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ART “4” “2”-DAY  14 January v.10.00
^ Born on on 14 (10?) January 1507: Luca Longhi (or Lunghi) “le Raphäel de Ravenne”, Ravenna Italian Mannerist painter, who produced mainly religious paintings and portraits. He died on 12 August 1580.
— His earliest works, such as The Marriage of Saint Catherine (1532), show the influence of Baldassare Carrari (fl 1489–1516), Francesco Zaganelli and Niccolò Rondinelli, but he also learnt from the works of mainstream painters, in particular Giorgio Vasari, as is evident in his Circumcision (1561), in which he introduced portraits of Dante Alighieri, Michelangelo and Titian among the spectators. Luca Longhi never left Ravenna, and this isolation no doubt contributed to his limitations. However, he was a skilled portrait painter, his subjects being local dignitaries, patricians, and professional men, such as Girolamo Rossi, Raffaele Rasponi and Giovanni Arrigoni (all 1567)— He trained two of his children, Francesco Longhi [10 Feb 1544 – 1618) and Barbara Longhi [1552-1638], who collaborated with him on several of his later works, including The Marriage of Cana (1580), which incorporates portraits of Barbara and Francesco Longhi.

–- The Lady and the Unicorn (800x550pix, 27kb) _ This is supposed to be a portrait of Giulia Farnese, sister of Paul III and lover of Alexander VI. (she is said to be also in the .Transfiguration (1520, 405x278cm; 1766x1202pix, 178kb) of Raphael [06 Apr 1483 – 06 Apr 1520]: .in this detail (947x802pix, 88kb _ .ZOOM _ .ZOOM+).
–- The Adoration by the Shepherds (1545, 86x73cm; 408x347pix, 35kb) _ estimated at about $30'000 for the 14 May 2003 auction at Bonhams & Butterfields.
–- Virgin and Child with Saints Sebastian and Rocco (200x171cm) _ Qui l'artista sottomette la monumentalità delle invenzioni cinquecentesche alle esigenze di una antica devozione. La figura iconica della Vergine arcaizza modelli diffusi in area raffaellesca e partecipa degli schematismi che induriscono i due santi laterali, Rocco e Sebastiano, i protettori contro ogni tipo di contagio. L'opera e' riferibile alla tarda maturità del pittore, probabilmente agli anni Sessanta.
^ Born on 14 January 1841: Berthe Marie-Pauline Morisot, Mme. Eugène Manet, French Impressionist painter who died on 02 March 1895.
— Berthe Morisot was a French impressionist painter. Influenced by the artists Camille Corot and Edouard Manet, she gave up her early classical training to pursue an individualistic impressionistic style that became distinctive for its delicacy and subtlety. Her technique, based on large touches of paint applied freely in every direction, give her works a transparent, iridescent quality. She worked both in oil and in watercolor, producing mainly landscapes and scenes of women and children, as in Madame Pontillon Seated on the Grass (1873).
— Born into a family of wealth and culture, Morisot received the conventional lessons in drawing and painting. She went firmly against convention, however, in choosing to take these pursuits seriously and make them her life's work. Having studied for a time under Camille Corot, she later began her long friendship with Édouard Manet, who became her brother-in-law in 1874 and was the most important single influence on the development of her style. Unlike most of the other impressionists, who were then intensely engaged in optical experiments with color, Morisot and Manet agreed on a more conservative approach, confining their use of color to a naturalistic framework. Morisot, however, did encourage Manet to adopt the impressionists' high-keyed palette and to abandon the use of black. Her own carefully composed, brightly hued canvases are often studies of women, either out-of-doors or in domestic settings. Morisot and US artist Mary Cassatt are generally considered the most important women painters of the later 19th century.
— Berthe Morisot's mother arranged drawing lessons for her three daughters with no other intention than cultivating a polite pastime. That Berthe emerged with professional aspirations must have caused some consternation in their upper-middle-class Parisian household, since it might have compromised her future responsibilities as a wife and mother. Between 1864 and 1868 Morisot exhibited at the Paris Salon. Her early contact with the plein air Barbizon painter Camille Corot and her meeting Edouard Manet, whose work was reviled by both critics and Salon officials, encouraged her to repudiate the Salon system. As a result, she began to follow a more independent path and to exhibit her work with the Impressionists. She married Eugène Manet, Edouard's younger brother in 1874, the year the Impressionists held their first controversial exhibition.
Portrait of Berthe Morisot by brother-in-law Manet.

–- Au Bois de Boulogne (1888; 636x887pix, 58kb)
Paris vu du Trocadéro (1872)
Cache-cache (1873, 45x55cm)
Nice Little Girl (Nice: the city)
La lecture (1888) _ This is at once a genre scene and a portrait of Jeanne Bonnet. It conveys Morisot's ability to integrate her art and family life by painting canvases of domestic scenes. Although out-of-doors, the space of Reading is shallow, compressed by a balcony railing and foliage. Morisot employed many compositional devices — the bird cage, the railing and chair, the wall casement, and the palm frond that arches over the sitter's head — to enclose the figure. These forms, associated with the nineteenth-century feminine ideal, also picture a woman's space as a closed world turned in on itself.
^ Died on 14 January 1813: William Marlow, English painter born in 1740.
— From about 1756 to 1761 Marlow was a student of Samuel Scott, the topographical and marine painter; he also studied at the Saint Martin’s Lane Academy, London. Throughout his career Marlow made oils and watercolors of London views, for example Near Westminster Bridge, Evening, which shows his balanced, classical sense of composition, sensitivity to lighting effects and smooth handling of oil paint. Between 1765 and 1766 Marlow visited France and Italy, making numerous drawings of ruins, which provided the subjects for many paintings finished on his return to London. An Oxcart in the Grotto of Posillipo (1770) exemplifies his bold, blue-toned watercolor style, with washes applied in loose blotches to emphasize the picturesque roughness of masonry and terrain. The handling has much in common with Canaletto, whom Marlow copied; a letter of 1771 from Horace Walpole to Sir Horace Mann records that two views of Verona by Marlow were mistakenly sold as Canalettos. Marlow specialized in souvenirs of the Grand Tour, portraits of country houses, seascapes and river scenes. He visited many parts of Britain and Ireland in search of subjects, such as Powys Castle, Montgomeryshire. He exhibited at the Incorporated Society of Artists from 1767, was made a Fellow in 1771 and Vice-President in 1778. He exhibited at the Royal Academy, London, from 1788 to 1807, but never sought membership.
      Marlow was commercially successful; he rented a country house at Twickenham from 1775 and moved there permanently ten years later. By the late 1780s he was in semi-retirement, preferring to make telescopes and other scientific instruments. However, a financial downturn may have prompted his production of six etched Views in Italy (1795). He is also thought to have designed the seals for the original 13 United States of America. His achievement as a topographical painter lies in his technical versatility, which allowed him to encompass both the tranquil compositions and cool lighting of British scenes and the picturesque roughness and more intense light of Italian views.

–- Rome From Monte Mario (62x90cm; 674x1000pix)
Vesuvius Erupting at Night (1768; 182kb)
Capriccio: Saint Paul's and a Venetian Canal (1795, 129x104cm) _ This is an architectural fantasy combining the most instantly recognizable element of the London skyline – Saint Paul’s – with a Venetian canal. The artist, who specialized in city views, may be drawing attention to parallels between Renaissance Venice and modern London. Both cities were made wealthy through international commerce, so Marlow’s picture could be interpreted as a fantasy of the ultimate imperial city.
View on the Thames (1775, 49x79cm) _ In the 1750s Marlow was a student of the foremost native topographical painter of his day, Samuel Scott. His style owes a great deal to that of his master, and also to Canaletto whose works he would have known. The precise location of this view on the Thames is not known, although in the past it has been tentatively identified as Hampton Wick. Painted very much in Scott's manner, the picture most probably dates from the mid 1770s when Marlow was living in Twickenham, in the house previously occupied by Scott.
^ Born on 14 January 1836: Henri Théodore Jean Ignace Fantin~Latour, French Realist painter who died on 25 August 1904, specialized in still-life and flowers.
— Henri Fantin-Latour was best known for his group portraits and flower paintings. Although he was a contemporary of the impressionists, he practiced a more conservative style, which gave his work an almost photographic realism, and employed a shimmering, magical use of color. In his group portraits, he portrayed the many contemporary Parisian artists and writers who were his friends. His delicately realistic flower paintings, as well as his more stylized lithographs, strongly influenced later symbolist painters, such as Odilon Redon.
— Fantin-Latour, French painter and lithographer, is best known for his luxurious flower pieces, but he also painted several group portraits that are important historical documents and show his friendship with leading avant-garde artists. Homage to Delacroix (1864) shows Fantin-Latour himself, with Baudelaire, Manet, Whistler, and others grouped around a portrait of Delacroix; and A Studio at Batignolles (sometimes called Homage to Manet) (1870) shows Monet, Renoir, and others in Manet's studio. In spite of his associations with such progressive artists, Fantin-Latour was a traditionalist, and his portraits particularly are in a precise, detailed style. Much of his later career was devoted to lithography; he greatly admired Richard Wagner and did imaginative lithographs illustrating his music and that of other Romantic composers.
— Born in Grenoble, died in Buré (Orne). Son of the painter Théodore Fantin-Latour, Fantin settled in Paris in 1841 and was trained by his father and Horace Lecoq de Boisbandran. Key influences in his development were the example of Gustave Courbet and his study of old masters at the Louvre, where he copied almost daily until 1870. He first exhibited at the Salon in 1861 and participated in the Salon des Refusés of 1863. Fantin joined with Manet, Renoir, Frédéric Bazille, and others in the avant-garde intellectual circles of Paris and commemorated leading artists, writers, and musicians of the day in several group portraits, but from about 1879 he worked largely in isolation. His delicate, lyrical still lifes in the tradition of Chardin gave way in later years to highly romanticized compositions inspired by his love of Wagner and opera. A personal friend of James McNeill Whistler, he visited England several times and exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1862 to 1900.

Self-Portrait (1858, 41x33cm) _ detail
Self-Portrait (1860)
Self-Portrait (1861, 25x21cm) _ detail
–- La Naissance du Christ (66x55cm; 901x765pix, 91kb)
–- White and Purple Stock (43x48cm; 924x1044pix, 55kb _ .ZOOM to xpix, 784kb) _ Stock (here) = any of a genus (Matthiola) of Old World herbs or subshrubs of the mustard family with racemes of usually sweet-scented flowers. Not traded on the New York Stock Exchange. Matthiola bear no know relationship to Matthis Grünewald [1478 – 30 Aug 1528].
Raceme = a simple influorescence ... er ... make that inflorescence (as in the lily-of-the-valley) in which the flowers are borne on short stalks of about equal length at equal distances along an elongated axis and open in succession toward the apex. (Glad you didn't ask?) It is amazing how dictionary makers seem to always manage to include in each definition at least one word that most people have to look up. You want “inflorescence”? OK, let's see which other unfamiliar word may be included:
Inflorescence = a floral axis with its appendages. Axis is easy, as in “axis of evil”. Appendages? Are you axing... I mean asking? Are you serious? Obviously you must never have had to undergo an appendagectomy (let Google take over).
–- Asters (1892, 51x45cm; 1/4 size, 55kb _ .ZOOM to 1/2 size, 869kb)
–- White Rockets and Fruit (1869, 56x53cm; 1/4 size, 45kb _ .ZOOM to 1/2 size, 633kb)
–- Spray of Purple Lilac (1880, 36x29cm; 1048x848pix, 91kb)
–- Flowers in a Vase (1882, 35x28cm; 1022x818pix, 81kb)
Diana and her Handmaidens (1892)
Édouard Manet (1867)
Homage to Delacroix (1864) _ Delacroix died in 1863. The following year Fantin-Latour painted this group portrait of his disciples around a likeness of the master.
Un Atelier aux Batignolles (1870)
204 images at the Athenaeum183 images at ARC78 images at Ciudad de la Pintura

Died on a 14 January:

>2005 Jesús Rafael Soto, Venezuelan painter born (main coverage) on 05 June 1923. —(100113)

1887 Friedrich von Amerling, Vienna Austrian artist born on 14 Apr 1803. — (060111)

^ 1879 (or 07 January 1841?) James Arthur O'Connor, Irish painter born in 1792. The son of a Dublin print-seller and engraver, he may have received instruction in painting from William Sadler [1782–1839], a prolific Irish painter of small landscapes. O’Connor first exhibited in 1809 in Dublin; in 1813 he went to London with Francis Danby and George Petrie, intending to settle there, but soon returned home. His earliest achievement of note was a group of topographical views, commissioned in 1818 by the 2nd Marquis of Sligo and the 14th Earl of Clanricarde. Two of these, View of Westport with Croagh Patrick and its pendant Westport House from Barratt’s Hill, demonstrate that O’Connor was then capable of fine painting in a tightly handled 18th-century manner and that he had learnt much from the example of the Irish landscape painter Thomas Roberts [1748–1778]. Four views of Bridge House, Ballinrobe, Co. Mayo, and its environs were also commissioned at that time and are very nearly as accomplished.
A Sailing Ship, Other Ships in the Distance (11x16cm)

1871 Eduardo Zamachois y Zabala, Spanish artist born in 1842.

1867 Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, French painter born (full coverage) on 29 August 1780. —(050828)

1846 Jan Hendrik Verkeyen, Dutch artist born on 22 December 1778.

Born on a 14 January:

1904 Henri-Georges Adam, French artist who died on 27 August 1967. —(060111)

^ 1900 Jenö Barcsay, Hungarian painter who died on 02 April 1988. Barcsay, a descendant of an aristocratic family in Transylvania, went to Budapest in 1919 and began his studies at the Art School where he graduated in 1924. His masters were János Vaszary and Gyula Rudnay. He spent the summer of 1926 in Makó and Hódmezovásárhely, which made him discover the constructive structural powers in landscapes. He spent a year in Paris on fellowship from the autumn of 1926, where he was particularly influenced by Cézanne, whose paintings put him under a spell until the rest of his life. He visited Italy in 1927, where he met the ideals of the quattrocento and where he was particularly influenced by the way figures were portrayed. In spring 1929 he visited Szentendre, where he kept returning, and of which he became a resident. 1929-30 saw him again in Paris again on a fellowship to acquire the rules of cubism. From 1931 to 1945 he was a teacher of the Municipal Apprentice School and from 1945 to his retirement that of the Art School, where he taught figure sketching to all Hungarian modern artists influenced by him until the rest of their lives. His early works are characterized by a sense of dramatic power and strong light - shadow effects. The year 1926 is marked by impressionistic works. Structure became a basic factor of visualization after his stay in Paris. His study trip to Italy produced pictures of people without psychic gestures in static balanced poses. His style, a Hungarian version of constructivism, appeared mostly in his pictures of Szentendre and its neighbourhood. His approach is characterized by emphasizing structure, studying the problems of space and form, as well as by order based on constructivism. In his works, compositions abstracted on a geometrical principle, constructivist landscapes and figures appear hand in hand with each other. Besides paintings, his mural works and drawings mark his career all through his life. He is the most significant representative of Hungarian constructivist - geometrical art, who had a very strong influence on his contemporaries and the generations to follow. Some of his characteristic works: Organ Grinder (1924), Working Girl (1928), Szentendre (copper engraving, 1931), Landscape with Hills (1934), Self-Portrait (chalk,1949), Sitting Woman (1958), Church in Szentendre with Cross (1962), Picture Architecture (1963), mosaic design for Szentendre (1968), mosaic for the foyer of the National Theater (1968), Blue Mood (1972), Composition in Black and White (1981). His works often appear in tapestry and offset printing.
Monumental Picture (1982, 120x138cm; 876x998pix, 41kb) _ The pseudonymous Johnny Saycrab has demonstrated that similar pictures in much greater sizes (which are of no other use than for the purpose of demonstration) can be produced with much less expenditure of bandwidth, with his version
      _ Mental Pitcher (2006; 600x700pix, 4kb _ ZOOM to 1200x1400pix, 4kb _ ZOOM+ to 6000x7000pix, 4kb).
Distress (1976, 30x40cm; 1042x769pix, 67kb) _ Saycrab has included his version,
      _ Stress 1, in his monumentally humongous but otherwise rather monotonous
      _ Crab 1 (2006; 15'600x16'000pix, 15kb), made somewhat more interesting in
      _ Crab 2 (2006; 15'600x16'000pix, 45kb) which also has its
      _ Stress 1 , but adds
      _ Stress 2,
      _ Stress 3, and
      _ Stress 4
Mysterious Figure (1982, 35x30cm; 996x878pix, 32kb _ Saycrab has doubled the viewing pleasure by transforming this into the symmetrical
      _ Most Fog (2006; 707x1000pix, kb), followed by
      _ Missed Fig (2006; 707x1000pix, kb), and then squaring things away with the 2006 series of 707x1000pix images (you can click from one to the next)
      _ Mist Fig 1 (2kb),
      _ Mist Fig 2 (2kb),
      _ Mist Fig 3 (2kb),
      _ Mist Fig 4 (2kb),
      _ Mist Fig 5 (2kb),
      _ Mist Fig 6 (2kb),
      _ Mist Fig 7 (2kb),
      _ Mist Fig 8 (2kb),
      _ Mist Fig 9 (7kb).
Factory (1946, 38x46cm; 879x1045pix, 120kb) _ As a caterpillar is to a butterfly, so is this picture to Saycrab's En Issue (2006; 707x1000pix, 202kb _ ZOOM to 1414x2000pix, 913kb)
Houses (1960, 27x35cm; 668x886pix, 112kb) _ In Barcsay's picture, walls, roofs, doors and windows become solid geometrical forms. The picture can be linked in message and form to "Szentendre with Cross" where houses of the little town become geometrical forms, squares, rectangles and triangles with black contours filled with bright colors. After geometry reduced from view, Barcsay arrived at pure constructivism. He was inspired by Kassák's picture architectures as Picture Architecture, one of his pictures, suggests.
Evening (1971, 20x25cm; 805x980pix, 77kb)
12 Works before 1945
10 Works of 1945-1959
13 Works after 1960
6 Drawings of Man and Drapery
8 Drawings of Anatomy for the Artist + the cover of the book (475x359pix, 49kb)
8 Drawings —(060113)

^ 1878 Augustus Edwin John, Welsh Camden Town Group painter who died on 31 October 1961, brother of Gwen John [22 Jun 1876 – 03 Sep 1939]. Augustus John was educated in his native Tenby and at Clifton, but in 1894 he left Wales for London and studied for four years at the Slade School of Fine Art under Henry Tonks and Frederick Brown. Here he soon emerged as a bohemian figure as well as a highly gifted artist. The need to support Ida Nettleship [1877–1907], whom he married in 1901, led him to accept a post teaching art at the University of Liverpool. John Sampson, then University Librarian and an acknowledged expert on gypsies, became a friend and a major influence on him, introducing him to the Romany language and way of life. This led him to spend periods traveling with his growing family in gypsy caravans through Wales and England and inspired much of his work before World War I, including a series of etchings depicting gypsy life. — Augustus John studied at the Slade School in London (1894-1899) with his sister Gwen John. After injuring his head after diving into the sea while on holiday his personality changed. He grew a beard, dressed as a Bohemian and drank heavily. His painting became more adventurous and his friend, Wyndham Lewis remarked that John had become a "great man of action into whose hands the fairies had placed a paintbrush instead of a sword". Considered to be the most talented artist of his generation, in 1898 John won the Slade Prize with Moses and the Brazen Serpent. He developed a nomadic lifestyle and for a while he lived in a caravan and camped with gypsies. Later he moved in with Henry Lamb and Dorelia McNeill at Alderney Manor near Poole. McNeill, who eventually became John's wife, featured in many of his paintings. On the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, John was the best-known artist in Britain. His friendship with Lord Beaverbrook enabled him to obtain a commission in the Canadian Army and was given permission to paint what he liked on the Western Front. He was also allowed to keep his facial hair and therefore became the only officer in the Allied forces, except for King George V, to have a beard. After two months in France he was sent home in disgrace after taking part in a brawl. Lord Beaverbrook, whose intervention saved John from a court-martial, sent him back to France but is only known to have completed one painting, Fraternity. John also attended the Versailles Peace Conference in 1919 where he painted the portraits of several delegates. However, the commissioned group portrait of the main figures at the conference was never finished. By the 1920s John was Britain's leading portrait painter. Those who sat for him included Thomas Hardy, George Bernard Shaw and T.E. Lawrence. However, one critic has claimed that "the painterly brilliance of his early work degenerated into flashiness and bombast, and the second half of his long career added little to his achievement." In later life, John wrote two volumes of autobiography, Chiaroscuro (1952) and Finishing Touches (1964). — Henry Lamb was a student of Augustus John. — Photo of John on the cover of the 10 Sep 1928 Time. — LINKS
La Marchesa Luisa Casati (1919; 1128x820pix, 79kb)
Robin C. (1909; 96kb)
Thomas Hardy (335x273pix, 65kb gif)
The Serving Maid (1941 drawing, 864x800pix, 117kb)

1866 Art Young, US cartoonist who died on 29 December 1943.

^ 1860 Domenico Pennacchini (or Pennachini), Italian painter who died in 1910.
A Woodland Romance (35x50cm; 709x1024pix, 134kb)
The Shepherd's Flirtation (54x36cm; 349x262pix, 16kb) _ with 4 details, same size, on the same page: shepherd, shepherdess, goat, dog) —(060113)

1859 Paolo Sala, Italian artist who died on 20 December 1929. — Not a relative of English journalist and illustrator George Augustus Henry Sala [24 Nov 1828 – 09 Dec 1896] whose real name was Henry Fairfield.

^ 1852 Johannes Christiaan Karel Klinkenberg, 's-Gravenhage Dutch painter who died on 23 April 1924. He taught at the drawing academy in The Hague, where Philip Zilcken was one of his students.
Gezicht op Zwolle (39x53cm; 583x800pix, 263kb)
Stadshuis Hindelopen (27x45cm; 293x500pix, 30kb) —(060113)

1833 Ferdinand Meyer-Wismar, German artist who died on 26 March 1917.

^ 1737 Luigi Antonio Melchiorre Balugani, Italian painter and explorer who died between 14 February and 03 March 1771 in Gondar, Ethiopia. Nato a Bologna, Balugani, in qualità di architetto, diviene Maestro dell' Accademia Clementina di Belle Arti nel 1759. Si trasferisce poi a Roma per perfezionarsi nel disegno architettonico, ed alcuni anni più tardi, nel 1765, viene ingaggiato come disegnatore di prospettive per seguire James Bruce [14 Dec 1830 – 27 Apr 1894], Console del Regno Unito ad Algeri, in un viaggio che ha lo scopo di ritrarre le vestigia dell'antichità classica. Nel 1768, con una nuova spedizione che percorre l'Africa orientale, giunge a Gondar, in Etiopia, dove morirà nel 1771 in circostanze misteriose.
Il Geografo Esploratore (445x300pix, 137kb)
Le Sorgenti del Nilo (389x550pix, 180kb) almost monochrome dark yellowish green _ Nel 1770 James Bruce si reca al lago Tana e lo esplora fino a trovare le impressionanti cascate di Tississat, attraverso le quali il lago si riversa in un fiume. Bruce è convinto che si tratti del Nilo: in realtà si tratta del Nilo Azzurro, l'affluente principale del grande Nilo, che nasce e poi discende dall'altopiano etiopico. Un secolo dopo due ufficiali inglesi, Burton e Speke, scopriranno una regione di grandi laghi tra cui il Tanganica, grandi bacini equatoriali che alimentano il fiume. Speke prosegue da solo verso nord: incontrerà il più grande lago dell'Africa e lo chiamerà Vittoria, intuendo che da esso nasce il Nilo. Speke organizza un'altra spedizione, per dimostrare definitivamente l'esattezza della sua scoperta. Giunto di nuovo alle rive del lago Vittoria segue, sul versante orientale, il perimetro del lago scoprendo all'estremità nord cascate immense che segnano il punto preciso in cui il leggendario fiume esce dal lago. In realtà queste cascate non sono ancora le sorgenti del fiume: saranno Samuel e Florence Baker che individueranno, a nord-ovest del lago Vittoria, un secondo lago, ribattezzato lago Alberto. Baker ritiene di trovarsi di fronte alla seconda sorgente del Nilo, ma la geografia della regione è talmente complicata, da non consentirne una visione d'insieme. Nell'ultimo trentennio del secolo David Livingstone ed Henry Morton Stanley esploreranno, attraverso immense fatiche, l'intero bacino del fiume, confermando definitivamente la scoperta di Speke. —(060111)

1600 (baptism) Pieter van Avont, Flemish painter, draftsman, and printmaker, who died on 01 November 1652. In 1622–1623 he became a master in the Guild of Saint Luke in Antwerp. In 1625–1626 he took on as his student Peter van de Cruys (fl 1625–1644), who was followed by Frans Wouters in 1629 and Frans Wouters’s brother, Pieter Wouters (1617–>1632), in 1631–1632. In 1631 van Avont became a citizen of Antwerp.

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