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ART “4” “2”-DAY  19 January v.7.00
^ Died on 19 January 1881: Eugène-Joseph Verboeckhoven, Belgian painter and printmaker born on 08 (18?) Jun 1798, son of the sculptor Barthélemy Verboeckhoven [1759–1840], and brother and teacher (together with his father) of the marine painter Louis-Charles Verboeckhoven [05 Feb 1802 – 25 Sep 1889], to many of whose paintings he added figures and animals.
— Eugène began drawing as a young child. His initial desire to become a sculptor led him to produce a few models (e.g. Lion and Tiger). In 1815 his family moved to Ghent, where he attended the Academie from 1816 to 1818, supported by the sculptor Albert Voituron [1787–1847] and later by a Ghent patron, Ferdinand Van der Haegen. From 1818 he was a student of Balthasar-Paul Ommeganck [26 Dec 1755 – 18 Jan 1826], from whom he imbibed the classical landscape tradition that informed the best of his own work, such as Landscape with Cattle and a Cowherd by a Tree (1824). Other works from this period, for example the Halting Place (1826), heralded a new realism in Verboeckhoven’s work. He abandoned the human figure in order to produce prosaic but popular pictures of sheep, cattle, and donkeys; these animals take on human characteristics in his work and are reminiscent of bourgeois portraits of the time.
— Alfred Verwée was a student of Verboeckhoven.

A gathering in the pasture (1847, 62x84cm)
Guarding the Lamb (1837, 61x56.8cm)
Sheep With Chickens and a Goat in a Barn (1877, 80x100cm)
Sheep and a Chicken in a Landscape (1873, 59x86cm)
Horses and Sheep by the Coast (1869, 87x135cm)
On the Lookout (1869, 97x78cm)
Guarding the Flock by the Coast (1867, 71x110cm)
Animals Grazing Near the Sea (1866, 38x56cm)
Sheep in a Meadow (1865, 12.5x18.5cm)
A Panoramic Summer Landscape With Cattle Grazing in a Meadow by a Windmill (1864, 29x45cm)
Sheep in the Meadow (1864, 30x40cm)
Sheep With Resting Lambs and Poultry in a Landscape (1864, 72x92cm)
Sheep Returning From Pasture (1856, 60x77cm) 11/9/2005cm)
In the Stable (1846, 49x67cm)
A Farmer at Rest With His Stock (1844, 36x29cm)
A Cow, a Sheep and a Donkey (1839, 27x25cm)
Crossing the Marsh (1839, 60x78cm)
A Farmer Tending his Animals (40x54cm)
A Horse, Sheep and a Goat in a Landscape (68x89cm)
A White Stallion in a Landscape (33x41cm)
Sheep Grazing by the Coast (70x99cm)
The Country Road (32x46cm)
Landscape with a Herd (1865, 54x69cm)
Still Life with a Hare (1844, 97x80cm; 575x462pix)
Troupeau de moutons surpris par l'orage (1839, 207x270cm; 283x373pix, 37kb) _ The first painting of Verboeckhoven on this theme was Troupeau effrayé par l'orage (1833), of which he painted two more versions: one in 1838 (161x227cm) which is at the Leipzig Museum, and this one, which had great success, due to the romantic and dramatic evocation of nature, the perfect technique, and the precise details.
^ Born on 19 January 1819: William Powell Frith, English genre painter who died on 02 November 1909.
— Frith was born in Yorkshire, where his father a self-made man had become a prosperous innkeeper in Harrogate. He had two brothers and a sister. It would seem that Frith senior was ambitious for his talented son, not surprisingly, given his own early life in domestic service. Contrary to comment made elsewhere, Frith's father was an affectionate parent, who had a good relationship with his son. In March 1835 Young Frith, accompanied by his father, and carrying a large portfolio of his drawings boarded the stagecoach to London. It is fascinating to record that the scheduled time for this journey was twenty four hours, just before the dawn of the railway age. Once established in London the young painter attended Sass's Academy, where he was rigorously trained in the basic techniques of panting. He later attended the Royal Academy Schools.
      Frith's early paintings were mainly historical genre. He became part of a group of slightly younger artists who called themselves 'The Clique.' Fellow members of this group were Augustus Egg [1816-1863], H. N. O'Neil, John Phillip [1817-1867], and Richard Dadd [1817-1886], the painter who became insane, killed his own father, and continued to paint in the asylum.
      Frith worked diligently, and success came early. He became ARA in 1845, and a full Academician in 1852. In 1851 the painter visited Ramsgate, the result of this being the first of his famous large scale crowd scenes Ramsgate Sands, which after over three years work was exhibited at the RA in 1854, and bought by Queen Victoria. Frith was a successful artist overnight. He received a large sum for the painting, but failed to keep all the rights to income from it, such as the sale of engravings. This was an error that the commercially astute painter did not repeat. Frith continued in this vein with Derby Day, 1858, The Railway Station, 1862, and Private View at the RA, of 1883. These pictures form a valuable record of life in Victorian England, and must have been the result of a stupendous amount of work. Frith seems to have been drawn towards crowds in his private as well as his artistic life. He lived in Bayswater, with his wife Isabelle, with whom he had twelve children. Not content with this, the fruitful Frith established another family only a mile away with Mary Alford, with whom he ultimately had seven more children. For a considerable time Isabelle Frith was in blissful ignorance of her husband's extramural activities. Her suspicions became aroused, however, when she saw her husband posting a letter near their home, when he was supposed to be on holiday in Brighton. Following the death of Isabelle in 1880, Frith married his mistress. Frith was a popular, genial figure, with a reputation for helping younger artists.
      In 1863, Frith was informed by Sir Charles Eastlake, President of the Royal Academy, that the Queen wished him to paint a picture of the forthcoming wedding ceremony of her son the Prince of Wales and Princess Alexandra of Denmark. Frith duly painted the picture for a fee of three thousand pounds, and it involved more than a year's concentrated work. He had felt compelled to undertake this commission and actually charged the Queen less than he would have charged another patron. Logistically the execution of the picture was a nightmare, as members of the Royal Family had problems attending their sittings due to their heavy commitments. Many of the other aristocratic sitters had the same problems in attending, caused in large part by their arrogance and stupidity. Frith was quite capable of repaying their arrogance with like behavior, by the simple expedient of telling them that he would have to inform the Queen of their failure to attend. This he did in a very straightforward manner! The date of the Royal Wedding was 10 March 1863, the occasion being marked with much enthusiasm and popular rejoicing. Frith, not surprisingly, used photographs as an aid in painting these large canvases.
      Following the Private View at the Royal Academy, in 1883 the artist's output, and, the quality of his work started to decline. Frith then started to concentrate on writing his reminiscences at considerable length-and very good they are too. He also wrote the biography of John Leech (1817-1864 humorous artistic contributor to Punch.)
— William Powell Frith was the son of domestic servants. He was born in Alfield, a village near Ripon, in 1819. The family moved to Harrowgate when he was 7 years old.
     His father encouraged William's artistic talents, he began his art training at Saint Margaret's School, Dover. Frith began attending Henry Sass Academy in London during 1835. A contemporary student there was Edward Lear. Frith then won a place at the Royal Academy Schools in 1837.
     While a student Frith earned money by painting portraits. In 1845 he was appointed an associate of the Royal Academy and was made a full member in 1853. Frith exhibited the first of this three great modern-life subjects, Life at the Seaside: Ramsgate Sands in 1854. This was followed by Derby Day (1858) and The Railway Station (1862). These paintings proved very popular and Frith sold a large number of engravings of these works. Soon after the Railway Station he received a commission to paint the group scene of the Prince of Wales wedding. In 1875 Frith's painting Before Dinner in Boswell's Lodgings (1868) was sold for £4567. At the time, it was the highest salesroom price paid for the work of a living artist. He was critical of trends in modern art. He decried the Pre-Raphaelites and other schools inspired by the Impressionists. He authored articles against them in the Magazine of Art.
     Frith was a noted genre painter, important in that he produced pictures that encapsulated contemporary Victorian life. His early work was mainly scenes from the classics, from more modern literature and history paintings. He never stopped painting these scenes. He found his niche, however, with Ramsgate Sands (Life at the Seaside) (1851), the first of many panoramas of Victorian life. The two most famous were Derby Day (1858) and The Railway Station (1862), the latter showing a scene in Paddington Station. He painted these on large canvases with crowds of people and paid close attention details. While many painters had attempted the classics, his contemporary scenes were innovative and attracted considerable attention. They are today wonderful historical documents.
      Frith's fame led to a commission from the royal family to paint a group portrait of the Prince of Wales' 1863 wedding to Danish Princess Alexandra. While prestigious, the commission proved to be among the most difficult for the acclaimed artist -- thanks largely to the youngest member of the wedding party -- the Prince if Wales' German nephew Wilhelm (the future Kaiser Wilhelm II). His mother Victoria had returned to Windsor 8 months after the wedding so she and Wilhelm could sit for the portrait. Wilhelm had acquired himself with some familial notoriety by flinging his 5-year old Aunt Beatrice's muff out a carriage window and then during the ceremony tossing the dirk in the kneesocks of his highlands kilt costume across the floor of Saint Georges chapel during the ceremony. Willy as he was called within the family apparently was little changed upon his return. Willy was fascinated to watch the painting take shape, but was also struck by the artist's whiskers. "Mr. Fiff, you are a nice man, but your whiskers ..." His Aunt Helena immediately put her hand over his mouth. Willy struggled free and repeated himself even more loudly. She stopped him again, but could not keep from giggling herself. She led him away and gave him a lecture on courtesy.
      Frith could hardly order the "royal imp out" he came upon the idea of allowing Willy to paint his own daubs on a small part of the vast canvas. This work for a while until his nurse came in and found his face streaked with paint. He had been wiping the brushes on his face. The nurse cried out in horror. Frith assured her that he could clean Willy up with a little turpentine. Unfortunately Willy had a scratch on his face and he started screaming. He struck the artist as hard as he could with his little fist. He then sought refuge under a table and howled until exhausted. Afterwards he proved a very uncooperative sitter and Frith failed to achieve more than a vague likeness.
      Frith's work was severely criticized by the art establishment and considered "vulgar". The artist was accused of being more interested in subject than in painting, "devoted to telling stories on canvas ....eminent among men who paint for those who like pictures without liking art". Of course it was just this approach that made him popular with the contemporary public and the reason his work attracts so much attention today. His works do indeed tell stories. Frith continued to paint crowd scenes but in his later years his work was considered old-fashioned.
— The parents of Frith were domestic servants before taking a hotel in Harrogate in 1826. They encouraged him to become an artist, despite his own desire to be an auctioneer. While at school in Dover, Frith sketched caricatures and copies of Dutch genre scenes that betray his disposition to narratives. His taste did not accord with the academic training he received at Henry Sass's Academy in London (1835–1837) and at the Royal Academy Schools (1837). Frith began his career as a portrait painter, using members of his family as models. He first exhibited at the British Institution in 1838, and during the 1840s he established himself with his entertaining historical and literary subjects in the popular tradition of C. R. Leslie, William Mulready and Sir David Wilkie. He was a member of the Clique, which included Richard Dadd, Augustus Egg, Henry O'Neil and John Phillip. His friendship with Charles Dickens began with commissions for paintings of Dolly Varden and Kate Nickleby in 1842.
      Frith's first exhibit at the Royal Academy of 1840, Malvolio before the Countess Olivia, was followed by other subjects from Scott, Sterne, Goldsmith, Shakespeare, Dickens, and Molière. A scene from Goldsmith, The Village Pastor (Aug 1956), clinched Frith's election as ARA in 1845. Some of his more ambitious works in this group, such as English Merrymaking a Hundred Years Ago (1847) and Coming of Age in the Olden Time (1849), show his detailed study of historic costume, furniture and architecture. In 1852 he was elected RA. His mediocre diploma picture, a self-portrait in his studio, known as the The Sleeping Model (1853), underlines the variable quality that characterizes his output.
      The few pictures that made Frith's reputation are of contemporary subjects. These started, tentatively, with a picture of a servant girl (1853), which was engraved with the saleable title of Sherry Sir?. Encouraged by his friend John Leech and perhaps stimulated by the example of his Punch illustrations, as well as by a visit to Ramsgate in 1851, Frith produced his first ambitious modern-life subject: Life at the Seaside (aka Ramsgate Sands, 1854). Despite Frith's doubts about attempting a subject never depicted before, it was a great success. Its purchase by Queen Victoria encouraged Frith to produce the equally popular Derby Day (1858) and the Railway Station (1862). Both paintings proved to be successful speculative ventures: Frith received £1500 for Derby Day from Jacob Bell and £5250 for the Railway Station (including copyright and exhibiting rights) from Louis Victor Flatlow, and the sale of engravings from each was to provide far greater sums for the subsequent owners of the copyright, the dealer Ernest Gambart and the printseller Henry Graves. In Derby Day Frith painted a representative section of the huge crowd which gathered annually on Epsom Downs, introducing every familiar human type and social class associated with the races; he employed robert Howlett to provide photographs on which he based his group studies. He chose Paddington as the setting for his Railway Station crowd, incorporating nearly 100 figures. Frith's self-confessed interest in the city crowd, its physiognomy and expression inspired both subjects. His aptitude for the dramatic grouping of large numbers of people into coherent units, his eye for the anecdotal and his unabashed inclination to appeal to sentiment are all fully exploited and enhanced by his precise technique.
      Frith's agreement to paint the Marriage of the Prince of Wales (1865) led to the abandonment, at the sketch stage, of a commission from Gambart to paint The Times of Day, a set of three contemporary London scenes including Morning: Covent Garden, Noon: Regent St and Night: The Haymarket. These sketches and the painting of Charles II's Last Sunday (exh. RA 1867; priv. col., see Strong, p. 95) are among the last of Frith's compositions to display the fluent composition and inventiveness of character and incident associated with his best works.
      Although Frith's Salon d'Or, Homburg, a sensation-seeking view of the notorious gambling hall at Homburg, proved a success at the Royal Academy of 1871, the composition is comparatively stiff, and his touch and characterization less precise. These faults are increasingly evident in later works, notably in the Private View of the Royal Academy, 1881 (1883), where the only interest derives from the inclusion of contemporary characters such as Oscar Wilde and Anthony Trollope.
      Frith painted two series of five paintings, The Road to Ruin (1878) and The Race for Wealth (1880), which depict the contemporary vices of gambling and dishonest speculation, respectively. The format enabled Frith to circumvent the difficulties intrinsic to large-scale composition, but despite their popularity these scenes inevitably lack the dramatic interest that Frith had previously focused into a single powerful image. Frith's homespun and transparently opportunist moralizing was out of date and lacked the satirical sting that Hogarth had injected into his works on similar themes.
      Frith retired as an RA in 1890 but continued to exhibit until 1902. His greatest success in later life came from his books, Autobiography and Reminiscences (1887) and Further Reminiscences (1888), in which he showed himself as much a literary as an artistic raconteur, and in which he assessed his career with winning modesty and irony. Other writings include John Leech: His Life and Work (1891) and articles in which he invariably voiced his protests against all modern developments in art.

The Railway Station -- (1862, 38x80cm) _ detail 1 (110kb) _ detail 2 _ Next to a mother with a boy in a velvet suit and another young child, a man is being arrested by plain clothes detectives. The railroad became the key to 19th century industrial development and before the invention of the automobile, the principal mode of transportation. Frith's Railroad Station provides a wonderful insight in transportation in the 1860s and how people dressed. It pictured London's Paddington Station.
Dolly Varden (1849, 27x22cm; 512x407pix, 35kb) _ The delightfully fluttery Dolly Varden is a character in the novel Barnaby Rudge (1841) by Charles Dickens. Its action is set in the London of the 1780s. Dickens describes Dolly, daughter of a worthy locksmith, as “the very pink and pattern of good looks, in a smart little cherry coloured mantle”. This work, apart from drawing on a well-known novel of the day, also owes much to a strong nineteenth-century tradition of 'fancy portraits', likenesses of pretty and anonymous young women graced by the names of characters from literature.
The Derby Day (1858, 102x224cm; 228x512pix, 20kb) _ This painting {reproduced much too small} presents a satirical panorama of Victorian life. When it was first exhibited at the Royal Academy, it proved so popular that a rail had to be put up to keep back the crowds. There are three main incidents. On the far left a group of men in top hats focus on the ‘thimble-rigger‘ with his table. In the center is an acrobat and his son, who looks longingly at a sumptuous picnic being laid out by a footman. Behind them are carriages filled with racegoers, including, on the far right, the mistress of a man leaning against the carriage.
Uncle Toby and the Widow Wadman (1865, 76x52cm)
11 illustrations for the play The Relapse
Duel Scene from Shakespeare's Twelfth Night (1843 engraving, 15x20cm)
^ Died on 19 January 1975: Thomas Hart Benton, US Regionalist painter, illustrator, and lithographer, born on 15 April 1889.
— He was the son of a congressman and first studied art in Washington DC, where he saw the murals in the capital’s public buildings. In 1907 he enrolled for a year at the Art Institute School in Chicago, visiting Paris the following summer. He studied until early 1909 at the Académie Julian and thereafter independently. Benton rejected academic methods and was exposed to both the Louvre and modernist styles; his interests seem to have focused on Impressionism and Pointillism. In Paris he met Diego Rivera and a number of fellow US artists, such as John Marin and Stanton Macdonald-Wright, who had a lasting influence on him. He also read and admired Hippolyte-Adolphe Taine, whose thought countered modernist ‘art for art’s sake’ attitudes with a sense of the artist’s responsibility to the social milieu.
— Benton worked as a cartoonist for The American (a Missouri newspaper) in 1906. Later he studied at the Chicago Art Institute and then in Paris at the Académie Julian during a three-year visit. When he returned to the United States, he and his friends favored avant-garde art, but he abandoned a modern idiom in his own art about 1920. In 1924, he traveled through the rural US South and Midwest, sketching the scenes and people he encountered. Benton's images of people and landscapes are done in an original style marked by brilliant color with undulating forms displaying stylized, cartoon like figures. Like his fellow Regionalists, he was annoyed by the domination of French art in US culture. He was convinced that the culture and images from the South and Midwest should be the source of US art.
      Benton emerged as the defacto head of the US Regionalist painters at about the beginning of the depression. During the depression Benton painted a number of notable murals. Among them are several City Scenes (1930-1931) for the New School for Social Research in New York City. He frequently transposed biblical and classical stories to rural US settings, as in Susanna and the Elders (1938) and Persephone (1939); both shown below. For many years Benton taught at the Art Students League in New York City. Jackson Pollock [28 Jan 1912 – 11 Aug 1956] was one of his students. Later Benton taught at the Kansas City Art Institute and School of Design, Kansas City, Missouri. Fairfield Porter was another of his students.

24 Dec 1934 Time cover with Self~Portrait (527x400pix cover, 280x230pix portrait, 42 kb)
–- Susanna and the Elders (153x107cm; 1164x800pix, 111kb _ .ZOOM to 2328x1600pix, 272kb _ .ZOOM+ not recommended to 4656x3200pix, 2269kb) _ as if in 1920 New England (church, car, men's trousers, nail polish).
People of Chilmark (Figure Composition) (1920; 600x710pix, 100kb _ ZOOM to 1014x1200pix, 122kb)
Threshing Wheat (1939; 575x946pix, 54kb)
Study for Threshing (496x653pix, 378kb)
(A Cottage Near the Sea) (374x481pix, 60kb)
Trail Riders (1965, 143x188cm; 390x514pix, 79kb) _ detail 1: the peak (390x520pix, 80kb) _ detail 2: the lake (390x520pix, 92kb) _ detail 3: trees _ detail 4: the stream
Boy on a Mule (1943; 399x531pix, 43kb) _ This painting has the kind of intimacy and quiet about it of many of Benton's paintings of rural life in Missouri. The slightly bowed young man is framed by the angular country shed to his right. The colors are subdued and natural; the paint has been applied with a light touch, leaving the image luminous and uncomplicated, but full of emotion.
–- Aaron (1941 lithograph 33x24cm; 1130x828pix, 135kb)
–- Huck Finn (1935 lithograph 43x55cm; 902x1199pix, 124kb)
^ Born on 19 January 1867: Jean Delville, Belgian Symbolist painter, decorative artist, and writer who died in 1953.
— As much as to his paintings, Delville owed his reputation to his writings, including Dialogue entre nous (1895), La Mission de l'art (1900), Belgian Art in Exile (1916). He first showed his work in Brussels in 1885 with the Essor group, and in 1892 he became one of the founders of Le Cercle Pour L'Art. Later he helped found Le Salon d'Art Idéaliste, inspired by the ideas of Péladan, who convinced Delville to settle in Paris. The artist showed his work at Le Salon de la Rose+Croix between 1892 and 1895. He later took an interest in the theosophy of Scriabin and the mystical ideas of Krishna Murti. reconciling his interest in the occult with Christianity by considering Catholicism to be in harmony with magical laws: the external forms of devotion concealed occult truths. Delville considered the true artist to be an initiate who would present images which would teach and transform human nature.
— Delville studied at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, with Jean-François Portaels and the Belgian painter Joseph Stallaert [1825–1903]. Among his fellow students were Eugène Laermans, Victor Rousseau and Victor Horta. From 1887 he exhibited at L'Essor, where in 1888 Mother , which depicts a woman writhing in labor, caused a scandal. Although his drawings of the metallurgists working in the Cockerill factories near Charleroi were naturalistic, from 1887 he veered towards Symbolism: the drawing of Tristan and Isolde (1887), in its lyrical fusion of the two bodies, reveals the influence of Richard Wagner. Circle of the Passions (1889), inspired by Dante Alighieri's Divina Commedia, was burnt in about 1914; only drawings remain. Jef Lambeaux copied it for his relief Human Passions (1897).
      Delville became associated with Joséphin Péladan, went to live in Paris and exhibited at the Salons de la Rose+Croix, created there by Péladan (1892–5). A devoted disciple of Péladan, he had his tragedies performed in Brussels and in 1895 painted his portrait. He exhibited Dead Orpheus (1893), an idealized head, floating on his lyre towards reincarnation, and Angel of Splendor (1894), a painting of great subtlety
      Distanced from Les XX, Delville was an active polemicist for modern art. In 1892 he broke with L'Essor and created Pour l'Art, regrouping the Idealists to which Émile Fabry belonged (1892–1895). In his preface to the first catalogue 1892), Delville declared that no work could truly be called art if it did not combine three absolutes: spiritual beauty, plastic beauty, and technical beauty. These qualities are apparent in his most famous portrait, Mme Stuart Merrill (1892), a medium with a halo of red hair, and averted eyes, whose white face is laid on a book stamped with a triangle.
      In 1894 Delville founded the Coopérative Artistique and organized a pension fund for it and the building of artists' housing. In 1894 he won the Prix de Rome. He founded the Salon d'Art Idéaliste (1896–1898) and showed there the Treasures of Satan (1895) and Plato's Academy (1898), his masterpiece, where, in an ideal landscape, languorous androgynes are grouped around Plato to form a very rhythmical composition. Its ambiguity aroused some reservations, but the overall impression was of serene beauty.
      Delville taught at Glasgow School of Art from 1900 to 1906, briefly became its director and then assumed the same post at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, until 1937. In 1900 he published La Mission de l'art, in which he defended a messianic ideal and the redemptive quality of idealist art. Spiritual Love (1900), a nude couple rising in unison into Art Nouveau scrolls, and Man–God (1903) accord with his theories.
      Over a period of many years Delville worked on a decorative scheme for the Palais de Justice in Brussels: Justice down the Ages, commissioned in 1911, destroyed in 1944, and replaced by large sketches, then The Troops (1924) and the Spirit of Conquest. In 1914 his family went into voluntary exile in England. Delville founded the League of Patriots there and published Belgian Art in Exile; he created a masonic lodge, spoke at Hyde Park Corner and waged a polemic against the avant-garde. He became an ardent proselyte of Krishnamurti and painted portraits of English personalities such as the educator John Russell. Back in Brussels, he created the Groupe d'Art Monumental, which in 1924 executed the mosaics for the Arcade du Cinquantenaire there.

Self portrait at the age of 20 (1887; 933x653pix, 49kb)
Self-Portrait (1896; 710x518pix, 27kb)
Orphée (1893, 111kb) _ The model was the artist's wife. The severed head of Orpheus is combined with the poet's lyre, and the trophy is set amid waves and seashells.
Trésor de Satan (1895, 258x268cm; 138kb) _ Delville believed in a divine fluid, reincarnation, dangerous telepathic forces, invultuation, and ecstasy. These convictions guided his hand in Satan's Treasures, in which luxurious bodies lie sleeping among the seaweed and coral as Satan, with a dancer's agility, bestrides and takes possession of them.
The Love of Souls (1900; 108kb)
Parsifal (1890 drawing; 108kb)
^ Died on 19 January 1871: Alexandre-Georges-Henri Regnault, French painter specialized in Orientalism, born on 30 October 1843, son of photographer-scientist-physician Victor Regnault [21 Jul 1810 – 19 Jan 1878], director of the Sèvres porcelain manufactoring plant.
— Henri Regnault showed exceptional abilities as a draftsman from an early age. After a traditional classical education he was sent in 1860 to the École des Beaux-Arts, Paris, where he studied under Louis Lamothe [1822–1869] and Alexandre Cabanel. In 1866 he won the Prix de Rome competition with Thetis Giving the Weapons of Vulcan to Achilles. In Italy he began several other ambitious history paintings, including Automedon Taming the Horses of Achilles (1868) and Judith and Holofernes (1869). He returned home to fight in the Franco-Prussian War, even though he was exempt from compulsory military service because of his artist status. During the siege of Paris, when the war was all but lost, he died on 19 January 1871, in the battle of Buzenfal.

Self-Portrait with a Maulstick (1863, 54x45cm; 380x318pix, 11kb)
–- Exécution sommaire sous les rois maures de Grenade (1870, 302x146cm; 846x398pix, 74kb _ .ZOOM to 1693x797pix, 286kb _ .ZOOM+ to 3386x1594pix, 650kb)
Automédon ramenant les coursiers d'Achille des bords du Scamandre (1868, 315x329cm; 395x416pix, 38kb) _ Full of youthful fire and passion, this mammoth picture {more than ten square meters, to which the puny reproduction does not do justice} was painted by Regnault while a student in Rome. Several years later, he returned home to fight in the Franco-Prussian War and was killed during the siege of Paris at the age of twenty-seven. Derived from Homer’s epic, the Iliad, the painting depicts Automedon, chariot driver for Achilles, struggling to control Xanthos and Balios, the horses that will carry the Greek hero into his final, fatal battle. Exhibited around the United States in the 1870s and 1880s, the painting was called both “the grandest painting in America” and “highly seasoned and unhealthful food which renders the palette insensitive to the milder flavors of what is wholesome.”
Jean-Baptiste Biot [1774-1862] (1862, 33x25cm; 512x368pix, 48kb)
Madame Mazois (1866, 66x63cm; 512x482pix, 65kb) _ morte, sur son lit.
Salomé (1870, 160x103cm; 480x300pix, 59kb) _ Henri Regnault wowed the art world with this painting owing to it's unusual color scheme. The science of oil painting came to it's full fruition in the nineteenth century. The palette now included dazzling colors which could electrify a painting. Letters that Regnault wrote to his father in 1869 and 1870 recount the evolution of this picture. It began as an oil sketch of the head of a young peasant whom Regnault met in Rome in 1869, which was subsequently enlarged to a bust-length composition called "Study of an African Woman." He then added canvas to three sides of the work and painted the complete figure, holding the knife and basin, against the present yellow background. Regnault considered several titles before adopting "Salomé." It was shown in the Salon of 1870. First a student of Cabanel's and later influenced by Mariano Fortuny y Marshal, Regnault was one of the rising stars of the Romantic movement. He lived a passionate life, traveling to the Middle East even though he was broke, hanging out in Spain as it rose up against Queen Isabella the Second, he loved excitement and adventure.

Died on a 19 January:

1772 Friedrich Wilhelm Hirt, German artist born on 11 February 1721. — {Was Hirt hurt when people neglected his masterpieces, as most of the Internet seems to be doing? If he were alive today, this surely would make him turn over in his grave.}
River Landscape with shepherd and travelers (25x29cm; 321x500pix, 230kb)

1716 Jaspar Broers, Flemish artist born on 21 April 1682.
A cavalry skirmish (71x88cm)

1635 Marcus Gheeraerts II (or Geerards; Gerards; Garrand), Flemish-born (1561) portrait painter. Two Flemish court painters of Bruges descent who earned their reputation abroad, Frans Pourbus the Younger [1569-1622] and Marcus Gheeraerts II, were active at the close of the sixteenth century and especially in the first quarter of the seventeenth. They are linear descendants of famous Bruges painter families. Their solid, old-fashioned technique and the rigid, immovable expression of their figures seem more like an extension of the sixteenth century than a herald of the seventeenth. Marcus Gheeraerts left Bruges when he was seven, accompanying his father Marcus Gheeraerts I [1530-1590], renowned Bruges painter and etcher who emigrated to England in 1568 because of his Protestant convictions. There the young Gheeraerts became a court painter. His art shows the schematic and rather insipid character of English official portraiture in the early part of the seventeenth century, even though he managed to refine it to a high degree. He was probably the leading society portraitist in London at the peak of his career (his popularity declined after about 1615), but it is not easy to disentangle his work from that of some of his contemporaries.
— Marcus Gheeraerts II was born in Bruges in 1561 or 1562, and was brought to England in 1568 by his father, a painter of whose work hardly anything is known. Trained by his father and perhaps also a student of Lucas de Heere, Marcus produced his first surviving inscribed portrait in 1593; by this date, however, he was already under the powerful patronage of the royal pageant master, Sir Henry Lee. In 1590 Gheeraerts married Magdalena, the sister of the painter John De Critz. The couple had six children, only two of whom seemed to have survived. Gheeraerts was the most distinguished and most fashionable portraitist of the 1590s, and continued to be after Elizabeth's death, becoming the favorite painter of James I's queen, Anne of Denmark. He received a grant of naturalization in 1618, and was still royal "picture drawer" in that year, when he received his last recorded payments for royal portraits. During the second half of the 1610s, however, Gheeraert's position declined as the result of competition from a new generation of immigrants. For the last twenty years of his life he was supported chiefly by the lesser gentry and by academic sitters. Gheeraerts was a member of the Court of the Painter-Stainers' Company in the 1620s and had an apprentice, Ferdinando Clifton, who was made free of the Company in 1627. — LINKS
Francis Drake (1591, 117x92cm; 901x700pix, 97kb) _ A three-quarter-length portrait slightly to the left, dressed in black, wearing leather gloves and the 'Drake Jewel' of gold with enamel, rubies and a drop pearl, hanging at waist level on a ribbon from his neck. To the left is a table covered in green velvet with a globe and, above, a coat of arms.
     Drake [1540 – 28 Jan 1596] was the second man to circumnavigate the world (1577-1580), the first Englishman to do so and, given that Magellan was killed before his voyage was completed, the first commander of an expedition to return with full success. He is portrayed here with an array of accessories denoting his fame and achievements. The sword refers to his service to his country, the globe to his circumnavigation of the world, and his coat of arms and the Drake Jewel - a gift from Queen Elizabeth I (now held on loan by the Victoria and Albert Museum) - both reveal his prominent social and economic status.
      From relatively humble beginnings and early experience at sea with John Lovell and his own cousin John Hawkins, Drake pursued an outstandingly successful career as a privateer. His voyage round the world was underwritten by Elizabeth I and involved a series of highly profitable raids on Spanish ships and ports. He netted £160'000 for the Treasury, a healthy additional percentage for himself and a knighthood. His privateering adventures in the West Indies, 1585-1586, were followed by his daring raid on Cadiz in 1587 when he successfully attacked the Spanish fleet which was being prepared for the invasion of England, and captured the San Felipe on his way home. In the Armada campaign, Drake was a vice-admiral with his own force of 39 ships. After the defeat of the Armada he commanded a number of expeditions against the Spanish, both in Europe and America although his joint leadership of the disastrous Portuguese expedition in 1589 brought him to court-martial and temporary disfavor until 1594.
Francis Drake (1591, 1060x777pix, 90kb) different version.
Mary Rogers (1592, 490x387pix, 48kb)
A Woman (1595, 217x135cm; 1159x720pix, 161kb) _ This is a typical example of Elizabethan allegorical portraiture. The symbolism, which is clearly of some complexity, embraces the tree, the stag, the flowers, even the birds and the sitters costume. The long-haired figure wears pearls attached to her wrist and a pendant with a miniature around her neck. The inscriptions on the present work, especially the verses in the cartouche to which those in Latin are related, allude to the mood of melancholy that dominates the portrait, but do not indicate the name of the sitter. Her pose is hieratic and her stance somewhat unsteady, but there has been an attempt to set the figure against a landscape as opposed to an interior which is more usual in Gheeraerts work. The portrait has not survived in good condition and the total effect is therefore not as grand as the artists famous Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I, known as the Ditchley Portrait
Queen Elisabeth I (1592, 241x152cm; 900x562pix, 103kb)
Lady Anne Ruhout (1631, 126x102cm; 850x707pix, 97kb) _ This portrait shows how Gheeraerts used refined arrangements of posture, light and cloth textures to shape his fragile figures. Anne Rushout, the widow of John Rushout, was born into a noble family that was later endowed with the lordship of Northwick.
Man in Classical Dress (1610, 56x45cm) _ This octagonal painting is one of a pair of portraits and may show Philip Herbert, 4th Earl of Pembroke. The First Folio of Shakespeare's plays, published after his death, was dedicated to Philip and his brother William, successively 3rd and 4th earls of Pembroke. The head is set within a painted oval similar to contemporary oval portrait miniatures by Isaac Oliver, which show elite court figures in versions of classical dress. The sitter's attire echoes surviving costume designs by Inigo Jones for the extravagant court entertainments called 'masques'.
— S*#>/S#*>Christopher Hatton (114x127cm; 510x573pix, 69kb _ ZOOM to 890x1000pix, 191kb) three-quarter length, standing, wearing the Garter chain, and a fur lined coat, his bag of office to the left. This portrait is “in the manner of Marcus Gheeraerts II” but not necessarily by him. The sitter was a favorite of Elizabeth I and a prominent member of her court. The Queen gave him lavish grants and knighted him in 1577. He spoke strongly in Parliament against Mary Queen of Scots and was Lord Chancellor 1587-1591. In 1588 he was made Chancellor of Oxford. He was celebrated as a man of letters and was a friend and patron of Edmund Spencer. —(070117)

Born on a 19 January:

^ 1889 Sophie Henriette Taeuber-Arp (Täuber), Swiss painter, sculptor, and designer, who died on 13 January 1943. She studied textile techniques at the École des Arts Appliqués in Saint-Gall from 1908 to 1910 and then in Hamburg at the Kunstgewerbeschule in 1912. Her career began in the center of Dada activity in Zurich between 1915 and 1920. Although she did not date her work until the last two years of her life, its chronology was reconstructed by Hugo Weber from the testimony of her husband, Hans Arp [16 Sep 1886 – 07 Jun 1966], and from internal evidence. Sophie Henriette Täuber was born in Davos, Switzerland. She was trained in the applied arts, first in the textile section at the technical school at Saint-Gall (1908-1910), then in Walter von Debschitz's experimental workshop in Munich (1911, 1913) and at the Arts and Crafts School in Hamburg (1912). From 1916 until 1929 she taught textile design at the School of Applied Arts in Zurich. In 1915 she met Jean (Hans) Arp, whom she would marry in 1922, and participated in establishing the Dada movement in Zürich, frequently performing at the Cabaret Voltaire soirées. In 1918 she designed the sets and made marionettes for König Hirsch (The Stag King) by Carlo Gozzi. During the 1920s she became known for her interior designs. She completed a mural painting for the architect Paul Horn in Strasbourg, designed the bar of the Hannong Hotel and produced all the designs for the house and studio which she shared with Arp at Meudon-Val-Fleury, just outside Paris. Her most important commission was the redecoration of the Café de l'Aubette in Strasbourg, undertaken with the assistance of Arp and Theo van Doesburg. With the fall of Paris in 1940 she and Arp took refuge in the Dordogne, then in Annecy, then in Grasse and finally, in 1942, in Zürich. Taeuber-Arp died in Zurich on the night of 12-13 January 1943, apparently asphyxiated by the fumes from a faulty heater. — LINKS
–- Composition Dada (632x817pix, 20kb) _ The pseudonymous Guy Tarre-Pigeon has metamorphosed this dull picture into the gloriously colorful almost symmetrical (to provide a challenge to those who like to hunt for the minute differences between the two sides) related abstractions:
      _ Composition Papa (2007; 724x1024pix, 137kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 275kb _ ZOOM+ to 2636x3728pix, 1814kb) and
      _ papa aqaq (2007; 724x1024pix, 137kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 275kb _ ZOOM+ to 2636x3728pix, 1814kb)
Plans profilés en courbe (1935; 525x620pix, 101kb)
Duo-Collage (1918, 585x432pix)
Circle Segments (1935, 50x65cm; 322x420pix, 21kb)
Standing, Falling, Flying (1934, 100x73cm; 420x308pix, 19kb)
Vertical and horizontal composition (1928, 103x145cm; 427x600pix, 39kb) _ It has been assumed that this panel, and others like it, served as working maquettes for Taeuber-Arp's interior decoration of the Café de l'Aubette on the place Kléber, Strasburg, commissioned in 1926 by Paul and André Horn.1 In carrying out the commission — a large project that incorporated a tea-room, pâtisserie, several bars, function rooms, a ballroom, a cellar nightclub and a cinema — Taeuber-Arp enlisted the help of her husband, Jean Arp and Theo van Doesburg [1883-1931]. It was a collaborative affair with Taeuber-Arp remaining responsible for the decoration of the tea-room, the Aubette bar, possibly the foyer bar, and the billiard room. The decoration was completed by 1928 but disapproval from the café's clientèle soon brought about alterations. Within twelve years nothing of the original interior was visible. Contrary to a common assumption, the design and distinctive triptych format of the present panel has little in common with the panels of painted wood rectangles and squares which Taeuber-Arp placed on the ceiling and walls of the tea-room in the café. However, photographs of the stained-glass windows, particularly that ascribed by Karl Gerstner to the bar, closely resemble the design of the Gallery's panel, as does the surviving fragment of a window in the collection of the Musée d'art Moderne, Strasbourg. A watercolor in the collection of the Kunstmuseum, Basle, which is identical in design to this panel, is subtitled Esquisse pour vitraux. If this panel is related to a stained-glass window in the Café de l'Aubette, it is unlikely that it was made as a study or maquette. The panel has a painted wooden frame which is contemporary with the panel itself and, with other panels whose designs follow the decorations of Aubette, it appears to have been work of art in its own right rather than as a 'working maquette'. Possibly it was made after the Aubette commission as a means of preserving the design in a durable and exhibitable form, as those same designs were being destroyed in the Café de l'Aubette itself.
–- Taches quadrangulaires évoquant un groupe de personnages (1920, 26x35cm; 673x900pix, 54kb)
Gelbe Form (1935, 60x55cm; 355x330pix, 12kb) —(070117)

1859 Henry Herbert La Thangue, English painter who died (full coverage) on 21 December 1929. —(070118)

1839 Paul Cézanne, French painter who died (full coverage) on 22 October 1906. —(051018)

1806 Pierre Justin Ouvrié, French artist who died on 23 October 1879, and who may or may not have been born on 19 May 1806 rather than 19 January. — {A son oeuvre on connait un Ouvrié, malheureusement je n'en trouve aucun échantillon dans l'Internet}

1744 Pieter Joseph Sauvage, Flemish artist who died on 11 June 1818.

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