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ART “4” “2”-DAY  05 January v.10.00
^ Died on 05 January 1517: Francesco di Marco Raibolini “Francia”, born in 1450, he was the outstanding Bolognese painter of the High Renaissance.
— Son of a carpenter, Francia was originally a goldsmith. He turned to painting about 1485, and studied under Francesco Squarcione. Francia's first works already testify to the considerable technical accomplishment and gentle religious sensibility that remained constants of his art. He entered into a partnership with Costa after the latter came to Bologna about 1483 and was later influenced also by Perugino. His most characteristic works are sweet, softly rounded Madonnas, which his large workshop produced in some numbers. He was also an accomplished portraitist. His major surviving paintings are altarpieces, mostly images of the Virgin and saints, initially done for Bologna and later for nearby centers, notably Parma, Modena, Ferrara, and Lucca. He also painted many small-scale devotional works and a few portraits. The apochryphal anecdote, reported by Vasari, that Francia died on seeing the altarpiece of Saint Cecilia (1516, 238x150cm) by Raphael, is symbolic of the change in taste that suddenly made his art, like that of Perugino, look old-fashioned.
— Francesco Francia had two sons, whom he trained as painters and goldsmiths: Giacomo Francia [1486 – 03 Jan 1557] and Giulio Francia [20 Aug 1487 – 22 Jan 1545].
— Besides his sons, the students of Francia included Bagnacavallo, Innocenzo da Imola, Peregrino da Cesena, Biagio Pupini, Marcantonio Raimondi, Timoteo Viti.

The Baptism of Christ (1509, 209x169cm; 599x484pix, 71kb _ ZOOM to 1555x1256pix, 203kb)
Wedding of Saint Cecilia (1508; 526x494pix, 156kb _ ZOOM to 1228x1153pix, 416kb)
Burial of Saint Cecilia (1508; 544x603pix, 180kb _ ZOOM to 1269x1406pix, 474kb)
Adoration of the Child Jesus
Crucifixion with Saints John and Jerome (1485, 52x33cm)
Madonna and Child with the Infant Saint John the Baptist (1500, 57x44cm)
Evangelista Scappi (1505)
–- Madonna and Child with Saint Catherine of Alexandria (799x681pix, 73kb) painted jointly with his son Giacomo.
–- Madonna and Child with Child Saint John the Baptist and Saint Francis (796x637pix, 51kb) painted jointly with assistants.
–- Madonna and Child with Two Angels (799x598pix, 66kb) from his studio. Badly crackled all over. The Child is sitting on a parapet behind which the others are standing.
^ Born on 05 January 1914: Nicolas de Staël, Russian-born French painter of the School of Paris, who committed suicide on 16 (17?) March 1955.
— He was one of the most influential European artists of the post-war period. He was of the Russian nobility, born in Saint-Petersburg, son of a major-general. His family emigrated to Poland in 1919. He was brought up in Brussels, where he attended the Académie Saint Gilles and the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts 1932-1934. He visited Paris, Spain, Morocco, Algeria, and Italy. Settled in France in 1938; studied briefly under Léger. Painted still lifes and portraits, then in 1942 turned towards abstraction. Friendship with Braque, Magnelli and Lanskoy. First one-man exhibition at the Galerie l'Esquisse, Paris, 1944. Worked much with a palette knife, creating dense, encrusted blocks of color. Made woodcuts for Poèmes by René Char 1951. His abstract paintings reached their extreme development in 1951-1952, after which he began to return to figurative painting (landscapes, figures and still life), executed sometimes in brilliant colors. From 1952 spent much of his time in the South of France at Ménerbes, Antibes, and elsewhere. His late pictures were more fluidly and loosely painted. He died at Antibes.

Paysage (600x755pix, 103kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1761pix, 226kb)
Figure by the Sea (1952, 162x130cm; 815x656pix, 64kb)
The Shelf (1955, 88x116cm; 358x463pix, 14kb)
Etude de paysage (1952, 33x46cm)
Marathon (1948, 80x65cm) _ Although most of de Stael's paintings of this period are called 'Composition' some have titles evoking the impoverished life he led at the time. 'Marathon' may therefore refer to his struggle to survive and continue working with few admirers and little financial support. De Stael used a brush to paint this work, creating a forceful and dense structure of encrusted blocks of color. Several years after completing it he returned to figurative painting, realising his need 'to feel life before me, and to take it all in so that it penetrates through the eyes and the skin'.
Composition 1950 (1950, 125x79cm) _ De Staël used the title 'Composition' for many paintings of this period. For him, it was a way of signalling not so much that the images were nonrepresentational but they had been literally 'composed', using areas or blocks of carefully modulated color. This work is an example of de Stäel's distinctive use of shades of grey to create a sense of light and space. Although there are no obvious allusions to known forms in this work, the artist believed that his choice of colors and the shapes were based on his perceptual experience of reality.
Les Grands Footballeurs, Parc des Princes, 1952 (200x350cm; 260x450pix) _ At first glance this colorful and needlessly oversized painting {to which the undersized image here does complete justice} looks entirely abstract. Large, slabs of viscous paint, thickly applied with a palette knife make up a bold design of rhythmic and interlocking planes of color. Black counterbalances white, and sharp greens are offset by passages of red and small touches of vibrant pink. In fact, de Staël’s painting was inspired by a floodlit football match played in a Paris stadium, Le Parc des Princes. The colors are the players’ striped shirts. This is the most monumental painting by the Russian artist Nicolas de Staël, who escaped from Russia as a child with his aristocratic family at the time of the Revolution in 1917. He settled in Paris in 1938 when he was twenty-four. De Staël was one of a number of Russian artists who belonged to the School of Paris that flourished after the Second World War. Following the gloom and despair of the Occupation years, many artists in Paris began to paint in a colorful and exuberant style that seems to celebrate the end of years of oppression and austerity. They also turned away from figurative subjects in favour of an art composed of abstract patterns and colors. Their style, sometimes known as 'gestural' or 'lyrical' abstraction, involved a very free and expressive handling of paint. But none went so far as de Staël in achieving such extraordinary effects of dense and shimmering paint. The floodlit football match that de Staël witnessed at the Parc des Princes was a turning point in his career. After this, he rejected pure abstraction and concentrated on series of paintings of footballers, musical performers and landscapes that emerge from lyrical, semi-abstract patterns. Three years after painting Les
Grands Footballeurs
Staël suffered an emotional crisis over his work. 'I can never bring my works to perfection', he declared. In 1955 he committed suicide by throwing himself off the rocks at Antibes.
^ Died on 05 January 1917: Isobel Lilian Gloag, British painter born in 1868 (or 1865?).
— Gloag was born in London of Scottish parents from Perthshire. She studied at Saint John's Wood Art School, the Slade and then in the studio of M.W.Ridley. She attended life class at South Kensington before going to Paris to study under Raphael Collin. Returning to London, she took a studio in Notting Hill, exhibiting at the Royal Academy from 1893 onwards. Her first exhibit at the Royal Academy was entitled A Raw Recruit. As well as painting romantic subject pictures reminiscent of Byam Shaw and Gerald Moira, she also was a consummate portraitist, illustrator and stained glass window designer. She also designed posters and produced flower paintings. She was elected ROI in 1909, and died after a life plagued by ill health.
     Some of her paintings are Rosamond, The Miracle of the Roses, Rapunzel, The Choice, Bacchante, A Legend of Provence.

A Legend of Provence (500x380pix, 39kb) _ It inspired the poem Mist by Sharon Bullard:
You appear like a fine mist on a leaf. / I cannot give it form or hold in my hand. / To be seen, without purpose. / To dissipate, leaving the leaf untouched / but for the fingerprint of the sun / engraved upon its face. // My face has been touched, / no fingerprint seen- / only sunshine.

The Kiss of the Enchantress akaThe knight and the mermaid (1890; 700x353pix, 48kb) _ It inspired this poem, by Rae Pater:
In the first garden, / as with every creature, / the serpent had his mate. // Elemental / she rose / from mossy coils, / a pale woman / fastening wet lips / on hapless man. // Her flickering tongue / evokes response / despite the claim / of divine protection. // There is no release /from this morbid light. / Mab herself / wears this form. // She is old now, / heavy with the weight / of eons of evil, // yet still captivating, / her sinuous beauty / luring the unwary / to sin.

The Magic Mantle (1898, 153x200cm) Also known as The Enchanted Cloak. _ A little boy came to the court of King Arthur with a magic mantle, which no wife could wear who was not true to her lord
The subject is taken not from the Morte d'Arthur but from The Boy and the Mantle, a traditional ballad published in Bishop Percy's Reliques of Ancient English Poetry (1765). This describes how 'a strange and cunning boy' appeared at King Arthur's court of Camelot at Carlisle (other contenders for the location of Camelot are Tintagel, Caerleon and Cadbury Hill) one Christmas with a mantle 'of wondrous shape and hew'. No woman, he claimed, who had been unfaithful to her husband could wear it without it shrivelling and leaved her naked. Queen Guinevere was the first to don it, with predictable consequences:
And first came Lady Guenever,
	The mantle she must trye,
This dame, she was new-fangled,
	And of a roving eye.

When she had tane the mantle,
	And all was with it cladde,
From top to toe it shiver'd down,
	As tho' with sheers beshradde.

One while it was too long,
	Another while too short,
And wrinkled on her shoulders
	In most unseemly sort.

Now green, now red it seemed,
	Then all of sable hue,
'Beshrew me,' quoth King Arthur,
	'I think thou beest not true,'

Down she threw the mantle,
	Ne longer would not stay;
But, storming like a fury,
	To her chamber flung away.

She curst the whoreson weaver,
	That had the mantle wrought;
And doubly curst the froward impe,
	Who thither had it brought.
The Magic Mantle inspired the poem Loving Girl Exposed by Coleen Shin:
How silly and brave to let drop / blue feathers and panes of silk / naked to stars and strangers / proof that hidden deeper than skin / lay the soft bones of truth. // But what of it? What to do? // It is not the laying under- / the brief ownership of rose / of bush, of robin breast and song. / Loving hearts often confuse / and make excuse for what is / after all, a touching dance.

Rosamond (1899; monochrome image) _ 'The queen this thread did gette / And went where Ladye Rosamonde / Was like an angell sette.' The painting inspired the poem What do you see by Mia:
Six black birds / fell from the sky / cast a shadow // impending Evil, / axe in his hand. // Rosamond prays / to a brocade Madonna / who sits on a throne // the child in her lap / is Cristo in a gown / luxury will not cover // Rosamond’s white fear / silk tapestry hung on a limb / part curtain, part sin. // Three hail Mary's / and a confession / will not wash away / her transgressions // fountain of unholy / water which flows / from the devil's tongues.
^ Died on 05 January 1685: Herman Saftleven (or Zachtleven) II, Dutch Baroque draftsman, painter, and printmaker, specialized in landscapes, born in 1609.
— During his lifetime, Herman Saftleven was one of Holland's best-known artists. His father the history painter and draftsman Herman Saftleven I [1580-1627] and his elder brother Cornelis Saftleven [1607 – 05 Jun 1681 bur.] probably trained him. He also studied under Jan van Goyen. Saftleven's simple, austere style appears in an early series of landscape etchings from 1627. About 1632, Saftleven made Utrecht his home. In the following year, he collaborated with Cornelis on paintings of rustic barn interiors, a subject that later became something of a specialty for him. In 1635 he helped to decorate Prince Frederick Henry's palace of Honselaersdijck, south of The Hague. His Italianate landscapes reflected Cornelis van Poelenburgh's style, but by 1645 Saftleven had abandoned that manner for native Dutch scenery. Over 1200 of Saftleven's landscape drawings survive, mostly large-scale compositions for collectors. He also made precise drawings of sites from his travels around Utrecht and along the Rhine. By the 1650s, influenced by Roelandt Savery's art, Saftleven was drawing imaginary panoramas of topographically accurate hilly and rocky landscapes recalling the Rhineland. He was also an active etcher and engraver. Saftleven repeatedly drew his adopted city of Utrecht. In 1675 he recorded its houses and streets after hurricane devastation. In his last years, he made botanical studies in watercolor.
— Herman Saftleven II settled in Utrecht about 1632 and in 1633 married Anna van Vliet. They had two sons, Dirck Saftleven [–1679] and Herman Saftleven III [–<1685], and two daughters, Sara (who married Jacob Adriaenszoon Broers in 1671) and Levina (who married Paul Dalbach). From 1639 onwards Herman Saftleven II lived at Achter St. Pieter 7, Utrecht, and in 1659 he became a citizen of the city. He recorded views of his adopted city in several drawings and etchings, for instance the Panoramic View of Utrecht (1648, and 1669). He several times served as head man (overman) and dean of the Guild of Saint Luke there. In 1662 he arranged the sale of part of the Earl of Arundel’s collection in Utrecht. A hurricane destroyed the city in 1674, and Saftleven drew many devastated houses and streets. Some eight years later he sold to the city a series of 22 drawings he had made of Utrecht churches before they were destroyed. About this same time (1680 and 1682–1684) he was commissioned by the amateur botanist and horticulturalist Agnes Block [1629–1704] to draw flowers and plants at Vijverhof, her country estate situated on the River Vecht, near Utrecht.
— One of Herman Saftleven II’s daughters, Sara Saftleven [>1633–], also became a painter, specializing in watercolors of flowers in the manner of her father.

Horsemen resting in a wood (1647, 78x68cm) _ Was called a 'hunting scene', but the men are soldiers, not huntsmen.
Mountain Landscape (1648, 24x28cm) _ Between 1648 and 1652, Herman Saftleven the Younger concentrated on drawing imaginary mountain landscapes featuring large, prominent rock formations and distant views that dominate small figures. Although in this drawing he has created a natural-looking scene, many of his drawings are not topographical and he often used interchangeable motifs. These fantastic, vaguely Central European views reflect the influence of Roelandt Savery's rugged, fictitious mountain landscapes, such as Savery's Landscape with Waterfall, created about thirty years earlier than Saftleven's drawing.
      At a time when travel was difficult, landscape drawings and prints gave people both a means and an excuse to conjure up exotic, far-flung lands. Over 1200 of Saftleven's topographical and imaginary landscape drawings survive, most of which are finished, large-scale drawings made for collectors.
^ Born on 05 January 1900: Raymond Georges Yves Tanguy, French US Surrealist painter who died on 15 January 1955. [a tan guy?]
— Born of Breton parents, Tanguy began painting around 1920. His first canvases and drawings date from that year. Of primary importance to his artistic formation was his early encounter with a painting by Giorgo De Chirico in 1923, the date at which he decided to become an artist. He fully adhered to the surrealist movement after a decisive meeting with André Breton. He remained dedicated to the movement's inspiration until his death.
  • — 1900 Yves Tanguy was born on 05 January in Paris, where his father worked in the military.
  • 1907 Death of his father. Yves leaves for a region near Nantes to live with relatives.
  • 1911-1918 Studies in Paris with Pierre Matisse. His brother Henri dies during the war in 1914. In 1916 his mother lives in Locronan (Britanny), but Yves stays in Paris with his sister Emilie.
  • 1918-1919 Sails with the merchant marine in South America and Africa.
  • 1920 Meets Jacques Prevert in the army.
  • 1922 Returns to Paris, where he frequents a bookstore and works to survive.
          1923 Sees De Chirico's Le cerveau de l'enfant and takes up painting.
  • 1924 Marcel Duhamel installs his two friends, Prevert and Tanguy, in a house on the "Rue du Chateau Vert". André Breton publishes the first Surrealist Manifesto.
    1925 Marriage with Jeanne Ducroq. Exhibits three etchings for the first time. Decisive meeting with Andre Breton.
    1926 L'Anneau d'invisibilité is the first painting to be reproduced for "La révolution surréaliste".
    1927 First personnal exhibition in Paris in "la Galerie Surréaliste", in Paris with help of Breton for the name of his paintings.
  • 1928 His material situation is difficult.
  • 1929 Exhibition in Paris with Dali, Magritte and Arp.
  •       1930 Travel in Africa then return in Paris.
  • 1931 MeetsJacques Hérold a rouman artist.
  • 1932 Meets Marcel Jean.
  • 1933 Present in some collective exhibitions.
  • 1935 Second personnal exhibition in Paris without echo and expose for the first time in the US (Hollywood). The US artistic centers are interested.
  • 1936 Exhibitions in New-York, Hollywood and san Francisco. Photography by Man Ray.
  • 1937 Meets Patrick Waldberg. Appears in movie "Violon d'Ingres" of Brunius.
  • 1938 Personnal exhibition in Paris and London.
  •       1939 Meets Kay Sage in France. Contract with Pierre Matisse Galery. Leaves France to rejoin Kay Sage in New-York.
  • 1940 Marriage with Kay Sage and travel through the US west
  • 1941 Travel with Kay in Canada and Washington. Meet Dorothea Tanning.
  • 1942 Visit of Mexico by Kay and Yves. Relation with Masson's and Calder's families in Roxbury (Conn.). Exhibition 'Artiste en Exil' 3-28 march.
  • 1943-1945 Several exhibitions in Pierre Matisse Gallery (NY). 1946 Kay and Tanguy buy a house in Woodbury (Connecticut). 1946 Visit by the friend Marcel Duhamel in Woodbury. 1947 International surrealist exhibition in "Galerie Maeght", Paris.
  •       1948 Becomes US citizen.
  • 1949 In October, he exhibits at the Nina Dausset Gallery, in Paris, where he sells 12 of his works. 1950 Last exhibition at Pierre Matisse Gallery in London 1951 Visit to Ernst-Tanning in Sedona (Arizona).
  • 1952 Exhibition in Kunsthalle with Klee and Miro.
  • 1953 First travel in Europe since 1939. Exhibitions in Rome, Milan, Paris.
  • 1954 Appears in movie "8x8" of Richter. Exhibition together with Kay Sage in Wadsworth Atheneum (Hartford).      
  • 1955 Yves Tanguy dies on 15 January, having suffered a cerebral hemorrhage. In New York City, the Museum of Modern Art hosts a retrospective of his work in June.
  • 1963 Kay Sage finish the "summary of his works". On 08 January Kay Sage commit suicide.

    — Originally a merchant seaman, Tanguy was impelled to take up painting after seeing pictures by de Chirico and in 1925 joined the Surrealist group. In 1939 he emigrated to the US, where he lived for the rest of his life, marrying the US Surrealist painter Kay Sage in 1940 and becoming a US citizen in 1948. Tanguy's most characteristic works are painted in a scrupulous technique reminiscent of that of Dalí, but his imagery is highly distinctive, featuring half marine and half lunar landscapes in which amorphous nameless objects proliferate in a spectral dream-space (The Invisibles, 1951).

    — De famille bretonne, Tanguy se destinait à la marine marchande. En 1921, il vient à Paris où il rencontre Jacques Prévert. Un tableau de Chirico, vu dans une galerie parisienne, lui révèle sa vocation de peintre. En 1925, il adhère en même temps que Prévert au groupe surréaliste, avec lequel il expose. À la différence de surréalistes comme Dalí, Giorgio De Chirico et René Magritte, qui agencent des objets familiers dans des rapports insolites et déconcertants, Tanguy crée des formes imaginaires surgies de l’inconscient et du rêve. En 1939, il visite les États-Unis et le Canada. Il s’installe dans le Connecticut à Waterbury où il mourra; il acquiert la nationalité américaine en 1948. Jusqu’à la fin de sa vie, il reste fidèle à la même inspiration, composant inlassablement des paysages peuplés de formes cartilagineuses, les êtres-objets dont a parlé Breton, paysages mi-marins, mi-lunaires, baignés d’une froide lumière et traités en touches minutieuses. Dans ses dernières œuvres, telles La Multiplication des arcs , toile de grand format réalisée en 1945 (Museum of Modern Art, New York), ou Nombres imaginaires , exécutée la même année, Tanguy accumule des structures minéralogiques déployées jusqu’à la ligne rigoureuse de l’horizon.
  • 1900 Yves Tanguy naît le 05 janvier au Ministère de la Marine (Place de la Concorde — Paris) où son père travaillait comme adjudant-surveillant. C'est le 4ème et dernier enfant d'une famille originaire du Finistère (Brest).
  • 1908 Son père meurt à 57ans. Pour subvenir aux besoins de sa famille, Thérèse, sa mère prend un bureau de tabac. Son travail l'oblige à confier Yves à une cousine à Pont-Rousseau près de Nantes puis chez des parents pharmaciens (Nédelec) en Côtes d'Armor à Plestin-les-grèves pendant 4 ans.
  • 1911-1913 Études secondaires au lycée Montaigne (Paris) d'où il se fera renvoyer à la découverte d'un flacon d'éther dans ses chaussettes.
  • 1914-1918 Le 22 Aug 1914, Henri, son frère est tué à Longwy (Nord). En 1916, sa mère se retire à Locronan (Finistère) dans l'ancien prieuré acheté en 1912 mais Yves reste à Paris où il habite rue Coëtlogon avec sa soeur Emilie, institutrice. Il retrouvera sa "petite maman" pendant les vacances en Bretagne. Il va alors au lycée Saint Louis (Paris) où il rencontre Pierre Matisse, le fils du peintre
  • 1918-1919 Tanguy s'engage dans la marine marchande puis devient élève officier pendant 18 mois. Il voguera vers les côtes du Brésil, de l'Argentine, d'Afrique puis de l'Angleterre et du Portugal.      
  • 1920 Au printemps, il fait son service militaire au 37ème régiment d'infanterie à Saint-Nicolas-du-Port près de Lunéville où il cotoiera Jacques Prévert comme voisin de chambrée. 1921 S'engage dans les chasseurs d'Afrique et part pour Tataouine (Tunisie).
  • 1922 Démobilisé avec le grade de sergent, il revient à Paris où il rencontre Jeanne Ducrocq et retrouve Prévert. Il vit alors de petits métiers comme livreur aux halles, coulissier en Bourse et même conducteur de tramway.
  • 1923 Yves Tanguy et Jacques Prévert sont alors inséparables, ils passeront d'ailleurs leur été à Locronan chez madame Tanguy. C'est à la fin de cette année que Tanguy aurait aperçu dans la vitrine d'une galerie un tableau de Giorgio de Chirico "le cerveau de l'enfant" qui le décide à devenir peintre.
  • 1924 Au début de l'année, Marcel Duhamel, un hôtelier ami de Prévert, loue une maison au 54 de la rue du Château (derrière la gare Montparnasse) pour héberger les deux amis et lui-même pour leur éviter la misère. Yves découvrira Lautréamont, les numéros de "la Révolution Surréaliste" et le premier manifeste du surréalisme édité par André Breton. Celui-ci suscite l'enthousiasme des trois amis.
  • 1925 Le 30 Jul, Yves Tanguy épouse Jeanne à Paris. Il expose pour la première fois trois dessins au Salon de l'Araignée (Paris). En décembre, à la suite du banquet en l'honneur de Saint-Pol Roux, il fait la connaissance d'André Breton, par l'entremise de Marcel Duhamel, lors d'un réunion rue Fontaine (tous deux ont pris de la cocaïne pour se donner du courage face au "monstre" qu'est déjà Breton). Lors de cette rencontre, il aura la surprise de retrouver l'oeuvre de Chirico (aperçue en 1923) exposée chez Breton, qui l'a fait basculer dans la peinture. Cette rencontre sera décisive avec Breton et Tanguy adhère aussitôt, et pleinement, au mouvement surréaliste.      
  • 1926 L'Anneau d'invisibilité première toile de Tanguy reproduite en octobre dans « La Révolution surréaliste» n° 7. Sa période dite de "Fumée" commence.
  • 1927 Première exposition personnelle à la Galerie Surréaliste, à Paris, avec une préface de Breton qui l'aidera à tirer le nom de ses toiles d'un ouvrage de psychiatrie. En juillet, Passe ses vacances avec Jeannette dans la Manche avec Max Morise, Marcel Noll et Simone Breton (délaissée par André pour Lise).
  • 1928 Participe aux discussions de groupe sur la sexualité organisé par Breton. Quitte la rue du Château pour s'installer avec Jeannette au Medical Hôtel puis au Terrass' Hôtel. Leur situation matérielle devient difficile car il vend peu. 1929 En juillet, passe quelques jours sur l'île de Sein en compagnie de André Breton et Suzanne, Georges Sadoul et Unik. Expose en octobre aux côtés de Dali, Magritte et Arp, à la Galerie Camille Goemans, à Paris. A la suite du pamphlet sur Breton "le cadavre" cosigné par Jacques Prévert, Tanguy rompt avec son vieil ami et ancien colocataire. Fait la connaissance de Hayter (à l'origine de l'atelier 17).
  • 1930 Le 14 février, participe au commando conduit par René Char au Maldoror, un cabaret-dancing dont le nom leur semble être une provocation intolérable. Voyage en Afrique, les tableaux éxécutés à cette époque (dite des coulées 1930-1931) se renouvellent. Revient à Paris et s'installe 23 rue du Moulin Vert. Reste fidèle à Breton malgré le changement de cap de ses anciens amis dont Prévert. En juin, il cosigne le texte de soutien pour l'édition du second manifeste rédigé par André Breton. Trois de ses toiles (Mottes de terre, Fraude dans un jardin, l'Orage) ainsi que celles de Dali, Arp, Ernst, Miro et Man Ray sont lacérées par de jeunes protofascistes (Ligue des patriotes et les Jeunesses anti-juives) une semaine après la première du film de Bunuel "l'âge d'or" au Studio 18, le 03 decembre (le film sera interdit le 11 decembre).
  • 1931 Commence à avoir une audience notable, au même titre que Ernst et Dali. Rencontre un artiste roumain, Jacques Hérold dont naîtra une amitié profonde.
  • 1932 Fait la connaissance de Marcel Jean.
  • 1933 Participe à plusieurs expositions surréalistes collectives à Paris et Bruxelles. illustre depuis quelques années des ouvrages d'écrivains (Aragon, Péret, Tzara, Arp, Eluard). Participe au cours de gravure de William Stanley Hayter à l'atelier 17 avec Max Ernst, Mirò et Giacometti.
    • 1934 Le 03 Feb, signe la lettre collective demandant l'exclusion de Dali du groupe pour ses positions pro-Hitlérienne (avec 7 autres surréalistes dont Breton et Péret). Lors des durs affrontements de l'émeute anti-fasciste regroupant communiste et surréalistes, Tanguy a les dents cassés d'un coup de matraque.
    • 1935 Deuxième exposition personnelle à la Galerie des Cahiers d'Art, à Paris, qui reste sans écho. Au contraire, pour sa première exposition Outre-Atlantique à la Stanley Rose Gallery, à Hollywood où 32 oeuvres sont présentées, il suscite l'intérêt des milieux artistiques des États-Unis. Tanguy présente au groupe surréaliste Victor Brauner qui en deviendra un membre important. En décembre, il participe à la réunion qui provoquera l'exclusion de Giacometti du groupe. A la même époque, tiraillé entre Jacqueline (jeune mère de sa fille Aube) et le mouvement, Breton se confie volontiers aux Tanguy.
    • 1936 Expositions personnelles chez Julien Levy, à New York en juin, puis aux Howard Putzel Galleries, à Hollywood et San Francisco. Se fera photographier par Man Ray.
    • 1937 Fait la connaissance de Patrick Waldberg. Apparaît dans le film de Jacques Brunius "Violon d'Ingres"
    •       1938 Expositions personnelles préfacées par Breton à la Galerie Bucher-Myrbor (Paris) puis à Londres chez Guggenheim-jeune. Se rend au Salon des Surrindépendants où il s'intéresse à un tableau de Kay Sage. Participe à l'exposition internationale du surréalisme qui s'ouvre le 17 janvier à la Galerie des beaux-arts à Paris. Il passe l'été à Trévignon (Bretagne) avec Matta et Gordon Onslow Ford. André Breton part pour le Mexique et confie à Tanguy le soin de vendre les biens de la Galerie Gradiva et d'en transférer le produit à la galerie de Jeanne Bucher.
    • 1939 Pierre Matisse le prend sous contrat et organise une exposition Tanguy dans sa galerie de New-York, (1er surréaliste français à être exposé aux USA). Compte tenu des expulsions périodiques du mouvement, Tanguy reste dans le dernier carré des initiateurs avec Masson, Péret et bien sûr Breton. Fait la connaissance de Kay Sage, (alors mariée avec le Prince Rainier de Faustino, gentilhomme italien) à Chemillieu dans un grand manoir loué par Gordon Onslow-Ford, où il retouvera Matta, Francès et Breton. Breton n'écrira durant son séjour qu'un seul texte : un poème en l'honneur de Tanguy. En novembre, après la déclaration de guerre, réformé, Tanguy rejoint Kay Sage à New York où il débarque avec Matta rencontré 3 ans plus tôt et Anne Matta. Avec Kay, ils s'installe tous deux à Waverly Place NY.
    • 1940 S'installe avec Kay à Greenwich Village (New York) puis ils voyagent à travers l'ouest des États-Unis. Ils se marient le 17 Aug à Reno (Nevada), le divorce de Tanguy étant prononcé. Démobilisé début juillet, Breton souhaite quitter la France pour les États-Unis. A l'automne, Breton écrit à plusieurs reprises à Tanguy pour demander son aide. Celui-ci lui transmet une invitation officielle pour des conférences au Mexique et Kay offre de participer aux frais de voyage, mais Breton décline l'invitation. Tanguy tente alors de lui obtenir un visa de transit pour New-York en vain malgré la garantie financière donnée par Pierre Matisse et la garantie morale de David Hare.
    • 1941 Ce n'est qu'en juin 1941 que Tanguy et Kay pourront accueillir Breton aux États-Unis. Kay Sage avait loué pour lui et Jacqueline un studio sur la 9e Rue Ouest. Le 17 Jul, les Tanguy ainsi que Breton , Matta et Calas, accueillent Max Ernst à New-York. Voyage des Tanguy au Canada et à Washington . La situation matérielle du peintre s'améliore gràce à Kay Sage. Première rencontre avec Dorothea Tanning (future Madame Max Ernst). De même, il rencontre Fred Becker à l'atelier 17.
    • 1942 Visite de Mexico. Kay et Yves fréquentent les familles Masson et Calder à Roxbury (Conn.). Participe à l'exposition 'Artists in Exile' du 03 au 28 mars à la Galerie Matisse aux côtés de Matta, Ernst et Masson.
    • 1943-1945 Les nombreuses expositions dans la galerie de Pierre Matisse (New York) lui procure une notoriété grandissante.
    • 1946 Achète avec Kay Sage Town Farm (une maison coloniale restaurée) à Woodbury (Connecticut) dont la grange servira d'atelier.
    • 1947 Certaines de ses toiles sont vues à l'exposition rétrospective 'le Surréalisme en 1947', Galerie Maeght, à Paris.
    • 1948 Prend la nationalité américaine le 13 Aug. Son exposition à la Galerie Copley, Beverley Hills reste sans écho.
    • 1949 En octobre, il expose à la Galerie Nina Dausset, à Paris, où il vend 12 de ses oeuvres. En octobre toujours, Tanguy est le témoin de Pierre Matisse lors de son mariage avec Patricia Echauren (ex épouse Matta).
    • 1950 Expose une dernière fois chez Pierre Matisse puis à la London Gallery, à Londres. 1951 Se rend à Sedona, en Arizona, chez Max Ernst et Dorothea Tanning sa femme. 1952 Expose à la Kunsthalle avec Klee et Miro.
    • 1953 Premier voyage en Europe depuis 1939 (et dernier de sa vie) pour des expositions à la Galleria de l'Obelisco, à Rome, puis del Naviglio, à Milan puis Galerie Renou & Poyet, à Paris.
    • 1954 Participe au film de Richter « 8 X 8 ». Exposition commune avec Kay Sage au Wadsworth Atheneum (Hartford-Conn.).      
    • 1955 Le 15 janvier au petit matin, une hémorragie cérébrale terrasse Yves Tanguy . Transporté d'urgence à Waterbury, il y meurt quelques heures plus tard. En juin, le Museum of modern art (New York) lui consacre une rétrospective.
    • 1963 Pendant les huit ans qui vont suivre, Kay va rassembler avec l'aide de Pierre Matisse tous les travaux d'Yves dans un recueil. Le 08 janvier, Kay Sage met fin à ses jours après avoir terminé ce travail.

    No Canoe Can Do (1560x2508pix, 2434kb) _ The pseudonymous Eve Redgal has transformed this picture into
          _ No! Canu Can Can Dew (2010; 1560x2508pix, 886kb)
    –- From One Night to Another (1947, 114x91cm; 1038x1521pix, 98kb) for a more interesting picture, the featureless flat light gray top half has been mostly cropped off _ Eve Redgal has greatly enriched and thoroughly transformed this picture into the colorful symmetrical abstractions
          _ From One Knight to a Notary (2006; 724x1024pix, 282kb _ .ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 491kb _ .ZOOM+ to 2636x3728pix, 2845kb) and
          _ From One Nit to an Otter (2006; 724x1024pix, 282kb _ .ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 491kb _ .ZOOM+ to 2636x3728pix, 2845kb)
    Reply to Red (1943, 30x63cm; 554x1154pix, 408kb _ ZOOM to 1385x2886pix)
    Through Birds, Through Fire, and Not Through Glass (1943, 102x89cm; 855x748pix _ ZOOM to 2138x1870pix, 2092kb)
    –- Indefinite Divisibility (1942, 102x89cm; 1497x1268pix, 139kb)
    Surrealist Composition (1930; 600x474pix, 103kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1106pix, 160kb)
    The Invisibles (1951)
    Extinction des lumières inutiles (1927, 92x65cm; 700x513pix, 236kb)
    Le Malheur Adoucit les Pierres (1948, 91x71cm) _ This painting shows a dark, stormy sky looming over a landscape strewn with lithic remains. Some of the mysterious formations resemble the debris of a nuclear explosion or perhaps stones that have undergone a strange geological metamorphosis. Other shapes give the appearance of folded paper, often associated with Surrealist and Dadaist work closely associated with them. Tanguy was born in France but came to the United States just before the outbreak of World War II. He married the US painter Kay Sage and became a naturalized citizen. Some of Tanguy's biographers maintain that a trip he took to Africa in 1931 was the inspiration for the stonelike forms in his paintings, while others have cited a visit to Mexico in 1942 as his motivation. Suffering Softens Stones, impenetrable and personal as its message may be, creates an ominous atmosphere through a landscape that is both alien and convincing.

    Died on a 05 January:

    >2004 Miguel Pérez Aguilera [11 Feb 1915–], Spanish abstract painter, and art professor. Among his students were José Luis Mauri, Paco Cuadrado, Santiago del Campo, Carmen Laffón, Rolando, Paco Cortijo, Luis Gordillo.
    (untitled?) (436x739pix, 61kb) crinkly, almost monochrome blue, mostly dark.
    (untitled?) (861x740pix, 138kb) crinkly, orange, cyan, and yellow
    (untitled?) (897x740pix, 131kb) crinkly, deep yellow and bluish gray
    (untitled?) (897x740pix, 131kb) crinkly, vague suggestion of a small coin on a larger one
    (untitled?) (897x740pix, 131kb) crinkly, vague suggestion of a leprechaun
    –- Campanilleros (1957; 535x375pix, 23kb) _ The pseudonymous Aquiduerme Perez-Ozo has transformed this non-abstract picture into a series of colorful and elaborate abstractions, which can be reached by clicks of the mouse from any of them, for example the asymmetrical:
          _ Campana con Anillos (2008; 928x1312pix, 400kb or the symmetrical
          _ Aguila Perezosa (2008; 928x1312pix, 448kb)
    Ibérico (329x500pix, 38kb) —(090105)

    1919 Julius Leblanc Stewart, US painter born (full coverage) on 06 September 1855. —(050902)

    1911 Stefano Bruzzi, Italian artist born on 04 May 1835.

    1905 Johann Rudolf Koller, Swiss painter born (full coverage) on 21 May 1828. —(060104)

    1908 Pierre Henri Théodore Tetart (or Tetar) van Elven), Dutch artist born on 30 August 1828 or 1831.

    1895 Vladislav Podkovinski, Polish painter and illustrator. born on 06 (04?) February 1866. From 1880 to 1884 he studied in Warsaw at Wojciech Gerson’s Drawing School. From 1884 he regularly contributed illustrations to leading Warsaw journals such as Tygodnik Ilustrowany and Wedrowiec. In 1885, accompanied by his fellow artist Józef Pankiewicz, he went to Saint-Petersburg and studied (1885–1886) at the Academy of Fine Arts. Disappointed with the conservative teaching system and short of money, he returned to Warsaw in 1886 and in 1887 continued working regularly for Tygodnik Ilustrowany, becoming one of its most popular illustrators. He produced his first watercolors and oil paintings, much under the influence of Aleksander Gierymski, but continued to regard these as secondary activities until a stay in Paris in 1889, again in the company of Pankiewicz. Here, the experience of new French painting, especially that of Claude Monet shown at the Galerie Georges Petit, encouraged Podkowinski to attempt paintings in an Impressionist manner. Works shown at the Aleksander Krywult Salon in Warsaw in 1890 initiated much heated discussion about Impressionism, then new to Polish art.

    1890 Auguste Louis Veillon, Swiss artist born on 29 December 1834.

    ^ 1890 Thomas Miles Richardson Jr., born in 1813 at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, English painter, watercolorist, and lithographer, specialized in landscapes, similar to those of his father and teacher Thomas Miles Richardson Sr. [1784-1848]. He visited France, Switzerland, and Germany. — LINKS
    –- A Country Road near Ambleside, Westmoreland (1845, 22x31cm; 707x1000pix)
    –- On Lake Como (21x31cm)
    –- Gate Crag, Borrowdale, Cumberland (1864, 76x127cm; 587x1000pix, 208kb _ .ZOOM to 880x1500pix, kb) _ The river curves around the crag on the left side, with an enbankment with trees between the crag and the river. In the left foreground there are rocks along the river; near these, two black birds are flying. On the path along the river there are two women and a shepherd with his dog. The man, seen from the back, has a gray cape thrown over his shoulder and is wearing a tan tunic and thick knee-length socks. He is talking with the older of the two women, who is standing facing him, wearing a scarf on her head and a red blouse with white lace, she is carrying freshly washed clothes in her waist apron. The other woman is kneeling on the ground gathering firewood; on her left a young brown donkey is carrying two wicker baskets on its back. There are many rocks along the river banks. Some white sheep and a beige one are lying next to the path.
    The Vale of Delphi (24x34cm)
    –- The Loch (almost monochrome water“color” 17x26cm; 1047x1531pix, 233kb)

    1876 Salomon Leonardus Verveer, The Hague Dutch painter born (main coverage) on 30 November 1813. —(060104)

    ^ 1686 (burial) Frederik de Moucheron den Ouden, in Amsterdam, Dutch artist of French origin born in Germany in 1633. After being trained by Jan Asselijn in Amsterdam, he settled and worked in France for several years, where in 1656 he was recorded as staying in Paris and Lyon. He returned to Amsterdam after a brief period in Antwerp. In 1659 he married Marieke de Jouderville, daughter of the painter Isaac de Jouderville; they had 12 children, including the painter, draftsman, etcher, and architect Isaac de Moucheron [bap. 23 Nov 1667 – 1744], whom he taught and who, like him, specialized in Italianate landscape views with park-like settings. These were particularly used to decorate the walls in houses of the well-to-do in Amsterdam. Frederik was strongly influenced by the work of the second generation of Dutch Italianates, particularly Asselijn and Jan Both. His landscapes also show similarities with the late work of Adam Pynacker. Dirck Helmbreker, Johannes Lingelbach, Adriaen van de Velde, and Nicolaes Berchem all provided staffage for his paintings. — LINKS
    –- Mountainous Wooded Landscape with a Watermill and a Tower (1168x961pix, 111kb)
    –- Landscape in India (725x900pix, 66kb)
    Mountainous Landscape with Cattle (90x87cm; 600x564pix _ ZOOM to 930x900pix, 120kb)
    Off to the Hunt
    Hofwijk (281x400pix, 31kb) _ the country house of Christiaan Huygens [14 Apr 1629 – 09 Jul 1695] in Voorburg near The Hague. —(060104)

    Born on a 05 January:

    ^ 1911 Eric Wilson, Australian artist who died in 1946.
    The Artist's Mother (1937; 500x374pix, 49kb) —(060104)

    ^ 1897 Amelia Peláez del Casal, Cuban painter, ceramicist, and illustrator, who died on 08 April 1968. She studied under Leopoldo Romañach (1862–1951) at the Academia de S Alejandro in Havana, where she was influenced by Impressionism. She graduated in 1924 and lived in Paris from 1927 to 1933, studying at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière, the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts and the Ecole du Louvre. She also studied composition and color with the Russian Constructivist and stage designer Alexandra Exter. She held an individual exhibition at the Galerie Zak in Paris in 1933 and in 1934 returned to Cuba.
    — Amelia Pelaez entered San Alejandro at the relatively late age of twenty, graduating with honors in 1924, At San Alejandro she was one of Romañach's leading students in the areas of drawing, color, and landscape. The year of her graduation she and her colleague Maria Pepa Lamarque held a two-person show at the Association of Painters and Sculptors in Havana, where Pelaez exhibited a series of romantic landscapes typical of her early work. In the summer of I924 she visited New York on a travel grant and studied at the Arts Student League for six months. A more substantial grant from the Cuban government sent her to Paris in I927 for the purpose of studying French museums and academies. In Paris, Pelaez attended drawing and art history courses at La Grande Chaumiere, the Ecole Nationale Superieure de Beaux Arts, and the Ecole de Louvre. She also drew and painted at the Louvre. She obtained what she considered her most important formal training from Alexandra Exter's courses in design and color theory in which she enrolled between 1931 and 1934. She has also acknowledged her debt to the art of Matisse, Braque, and Picasso in developing at this time a personal version of synthetic cubism. Her Parisian stay culminated with a one-person show at the Galerie Zak in 1933, where she presented thirty-eight paintings and gouaches of landscapes, female figures, and still lifes with an introduction by Francis de Miomandre. The following year she participated in the Exposition de Livres Manuscrits at the Galerie Myrbor with her illustrations for Léon Paul Fargue's Sept Poèmes. Before leaving Paris she published in La Volonté an article on modern Cuban painting entitled "Les peintres cubains à Paris." Pelaez returned to Cuba in 1934, making a studio at her home in the Vibora district of Havana. Although she lived and worked in relative isolation, she was an active participant in the vanguard (1927-1938) and the classical (1938-1951) phases of Cuban modernism. For two years after her arrival she concentrated on drawing, working out her understanding of European modern art and formulating a new subject matter based on her rediscovery of Cuba. She returned to painting in the late 1930s with still lifes representing Cuba's flora in an austere version of cubism. Around 1940 she developed her signature style by enriching her cubist vocabulary with arabesques, bright color areas, and elaborate baroque compositions derived from nineteenth-century Cuban architectural decoration and furniture design. She found in her immediate environment--her home, garden, and neighborhood--a new source for artistic inspiration and cultural expression. She helped make colonial architecture a symbol of cubanidad and expanded on the nineteenth-century tradition of the use of tropical fruits and flowers for the same purpose. She also represented abstracted female figures at rest in intimate interiors that also allude to a particular way of life. In the 1950s Pelaez turned toward greater abstraction and geometric simplification. From 1950 to 1962 she dedicated much of her attention to decorating and designing ceramics and making murals. Two of her outstanding mural projects were one in ceramics for the Tribunal de Cuentas in 1953 and another in tessera (now destroyed) for the hotel Habana-Hilton in 1958. During the 1960s, she concentrated again on oil painting, returning in part to the elaborate arabesques, brilliant colors, and still-life themes of her 1940s work.
    Mujer (1943, 116x89cm; 480x365pix, 44kb)
    Fruit Dish (1947; 386x371pix, 21kb)
    Marpacífico (Hibiscus) (1943, 116x89cm; 390x298pix, 176kb)
    — (flower??) (631x621pix, 68kb)
    — (Saint Catherine??) (604x400pix, 28kb)
    Flores amarillas (1964; 600x473pix, 89kb)
    Pez (1960, 600x477pix, 64kb)
    Naturaleza muerta con pitaya (1942, 600x493pix, 58kb) —(060104)

    ^ 1886 Renato Eriberto Paresce, Italian artist who died in 1937. — {Para el Internet parece que casi no hay Paresce: casi no aparece.}
    –- Paesaggio Marino (740x900pix, 100kb)
    –- Statua e Scale (900x639pix, 74kb)
    –- Paesaggio (716x900pix, 96kb) —(070104)

    ^ 1866 Ramon Casas i Carbó, Barcelona Catalan painter who died on 29 February 1932. He was a student of Joan Vicens [1830–1886] and published his first drawing in the magazine L’Avenç of Barcelona in 1881, the same year in which he went to Paris. There he studied under Carolus-Duran and exhibited his chiaroscuro Self-portrait as Andalusian at the Salon des Champs-Elysées (1883). At the Académie Gervex he knew another Catalan painter Laureà Barrau [1863–1957], and they went together to Granada in 1884. In this year his painting Bullfight, already sketchy and luminous, was considered too avant-garde by the critics when it was exhibited at the Sala Parés of Barcelona. Casas’s main period of work began in 1890, when he returned to Paris with his close friend the painter and writer Santiago Rusinõl. They lived with Miquel Utrillo [1862–1934] at the Moulin de la Galette in Montmartre. His painting now focused on views of suburban Paris and interiors with figures; it used gray tones, seeking poetry in vulgar or everyday themes. Works such as Plein air (1890) and Interior of the Moulin de la Galette (1890) show Degas’s influence in their compositions, and Whistler’s in their sense of color. At that time he began to exhibit his works at the Salon du Champ de Mars, also showing twice at the Salon des Indépendants. When he exhibited the Parisian paintings in Barcelona (Sala Parés, 1890 and 1891; Exposició General de Belles Arts, 1891), the critics began to talk about his ‘modernism’; the term soon became associated with the new generation of Catalan artists that used to meet (Jun 1897 - Jun 1903) in Barcelona at Els Quatre Gats café, established by Casas.
    — La seva era una família benestant. El seu pare havia fet fortuna a Matanzas (Cuba), i la seva mare era filla d'una família de la burgesia catalana. Ramon Casas financia la obertura del local d'Els 4 Gats i junt amb l'amo del local Pere Romeu i els amics Utrillo i Rusiñol protagonitzen les activitats i la tertúlia d'aquest cafè-cerveseria que representa les inquietuds artístiques del modernisme. El local recull la influència parisenca del local Le Chat Noir, i reuneix la generació de joves artistes com Picasso, Manolo, els de la Collla del safrà, etc. Casas decora el local amb dos grans plafons: el famòs Tàndem i l'Automòbil al·lusius als segles XIX i XX. També hi dissenya el cartell. Participa a la mostra collectiva exposada a la Sala Gran dels 4 Gats. 1900: Exposició Universal de París: el comité espanyol li admet El retrat d'Elisa Casas i Carbó (germana del pintor) i El retrat d'Eric Satie.
    Retrat d'Elisa Casas i Carbó (1889, 200x100cm; 425x209pix, 15kb) _ Obra realitzada a Barcelona a la terrassa de casa de l'artista. Fou presentada a l'exposició de Beaux-Arts de París l'any següent on obtingué un gran èxit, una dècada més tard fou escollida per participar a l'exposició Universal de París de 1900. La seva germana petita esdevingué en els seus anys de formació la seva model preferida i més àmpliament retratada. Elisa, es representada de mida natural, situant-la al mig de l'espai pictòric. L'obra és utilitzada per l'artista per analitzar l'expressió, l'aspecte i la gestualitat de la retratada. L'artista se centra tant en un minuciós estudi de la figura de la seva germana a través d'un gran nombre de detalls com els guants, el barret o un cuidat tractament dels cabells.
    Pau Casals i Defilló (drawing; 599x372pix, 40kb) _ Pau Casals i Defilló [29 Dec 1876 – 22 Oct 1973] va ser violoncel·lista, director i compositor, però la seva gran contribució al món de la música va ser la innovació en la interpretació amb el violoncel que, més tard, va ser adoptada per tots els violoncel·listes del món.
    –- Chula con Mantón Amarillo (900x713pix, 49kb) _ Compare with
          _ Feas con Mantas Verdes (screen-filling, 135kb _ ZOOM to 1000x1414pix, 349kb) by the pseudonymous N. Omar Maisons-Charbot. —(060104)

    ^ 1844 Giovanni Battista Quadrone, Italian painter who died on 23 November 1898.
    Il Filosofo (1870, 21x16cm) —(060104)

    ^ 1825 Simon Marcus Larson, Swedish painter who died on 25 (26?) January 1864. He was trained briefly as a saddler before gaining entrance to the Konstakademi in Stockholm. In 1848 he won a prize for a study of a tree: the study of nature formed an important foundation for the careful, detailed realism that distinguishes his magnificently composed landscapes. Although Larson’s artistic career lasted only 16 years, his output was considerable. His earliest paintings are predominantly moonlit scenes, influenced by the Swedish romantic landscape painter Carl Johan Fahlcrantz. A stay in Helsingborg in 1849 opened Larson’s eyes to the beauty of the sea. He learnt the technique of painting water from the Danish marine painter Vilhelm Melbye [1824–1882], and he soon developed it to a level of virtuosity. A considerable part of Larson’s oeuvre consists of vessels in storms, shipwrecks, and burning steamships, where the foaming sea plays a prominent role. He collaborated on such paintings as Shipwreck on the Swedish Coast (1853) with his friend Kilian Zoll, who added the figures, and at other times with the marine officer P. W. Cedergren [1823–1896], who did such details as the vessels’ rigging. — He was not related to Carl Larsson [28 May 1853 – 22 Jan 1919]. — LINKS
    Fishing Near the Fjord by Moonlight (1811, 73x114cm) mostly black.
    Storm on the Coast of Bohuslän (1857, 40x52cm; 324x480pix, 178kb) almost monochrome —(060104)

    ^ 1821 Joseph Caraud, French historical and genre painter who died in November 1905. — {Dans la compétition entre artistes, Caraud a dû être laissé sur le carreau, car je ne trouve pas grand'chose de lui dans l'Internet.} — Early in his career Joseph Caraud was inspired, like many other artists, by Italy and Algeria, basing his early Salon entries on his experience in these countries. But as his career progressed he became more interested in anecdotal, genre scenes in which elegant women in their luxurious clothing with sumptuous patterning recalled the eighteenth-century style and rendering of details found in paintings by Fragonard, Greuze, and Watteau.
         Caraud was born in Cluny, in the Saône-et-Loire region of France. Even before he began his artistic training at the École des Beaux-Arts, he exhibited his first work at the Salon of 1843: La Bonne Maman et La Petite Fille and Portrait de M.G.. In October of the following year he entered the École des Beaux-Arts ateliers of Alexandre Abel de Pujol, a former student of Jacques-Louis David, and Charles-Louis Lucien Muller, a historical and religious scene painter, in Paris, both of whom influenced his early work at the Salons. From 1843 to 1846, he submitted several portraits to the Salon, perhaps to earn money for a trip to Italy since starting in 1848 he began submitting imagery based on Italian themes. As both of his masters were also portrait painters, he was first introduced to portraiture while he studied with these artists. His first work based on Italian life was his entry for 1848 entitled Jeune Fille Italienne à la Fontaine and Italien Offrant un Bijou à une Jeune Fille. After absorbing the influence of Italian life, he traveled to Algeria, exhibiting at the Salon of 1853 Intérieur d'une Maison Maure à Alger (Interior of a Moorish House in Algiers) and Femme d'Alger Agaçant une Perruche, and Baigneuses Mauresques thereby maintaining the romantic interest in such themes largely initiated earlier by Eugène Delacroix.
          These two journeys, when examined together, interestingly reveal that during his early period Caraud was influenced by several elements. On one hand he traveled to Italy, perhaps under the influence of his École des Beaux-Arts teacher Abel de Pujol – who was interested in mythological and biblical scenes - since Italy was still where many artists went to study the old Italian masters and learn about landscape painting. The Prix de Rome given by the Académie continued to encourage students to seek out this country for artistic inspiration. Additionally, he went to Algeria, thus linking himself with Orientalism, or the craze for everything "oriental". As France became more interested in establishing herself as a colonial power it encouraged artists to travel to North Africa. Here artists would find an entirely new environment and culture, and many would remain consistent painters of this theme throughout their career.
          While Caraud initially dabbled in many other sources of inspiration, it is clear that by the Salon of 1857 he had left Italy and Algeria behind him and had started working more on the scenes for which he would be remembered – historical and anecdotal paintings heavily influenced by the period of Louis XV and the life of Marie Antoinette. In 1857 he exhibited La Reine Marie-Antoinette au Petit-Trianon, among others, showing a scene directly inspired by this historical period. He received his first medal, third-class, at the salon of 1859 when he exhibited Représentation d'Athalie devant le Roi Louis XIV par les Demoiselles de Saint-Cyr, among two others, and received another medal, this time a second-clas s award, in 1861 for works which included those based on religious activities.
          His works, reminiscent of the eighteenth century themes and style, are in sharp contrast to the prevailing sense of Realism imbued in many works of this period in France which sought to document daily life in the country. These Realists artists based their compositions around a dark palette and did not shy away from depicting even the gloomiest scenes of Parisian existence. For Caraud, his decadent images focus on the pomp of the upper bourgeoisie, rendering each detail in a precise fashion, taking great care to picture the fabrics worn by his subjects, a preoccupation that stems from earlier masters of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It was written of this work that, "He marvelously renders the dress, furniture, looks and types. All of his powdered, musk-scented, and ribboned subjects seem to come out of the Trianon." Caraud may have also been influenced by the Realists, but until more of his work is brought to light, further exploration of his themes remains conjectural.
          In spite of any possibility of his work on Realist themes, he still became best known for anecdotal scenes based on the eighteenth century. These themes resonated with both Salon juries and the public. The demand for his images became so great that they would later be reproduced as engravings for dissemination among the masses, so that each person, who wanted one, could have a Caraud hanging in their home. His interest in the beautiful woman is similar to his contemporary James Tissot, who, early in his career painted fashionable women in historical costume pieces.
          The eighteenth century assumed an almost mythic significance for bourgeois Europe of a hundred years later…The artist G.A. Storey claimed ‘There can be no doubt that want of taste in dress and other surrounding often obliges the artist to present his fancies in the costumes of periods when articles of clothing were in themselves works of art, instead of in the shifting fashions of the day that in a year or two not only look out of date, but stand forth in all their native ugliness and vulgarity.’
          He participated in the 1889 Exposition Universelle in Paris where he earned a bronze medal. Caraud continued his involvement in the Parisian Salons and exhibitions until 1902 when he exhibited Jardin des Tuileries for his final showing.
          In his work inspired by eighteenth century genre scenes, Caraud found a sympathetic audience and became a very ”in-demand” artist attested to by the fact that many of his most popular paintings were widely reproduced to meet public anticipation. But more of his work will need to be brought to light before a fuller assessment of the possible diversity of his oeuvre can take place. Nevertheless, his placement in the annals of nineteenth century anecdotal painting is assured.
          Some of his best known works are: Madame Fauconnier – Jeune Fille Tricotant– La Lettre (several versions).
    The Ball of Yarn (1863, 65x51cm; 750x592pix, kb) a lady is watching a cat and two kittens playing with it.
    An Interupted Visit (1867, 60x74cm; 481x600pix, 39kb)
    — (les deux colombes?) (981x628pix, 179kb)
    Midday Stroll (400x278pix, 20kb)
    Le Parasol Rouge (475x300pix, 29kb) —(060104)

    ^ 1812 Remigius Adrianus van Haanen “Remy van Haan”, Dutch painter who died on 13 August 1894 in Austria. He learnt the theory of painting from his father, the painter Casparis Haanen [1778 – 24 Jan 1849], but he was largely self-taught. He began his career in Utrecht, where he made drawings and etchings, as well as painting land- and townscapes. From there he moved to Hilversum, then Amsterdam. Landscape with Cottages on the Heath is typical of his work at this period. Van Haanen was a keen traveler, visiting much of Germany and southern Europe between 1834 and 1841. He stayed in Frankfurt am Main in 1834–1835, and based himself in Vienna from 1836. There he changed his name to Remy van Haan and became famous for his Austrian summer landscapes. In 1850 van Haanen went to Russia, visiting Saint-Petersburg, where his winter scenes were successful. He exhibited in Amsterdam and The Hague between 1832 and 1863, occasionally showing work in Antwerp after this time.
    –- Unloading The Catch (1846, 69x90cm; 754x1000pix, 68kb _ .ZOOM to 1131x1500pix, 117kb)
    –- A Moonlit Winter Landscape (84x126cm; 657x1000pix, 64kb)
    –- A River Landscape (1880, 50x77cm; 624x1000pix, 46kb)
    –- Beached Fishing Boats by Moonlight (42x57cm; 718x1000pix, 90kb)
    –- Figures by a Channel (50x63cm; 552x736pix, 32kb _ .ZOOM to 824x1098pix, 43kb)
    Winter Landscape (1837, 28x43cm; 256x400pix, 30kb)

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