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ART “4” “2”-DAY  10 January v.9.01
^ Died on 10 January 1949: Émile Othon Achille Friesz, French Fauvist painter of landscapes, figures, and still lifes; teacher; and illustrator; born on 06 February 1879. — {Did gallery owners say to purchasers of other artists' work: “Do you want Friesz with that?” — Or only when the other artists were from Hamburg?}
— After an apprenticeship at the École des Beaux-Arts in Le Havre where Friesz met Raoul Dufy, at the age of eighteen he entered the studio of the academic portrait painter Léon Bonnat. At this time, although his tastes pushed him to study the impressionist painters, he met his future fauvist companions. After participating in the Salon d'automne of 1905, his Fauvist period was followed by a much less colorful style with a more restless feeling.
— Born at Le Havre of a seafaring family. Studied 1896-9 at the École des Beaux-Arts in Le Havre, where he met Raoul Dufy, then 1899-1904 at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris under Bonnat. Began as an Impressionist and had his first one-man exhibition at the Galerie des Collectionneurs, Paris, in 1904. Then started to use stronger colours and participated 1905-1907 in the Fauve movement; painted with Braque at Antwerp in 1906 and at La Ciotat in 1907. In 1907 developed a less colorful, more strongly constructed style under the influence of Cézanne. His characteristic style, with looser, freer handling, dates from a visit to Portugal in 1911. Worked chiefly at Toulon and in Provence from 1918-1930, and in his last years painted much at Honfleur and elsewhere on the Normandy coast. Influential as a teacher, especially from 1929 at the Académie Scandinave. Died in Paris.
— He began his training in Le Havre in 1896 under the enlightened teaching of the French painter Charles Lhuillier [1824–1899] and continued in Paris under Léon Bonnat until 1904 at the École des Beaux-Arts. In 1903, however, he decided against an academic career and started showing his work at the Salon des Indépendants and, from 1904, at the Salon d'Automne. At this stage he was working in an Impressionist style. Following the emergence of Fauvism at the infamous Salon d’Automne of 1905 and a painting trip with Georges Braque to Antwerp in 1906, he adopted the bright, anti-naturalistic palette of the Fauves, for example in his Fernand Fleuret (1907). He became closely associated with Matisse, renting a studio in the same building as him in Paris from 1905 to 1908. In the summer of 1907, however, painting with Braque in La Ciotat, in the Midi, Friesz began to turn to the example of Cézanne, seeking to emphasize a strong sense of pictorial construction that he felt had been sacrificed to Fauvism’s colouristic excesses. The Arcadian subject-matter of much of his subsequent work up to 1914 was also indebted to Cézanne, especially to his Bather compositions, as in Spring (1908). Like Cézanne, Friesz was anxious to re-establish connections between contemporary, avant-garde painting and the classical tradition, a quest enhanced by a trip to Italy in 1909, where he was particularly struck by the work of Raphael and Giotto, and by his frequent studies in the Louvre. In 1911 Friesz went to paint in Portugal where, echoing Cézanne’s remarks, he said, ‘You can see Poussin remade according to nature’. As a result, despite close connections with the Cubist circle of artists and writers, Friesz never renounced a realistic figurative style.
— The students of Friesz included Lucia Dem Bäläcescu, Héctor Basaldúa, Antonio Berni, Georges Braque, Horacio Butler, Aaron Douglas, Russell Drysdale, Raquel Forner, Ricardo Grau, Francis Gruber, Alexis Preller, Júlio Resende (Martins da Silva Dias).

Travaux d'Automne (1907, 54x65cm)
Cathédrale et Toits à Rouen (1908, 119x96cm)
Tentation (Adam et Ève) (1910; 575x471pix, 161kb)
Le Château de Falaise (soir) (1904, 73x60cm; 512x413pix, 37kb)
^ Died on 10 January 1904: Jean-Léon Gérôme, French painter and sculptor, specialized in Orientalism, born on 11 May 1824.
— Gérôme’s father, a goldsmith from Vésoul, discouraged his son from studying to become a painter but agreed, reluctantly, to allow him a trial period in the studio of Paul Delaroche in Paris. Gérôme proved his worth, remaining with Delaroche from 1840 to 1843. When Delaroche closed the studio in 1843, Gérôme followed his master to Italy. Pompeii meant more to him than Florence or the Vatican, but the world of nature, which he studied constantly in Italy, meant more to him than all three. An attack of fever brought him back to Paris in 1844. He then studied, briefly, under Charles Gleyre, who had taken over the students of Delaroche. Gérôme attended the École des Beaux-Arts and entered the Prix de Rome competition as a way of going back to Italy. In 1846 he failed to qualify for the final stage because of his inadequate ability in figure drawing. To improve his chances in the following year’s competition, he painted an academic exercise of two large figures, a nude youth, crouching in the pose of Chaudet’s marble Eros (1817), and a lightly draped young girl whose graceful mannerism recalls the work of Gérôme’s colleagues from the studio of Delaroche. Gérôme added two fighting cocks (he was very fond of animals) and a blue landscape reminiscent of the Bay of Naples. Delaroche encouraged Gérôme to send The Cockfight (1846) to the Salon of 1847, where it was discovered by the critic Théophile Thoré (but too late to buy it) and made famous by Théophile Gautier. The picture pleased because it dealt with a theme from Classical antiquity in a manner that owed nothing to the unfashionable mannerisms of David’s pupils. Moreover, it placed Gérôme at the head of the Néo-Grec movement, which consisted largely of fellow students of Gleyre, such as Henri-Pierre Picou [1824–1895] and Jean-Louis Hamon.
— Born in Vésoul, died in Paris. Gérôme was born in the département of Haute-Saône, the son of a prosperous silversmith. Afler attending local schools, he moved to Paris in 1839 to enter the studio of Paul Delaroche. Following a year in Rome with Delaroche he studied in 1845 under Charles Gleyre [02 May 180605 May 1874], whose neoclassical manner he adopted for the treatment of scenes from ancient life. His Cock Fight won a third-class medal at the Salon of 1847 and considerable critical and public attention, including praise from Théophile Gautier. In 1854 he made the first of many trips to the Near East, and soon his treatments of oriental subjects vied in number with his classical scenes. He was appointed a professor at the École des Beaux-Arts in 1863, and elected a member of the Institute of France in 1865. From this influential position as famous teacher and leading proponent of classical artistic values, Gerôme was a powerful opponent of impressionism and the avant-garde. In 1878 he exhibited his first monumental sculpture. He remained active as a painter, sculptor, and teacher until his death
— Gérôme was a student of Paul Delaroche. He inherited his highly finished academic style almost directly from Delaroche. His best-known works are his oriental scenes, the fruit of several visits to Egypt. They won Gérôme great popularity and he had considerable influence as an upholder of academic tradition and enemy of progressive trends in art; he opposed, for example, the acceptance by the state of the Caillebotte bequest of Impressionist pictures. Gérôme was a proponent of the orientalist movement and a "lion" in the international artistic circles. His first work, The Cockfight, shown in the Show of 1847, illustrated his concern for authentic detail which he obtained by frequent voyages to Egypt and Constantinople. His marriage with the daughter of legendary collector and art broker Adolphe Goupil facilitated the sales of his works. Goupil worked with the collectors of contemporary academic artists and ensured great fame to Gérôme. Gérôme was a Professor in the Art Schools starting around 1864, although he saw his popularity declining toward the end of his life, partly because of his opposition to the Impressionist painters.
— Gérôme went to Paris in 1841 and worked under Paul Delaroche, whom he accompanied to Italy (1844 - 1845). On his return he exhibited The Cock-fight, which gained him a third-class medal in the Salon of 1847. The Virgin with Christ and St John and Anacreon, Bacchus and Cupid took a second-class medal in 1848. He exhibited Bacchus and Love, Drunk, a Greek Interior and Souvenir d'Italie, in 1851; Paestum (1852); and An Idyll (1853). In 1854 Gérôme made a journey to Turkey and the shores of the Danube, and in 1857 visited Egypt. To the exhibition of 1855 he contributed a Pifferaro, a Shepherd, A Russian Concert and a large historical canvas, The Age of Augustus and the Birth of Christ. The last was somewhat confused in effect, but in recognition of its consummate ability the State purchased it. Gérôme's reputation was greatly enhanced at the Salon of 1857 by a collection of works of a more popular kind: the Duel: after a Masquerade, Egyptian Recruits crossing the Desert, Memnon and Sesostris and Camels Watering, the drawing of which was criticized by Edmond About. In Caesar (1859) Gérôme tried to return to a severer class of work, but the picture failed to interest the public. Phryne before the Areopagus, Le Roi Candaule and Socrates finding Alcibiades in the House of Aspasia (1861) gave rise to some scandal by reason of the subjects selected by the painter, and brought down on him the bitter attacks of Paul de Saint-Victor and Maxjme Ducamp. At the same Salon he exhibited the Egyptian chopping Straw, and Rembrandt biting an Etching, two very minutely finished works. Gérôme's best paintings are of Eastern subjects; among these may be named the Turkish Prisoner and Turkish Butcher (1863); Prayer (1865); The Slave Market (1867); and The Harem out Driving (1869). He often illustrated history, as in Louis XIV and Moliere (1863); The Reception of the Siamese Ambassadors at Fontainebleau (1865); and the Death of Marshal Ney (1868). Gérôme was also successful as a sculptor; he executed, among other works; Omphale (1887). His Bellona (1892), in ivory, metal, and precious stones, which was also exhibited in the Royal Academy of London, attracted great attention. The artist then began an interesting series of Conquerors, wrought in gold, silver and gems - Bonaparte entering Cairo (1897); Tamerlane (1898); and Frederick the Great (1899). Gérôme was elected member of the Institut in 1865.
—  Gérôme's students included Pascal-Adolphe-Jean Dagnan-Bouveret, Jules Jean Antoine Lecomte du Nouÿ, Thomas Cowperthwaite Eakins, Frank Boggs, Frederick Bridgman, Kenyon Cox, Julian Alden Weir, Dennis Miller Bunker, William DeLeftwich Dodge, Alexander Harrison, Robert Lee MacCameron, Siddons Mowbray, Harper Pennington, William Picknell, Julius Stewart, Abbott Handerson Thayer, Douglas Volk, Wyatt Eaton, Lawton Parker, Ali Ahmet, Harriet Backer, Léon Bakst, Gunnar Fredrik Berndtson, George de Forest Brush, Dennis Miller Bunker, Eugène Burnand, Mary Stevenson Cassatt, Albert Gustaf Aristides Edelfelt, Emanuel Phillips Fox, Antonio de la Gandara [16 Dec 1862 – 30 Jun 1917], Pierre-Paul-Léon Glaize [1842-1932], Auguste-Barthélémy Glaize [15 Dec 1807 – 08 Aug 1893], Lucien Felix Henry, Vojtech Hynais, Ernst Josephson, Konstanty Laszczka, Henry Herbert La Thangue, Fernand Léger, Hamdi Osman, Paul Peel, Jean-François Raffaëlli, Anthon Gerhard Alexander van Rappard, Odilon Bertrand-Jean Redon, Theodore Robinson, Alfred-Philippe Roll, Helene Sofia Schjerfbeck, Édouard Vuillard, Émile-Charles Wauters.

Self Portrait (1886, 41x31cm;_ ZOOMable)
Le Marché aux Tapis (1887, 84x65cm; 1135x880pix _ ZOOM to 2270x1761pix; 3105kb) _ This painting shows the Court of the Rug Market in Cairo, which Gérôme had visited in 1885.
–- Le Bain (1885, 74x60cm; 1142x934pix, 168kb _ .ZOOM to 2284x1868pix, 601kb _ .ZOOM+ to main detail 3456x2304pix, 1214kb)
La Prière au Caire aka La Prière sur les Toits au Caire (1865, 50x81cm; 900x1269pix;_ ZOOMable)
Public Prayer in the Mosque of Amr, Cairo (1870, 89x75cm;_ ZOOMable)
Un Muezzin Appelant du Haut du Minaret les Fidèles à la Prière (1879, 91x66cm;_ ZOOMable)
Interior of a Mosque (1870, 57x89cm;_ ZOOMable)
A Café in Cairo (1883;_ ZOOMable)
Almehs playing Chess in a Café (1870, 66x55cm)
The Serpent Charmer (1880, 84x122cm)
Pelt Merchant of Cairo (1869, 61x50cm;_ ZOOMable)
A Street Scene in Cairo (1871, 59x93cm;_ ZOOMable)
Cairene Horse Dealer aka The Horse Market (1867, 57x46cm;_ ZOOMable)
The Arab and his Steed aka In the Desert (1872, 60x99cm;_ ZOOMable)
Arabs Crossing the Desert (1870, 41x56cm;_ ZOOMable)
Egyptian Recruits Crossing the Desert (1857, 62x106cm;_ ZOOMable)
Camels at the Trough (1857, 74x119cm;_ ZOOMable)
Harem Pool (725x609pix, 125kb)
Ultime Prière des Martyrs Chrétiens (1883, 88x150cm;_ ZOOMable)
King Candaules (1859, 67x99cm;_ ZOOMable) _ Candaules was a king of the ancient Kingdom of Lydia from 735 BC to 718 BC. One version of how he was succeeded by Gyges, who reigned until 680 BC (when he was killed in a battle), is told here:
     There was a certain king of Sardis, Candaules by name, whom the Greeks called Myrsilus. He was a descendant of Alcaeus, son of Hercules. The first king of this dynasty was Agron, son of Ninus, grandson of Belus, and great-grandson of Alcaeus; Candaules, son of Myrsus, was the last. The kings who reigned before Agron sprang from Lydus, son of Atys, from whom the people of the land, called previously Meonians, received the name of Lydians. The Heraclides, descended from Hercules and the slave-girl of Jardanus, having been entrusted by these princes with the management of affairs, obtained the kingdom by an oracle. Their rule endured for two and twenty generations of men, a space of five hundred and five years; during the whole of which period, from Agron to Candaules, the crown descended in the direct line from father to son.
      Now it happened that this Candaules was in love with his own wife; and not only so, but thought her the fairest woman in the whole world. This fancy had strange consequences. There was in his bodyguard a man whom he specially favored, Gyges, the son of Dascylus. All affairs of greatest moment were entrusted by Candaules to this person, and to him he was wont to extol the surpassing beauty of his wife. So matters went on for a while. At length, one day, Candaules, who was fated to end ill, thus addressed his follower: "I see thou dost not credit what I tell thee of my lady's loveliness; but come now, since men's ears are less credulous than their eyes, contrive some means whereby thou mayst behold her naked." At this the other loudly exclaimed, saying, "What most unwise speech is this, master, which thou hast uttered? Wouldst thou have me behold my mistress when she is naked? Bethink thee that a woman, with her clothes, puts off her bashfulness. Our fathers, in time past, distinguished right and wrong plainly enough, and it is our wisdom to submit to be taught by them. There is an old saying, 'Let each look on his own.' I hold thy wife for the fairest of all womankind. Only, I beseech thee, ask me not to do wickedly." Gyges thus endeavored to decline the king's proposal, trembling lest some dreadful evil should befall him through it.
      But the king replied to him, "Courage, friend; suspect me not of the design to prove thee by this discourse; nor dread thy mistress, lest mischief be thee at her hands. Be sure I will so manage that she shall not even know that thou hast looked upon her. I will place thee behind the open door of the chamber in which we sleep. When I enter to go to rest she will follow me. There stands a chair close to the entrance, on which she will lay her clothes one by one as she takes them off. Thou wilt be able thus at thy leisure to peruse her person. Then, when she is moving from the chair toward the bed, and her back is turned on thee, be it thy care that she see thee not as thou passest through the doorway."
      Gyges, unable to escape, could but declare his readiness. Then Candaules, when bedtime came, led Gyges into his sleeping-chamber, and a moment after the queen followed. She entered, and laid her garments on the chair, and Gyges gazed on her. After a while she moved toward the bed, and her back being then turned, he glided stealthily from the apartment. As he was passing out, however, she saw him, and instantly divining what had happened, she neither screamed as her shame impelled her, nor even appeared to have noticed aught, purposing to take vengeance upon the husband who had so affronted her. For among the Lydians, and indeed among the barbarians generally, it is reckoned a deep disgrace, even to a man, to be seen naked. No sound or sign of intelligence escaped her at the time.
      But in the morning, as soon as day broke, she hastened to choose from among her retinue such as she knew to be most faithful to her, and preparing them for what was to ensue, summoned Gyges into her presence. Now it had often happened before that the queen had desired to confer with him, and he was accustomed to come to her at her call. He therefore obeyed the summons, not suspecting that she knew aught of what had occurred. Then she addressed these words to him: "Take thy choice, Gyges, of two courses which are open to thee. Slay Candaules, and thereby become my lord, and obtain the Lydian throne, or die this moment in his room. So wilt thou not again, obeying all behests of thy master, behold what is not lawful for thee. It must needs be that either he perish by whose counsel this thing was done, or thou, who sawest me naked, and so didst break our usages." At these words Gyges stood awhile in mute astonishment; recovering after a time, he earnestly besought the queen that she would not compel him to so hard a choice. But finding he implored in vain, and that necessity was indeed laid on him to kill or to be killed, he made choice of life for himself, and replied by this inquiry: "If it must be so, and thou compellest me against my will to put my lord to death, come, let me hear how thou wilt have me set on him." "Let him be attacked," she answered, "on the spot where I was by him shown naked to you, and let the assault be made when he is asleep."
      All was then prepared for the attack, and when night fell, Gyges, seeing that he had no retreat or escape, but must absolutely either slay Candaules, or himself be slain, followed his mistress into the sleeping-room. She placed a dagger in his hand and hid him carefully behind the self-same door. Then Gyges, when the king was fallen asleep, entered privily into the chamber and struck him dead. Thus did the wife and kingdom of Candaules pass into the possession of Gyges, of whom Archilochus the Parian, who lived about the same time, made mention in a poem written in iambic trimeter verse. Gyges was afterwards confirmed in the possession of the throne by an answer of the Delphic oracle.
      Enraged at the murder of their king, the people flew to arms, but after a while the partisans of Gyges came to terms with them, and it was agreed that if the Delphic oracle declared him king of the Lydians, he should reign; if otherwise, he should yield the throne to the Heraclides. As the oracle was given in his favor he became king. The Pythoness, however, added that, in the fifth generation from Gyges, vengeance should come for the Heraclides; a prophecy of which neither the Lydians nor their princes took any account till it was fulfilled. Such was the way in which the Mermnadae deposed the Heraclides, and themselves obtained the sovereignty. (Herodotus, Histories book 1.7-13)

 _ see also the painting Candaules, King of Lydia, Shows his Wife by Stealth to Gyges (417x512pix, 28kb) by William Etty.
Phryné before the Areopagus (80x128cm;_ ZOOMable)
The Slave Market (1880; 600x508pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1185pix)
Slave Market in Rome (1884; 600x508pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1185pix)
— Slave Auction (750x594pix, 104kb)
— Pho Xai fils d'ambassadeur Siamois (1861, 28x22cm)
Markos Botsaris (1874, 70x54cm;_ ZOOMable) _ Markos Botsaris [1788 – 21 Aug 1823] was a Greek patriot exiled from his native Epirus in 1803, who became a hero of the Greek War of Independence, the successful insurgency waged by the Greeks between 1821 and 1827 to win independence from the Ottoman Empire. Botsaris was prominent notably in the defense of Mesolongion (1822–1823) and at Karpenision, where with a handful of men he defeated the Turks but died in battle.
–- Madame de la Pagerie (77x63cm; 863x720pix, 69kb _ .ZOOM to 1726x1440pix, 192kb)
Mlle Durand aka Madame Duvergier (1853, 127x87cm;_ ZOOMable)
Duel Après un Bal Masqué _ détail (1857)
L'Éminence Grise (1874, 65x98cm)
Unfolding the Holy Flag (The Standard Bearer)
Louis XIV and Molière (42x75cm; 583x995pix, 207kb)
The Grief of the Pasha
The Virgin, the Infant Jesus, and Saint John
The Reception of the Siamese Ambassadors at Fontainebleau (1864, 128x260cm)
— The Pyrrhic Dance (63x89cm)
— The Dance of the Almeh
Socrates Seeking Alcibiades in the House of Aspasia (ZOOM to 1400x2222pix; 1378kb) _ The dog, Argos, belongs to Alcibiades.
— Petit Garçon
Pollice Verso (1872, 96x149cm;_ ZOOMable) _ no cops! it means “thumb down” in Latin.
Napoléon et son État-Major en Égypte (1867)
163 images at the Athenaeum
175 images at ARC (including some photos of sculptures).
^ Died on 10 January 1941: John Lavery, Irish painter born on 20 March 1856.
— The son of an unsuccessful publican, he was orphaned at the age of three and was brought up by relatives, initially in the north of Ireland and then in Ayrshire. He became an apprentice retoucher to a Glasgow photographer and attended the Haldane Academy, Glasgow, in the 1870s. After spending a winter term at Heatherley's School of Art, London, he moved in 1881 to Paris where he studied at the Académie Julian. At this time he was influenced by Jules Bastien-Lepage and painted in a plein-air naturalist style (e.g. Under the Cherry Tree, 1884), working at the village of Grez-sur-Loing with an international community of artists.
      After Lavery's return to Glasgow in 1885, renderings of the urban middle class replaced his earlier interest in peasant subject-matter. With such important works as the Tennis Party (1885), Lavery became one of the leaders of the Glasgow boys, a group of young painters committed to the ideals of naturalism. In 1888, the year of Queen Victoria's Jubilee, Lavery was selected to depict The Queen's visit to the International Exhibition in Glasgow (1888). He obtained a sitting from the Queen and thereafter his position as the premier young portraitist of his generation was assured. During these years he became friendly with Whistler; Lavery's full-length figure-pieces, such as Mrs Fitzroy Bell (1894), have parallels with those of Whistler. Lavery moved to London in 1896. He became vice-president of the International Society, which was set up in 1897 to hold regular international exhibitions in London, under the successive presidencies of Whistler and Rodin.
      Lavery's work was favored in Paris, Rome and Berlin rather than in London. He exhibited at all the major European salons and secessions and in the early 20th century two of his paintings, Father and Daughter (1898) and Spring (1904), were acquired for the Louvre. During these years he travelled widely and established a studio at Tangier. He was honoured with a one-man exhibition at the Venice Biennale in 1910 and it was only after this that he was elected ARA (1911). Not having shown at the Royal Academy since 1896, he exhibited on his return there an imposing canvas entitled The Amazon. He was elected RA in 1921.
      In 1910 he married Hazel Martyn Trudeau, the daughter of a Chicago industrialist. She became a central figure in London society and Lavery often claimed his success as a portraitist was in part due to her social accomplishments. In 1912 he was commissioned by the publisher Hugh Spottiswoode to paint The King, The Queen, The Prince of Wales, The Princess Mary, Buckingham Palace, 1913 for donation to the National Portrait Gallery, London.
      When World War I broke out Lavery began recording scenes at military camps, naval bases and munitions factories. He was appointed Official War Artist in 1917, assigned to the Royal Navy; one of his duties was to paint the surrender of the German Fleet at Rosyth (Fife) in 1918. At the end of the war Lavery became involved in Irish affairs, painting his friend, Michael Collins, the negotiator of the Irish Treaty, on his deathbed (1922; Dublin, Hugh Lane Mun. Gal.).
      Lavery traveled widely between World War I and World War II, producing many portrait interiors' of the rich and famous, caught in a mood of elegant relaxation. His sitters included George Bernard Shaw (1927) and J. M. Barrie (1936). He also painted horse-racing, swimming-pool and casino subjects. Through the art dealer Joseph Duveen, he attained a formidable reputation in the United States. After his wife's death in 1935, Lavery went to Hollywood with the idea of painting portraits of the stars; however, the only result was a Self-Portrait with Shirley Temple. At the outbreak of World War II, he retreated to Kilkenny.

The Red Fan (1885, 51x61cm; 570x699pix)
The Bridge At Grez (28x66cm; 419x1000pix)
King George V, Accompanied by Queen Mary, at the Opening of the Modern Foreign and Sargent Galleries at the Tate Gallery, 26 June 1926 (1926, 61x51cm)
The Tennis Party (1885)
The Glasgow Exhibition, 1888 (1888)
Tangier, The White City (1893)
Mrs Guthrie (1898)
The Red Rose (1923)
Mrs E. Bowen-Davies (1923)
The_Jockeys'_Dressing_Room_at_Ascot (1923)
Joe Childs, the Rothschild's Jockey (1923, 46x35cm; 800x625pix, 78kb)
^ Died on 10 January 1894: Federico de Madrazo y Küntz, in Madrid, Spanish painter born on 19 (09?) February 1815 in Rome, son of José de Madrazo y Agudo [22 Apr 1781 – 08 May 1859].
— In 1818 his family returned from Rome to Madrid, where Federico studied painting under his father and the other leading Spanish Neo-classical painters Juan Antonio de Ribera and José Aparicio. Federico’s Continence of Scipio (1831) gained him the status of academician. It shows the French Neo-classical traditions instilled in him at the Madrid Academia by his professors, all students of Jacques-Louis David and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. Federico won immediate popularity in court circles with his sympathetic rendering of Ferdinand VII in The King’s Illness (1832), and that same year (1832) he was named Pintor Supernumerario de Cámara. He became the foremost portrait painter in Spain as well as holding all the significant posts in the art establishment.
— Hijo de José Madrazo y de madre alemana fue un pintor romántico académico de corte francés, que cultivó tanto el género del retrato como de la pintura histórica. Atraviesa tres fases en su carrera. Al principio, su etapa es purista, de gran detallismo. Más tarde suaviza los contornos y su pintura se vuelve más espontánea. Finalmente retorna a la tradición. Su formación en el dibujo hace que predomine en él casi siempre la línea sobre el color. Pinta retratos para la aristocracia, gozando por ello de una situación social elevada lo que le introduce en ambientes privilegiados. Su pintura está definida por medio de una pincelada prieta y muy brillante. Amigo de Ingres, trabajó en su taller durante su estancia en París. En Roma estuvo en contacto con Overbeck y el grupo de los nazarenos, quienes reforzaron su destreza innata para el dibujo. Fue pintor de cámara de la reina Isabel II y director de la Academia de San Fernando y del Museo del Prado. — Besides his sons Raimundo Madrazo Garreta [24 Jun 1841 – 15 Sep 1920] and Ricardo Madrazo Garreta [07 Feb 1852 – 18 Aug 1917] , the students of Madrazo y Küntz included Léon Bonnat, Antonio Gisbert Pérez, Bartolomé Maura y Montaner, Francisco Oller.

Amalia de Llano y Dotres- The Countess of Vilches (1853)
El General Duque de San Miguel (1854)
La reina Isabel II (737x560pix, 130kb)
El niño Flores (800x581pix, 97kb)
Manuel Rivadeneyra (800x610pix, 114kb)
The 8 Spanish postal stamps reproducing portraits by Madrazo y Küntz

Died on a 10 January:

2009 Ray Yoshida [03 Oct 1930–], US semi-abstract painter and collagist. —(090116)

>1920 Paul Wilhelm Keller-Reutlingen [02 Feb 1854–], German landscape painter and engineer.
— (untitled?) (72x50cm; 385x600pix, 55kb) —(090109)

1894 Karl Friedrich Heinrich Werner, German painter born (main coverage) on 04 October 1808. —(090109)

1893 Karl Morgenstern, German painter born (main coverage) on 25 October 1811. —(090109).

1892 Charles Louis Lucien Müller, French painter born (main coverage) on 22 December 1815. —(090109).

1890 Johann Baptist Reiter, Austrian painter born (main coverage) on 04 July 1813. —(090109)

>1760 Félix Anton Scheffler, German painter born on 29 August 1701.
Via Crucis: 1st Station (1757; 444x335pix, 49kb) Jesus is condemned to death
Via Crucis: 2th Station (1757; 434x335pix, 44kb) Jesus takes up his Cross
Via Crucis: 3rd Station (1757; 443x335pix, 49kb) Jesus falls for the first time
Via Crucis: 4th Station (1757; 439x335pix, 49kb) Jesus meets his Mother
Via Crucis: 5th Station (1757; 439x335pix, 51kb) As they went out, they came upon a man of Cyrene, Simon by name; this man they compelled to carry his cross. (Mat. 27:32)
Via Crucis: 6th Station (1757; 449x335pix, 50kb) Veronica wipes the face of Jesus

Via Crucis: 7th Station (1757; 441x335pix, 50kb) Jesus falls for the second time
Via Crucis: 8th Station (1757; 453x335pix, 49kb) A great number of people followed him, and among them were women who were beating their breasts and wailing for him. But Jesus turned to them and said: “Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep for me, but weep for yourselves and for your children. For behold, the days are coming when they will say, ‘Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that never bore, and the breasts that never nursed!’. For if they do this when the wood is green, what will happen when it is dry?” (Luk.. 23:27-29, 31)
Via Crucis: 9th Station (1757; 443x335pix, 45kb) Jesus falls for the third time.
Via Crucis: 10th Station (1757; 437x335pix, 46kb)... the soldiers ... took his garments and made four parts, one for each soldier; also his tunic. But the tunic was without seam, woven from top to bottom; so they said to one another: “Let us not tear it, but cast lots for it to see whose it shall be”. This was to fulfil the Scripture: “They parted my garments among them, and for my clothing they cast lots”. (John 19:23-24)
Via Crucis: 11th Station (1757; 452x335pix, 50kb) ... they ... crucified him, ... then they sat down and kept watch over him there. And over his head they put the charge against him, which read: “This is Jesus the King of the Jews”. Then two robbers were crucified with him, one on the right hand and one on the left. And those who passed by derided him, wagging their heads and saying: “You who would destroy the temple and build it in three days, save yourself! If you are the Son of God, come down from the Cross”. So also the chief priests with the scribes and elders mocked him, saying: “He saved others; he cannot save himself. He is the King of Israel; let him come down now from the Cross and we will believe in him”. (Matthew 27:35-42)
Via Crucis: 12th Station (1757; 448x335pix, 48kb) Standing by the cross of Jesus were his mother, and his mother’s sister, Mary, the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene. When Jesus saw his mother, and the disciple whom he loved standing near, he said to his mother: “Woman, behold your son!” Then he said to the disciples: “Behold your mother!”. And from that hour the disciple took her to his own home.(John 19:25-27)
      Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land until the ninth hour. And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice: “Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?”, that is: “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?” And Jesus cried again with a loud voice and yielded up his spirit. John 19:25-27 Standing by the cross of Jesus were his mother, and his mother’s sister, Mary, the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene. When Jesus saw his mother, and the disciple whom he loved standing near, he said to his mother: “Woman, behold your son!” Then he said to the disciples: “Behold your mother!”. And from that hour the disciple took her to his own home. From the Gospel according to (Mat 27:45-46, 50)
Via Crucis: 13th Station (1757; 441x334pix, 48kb) When it was evening, there came a rich man from Arimathea, named Joseph, who also was a disciple of Jesus. He went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus. Then Pilate ordered it to be given to him. (Mat 27:57-58).
Via Crucis: 14th Station (1757; 444x335pix, 43kb) Joseph took the body, and wrapped it in a clean linen shroud, and laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn in the rock; and he rolled a great stone to the door of the tomb, and departed. Mary Magdalene and the other Mary were there, sitting opposite the sepulchre. (Mat. 27:59-61)—(090109)

Born on a 10 January:

^ 1924 Eduardo Chillida y Juantegui, Spanish abstract sculptor, draftsman, and collagist. — LINKS
Untitled drawing (detail for a wire sculpture?) (19x19cm; 364x374pix, 18kb)

1903 Barbara Hepworth, British abstract sculptor and draftswoman who died on 20 May 1975. — LINKS

1819 Pierre-Édouard Frère, French painter who died on 20 May 1886. — Il était le frère du peintre orientaliste Charles-Théodore Frère [21 Jun 1814 – 24 Mar 1888] {Ils avaient un Frère pour père sans que cela soit le moins du monde anormal.}— At the age of 17, Édouard Frère entered the atelier of Paul Delaroche at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He exhibited regularly at the Salon in Paris from 1842 to 1886 and at the Royal Academy in London from 1868 to 1885. Unlike many other 19th-century artists, Frère preferred not to live in Paris, where he was born, but in Ecouen, where he died.

^ 1745 Étienne Aubry, Versailles French painter who died on 24 July 1781. He was trained by Jacques-Augustin Silvestre [1719–1809] and Joseph Marie Vien, exhibiting portraits at the Salon from 1771 and becoming a member of the Académie Royale as a portrait painter in 1775. His portraits of such eminent contemporaries as the composer Christoph Willibald Gluck are characterized by a quiet, understated elegance. In 1775, ambitious to improve his status as an artist within the hierarchy of genres, he began to exhibit scenes of domestic life. Paternal Love is indebted to the paintings of Jean-Baptiste Greuze, but the sentimental subject is depicted with a compositional clarity and restrained naturalism that make Aubry the most original and appealing of Greuze’s imitators. The Nurse’s Farewell departs from prototypes by Greuze in its representation of a fashionable urban family in a landscape setting. In the late 1770s Aubry also painted melodramatic scenes, which demonstrate his desire to rival the success of Greuze’s Paternal Curse. Aubry’s genre paintings were praised by contemporary critics, including Denis Diderot, and were bought by such notable collectors as the Comte d’Angiviller, Directeur des Bâtiments du Roi. In 1777, under the auspices of d’Angiviller, he went to Rome in order to study to become a history painter, but his progress disappointed the hopes of his patrons. Aubry’s later paintings, such as Coriolanus’ Farewell to his Wife (posthumously exhibited at the 1781 Salon) inspired many critics to express regret for his early death.
Les Adieux de la Nourrice (485x588pix, 70kb _ ZOOM to 1255x1080pix, 255kb)
–- A Sleeping Boy (1773, oval 48x39cm, in large ornate frame; 977x849pix, 119kb _ .ZOOM to 1710x1485pix, 241kb _ .crop frame, 1066x830pix, 62kb _ .no frame, 954x830pix, 40kb) —(070108)

1708 Donatien Nonnotte, French painter who died on 04 February 1785. — {Non notte pitturava?} — {I find no Nonnotte note on the Internet except the following} — He was first trained in his native Besançon by his uncle Jean Nonnotte. When about 20 years old he moved to Paris, where he studied under François Lemoyne and found an influential patron in the Duc d’Antin, Surintendant des Bâtiments du Roi. Nonnotte was thus well positioned for a career as a history painter. His first works included wall and ceiling paintings, which he completed from 1730 to 1932 at the château of Versailles, where he worked as Lemoyne’s assistant, and in the churches of Saint Sulpice and Saint Thomas d’Aquin in Paris. — Philippe-Auguste Hennequin was a student of Nonnotte.

1680 Philip van Dyk “the little van Dyck”, Dutch artist who died on 03 February 1753.

1646 Johannes Offermans, Dutch artist who died after 1696.
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