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ART “4” “2”-DAY  22 January v.9.00
^ Died on 22 January 1942: Walter Richard Sickert, British Post-Impressionist Camden Town Group painter, printmaker, teacher, and writer, born German on 31 May 1860. He studied under James McNeill Whistler.
— Sickert was one of the most influential British artists of the 20th century. He is often called a painter's painter, appealing primarily to artists working in the figurative tradition; there are few British figurative painters of the 20th century whose development can be adequately discussed without reference to Sickert's subject-matter or innovative techniques. He had a direct influence on the Camden Town Group and the Euston Road School, while his effect on Frank Auerbach, Howard Hodgkin and Francis Bacon was less tangible. Sickert's active career as an artist lasted for nearly 60 years. His output was vast. He may be judged equally as the last of the Victorian painters and as a major precursor of significant international developments in later 20th-century art, especially in his photo-based paintings.
— Novelist tries to prove that Walter Sickert was really Sickert Hant Hought... make that “sicker than thought”: that he was “Jack the Ripper”, the 1888 murderer of 5 prostitutes.

Brighton Pierrots
Les Vénitiennes (1904, 46x57cm)
St Mark's, Venice (Pax Tibi Marce Evangelista Meus) (1896, 91x120cm) _ Sickert first visited Venice in 1895. He painted St Mark's basilica several times under different conditions, possibly inspired by Monet's paintings of Rouen Cathedral, which he had seen in Paris. However, unlike Monet, he was not concerned with fleeting effects of light. Instead, he concentrated on the structure and mosaics, using the light to accentuate the sparkling gold pinnacles and to emphasise the spirituality of the basilica. This is Sickert's largest and most elaborate depiction of the front elevation. The title includes the Latin motto of the city.
^ Born on 22 January 1690: Nicolas Lancret, Parisian genre painter, draftsman, and collector, who died on 14 September 1743. — {Son style, Lancret l'ancrait dans l'imitation de Watteau. Y-a-t-il des dessins de Lancret en craie? Et s'il faisait une gravure, Lancret l'encrait?}
      His brilliant depictions of fêtes galantes, or scenes of courtly amusements taking place in Arcadian settings, reflected the society of his time.
      — He was, with Pater, the principal imitator of Watteau. After failing as a history painter he was influenced by Gillot's theatrical scenes as Watteau had been, and he spent the rest of his life painting fêtes galantes.
      — Lancret came from a family of Parisian artisans. After an apprenticeship with the history painter Pierre Dulin, and a term at the Royal Academy's school, he entered in 1712 the studio of Claude Gillot. Gillot, then director of scene designs and costumes for the Opera, probably introduced him to Jean-Antoine Watteau, with whom he developed a close stylistic affinity. In 1719 he was elected to membership in the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture as a painter of fêtes galantes, a category created two years earlier for Watteau. Lancret participated in the Exposition de la Jeunesse from 1722 to 1725, and exhibited regularly at the official Salons from 1737. He received a number of royal commissions (e.g., decorations for the Chateau de la Muette, the Louvre, and Versailles) and enjoyed the patronage of many prominent amateurs, including Frederick II of Prussia. Lancret gradually evolved an individual style, more decorative but less poetic and symbolic than Watteau's. Although he produced portraits and history paintings, his work is devoted primarily to aristocratic genre scenes- outdoor gatherings with themes of the dance, music, the hunt, and elegant repasts. Lancret's charming works are a perfect reflection of the spirit and customs of eighteenth-century French society.
— Lancret was one of the most prolific and imaginative genre painters of the first half of the 18th century in France, and, although after his death he was long regarded as a follower and imitator of Antoine Watteau, his work is markedly personal and often innovative. He began training as an engraver but soon apprenticed himself to Pierre Dulin [1669–1748], a moderately successful history painter; by 1708 he had enrolled as a student at the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, Paris.
      At an unknown date Lancret entered the workshop of the genre and decorative painter Claude Gillot, who had been Watteau’s master. He then turned away from the history painting pursued by his friend François Lemoyne. Lancret’s move to Gillot is thought to have resulted from the increasing popularity of Watteau’s genre scenes of elegant figures in garden settings. Although Lancret never studied formally under Watteau — whom he probably met around 1712 — Lancret was strongly influenced by his work, particularly in his early paintings. In 1719 Lancret was received (reçu) into the Académie Royale as a painter of fêtes galantes, a category that had been created two years earlier especially for Watteau. Lancret’s morceau de réception, Conversation galante, depicts a garden scene peopled by figures dressed in commedia dell’arte costume.
— Jean-Baptiste Descamps was a student of Lancret.

–- Breakfast Before the Hunt (1740, 61x133cm; 538x1202pix, 77kb _ .ZOOM to 1076x2405pix, 214kb _ .ZOOM+)
–- End of the Hunt (1740, 60x135cm; 536x1191pix, 64kb _ .ZOOM to 1072x2382pix, 249kb)
–- The Music Party (1740, 61x129cm; 538x1139pix, 53kb _ .ZOOM _ .ZOOM+)
–- Baigneuses (1740, 61x130cm; 556x1112pix, 65kb _ .ZOOM to 1112x2223pix, 259kb _ .ZOOM+)
The Bird Cage (44x48cm; 916x1000pix, 180kb) _ Watteau's originality could be copied but not kept alive once Watteau himself was dead. He created a vogue, and this perhaps damaged his own art in the eyes of the next generation. Without Watteau the fête galante was soon to dwindle to triviality, but his example gave further impetus to the uncoordinated desire for freedom. The difficult balance between decoration and genre was to be held best in France by Nicolas Lancret, immensely successful during his lifetime, but who has perhaps suffered too much in reputation for his proximity to Watteau. Frederick the Great felt none of this, and collected both painters in quantity. Lancret did not attempt any psychological insight, but his eternal charm and his keen eye for contemporary manners led to pictures which occasionally are minor masterpieces.
Mademoiselle de Camargo Dancing (1730, 42x55cm; 790x1046pix, 189kb) _ One of the most celebrated dancers of her day, she was twenty when Lancret painted this portrait of her in character; it was immediately engraved.
Company in the Park (65x70cm; 980x1010pix, 192kb)
Fête dans un Bois (1725, 64x91cm; 770x1117pix, 176kb)
Luncheon Party (1735; 973x790pix, 74kb) _ The composition reflects Lancret's dependence on Watteau, under whom he had briefly studied about 1717. Watteau's profound poetic feeling becomes in Lancret no more than a picturesque and amiable evocation of the life of society.
Lady and Gentleman with two Girls and a Servant (1742, 89x98cm; 850x931pix, 118kb)
The Seat of Justice in the Parliament of Paris in 1723 (1724, 56x82cm; 718x1059pix, 136kb)
Winter (1738, 69x89cm; 800x1034pix, 131kb)
Summer (1738; 156kb)
The Swing (639x800pix, 36kb)
Le Moulinet (701x545pix, 51kb)
A Scene from Corneille's Tragedy Le Comte d'Essex (1734; 172kb)
The Marriage Contract (1738; 145kb)
Le Jeu du Cheval Fondu (1735; 600x940pix)
^ Died on 22 January 1649: Alessandro Turchi “l'Orbetto” “Veronese”, Italian painter born in 1578 in Verona.
— He gained his nickname l'Orbetto from guiding his father who took to begging after becoming blind ('orbo' in Italian). Alessandro Turchi first studied in Verona in the studio of Felice Brusasorci [1539 – Feb 1605] in which he is known to have been in 1597. After his master’s death Turchi completed Brusasorci’s Fall of the Manna and other commissions for local churches. In 1606 Turchi was appointed to decorate the organ shutters of the Accademia Filharmonica, one of the Verona's most prestigious institutions, and soon became a member of this cultural élite as successor to Brusasorzi. During these early years he may have visited Mantua and Venice, with his fellow student Marcantonio Bassetti.
      His early Veronese paintings, such as the Adoration by the Shepherds (1608), are ambitious, with many figures and elaborate backgrounds, echoing the local tradition of which Paolo Veronese was the most distinguished exponent. Moving to Rome about 1614 or 1615, Turchi was paid for work in the Sala Regia of the Palazzo del Quirinale in 1616–1617, where he collaborated with a team of artists, among them Giovanni Lanfranco and Carlo Saraceni. His part was to paint an oval medallion with the Gathering of the Manna in a style that suggests Lanfranco’s influence.
      Turchi soon found patrons for altarpieces and cabinet paintings, among them Cardinal Scipione Borghese who paid him for frescoes in the Casino del Barco at the Villa Pinciana (now destroyed) and acquired some works on slate the following year. By 1619 he had settled permanently in Rome. As a member of the Accademia di San Luca from 1618, Turchi took an active interest in the running of the institution; this culminated in his election as 'principe' in 1637 and his affiliation to the Virtuosi del Pantheon a year later.
     As well as painting altarpieces for Roman churches, Turchi's work also attracted collectors in France. His polished mythological and religious subjects were collected by art lovers. He continued to receive commissions for altarpieces for churches in Verona throughout his career but, if he returned, it was only for brief visits.

The Lamentation (28x23cm; full size, 1010kb). _ a different The Lamentation over the Dead Christ (1617, 42x53cm; 803x1030pix, 109kb) _ Although often included among the ranks of the followers of Caravaggio in Rome, a grouping which the nocturnal effects of The Lamentation make plausible, Turchi was quite independent in his choice of sources and influences. Painted only a few years after Turchi left his native Verona and settled in Rome, these two versions (now respectively at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts and at the Galleria Borghese) reveal a surprisingly strong classicizing tendency, despite the use of artificial illumination (a torch held by a winged adolescent) and dramatic contrasts of light and shade. Part of the Caravaggesque quality here, however, is a product of two very specific elements, the use of slate as a support and the artificial illumination. Since the natural color of the slate normally serves to produce extreme contrasts of light and shade, Turchi may have included an artificial light source to take advantage of those tendencies inherent in the support.
      If we put aside the strong use of an internal light source, which could have been inspired by any number of Roman or even northern Italian sources, there is no other apparent influence from such Caravaggesque painters as Gerrit van Honthorst, who specialized in nocturnal effects. Nevertheless, Turchi can hardly have failed to notice the attention the young Utrecht painter van Honthorst was attracting in Rome with his brilliant nocturnal effects at this very moment. Furthermore, as a northern Italian, he was certainly familiar with the various nocturnal scenes popularized by the Bassano family. When it came to the rendering of the figures, however, it is to the famous Pietà (1600, 156x149cm; 1040x1003pix, 128kb) by Annibale Carracci that Turchi turned. In 1617 this famous painting, made for Cardinal Odoardo Farnese, was still in the Palazzo Farnese in Rome. From this important and unusually lovely canvas by Annibale, Turchi borrowed the idealized pose and classical rendering of the body of his dead Christ. This strongly classicizing quality probably accounts for the later attribution of the picture to Annibale himself in the 1700 inventory of the Borghese collection.
Bacchus and Ariadne (115x148cm, 770x1035, 130kb) _ one of several versions (this one now at the Hermitage)
^ Born on 22 January 1879: “Francis” François Marie Martínez Picabia, French Dadaist-Surrealist painter who died on on 30 November 1953.
— “Francis Picabia” was born François Marie Martinez Picabia, in Paris, of a Spanish father and a French mother. He was enrolled at the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs in Paris from 1895 to 1897 and later studied with Fernand Cormon, Ferdinand Humbert, and Albert Charles Wallet. He began to paint in an Impressionist manner in the winter of 1902–03 and started to exhibit works in this style at the Salon d’Automne and the Salon des Indépendants of 1903. His first solo show was held at the Galerie Haussmann, Paris, in 1905. From 1908, elements of Fauvism and Neo-Impressionism as well as Cubism and other forms of abstraction appeared in his painting, and by 1912 he had evolved a personal amalgam of Cubism and Fauvism. Picabia worked in an abstract mode from this period until the early 1920s.
      Picabia became a friend of Guillaume Apollinaire and Marcel Duchamp and associated with the Puteaux group in 1911 and 1912. He participated in the 1913 Armory Show, visiting New York on this occasion and frequenting avant-garde circles. Alfred Stieglitz gave him a solo exhibition at his gallery “291” that same year. In 1915, which marked the beginning of Picabia’s machinist or mechanomorphic period, he and Duchamp, among others, instigated and participated in Dada manifestations in New York. Picabia lived in Barcelona in 1916 and 1917. In 1917, he published his first volume of poetry and the first issues of 391, his magazine modeled after Stieglitz’s periodical 291. For the next few years, Picabia remained involved with the Dadaists in Zurich and Paris, creating scandals at the Salon d’Automne, but finally denounced Dada in 1921 for no longer being “new.” The following year, he moved to Tremblay-sur-Mauldre outside Paris, and returned to figurative art. In 1924, he attacked André Breton and the Surrealists in 391.
      Picabia moved to Mougins in 1925. During the 1930s, he became a close friend of Gertrude Stein. By the end of World War II, Picabia returned to Paris. He resumed painting in an abstract style and writing poetry. In March 1949, a retrospective of his work was held at the Galerie René Drouin in Paris. Picabia died in Paris.
—       Picabia was born into a family of mixed parentage, French mother and Spanish father. He studied at the École des Beaux-Arts and at the École des Arts décoratifs of Paris. Up to 1908 he painted landscapes in the manner of Corot and the Impressionists, especially Sisley (Landscape/Paysage, Riverbank / Rivière, Bank at Poissy / Bords de l'eau à Poissy.)
      Then, influenced by Matisse's Fauvism on one hand, and by Cubism of Braque and Picasso on the other, he tried to combine both movements and created bright-colored Cubists pictures unlike the somber monotone paintings of Cubism founders. (Young Girl/Jeune fille, Star Dancer on a Transatlantic Cruise / Danseuse étoile sur un transatlantique)
      In 1910 Pucabia met the Duchamps brothers, Marcel Duchamp, Raymond Duchamp-Villon and Jacques Villon, and Guillaume Apollinaire. The friendship with Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968), a pioneer in the use of ready-made art, and G. Apollinaire, an Avant-garde poet and critic, significantly influenced Picabia's following works. In 1913, Picabia went to the United States for the first time and showed his abstract paintings at the international exhibition "Armory Show." The pictures had success and brought him fame.
      During his second stay in NY in 1915, together with Marcel Duchamp and painters of US Avant-garde, they formed the NY society of Dadaists. The group published the periodical 291, to which Picabia contributed. On January 25th, 1917, Picabia published the first number of his periodical, which he called 391 to remind of the American group's 291. In 391 he published his first "Mechanical Drawings". Leaving away the geometrical abstractions, Picabia started a series of compositions, in which colored copies of technical drawings suddenly obtained shapes of human figures (Ici, C'est Ici Stieglitz. 1915; Young American Girl in a State of Nudity, 1915; Parade Amoureuse, 1917). These "mechanomorphs" full of humor, teasing Dadaist sarcasm, demonstrate the paradox of visual perception, which could find a mimesis image in an abstract technical drawing. In the same year he went to the USA once more and there published further numbers of his periodical, assisted by Marcel Duchamp. In Europe 391 was published until 1924.
      In 1918 Picabia moved to Switzerland, where he joined the Zurich group of Dadaists and published a book entitled Poèmes et dessins de la fille née sans mère.  He took active part in the activities of the group and went on with his "mechanomorphs" (L'enfant Carburateur, 1919). He contributed to "Dada" issues. In 1920 he published a periodical, Cannibale, and in 1921, together with Breton and others, he dissociated himself from "orthodox" Dadaists and switched his allegiance to Surrealism. In the beginning of the 1920s Picabia was interested in 'constructing' collages, for which he used all kind of materials (Feathers. 1921; Straw Hat. 1921, Woman with Matches. (1923-24)
      In 1927 Picabia's period of so-called 'transparencies' started. The artist was looking for alternative methods to depict three-dimensional space without traditional rules of perspective. He developed this approach in his works, in which flat images of different scales overlay and interlace to show an object from a variety of viewpoints. When an eye accommodates to intersections of different planes and foreshortening, an illusion of three-dimensional space really appears, as in Hera. (1929) and  Adam et Ève (1931).
      In 1934, the transparent images were forced out by heavy brutal shapes of pseudo classicism. Exaggerating the manner of the self-taught Primitivists and Kitch stylistic, Picabia parodied the "high" genres of allegory, portraiture and Mythological scenes (Spanish Revolution, 1936; Self-Portrait, (1940,  Nudes on a Sea Beach, 1941).
      During the World War II (1939-1945) Picabia lived in Switzerland and in the south of France. After the end of war he returned to Paris, where he came into contact with the Existensialists. In his late works abstractions alternate with the grotesque.
      Picabia also worked for the theater, designed decorations for festivals and Gala-shows. He left literary works – poems and verses, art critics, articles on theory of art.
      Picabia's art is appreciated by those who like irony, play of words, combination of different styles and modes.

LINKS (The titles of many of his paintings have no recognizable relation to their content)
Self-Portrait (1940, 58x48cm)
Self-Portrait (1946, 21x16cm)
Self-Portrait (1923 drawing, 25x21cm)
Self-Portrait (1903 drawing, 25x20cm)
Portrait de Cézanne - Portrait de Rembrandt - Portrait de Renoir - Nature Morte (1920, momie d'un singe?)
I See Again in Memory My Dear Udnie (1913, an abstraction that doesn't resemble anything)
Ici C'est Ici Stieglitz (1915)
Amorous Parade (1917, une espèce d'alembic biscornu?)
La Fille Née Sans Mère (1917, portion d'une machine à vapeur?) _ Compare, by the pseudonymous Frank Dropabias, a whole series of interrelated abstractions, accessible by clicks of the mouse from any of them, such as the asymmetrical
      _ La Fille-Mère Sans Nez (2009; 928x1312pix, 490kb) or the symmetrical
      _ La Finesse en Mer (2009; 928x1312pix, 492kb)
La ville de New York aperçue à travers le corps (1913, 55x75cm)
Lever de soleil (1924, 31x24cm)
Vierge à l'enfant (1935, 160x130cm)
Très rare tableau sur la terre (1915, 126x98cm including artist’s painted frame) _ In 1915 Picabia abandoned his exploration of abstract form and color to adopt a new machinist idiom that he used until about 1923. Unlike Robert Delaunay or Fernand Léger, who saw the machine as an emblem of a new age, he was attracted to machine shapes for their intrinsic visual and functional qualities. He often used mechanomorphic images humorously as substitutes for human beings; for example, in Ici C'est Ici Stieglitz (1915), the photographer Alfred Stieglitz is portrayed as a camera. In Very Rare Picture on the Earth a self-generating, almost symmetrical machine is presented frontally, clearly silhouetted against a flat, impassive background. Like Picabia’s own Amorous Parade (1917) or Marcel Duchamp’s The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even (1923), the present work might be read as the evocation of a sexual event in mechanical terms. This dispassionate view of sex is consonant with the antisentimental attitudes that were to characterize Dada. The work has also been interpreted as representing an alchemical processor, in part because of the coating of the two upper cylinders with gold and silver leaf respectively. Not only is Très rare tableau sur la terre one of Picabia’s earliest mechanomorphic works, but it has been identified as his first collage. Its mounted wooden forms and integral frame draw attention to the work as object — the picture is not really a picture, making it “very rare” indeed. Thus, an ironic note is added to the humorous pomposity of the inscription at upper left.
The Child Carburetor (1919, 126x101cm) _ Picabia abandoned his successful career as a painter of coloristic, amorphous abstraction to devote himself, for a time, to the international Dada [more] movement. A self-styled “congenial anarchist,” Picabia, along with his colleague Marcel Duchamp, brought Dada to the New York art world in 1915, the same year he began making his enigmatic machinist portraits, such as The Child Carburetor, which had an immediate and lasting effect on American art. The Child Carburetor is based on an engineer’s diagram of a “Racing Claudel” carburetor, but the descriptive labels that identify its various mechanical elements establish a correspondence between machines and human bodies; the composition suggests two sets of male and female genitals. Considered within the context created by Duchamp’s contemporaneous work The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even (1923), The Child Carburetor, with its “bride” that is a kind of “motor” operated by “love gasoline,” also becomes a love machine. Its forms and inscriptions abound in sexual analogies, but because the mechanical elements are nonoperative or “impotent,” the sexual act is not consummated. Whether the implication can be drawn that procreation is an incidental consequence of sexual pleasure, or simply that this “child” machine has not yet sufficiently matured to its full potential, remains unclear. Picabia stressed the psychological possibilities of machines as metaphors for human sexuality, but he refused to explicate them. Beneath the humor of his witty pictograms and comic references to copulating anthropomorphic machines lies the suggestion of a critique—always formulated in a punning fashion—directed against the infallibility of science and the certainty of technological progress. The Child Carburetor and Picabia’s other quirky, though beautifully painted, little machines (which he continued to make until 1922) are indeed fallible. If they are amusingly naive as science fictions or erotic machines, they are also entirely earnest in placing man at the center of Picabia’s universe, albeit a mechanical one.

^ Died on 22 January 1919: Carl Olof Larsson, Swedish painter, illustrator, and printmaker, born on 28 May 1853.
— He came from a poor family and studied (1866–1876) at the Konstakademi in Stockholm, supporting himself throughout this period. Axel Tallberg was one of his teachers. From 1871 to 1878 he contributed illustrations to the comic journal Kaspar and the Ny illustrerad tidning. From 1875, for several decades, he was a prolific book illustrator, his most renowned work in this field being his drawings for Fältskärns berättelser (‘The Barber-surgeon’s tales’; 1883–1884) by Zacharius Topelius, and the Rococo-inspired watercolors for the Samlade skaldeförsök (‘Collected attempts at poetry’; 1884) by the 18th-century Swedish author Anna Maria Lenngren. It was only later, however, that Larsson produced most of his own prints.
— Larsson was born in 'Gamla stan', the old town in Stockholm. His parents were extremely poor and his childhood sad and miserable. When he was thirteen his teacher at the school for poor children urged him to seek admission to the 'principskola' of the Stockholm Academy of Fine Arts where he got accepted. During his first years at the 'principskola' he felt socially inferior, confused and shy. In 1869 he was promoted to the 'antique school' of the same academy. There Carl Larsson became more sure of him self and he even became a central figure in student life.
     After several years as an illustrator of books, magazines and newspapers Larsson spent several rather frustrating years in Paris as a hardworking artist without any success. The turning point in Larsson´s life came in 1882 when in Grez, a Scandinavian artists' colony outside Paris, he met Karin Bergöö [1859-1928], who would soon be his wife. One could almost call it a metamorphosis in Carl Larsson´s life. In Grez, Larsson painted some of his most important works — now in water-colors. Carl and Karin Larsson reared eight children and Karin and the children became Larsson´s favorite model. In 1888 the young family was given a little house, named "Lilla Hyttnäs" in Sundborn, by Karin´s father Adolf Bergöö. Through Larsson´s paintings and his books this house has become one of the most famous homes in the world. The descendants of Carl and Karin Larsson now own this house and they are happy to be able to keep the house open for tourists each summer from May until October.
     Larsson considered his monumental works, for instance the frescos in schools, museums and other public buildings, to be his most important works. His last monumental work Midvinterblot (1915), intended for the Nationalmuseum in Stockholm was rejected by its board. In Larsson's memoirs Jag he declared his bitterness at this rebuff of the painting which he considered his best: "The fate of Midwinter Sacrifice broke me! This I admit with a dark anger. And still, it was probably the best thing that could happen, for now my intuition tells me — again — that for all its weakness, this painting will be honored with a far better place after my death." After being sold to Japan, Midwinter Sacrifice was brought back to the Nationalmuseum for the Carl Larsson exhibition in 1992. In 1997 the National museum bought it.
— Gustaf Fjaestad and Carl Wilhelmson were students of Larsson.

Självporträtt (1895; 1122x763pix, 149kb) _ full length, at the easel.
Framför spegeln (1900; 704x266pix, 21kb _ .ZOOM to 1694x698pix, 69kb)
The Still Life Painter (1886)
–- Midvinterblot (1915, 640x1360cm; 506x1132pix, 93kb) _ .detail (440x460pix, 29kb) _ This prodigious painting, which Carl Larsson intended for the east wall in the upper hall of the Nationalmuseum in Stockholm, was rejected by the museum's board of directors in 1916. After many years of discussion and debate, and with the publication of numerous books and articles within the Swedish artworld, the painting, with the help of very generous private donors, was finally bought from Japan by the National Museum in 1997. The story of how the painting arrived in Japan is a long one, but worth mentioning is the fact that the painting had previously been offered to the National Museum for free and was again rejected. According to Carl Larsson, Midwinter Sacrifice is his most important painting. It is a magnificent, resonant work of art that exemplifies the 30 years Carl Larsson spent decorating the hall of the National Museum in Stockholm. The painting depicts King Domalde in front of the temple in Uppsala, about to sacrifice himself in the belief that this will bring greater future harvests and general well-being to his people. The story is attributed to Adam of Bremen, a chronicler who lived in the 12th century.
October aka The Pumpkins (73x54cm, Oct.1882, 1125x824pix) _ This watercolor was painted in Grez, a small country village just south of Paris, where Carl Larsson went in May 1882, after several bad years in Paris of sickness and starvation. In Grez Carl Larsson discovered simple open-air motifs and watercolors. It was here Carl Larsson also found his happiness in the Swedish artist Karin Bergöö, who became his wife the following year. October is one of two watercolors — the other is November — with which he made a braketrough in 1883 at an exhibition in Paris, where he was awarded a medal. Pontus Fürstenberg of Gothenburg bought both of them for 2000 francs.
November (1882; 1122x827pix)
My Loved Ones (1893)
An Interior with a Woman Reading (1885)
A Late Riser's Miserable Breakfast (1897; 747x512pix, 199kb)
A Fairy, or Kersti, and a View of a Meadow (1899, 45x32cm)
Lisbeth at the Birch (1910, 100x70cm)
Esbjorn Doing His Homework (1912, 74x68cm)
A Young Girl with a Doll (1897)
My Loved Ones (1893, 45x33cm; 1126x806pix, 178kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1000pix, 605kb) background looks unfinished. _ They include a woman, four children, a dog, eight ducks, a house, and some indistinct trees.
Alma (1887)
A Lady Reading a Newspaper (1886)
An Interior with a Woman Reading (1885)
The Old Man and the New Trees (1883)
Brita Vid Pianot (1908)
Brita och jag (1895)
Spegelbild med Brita i knäet (1895)
A Fairy, or Kersti, and a View of a Meadow (1899, 45x32cm)
Karin i Grez, Hostmotiv
Roses de Noël (50x35cm)
Solrosorna (46x26cm)
Konvalescens (1899)
Erik Axel Karlfeldt (1918)
Children Playing Out-of-doors (600x910pix, 202kb _ ZOOM to 1400x2086pix, 623kb)
Children Playing Indoors (600x896pix, 166kb _ ZOOM to 1400x2092pix, 567kb)
The Artist's Wife and baby (600x449pix, 93kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1075pix, 298kb)
47 portraits at Project Runeberg
Died on a 22 January:

^ 2003 William Henry “Bill” Mauldin [photo >], of pneumonia while suffering from Alzheimer's disease. Born on 29 October 1921, he was the US cartoonist who created the WW II characters Willie and Joe, grimy, irrepressible infantrymen who triumphed over the German army and their own rear-echelon officers. Those cartoons were collected in the book Up Front (1945). Then he went on for more than 50 years to caricature bigots, superpatriots, doctrinaire liberals and conservatives, and pompous people of all kinds. He won the Pulitzer prize in for his war caricatures and again in 1958 for his Pasternak picture I won the Nobel Prize for Literature. What was your crime?MORE \ — Author of autobiography The Brass Ring: A Sort of Memoir (1971)

^ 1905 (21 Jan?) Robert Brough, Scottish painter born on 20 March 1872. He studied in the early 1890s at Aberdeen School of Art, at the Royal Scottish Academy of Art and in Paris under Benjamin Constant. He returned in 1894 to Aberdeen, where he produced numerous portraits before moving to London in 1897, the year in which he exhibited Fantaisie en folie. Thereafter he exhibited with the Royal Society of Arts and with the Royal Academy from 1901. In 1900 he won the Silver Medal at the Exposition Universelle in Paris, and in 1904 he was elected an Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy.
Fantaisie en Folie (1897, 102x126cm)

^ 1900 William Louis Sonntag, US Hudson River School painter specialized in Landscapes, born on 02 March 1822. Born the son of a merchant in a suburb of Pittsburgh, he moved to Cincinnati at an early age. Despite his father’s opposition, he began a career as an itinerant landscape painter in the mid-1840s, selling paintings and sketches throughout the Ohio Valley. An exhibition of his work, held in a store, won him a commission in 1846 from the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad to paint a series of views along its route. In 1855 Sonntag went to Italy to study in Florence for a year, a journey that resulted in Classic Italian Landscape with Temple of Venus (1860). He lived permanently in New York after 1860, and by 1862 he was a full academician at the National Academy of Design there. — LINKS
Frontier Cabin (1894, 25x39cm)
27 images at the Athenaeum —(060108)

1737 Jean-Baptiste Vanmour, Flemish artist born on 09 January 1671.

^ 1557 Giulio Raibolini Francia, born in 1487, Bolognese painter and goldsmith trained by his father Francesco “Francia” [1450 – 05 Jan 1517]. At his father’s death, Giulio and his brother Giacomo Francia [1486 – 03 Jan 1557], assumed responsibility for the family business and together painted many altarpieces, identifiable by the initials (I I) of their latinized names Iacobus and Iulius, such as the Saints Jerome, Margaret, and Francis (1518) and The Nativity (1519). In these paintings, there appear, in addition to the influence of their father, echoes of the monumental style of Raphael.

Born on a 22 January:

1891 Moïse Kisling, Jewish Polish French artist who died on 29 April 1953. — {That's Kisling NOT Quisling, not even Kissling} — He studied at the School of Fine Arts in Krakow, where his teachers included Jozef Pankiewicz, a fervent admirer of Auguste Renoir and the French Impressionists, who encouraged him to go to Paris. He arrived there in 1910, frequented Montmartre and Montparnasse, and soon became acquainted with Amedeo Modigliani, Georges Braque, Pablo Picasso, Max Jacob, André Salmon and Chaïm Soutine. For a short time he lived in the Bateau-Lavoir in Montmartre and in 1911–1912 spent nearly a year at Céret. In 1913 he took a studio in Montparnasse, where he lived for the next 27 years; Jules Pascin and later Modigliani lived in the same building. On the outbreak of World War I he volunteered for service in the French Foreign Legion, and in 1915 he was seriously wounded in the Battle of the Somme, for which he was awarded French nationality. — Nikola Martinoski was a student of Kisling.

1889 Willi Baumeister, German painter who died (full coverage) on 31 August 1955. —(070121)

1863 Joseph Bail, French artist who died on 26 November 1921. In a series of compositions — often purchased by middle-class collectors — he perpetuated the involvement of his father Jean-Antoine Bail [08 Apr 1830 – 20 Oct 1919] with Chardin through studies of cooks playing cards, smoking, preparing a meal, or cleaning utensils. Such paintings as The Housewife (1897) also demonstrates his familiarity with the works of Théodule Ribot, and Bail’s works achieved a comparable popularity with the public and critics. His career continued to flourish during the Third Republic and culminated in the award of a gold medal at the Exposition Universelle of 1900. His absorption of past styles and his dedication to Realism also won him a medal of honor at the Salon of 1902. This award demonstrated the Salon’s commitment to Realism at a time when the tradition was being challenged by a reinvigorated modernist movement that viewed the earlier style as conservative and outmoded.

1856 Walter Gay, US painter and collector, active in France, who died on 13 July 1937. Gay lived all his adult life in and around Paris. He sailed for France in 1876, after a successful exhibition and sale of his still-life paintings at the Williams and Everett Gallery, Boston, which provided funds for his study abroad. Soon after arriving in Paris, Gay entered the atelier of Léon Bonnat, where he remained for about three years. At Bonnat’s suggestion, Gay made a trip to Spain in 1879 to study the work of Velázquez. These influences combined to form a style of painterly realism that emphasized fluid brushwork and a high-keyed tonal palette. Gay made his professional début in France in the Salon of 1879 with The Fencing Lesson, an 18th-century costume piece in the manner of Mariano Fortuny y Marsal. The painting received favourable attention from French and American critics, encouraging Gay to continue this subject-matter for several years. During the late 1880s his summer trips to Brittany and Barbizon inspired a series of paintings of French peasants. One of the most successful of these, The Blessing, was shown at the Salon of 1889 and purchased by the French government.

^ 1849 Johan August Strindberg, Stockholm Swedish painter, sculptor, and playwright, who died on 14 May 1912. He had no art training, but learnt from artist friends after abandoning his studies at the University of Uppsala in 1872. The chief influence on him was Per Ekström, whose broken color-spot technique he attempted to copy during his initial painting period in 1872–1874 in Stockholm and on the skerry-islands Kymmendö and Sandhamn. Very little of Strindberg’s early painting survives, but he had already found his special motifs: the sea, usually with turbulent waves; solitary trees or flowers on bare cliffs or sandy beaches in the outermost fringe of the skerries. After he stopped painting in 1874 he became Sweden’s leading art critic, as well as the ideological leader of the radical Swedish artists’ movement, which in 1884 formed the Konstnärsförbund (Artists’ Association) in protest against the Academy of Art. Prominent among the members were the painters Carl Olof Larsson, Karl Nordström and Richard Bergh. During this period, however, he produced sketches in words and pictures as illustrations to his own writings, which Carl Larsson was commissioned to do thereafter. From 1883 he stayed abroad, primarily in France and Switzerland, and belonged during a couple of long periods to the Scandinavian artists’ colony in Grez-sur-Loing, near Fontainebleau in France. In 1886 in Switzerland he started photography and took a series of self-portraits that were intended for publication. After the failure of his first marriage and a couple of years spent in Denmark, he returned in 1889 to Stockholm, where in addition to his writing he began in 1890 to experiment with drawing and sculpture, for example The Weeping Boy (1891 plaster, 20cm high). — Instituteur, Strindberg devint journaliste puis auteur dramatique. Parmi ses oeuvres puissantes mais pessimistes quand à l'avenir de la société occidentale, citons Mademoiselle Julie, Le libre penseur, La chambre rouge. Il a introduit en Suède le naturalisme.

^ 1822 Karoly Markó II, Hungarian painter who died in 1891. He studied in the landscape painting department of the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna (1836) and from 1838 under his father Károly Markó I [25 Sep 1791 – 19 Nov 1860], who was in Italy since 1832 and would spent most of the rest of his life there. In 1843 Karoly Marko II visited Rome and Florence, and in 1845 he took part in the exhibitions of the Società Promotrice di Belle Arti in Florence. From 1851 to 1854 he lived in Vienna, showing his paintings in the exhibitions of the Österreichische Kunstverein (e.g. Carrara Landscape, 1852). His work was also exhibited in Milan, Genoa, and Livorno, and he sent some paintings to be shown in the Budapest Artists Circle and in the Hungarian National Fine Arts Association exhibitions. He became an honorary member of the academies in Florence, Genoa, Perugia, and Urbino. His landscapes were painted in his father’s style (e.g. Sunset, 1861), although they were freer, stronger, less detached and used colder colors. In some of them he used forest motifs (e.g. Wooded Landscape, 1861). He painted a number of scenes of Rome and Carrara as well as Dante’s Meeting with Virgil (1865). In 1885, at the invitation of a Russian princess to whose daughter he had given drawing lessons in Florence, he settled in Moscow. After his death there, 34 of his paintings and sketches, including Landscape in the Rain and Hill Road with Houses, were returned to Hungary. Karoly Marko II was the brother of András Markó [29 Sep 1824 – 12 July 1895] and of Ferenc Markó [1832 – 03 Aug 1874].

^ 1782 Franz Xaver (or Franciszek Xawery) Lampi, Austrian Polish painter who died on 22 July 1852, brother of Johann Baptist Lampi II [04 Mar 1775 – 17 Feb 1837]. He was taught by his father Johann Bapttist Lampi I [31 Dec 1751 – 11 Feb 1830] and at various Viennese workshops. He then went to Germany and Italy and, after a short stay in Vienna, to Hungary. From about 1815 he settled in Warsaw, where he exhibited his work and taught, and became a naturalized Pole. He soon won recognition in Warsaw and became one of the most fashionable contemporary portrait painters. His portraits of young women were particularly popular; always beautiful and graceful, his subjects are wrapped in muslin shawls and portrayed in opulent interiors or carefully designed landscapes. His portraits of male subjects combined good likenesses with an emphasis on the sitter’s dignified bearing. Together his portraits form a gallery of Warsaw society. In addition to portraits, altarpieces, and mythological works, Lampi painted fantastic, sentimental mountain landscapes and seascapes based on the Baroque and Romantic paintings of Salvator Rosa and Claude-Joseph Vernet. He worked swiftly and prolifically, which sometimes led him to repeat himself. However, he possessed superb technique, and his paintings are always highly polished.

^ 1762 Jean-Baptiste Joseph Wicar (or Vicart), French Neoclassical painter who died on 27 February 1834. A native of Lille, Wicar studied in Paris under David. By 1800 Wicar had settled in Rome. — LINKS
La Reine Julie Bonaparte et ses Filles (1809, 235x177cm; 600x457pix, 134kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1066pix, 431kb _ ZOOM++ to 2659x2024pix, 909kb) _ compare La Reine d'Espagne Marie-Julie Bonaparte et ses Deux Filles Charlotte et Zénaïde Bonaparte (1809, 200x144cm; 778x556pix, 32kb) by Gérard [04 May 1770 – 11 Jan 1837], and Charlotte et Zénaide Bonaparte by David [30 Aug 1748 – 29 Dec 1825]. _ Joseph Bonaparte [07 Jan 1768 – 28 Jul 1844] was made King of Naples-and-Sicily (1806-1808) and then King of Spain (1808-1813) by his brother of Napoléon [15 Aug 1769 – 05 May 1821]. On 01 August 1794 he married Marie-Julie Clary [26 Dec 1771 – 07 Apr 1845], sister of Desirée Clary [08 Nov 1777 – 17 Dec 1860] (see Désirée Clary; 1810, oval 525x432pix, 14kb; by Gérard), who in 1799 married Napoléon's marshal Jean-Baptiste-Jules Bernadotte [26 Jan 1763 – 08 Mar 1844] who on 05 February 1818 became king Karl Johan XIV of Sweden and Norway. Joseph Bonaparte served Napoléon on diplomatic missions and was a humane sovereign in southern Italy, but faced continuous rebellion as a nominated ruler in Spain, where his army was decisively defeated by Wellington [01 May 1769 – 14 Sep 1852] at Vitoria (21 June 1813). After Waterloo (18 Jun 1815), Joseph Bonaparte spent many years in exile in New Jersey, while his family remained in Europe, he settled in Florence, Italy for the last years of his life. Zénaïde Laetitia Julie Bonaparte [08 Jul 1801 – 08 Aug 1854] married on 29 June 1822 her cousin Charles Lucien Bonaparte [24 May 1803 – 29 Jul 1857], son of Lucien Bonaparte [21 May 1775 – 29 Jun 1840], a brother of Napoléon. Charlotte Bonaparte [1802-1839] married in 1825 her cousin Napoléon-Louis Bonaparte [1804-1831], son of Louis Bonaparte [02 Sep 1778 – 25 Jul 1846], another brother of Napoléon.
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