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ART “4” “2”-DAY  08 January v.10.70
^ >Died on 08 January 1938: Christian Rohlfs, German painter and printmaker born on 22 December (22 Jan?) 1849.
— He studied painting at the Kunstschule in Weimar (1870). Prolonged illness forced him to interrupt his studies, which he resumed in 1874 under Ferdinand Schauss [1832–1916] and Alexandre Struys [1852–1941]. Through visits to Paris in the 1870s, he came into contact with the art of the Barbizon school, painting en plein-air on his return to Weimar. Under the influence of Struys he painted figurative works, such as Roman Builders (1879), and nudes in the tradition of academically enlightened Realism. In 1881 Rohlfs worked in a studio under Max Thedy [1858–1924]. From about 1883 he painted mainly landscapes with the approval of Ludwig von Gleichen-Russwurm [1836–1901], who was studying under Theodor Hagen [1842–1919], and was influenced in an indirect way by Albert Brendel [1827–1895], who had taught at Weimar from 1875. He often chose formats that were unusually large for landscape paintings in this period, presenting landscape in a similar way to history painting. Atmosphere and light played an important role even in these early pictures, for example Sawmill at Ehringsdorf on the Ilm (1883. 93x78cm). From 1884 he worked as an independent painter. After 1885 color became increasingly important for its own sake; light and shade were suggested purely by color, which was applied in impasto spots and brushstrokes to create chiaroscuro values that determined the form, for example Wild Garden near Weimar (1888). By the end of the 1880s he had developed an independent style parallel to Impressionist painting. When he saw works by Monet exhibited in Weimar in 1897, these corroborated his own efforts.

Berkaer Landstraße, Chaussee nach Gelmeroda bei Weimar im Hochsommer (1889, 572x872pix)
Waldweg im Winter, Chaussee nach Tiefurt im Webicht bei Weimar (1889, 572x716pix)
Chaussee nach Gelmeroda im Herbst (1893, 572x640pix)
Hügelige Landschaft im Spätherbst mit Wolkenhimmel bei Weimar (1900, 572x516pix)
Blühende Obstplantage, Frühlingslandschaft (1897, 572x724pix)
Sommerlandschaft bei Weimar (1904, 572x888pix)
Türme von Soest (1906, 572x820pix)
Dorf zwischen Bäumen und Häuser (1913, 572x824pix)
Jesus in Gethsemane (1922, 572x392pix)
Garten in Soest (381x550pix, 142kb)
–- Rückkehr des verlorenen Sohnes (1916 woodcut, 50x36cm; 917x662pix, 68kb)
^ Died on 08 January 1337: Giotto di Bondone, the most important Italian painter of the 14th century, born in 1267. His works point to the innovations of the Renaissance style that developed a century later. For almost seven centuries Giotto has been revered as the father of European painting and the first of the great Italian masters. He is believed to have been a pupil of the Florentine painter Cimabue and to have decorated chapels in Assisi, Rome, Padua, Florence, and Naples with frescoes and panel paintings in tempera. Because little of his life and few of his works are documented, attributions and a stylistic chronology of his paintings remain problematic and often highly speculative.
     Much of Giotto's biography and artistic development must be deduced from the evidence of surviving works (a large portion of which cannot be attributed to him with certainty) and stories that originate for the most part from the late 14th century on. The date of Giotto's birth can be taken as either 1266/67 or 1276, and the 10 years' difference is of fundamental importance in assessing his early development and is crucial to the problem of the attribution of the frescoes in the Church of San Francesco, in Assisi, which, if indeed by Giotto, are his great early works. It is known that Giotto died on Jan. 8, 1337 (1336, Old Style); this was recorded at the time in the Villani chronicle. About 1373, a rhymed version of the Villani chronicle was produced by Antonio Pucci, town crier of Florence and amateur poet, in which it is stated that Giotto was 70 when he died. This fact would imply that he was born in 1266/67,and it is clear that there was 14th-century authority for the statement (possibly Giotto's original tombstone, now lost). But Giorgio Vasari, in his important biography (1550) of Giotto, gives 1276 as the year of Giotto's birth, and it may be that he was copying one of the two known versions of the Libro di Antonio Billi, a 16th-century collection of notes on Florentine artists. In the Codex Petrei version, a statement that Giotto was born in 1276 at Vespignano, the son of a peasant, occurs at the very end of the “Life” and may have been added much later, even, conceivably, from Vasari. In any case, whether Vasari or “Antonio Billi” first made the statement, it cannot have the same authority as that attached to Antonio Pucci, who was about 27 when Giotto died. Certainty of the date of Giotto's birth, if settled by new documents, could help to solve the problem of his work at Assisi, as well as the question of the origins of his style.
      Giotto has always been assumed to have been the student of Cimabue; two independent traditions, each differing on the particular circumstances, assert this, and it is probably correct. Furthermore, Cimabue's style was, in certain respects, so similar to Giotto's in intention that a connection seems inescapable. Cimabue was the most outstanding painter in Italy at the end of the 13th century; he tried, as no artist had before, to break through, with the power of reality and imaginative force, the stylized forms of medieval art. He did not fully succeed, but it seems almost certain that Giotto began his remarkable development with him, inspired by his strength of drawing and his ability to incorporate dramatic tension into his works. On the other hand, whatever Giotto may have learned from Cimabue, it is clear that, even more than the sculptor Nicola Pisano about 30 years earlier, he succeeded in an astonishing innovation that originated in his own genius, a true revival of classical ideals and an expression in art of the new humanity that St. Francis had in the early 13th century brought to religion.
      In Giotto's works human beings are the exclusive subject matter, and they act with dedicated passion their parts in the great Christian drama of sacrifice and redemption. By comparison, all his predecessors and most of his immediate successors painted a puppet show with lifeless mannequins tricked out in the rags of the splendid, hieratic, and impersonal art of Byzantium, which was to be entirely superseded by the urgent emotionalism of the Franciscan approach to Christianity.
      The central problem in Giotto studies, the attribution of the Assisi frescoes, may be summed up as the question whether Giotto ever painted at Assisi and, if so, what? There can be no reasonable doubt that he did work at Assisi, for a long literary tradition goes back to the Compilatio chronologica of Riccobaldo Ferrarese, who wrote in or before 1319, when Giotto was alive and famous. Later writers down to Vasari expanded this and made it clear that Giotto's works were in the great double church of San Francesco. By Vasari's time, several frescoes in both upper and lower churches were attributed to Giotto, the most important being the cycle of 28 scenes from the life of St. Francis of Assisi in the nave of the upper church and the Franciscan Virtues and some other frescoes in the lower church. (Some of the frescoes in the St. Francis cycle were damaged by earthquakes that struck Assisi on 26 September 1997.)
      The majority of these scenes, mostly narrative, are revolutionary in their expression of reality and humanity. In these frescoes, the emphasis is on the dramatic moment of each situation, and, with details of dress and background at a minimum, the inner reality of human emotion is intensified through crucial gestures and glances. In the 19th century, however, it was observed that all these frescoes, though similar in style, could not be by the same hand, and the new trend toward skepticism of Vasari's statements led to the position that rejected all the Assisi frescoes and dated the St. Francis cycle to a period after Giotto's death. This extreme view has been generally abandoned, and, indeed, a dated picture of 1307 can be shown to derive from the St. Francis cycle. Nevertheless, many scholars prefer to accept the idea of an otherwise totally unknown Master of the St. Francis legend, on the grounds that the style of the cycle is irreconcilable with that of the later Arena Chapel frescoes in Padua, which are universally accepted as Giotto's. This involves the idea that the works referred to (in Giotto's lifetime) by Riccobaldo cannot be identified with anything now extant and must have perished centuries ago, so that the early 15th-century sculptor Lorenzo Ghiberti, Vasari, and others mistakenly transferred the existing St. Francis cycle to Giotto. Five hundred years of tradition are thus written off.
     Still more difficult, if Giotto did not paint the St. Francis frescoes, major works of art, then they must be attributed to a painter who cannot be shown to have created anything else, whose name has disappeared without trace, although he was of the first rank, and, odder still, was formed by the combined influences of Cimabue, the Florentine sculptor Arnolfo di Cambio, and the Roman painter Pietro Cavallini—influences which coalesce at Assisi and maybe taken as the influences that formed Giotto himself.
      Arising out of the fusion of Roman and Florentine influences in the Assisi frescoes, there was later a tendency to see the hand of Giotto, as a very young man, in the works of the Isaac Master, the painter of two scenes of “Isaac and Esau” and “Jacob and Isaac” in the nave above the St. Francis cycle. If this theory is accepted, it is easy to understand that Giotto, as a young man, made such a success of this commission that he was entrusted with the most important one, the official painted biography of St. Francis based on the new official biography written around 1266 by St. Bonaventura. In fact, the whole of today's mental picture of St. Francis stems largely from these frescoes. Clearly, a man born in 1276 was less likely to have received such a commission than one 10 years older, if, as was always thought, the commission was given in 1296 or soon after by Fra Giovanni di Muro, general of the Franciscans. The works in the Lower Church are generally regarded as productions of Giotto's followers (there are, indeed, resemblances to his works at Padua), and there is real disagreement only over the “Legend of St. Francis.” The main strength of the non-Giotto school lies in the admittedly sharp stylistic contrasts between the St. Francis cycle and the frescoes in the Arena Chapel at Padua, especially if the Assisi frescoes were painted from 1296 to about 1300 and those of the Arena about 1303–1305; for the interval between the two cycles is too small to allow for major stylistic developments. This argument becomes less compelling when the validity of the dates proposed and the Roman period about 1300 are taken into account. As already mentioned, the Assisi frescoes may have been painted before 1296 and not necessarily afterward, and the Arena frescoes are datable with certainty only in or before 1309, although probably painted about 1305–1306; clearly, a greater time lag between the two cycles can help to explain stylistic differences, as can the experiences that Giotto underwent in what was probably his second Roman period.
     Three principal works are attributed to Giotto in Rome. They are the great mosaic of Christ Walking on the Water (the Navicella), over the entrance to St. Peter's; the altarpiece painted for Cardinal Stefaneschi; and the fresco fragment of Boniface VIII Proclaiming the Jubilee, in San Giovanni in Laterano. Giotto is also known to have painted some frescoes in the choir of old St. Peter's, but these are lost.
      These Roman works also pose problems in attribution and criticism. The attribution of the Navicella is certain; it is known that Cardinal Stefaneschi commissioned Giotto to do it. The mosaic, however, was almost entirely remade in the 17th century except for two fragmentary heads of angels, so that old copies must be used for all stylistic deductions. The fresco fragment in San Giovanni in Laterano was cleaned in the 20th century and was tentatively reattributed to Giotto on the basis of its likeness to the Assisi frescoes, but the original attribution can be traced only as far back as the 17th century. The Stefaneschi Altarpiece, with its portrait of the Cardinal himself, must be one of the works commissioned by him. The fact that he commissioned Giotto to do the Navicella might suggest that this work is by Giotto as well, but the altarpiece is so poor in quality that it cannot be by Giotto's own hand. It may be observed that several works bearing Giotto's signature, notably the Saint Francis of Assisi and the altarpieces in Bologna and Florence (Santa Croce), are generally regarded as school pieces bearing his trademark, whereas the Ognissanti Madonna, unsigned and virtually undocumented, is so superlative in quality that it is accepted as entirely by his hand.
      During this period Giotto may also have done the Crucifix in Santa Maria Novella and the Madonna in San Giorgio e Massimiliano dello Spirito Santo. These works may be possibly identifiable with works mentioned in very early sources, and if so they throw light on Giotto's early style (before 1300). It is also possible that, about 1305, Giotto went to Avignon, in France, but the evidence for this is slender.
      There is thus no very generally agreed picture of Giotto's early development. It is some relief, therefore, to turn to the fresco cycle in the chapel in Padua known as the Arena or Scrovegni Chapel. Its name derives from the fact that it was built on the site of a Roman amphitheater by Enrico Scrovegni, the son of a notorious usurer mentioned by Dante. The founder is shown offering a model of the church in the huge “Last Judgment,” which covers the whole west wall. The rest of the small, bare church is covered with frescoes in three tiers representing scenes from the lives of Joachim and Anna, the life of the Virgin, the Annunciation (on the chancel arch), and the life and Passion of Christ, concluding with Pentecost. Below these three narrative bands is a fourth containing monochrome personifications of the Virtues and Vices. The chapel was apparently founded in 1303 and consecrated on 25 March 1305. It is known that the frescoes were completed in or before 1309, and they are generally dated about 1305–1306, but even with several assistants it must have taken at least two years to complete so large a cycle.
      The frescoes are in relatively good condition, and all that has been said of Giotto's power to render the bare essentials of a setting with a few impressive and simple figures telling the story as dramatically and yet as economically as possible is usually based on the narrative power that is the fundamental characteristic of these frescoes. These dominating figures, simple and severe, similar to those in the Assisi cycle but placed in settings of more formal abstraction and rendered with more grandeur, are the quintessence of his style, and anatomy and perspective were used—or even invented—by him as adjuncts to his narrative gifts. He never attained to the skill that so often, in fact, misled the men of the 15th and 16th centuries.In the Padua frescoes the details are always significant, whereas it is a characteristic of the Assisi cycle that there occurs from time to time a delighted dwelling on details that are not absolutely essential to the story.
     Documents show that Giotto was in Florence in 1311–14 and 1320; and it was probably during these years, before going to Naples (about 1329), that he painted frescoes in four chapels in Santa Croce belonging to the Giugni, Tosinghi-Spinelli, Bardi, and Peruzzi families. The Giugni Chapel frescoes are lost, as are all the Tosinghi-Spinelli ones, except for an “Assumption” over the entrance, not universally accepted as by Giotto. The Bardi and Peruzzi chapels contained cycles of St. Francis, St. John the Baptist, and St. John the Evangelist, but the frescoes were whitewashed and were not recovered until the mid-19th century, when they were damaged in the process of removing the whitewash and then heavily restored. Much the same happened to a portrait of Dante in the Bargello, also in Florence, for which there is a traditional attribution to Giotto. Writers tended to take more or less account of these additions and restorations according to the view they held of the Assisi problem, but a prolonged cleaning and re-restoration of both chapels in the mid-20th century has demonstrated that the Bardi Chapel has few but splendid figures remaining, painted in true fresco, whereas the Peruzzi Chapel figures are now largely ghosts, since they were painted in a different technique. The older view, that the two cycles were contemporary, is no longer necessarily valid, and there is no evidence for the date of either cycle, except that both are probably later than the Arena Chapel frescoes.
      In January 1330, King Robert of Naples promoted Giotto to the rank of “familiar” (member of the royal household), which implies that he had been in Naples for some while, possibly since 1329, and he remained there until 1332–1333. All the works he executed there have been lost, but traces of his style may be distinguished in the local school. On 12 April 1334, he was appointed capomastro, or surveyor, of the Duomo in Florence and architect to the city. This was a tribute to his great fame as a painter and not on account of any special architectural knowledge. On July 19 of the same year he began the campanile, or bell tower, of the Duomo. It was later altered but is known, in part at least, from a drawing in Siena. He may have designed some of the reliefs carved by Andrea Pisano on the campanile; certainly the bronze doors of the baptistery by Andrea show clear traces of Giotto's frescoes in Santa Croce. Indeed the whole course of painting in Tuscany was dominated by his pupils and followers—by Taddeo Gaddi, Bernardo Daddi, Maso di Banco, Andrea Orcagna, and Pietro and Ambrogio Lorenzetti in Siena—but none of these really understood all of his innovations.
     Giotto achieved great personal fame in his own lifetime; in the Divine Comedy, Dante says of his relation to his reputed teacher, the Florentine artist Cimabue, that “Cimabue thought to hold the field in painting, but now Giotto has the cry, so that the fame of Cimabue is obscured.” The mere fact that he was mentioned in Dante, whether or not in a particularly flattering context, was sufficient to establish and maintain this fame in 14th- and 15th-century Italy, and legends soon began to crystallize around his name. When, in 1550, the artist and biographer Giorgio Vasari published Le vite de' più eccellenti pittori, scultori, ed architettori italiani..., he naturally began his history of Italian art with Giotto as the man who, even more than Cimabue, broke away from the Middle Ages and ushered in the “good modern manner.” It was not until the Renaissance, with Masaccio and Michelangelo, that his true successors arose.
     The only works universally accepted as Giotto's are the fresco cycle in Padua, firmly datable in the first decade of the 14th century, and the two chapels in Santa Croce, Florence, which used to be dated around 1320 but, since their cleaning in the 1950s and 1960s, are now placed anywhere in the second or third decade. The only panel painting universally accepted as Giotto's own work is The Madonna in Glory (Ognissanti Madonna), usually dated about 1305–1310.The most controversial attribution is the fresco cycle at Assisi, but other important works in this category are the Crucifix in Santa Maria Novella, Florence (about 1295–1300); the Dormition of the Virgin; and a polyptych. Works that are certainly from Giotto's studio, not necessarily painted by his own hand, include various panels. A fragment of the original mosaic from St. Peter's is now in the church at Boville Ernica, near Rome, and another is in the Vatican Museum.

99 ZOOMable images at Wikimedia
Numerous images in 18 classifications at Web Gallery

Died on a 08 January:

1948 Kurt Schwitters, German painter born (full coverage) on 20 June 1887. —(070107)

>1941 Frederick Brown [14 March 1851–], English art teacher and painter. From 1868 to 1877 he studied in London at the National Art Training School (later Royal College of Art). He later studied at the Académie Julian in Paris. His work was influenced by Jules Bastien-Lepage. His portrait style was influenced by Whistler. Brown was a founder of the New English Art Club in 1886 and author of its constitution. From 1877–1892 he was headmaster of the Westminster School of Art, where his students included Aubrey Beardsley and Henry Tonks. From 1893 to 1918 he was Slade Professor of Art; Robert Polhill Bevan [05 Apr 186508 Jul 1925], Augustus John, William Orpen and Wyndham Lewis were among his students there. —(100819)

1921 Gérard-Marie-François Firmin-Girard, French painter born (main coverage) on 29 May 1838. —(060107)

^ 1916 Rembrandt Bugatti, by suicide, Italian sculptor and draftsman, specialized in animals, born on 16 October 1884 (1885?), son of furniture designer Carlo Bugatti [16 Feb 1856 – Apr 1940]. — Rembrandt Bugatti frère du constructeur automobile, sculpteur animalier, se suicide. Ettore Bugatti [15 Sep 1881 – 21 Aug 1947], créa en 1907 à Molsheim (en Alsace), les usines, désormais célèbres, de construction automobile. Il entrait ainsi dans la légende de l’automobile. Son frère, Rembrandt, obtint une grande place dans le tout petit groupe des sculpteurs animaliers européens du début du XXème siècle.
      Autodidacte mais initié à la sculpture par le prince Troubetzkoï, ancien élève de Rodin, le jeune Rembrandt découvrit tout de suite sa voie. En 1901, sa première œuvre fondue est une vache. À Paris, il va être pris en main par Adrien Hébrard qui possède à la fois le journal Le Temps, une fonderie et une galerie rue Royale. Rembrandt accepte de signer un contrat d’exclusivité : il touche un salaire régulier et un droit sur la vente de chaque sculpture.
      Littéralement envoûté par le monde animal, le jeune maître trouve insuffisant le parc zoologique du Jardin des Plantes de Paris. Il part pour Anvers où la direction du zoo se montre très accueillante à l’égard des artistes. Ce sera, de 1907 à 1914, la partie la plus créatrice de sa courte vie : une faune complète sortira de ses mains.
      De retour à Paris, au début de la guerre, Rembrandt se suicide dans son atelier de Montparnasse, le 08 janvier 1916. Ignoré des dictionnaires spécialisés, Rembrandt Bugatti a laissé un bestiaire qui égale celui de Barye ou de Pompon. Entre le réalisme et la stylisation, il y avait place pour une sorte d’impressionnisme sculptural et elle n’a appartenu qu’à lui. Ils étaient tous deux les fils d’un génie créateur des plus singuliers, Carlo Bugatti. — LINKS

^ =1874 Eduard Schleich II (d.Ä.), German painter born on 12 October 1812. He studied from 1827 in the history painting class of the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich but soon left to study privately. He was initially drawn towards the late Romantic landscape painting style of Carl Rottmann and Christian Morgenstern, and from about 1830 he had success with mountain landscapes based on sketches made in Upper Bavaria and the Tyrol. In these he relied on studies of 17th-century Dutch landscape painting, especially its treatment of light and skies, to achieve clear and simple images of the Bavarian mountains in varying light conditions (e.g. A Peak, 1865). Schleich was much influenced by Peter Paul Rubens’s landscape paintings, to which he was introduced by the painter Carl Rahl, and which he studied in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich and in the collection at Schloss Weissenstein in Pommersfelden. A visit to the Salon of 1851 in Paris had a strong impression on Schleich, especially the work of the Barbizon school. At the same time he encountered paintings by the English artists John Constable and Richard Parkes Bonington. Schleich’s own work includes both studies of his surroundings, for example Lake Starnberg with Schloss Starnberg (1850), and largely invented scenes based on subjects only fleetingly observed, such as Venice by Moonlight (1860). Though Gusztáv Keleti and Julius Marák were students of Schleich, he was rarely a teacher, but he was seen as a model by many younger Munich landscape painters. The staffage in Schleich’s landscapes was often added by friends, for example the painter Friedrich Voltz {1817–1886]. He was the father of Eduard Schleich II (d.J.) [15 Feb 1853 – 28 Oct 1893]
Women bathing in the sea near Dieppe (1860; 600x1031pix, 227kb) _ How about naming it Deep Dieppe Dip?

1857 Nicholas Condy, British artist born in 1793. — {Qu'est-ce qu'on dit de Condy? Rien dans l'Internet, autant qu'il me soit possible de trouver.}

Born on a 08 January:

1918 Domenico “Mimmo” Rotella, Italian artist who died (main coverage) on 08 January 2006. —(100107)

1822 Samuel Bough, English painter, active in Scotland, who died (main coverage) on 19 November 1878. —(060107)

^ 1900 Serge Poliakoff, Russian-born French School of Paris abstract painter, who died on 12 October 1969. — Poliakoff, born in Russia and who came to Paris in 1922, met Kandinsky in 1937; from 1946 onwards, he developed a very personal painterly idiom, independent of Mondrian's geometric abstraction, or of Kandinsky's lyrical abstraction. — Poliakoff was born in Russia but left in 1919, becoming a traveling musician. He settled in Paris some years later. Although he began painting in the 1930s he was not able to give up his musical profession for painting until 1952. Poliakoff's technique of dividing the canvas into colored interlocking planes owes much to Cubism. — He arrived in Paris in 1923 and attended several of the Académies Libres. He moved to London in 1935 and attended the Slade School of Fine Arts. His deep interest in painting techniques led him to examine Egyptian sarcophagi in the British Museum; their superimposition of colors, together with the example of Paul Cézanne and that of the Italian primitives in the Louvre, proved of great importance to him on his return to France. Among 20th-century painters he admired the purity and construction of space in the work of Juan Gris and the spirit of Paul Klee’s art. — Born in Moscow, he left Russia in 1919 and, after moving from Constantinople to Sofia, Belgrade, Vienna, and Berlin, settled in Paris in 1923. He began to study painting in 1930 at the Académie Frochot and the Grande Chaumière, supporting himself by playing the guitar in the evenings. He lived from 1935 to 1937 in London, where he studied at the Slade School. He returned to Paris in 1937; met Kandinsky, Sonia and Robert Delaunay, and Freundlich, and in 1938 painted his first abstract pictures. He attained his mature style about 1948, though it was not until 1952 that he was able to give up his career as a professional musician and devote his full time to painting. He designed sets for Roland Petit's ballet Contre-point 1957. He was naturalized French in 1962. He died in Paris. — LINKS
–- Lie de Vin (800x629pix, 25kb) monochrome dark purplish red smear. _ This boring picture was livened up when the pseudonymous Paul Yacoffre transformed it thoroughly into
     _ Lit de Vingt aka Liar Ail (2006; screen filling, 163kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1356kb).
Composition abstraite (1954, 116x89cm) _ Compare
     _ Supposition Abstruse aka Pall Lap (2006; screen filling, 208kb _ ZOOM to 1000x1414pix, 521kb) which Yacoffre has derived from two other Poliakoff paintings, and which he further transformed into
     _ Imposition Absurd aka Pill Lip (2006; screen filling, 252kb _ ZOOM to 1000x1414pix, 677kb).
–- a different Composition abstraite (1133x900pix, 110kb) mostly blue and off-white
–- yet another Composition abstraite (1084x870pix, 95kb) mostly light gray and dark gray.
Composition (1956, 134x92cm; 400x535pix, 44kb) _ Poliakoffs paintings are comprised of closed, fairly austere forms that are pressing against each other. Each plane has a single worked-through, obfuscated color; the colors border each other and thus determine the form of each plane. The flat compositions have an air of natural calm. Poliakoff ascribed mainly a cosmic character to the abstract art of this period. 'While figurative art exists within the framework of the painting and remains within it, abstract art goes beyond that framework in order to create a cosmos.' — (070107)

1881 Henri de Waroquier, French artist who died on 31 December 1970.

1874 Oskar Laske, Austrian artist who died in 1951.

^ 1864 Henri-Gaston Darien, French painter who died on 07 January 1926. — {Il se peut qu'il soit faux que l'internet ne manque de rien, bien qu'il soit faux qu'il lui manque Darien}.
–- A Bustling Scene, Paris (123x203cm; 478x799pix, 57kb _ .ZOOM to 836x1398pix, 121kb)
–- Still Life with Cheese (612x985pix, 60kb)
Le Départ (44x58cm; 339x450pix, 40kb) —(070107)

1843 Nathaniel Sichel, German artist who died (main coverage) on 04 December 1907. —(070107)

1836 Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Dutch English painter who died (full coverage) on 25 June 1912. — (060107)

^ 1823 Florent Willems, in Liège, Belgian painter, active in France, where he died in October 1905 in Neuilly-sur-Seine. He was trained at the Academie in Mechelen. He first exhibited in Paris at the Salon of 1840, and in 1844 he settled there, working as both a restorer and a painter. He modeled his work on that of Dutch genre painters of the 17th and 18th centuries. Willems emulated their meticulous technique, as seen especially in his depiction of silks and brocades in The Bride’s Toilette. He also adopted their subject-matter: the majority of his works are genre scenes set in the 16th and 17th centuries, such as The Widow (1850). Willems also painted scenes of contemporary life, for example A Party at the Duchess’s House, in which the furniture and clothing are portrayed with considerable realistic detail. In all Willems’s work the anecdotal element was dominant, and his paintings thus appealed easily to a wide audience. He influenced the work of his pupil and compatriot Alfred Stevens. His son Charles-Henri Willems (fl 1901–1913) was a portrait painter in Paris.
–- On the Threshold (49x36cm; 900x769pix, 72kb)
–- The Accountant (799x590pix, 42kb)
–- Seated Lady in a Flower Garden (800x575pix, 61kb) she is wearing a white satin dress.
–- (a lady and a parrot) (66x56cm; 1250x1010pix, 113kb _ .ZOOM to 2501x2040pix, 578kb) —(070107)

^ 1822 Samuel Bough, English painter, active in Scotland, who died (main coverage) on 19 November 1878. —(060107)

^ 1785 Jean Baptiste de Jonghe, Flemish painter and lithographer who died (main coverage) on 14 October 1844. —(060107)

1712 Gabriel Gaspard Grésely (or Gresly), French painter who died in 1756. — {Du bon Grésely de bon gré se lit n'importe quel renseignement, mais je n'en trouve pas beaucoup dans l'internet.}
Trompe-l'œil à la gravure du chirurgien (1751; 367x301pix, 44kb)
–- Trompe-l'œil (38x46cm; 715x858pix, 137kb) à la manière de Gresly. (070107)

^ 1696 Étienne Parrocel “le Romain”, French artist who died on 13 January 1775. He was the son of Ignace-Jacques Parrocel [1667–1722] and grandnephew of Joseph Parrocel. He studied under his uncle Pierre Parrocel [16 March 1670 – 26 Aug 1739]. and the Carthusian Brother Gabriel Imbert [1666–1749]. In 1717 he went to Rome with his uncle, remaining there for the rest of his life and becoming a member of the Accademia di San Luca in 1734. His first patron was Pierre Guérin de Tencin, Bishop of Embrun, who in 1724 commissioned a painting depicting the ceremony of his investiture. Etienne Parrocel was much in demand thereafter, being as familiar with fresco painting as with oils, but he owed his reputation less to his secular, decorative work than to his religious paintings, most of which were intended for the churches of Rome and the surrounding area and for the churches of southern France. Among his numerous religious works are St Gregory at the Table of the Poor (1729), a Nativity (1739), a Trinity (1739), two altarpieces for Carpentras Cathedral (1744; SS Augustine and Bernard, in situ; SS Joseph and Dominic, untraced) and the Incredulity of St Thomas (1758). In 1746 he painted an allegorical fresco depicting literature and philology symbolized by Apollo and Mercury for the library of Cardinal Neri Corsini in the Palazzo Corsini, Rome. The regularity with which Etienne Parrocel received his numerous commissions attests the enduring nature of his popularity, which owed much to the quality of his painting and to the discrete effects of a style that did not preclude originality of composition. — LINKS
Jésus et la samaritaine (480x375pix, 34kb)
Saint Paul (425x319pix, 27kb) —(060107)

1638 Elisabetta Sirani, Italian painter who died (full coverage) on 28 August 1665.

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