decorative elements of repeated flat shapes and rectangles parallel to the painting's edge. It is also a statement of Manet's eclecticism: Japan and Spain appear together, represented by the Sumo Wrestler (Ohnaruto Nadaemon, from Awa Province) by Kuniaki II Utagawa, above and the Little Cavaliers by pseudo-Velázquez, framed above the desk, and joined by the Olympia of Manet, itself a hybrid of old and new. The open book is Manet's copy of Blanc's Histoire des Peintures, a valuable source of older art for Manet.
Olympia (1863, 131x190cm)
Les petits cavaliers (1859, 46x76cm; 335x691pix, 103kb) copy after a painting attributed to Velázquez at that time.
— Here is at least one Manet painting which is — there is no other word for it — a lemon.
Henri Rochefort (1881; 600x460pix) _ Victor-Henri Rochefort [31 Jan 1830 – 30 June 1913] was a French polemical journalist under the Second Empire and the Third Republic, an extremist of the left and later of the right.
Un bar aux Folies-Bergères (1882; 600x808pix)
–- L'église du Petit Montrouge (1870, 62x50cm) _ Painted in the open air at the very end of December, this picture shows Manet’s immediate impression of a bleak, midwinter scene. The bold brushstrokes suggest that he worked at great speed (it would have been cold!), and his muted palette of browns, beige, grey and white convey the dull daylight of midwinter. The painting was made during the Franco-Prussian war (July 1870 - May 1871), when Manet, a member of the French National Guard, was stationed in Montrouge on the outskirts of Paris.
Corner of a Café-Concert (1880) _ Corner of a Café-Concert _ This work was originally the right half of a painting of the Brasserie de Reichshoffen, begun in about 1878 and cut in two by Manet before he completed it. This half was then enlarged on the right and a new background was added. The Brasserie de Reichshoffen was in the Boulevard Rochechouart, Paris. At the time, brasseries with waitresses were fairly new in the city.
At the Café (1880) _ This is the left half of the painting of which the right half is Corner of a Café-Concert.
–- Corner of a Café-Concert and At the Café rejoined (even if they don't quite match any more).
–- Singer at a Café-Concert. (1879)
–- At the Café-Concert (1879, 47x39cm) _ Toward the end of his career, Manet, a pioneering realist, undertook several paintings depicting scenes in the interior of the Brasserie de Reichshoffen in Paris. The most developed of these, At the Café Concert, shows an older gentleman and a young woman seated at the counter in a crowed café. An image of the singer is reflected in the mirror on the back wall. Because of these figures' dispassionate expressions and their self-absorption, At the Café Concert has been interpreted as an indictment of the isolation of the individual in modern society.
The Barque of Dante (after Delacroix) (1854, 38x46cm; 600x740pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1727pix)
–- Le Fumeur (1866, 100x81cm)
168 images at the Athenaeum
click for LE FUMEUR

Died on a 23 January:

2006 William L. “Bill” Rice [1931–], US artist, actor, director and scholar. Rice studied painting at Middlebury College in Vermont, his home state, in the late 1940's, and moved in 1953 to New York, which became his home for the rest of his life. Although Rice always identified himself as a painter, in the 1960's and 70's he also worked in sculpture and photography and became active in experimental theater and films. He came to acting almost accidentally in the 1970's. "On a dare, I auditioned for a play," he said, "I got drunk, got the part and I've been working ever since."
      In the theater and in film, Rice worked with Jim Jarmusch, Robert Frank, Allen Frame, Gary Goldberg, Taylor Mead, Jack Smith, Charles Allcroft, and Jim Neu. He collaborated with the writers Gary Indiana, Rene Ricard and David Wojnarowicz. In 1978, he made a notable screen debut in G-Man, a film by Scott and Beth B, as Max Karl, an FBI agent with an affinity for transvestism. Other films followed, the last one in 2005. In the 1980's, Rice briefly opened a gallery in his apartment, and gave shows for artists like Robert Gober and Barbara Ess.
      He began to exhibit his own paintings regularly in the 1980's. Originally an abstract artist, he later developed an expressionistic figurative style. His pictures often depicted multiethnic street life. He once described his images as "what most other people saw out of the corner of their eye."
      For several years, Rice worked with the Swiss-born scholar Ulla E. Dydo on books about Gertrude Stein, A Stein Reader (1993) and Gertrude Stein: The Language That Rises, 1923-1934 (2003). Earlier, he assisted Edward Burns on a volume of Stein's correspondence.
      Rice also did extensive independent research on Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907; 650x623pix, 161kb) of Picasso [25 Oct 1881 – 08 Apr 1973], leaving some 2000 unedited pages of typescript on the subject. Rice was described as "the last Bohemian," chronically but contentedly short of money, interested only in happenstantial fame, rarely traveling more than a few blocks from his home. —(060201)

1989 Salvador Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domenech, Spanish painter born (full coverage) on 11 May 1904. —(060122)

1986 Joseph Beuys, German artist born (full coverage) on 12 May 1921. —(070122)

1947 Pierre Bonnard, French painter born (full coverage) on 03 October 1867. —(070122)

1944 Edvard Munch, Norwegian painter born (full coverage) on 12 December 1863.

^ 1933 Apollinary Mikhailovich Vasnetsov [06 Aug 1856–], . Russian painter and graphic artist, brother of Viktor Mikhailovich Vasnetsov [15 May 1848 – 23 Jul 1926]. Apollinary Vasnetsov specialized in scenes from the medieval history of Moscow. He did not receive a formal artistic education. He studied under his brother Viktor. From 1883, he and his brother lived and worked in Abramtsevo where he fell under the influence of Vasily Polenov. In 1898–1899, he traveled across Europe. In addition to epic landscapes of Russian nature, Apollinary Vasnetsov created his own genre of historical landscape reconstruction on the basis of historical and archaeological data. His paintings present a visual picture of medieval Moscow.
The Kremlin (1396x1845pix, 1105kb) —(071220)

1924 James Wilson Morrice, Canadian painter born (full coverage) on 10 August 1865.

1889 Alexandre Cabanel, French painter born (full coverage) on 28 September 1823. —(050926)

1883 Gustave Doré, French painter born (full coverage) on 06 January 1824.

Born on a 23 January:

^ >1922 Leon Albert Golub, US painter who died on 08 August 2004. In 1942 he received a BA in art history from the University of Chicago and enlisted in the US Army. After World War II he studied at the Art Institute of Chicago (BFA 1949; MFA 1950). The Holocaust and atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were early themes in his work, for instance the lithograph Charnel House (1946), which was based on newspaper photographs of Holocaust victims. He and other Chicago artists, including Cosmo Campoli [1922~], George Cohen [1919~] and Nancy Spero, were named the ‘Monster Roster’ by the art critic Franz Schulze [1927~]. In 1951 Golub and Spero were married.
     During the 1950s Golub received considerable attention through exhibiting in New York, Chicago, London and in Paris, where he lived from 1959 to 1964. In his paintings of this period he depicted man as the victim of his own civilization, incorporating imagery from Assyrian, Hittite and Aztec art. His series entitled Birth, In-self, Sphinx (e.g. Siamese Sphinx I, 1954) and Burnt Man (e.g. Burnt Man IV, 1961) were mythic metaphors for survival. Their message is intensified by tortured paint surfaces, a characteristic technique of scraping down, eroding and reworking that Golub had developed by 1956. Impressed by Etruscan and Roman sculpture while in Italy (1956-1957), Golub took examples from late Classical art to express the tragic reduction of man's godlike qualities to anguish and vulnerability as he attempts to control the irrational by means of the rational (e.g. Orestes, 1956). The battling gods and giants of the Hellenistic Altar of Zeus from Pergamon served as a source for the classical nudes of Golub's large-scale Gigantomachies series of 1965–8 (e.g. Gigantomachy I, 1965).
      In his Vietnam series (1972-1974) Golub confronted the immoral destructiveness of contemporary violence (e.g. Vietnam II, 1973). This shift from an ideal concept to a precise exposition required him to specify weapons, uniform and napalm through references to news photography, which give a mordant, contemporary edge to the pathology of power. From 1970 Golub no longer used stretchers for his canvases but hung them directly from nails in the wall, sometimes cutting away portions of the paintings. This heightened immediacy continued in a series of some hundred portraits (1976-1979) of world leaders such as Brezhnev, Franco, Pinochet and Kissinger.
      The series Mercenaries (begun 1975) and Interrogations (begun 1981) define even more precisely and rationally, within a contemporary context, the flagrant abuse of political power that preserves itself through violence (e.g. Mercenaries V, 1984). Golub's aggressive images are charged with immediacy and brutality. The monsters are real; not metaphors but mercenaries, thugs and henchmen from the underbelly of power. A Pompeian red field pushes the twice life-size figures forward to the painting's surface and into the viewer's space. In Interrogation II (1981) four torturers prepare to work over a naked male lashed to a chair, head in a black sack, and exposed to their sadistic skills. Based on sado-masochistic pornography, these images attract voyeuristic curiosity. The evil-doers look out from the painting with shocking intimacy, making the observer privy to their dirty secrets. Viewer participation is increased in such works as Prisoners (1985), where we are placed within the victim's horrifying space. Golub's work stresses political conscience and has an unswerving commitment to the expression of man's existential relationship to the world.
–- Pinochet Saluting II (1977, 43x58cm; 572x796pix, 73kb) _ Augusto Pinochet Ugarte [25 Nov 1915 – 10 Dec 2006] was the leader of the military junta that overthrew the socialist government of President Salvador Allende of Chile on 11 Sep 1973, and until 11 March 1990 he was the dictator of Chile, responsible for many murders, disappearances and other crimes against humanity, and he remained commander of the armed forces until 1998..
Vietnam II (1973, 304x1219cm) almost monochrome _ This belongs to a series of three massive paintings that Golub made in protest against the Vietnam War. He had opposed the war since the 1960s but avoided representing it directly in his work, preferring to explore the themes of masculinity and power in a more universal manner. He changed his mind after the 1972 presidential election, in which the anti-war Senator George McGovern was heavily defeated by Richard Nixon. Golub used news photographs and his own experience as a veteran of the Second World War in order to build an allegory of the disconnection generated by conflict. Vietnam II sets US soldiers and their armored car across a telling central gulf from Vietnamese civilian victims. The contrast between ruthless organisation and panicked disintegration find an echo in the apparently fragmentary nature of the work itself. —(070122)

1846 Lucio Rossi, Italian artist who died on 29 October 1913.

>1829 Anton Seitz [–27 Nov 1900], German painter who died on 27 November 1900. — {Is it true that a picture by Seitz sates?)
— —(100122)

1810 John Rogers Herbert, English painter who died (full coverage) on 17 March 1890. —(070122)

^ 1767 Jeanne-Elisabeth Gabiou Chaudet Husson, French painter who died on 18 April 1832. She got married in 1793 to her teacher, the sculptor, painter, draftsman, and designer Antoine-Denis Chaudet [03 Mar 1763 – 19 Apr 1810] and in 1812 to Pierre-Arsène-Denis Husson. She exhibited in the Salon between 1798 and 1817. From the beginning she enjoyed the approval of the public and the critics. The Little Girl Trying to Teach her Dog to Read (1799) made her famous. The Empress Josephine bought Young Girl Feeding Chicks (1802) for the gallery at Malmaison. Chaudet increasingly produced genre scenes incorporating young girls, children and pets, such as Child Sleeping in a Cradle Watched by a Good Dog (1801) and Young Girl Crying over her Dead Pigeon (1808). She used muted colors, for which she was reproached by the critics, a mannered style of drawing and an extremely glacial finish. The figures are often seen in profile, like antique bas-reliefs, and have a marmoreal quality, particularly in Young Girl Feeding Chicks, perhaps influenced by her husband’s work as a sculptor. She is best known as a genre painter but also produced a large number of portraits, such as the full-length portrait of a Young Child in a Lancer’s Costume (1808). Chaudet obtained a Prix d’Encouragement at the Salon of 1812 for the Little Girl Eating Cherries, but after 1812 her popularity declined..

^ 1622 Abraham Arend Diepraam, Dutch painter who died in July 1670. — LINKS
Barroom (1665; 108kb)

1606 Giacinto Gimignani, Italian painter who died (main coverage) on 09 December 1681. —(091010)

1600 Alexandre Keerinck (or Kierings, Carings), Flemish artist who died in 1652.

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