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ART “4” “2”-DAY  04 January v.10.10

^ >Died on 04 January 2005: Alton Stanley Tobey, US muralist, portraitist, illustrator, historical artist, and teacher of art, born on 05 November 1914.
— The mother of Tobey provided him with pencils and paper when he was three years old, thus setting him on a career that spanned over six decades. Tobey's Realistic portraiture and murals were his "bread and butter" work, and were often reproduced in print and on collectibles. What he called his "artistic double life" led him to Abstraction, Pre-Columbian explorations and Photorealism. He was also both teacher and mentor to many aspiring artists, and established a scholarship for them. He was best known for portraits and his floor-to-ceiling murals, which he called “symphonies of painting”. Two of his most acclaimed works are Inca Trephination and Contemporary Cultural Mutilations in Pursuit of Beauty. He did a six-piece series on the life of Gen. Douglas MacArthur for the MacArthur Memorial Building in Norfolk VA. His portraits were of presidents, Supreme Court justices, Pope John Paul II, artists and Albert Einstein, whom he happened upon serendipitously and first sketched while he was an art student in the late 1930's. His acquaintance with Einstein endured, and Einstein's theories on space and time inspired Mr. Tobey's signature curvilinear style of painting, separate from his representational work. Besides the curvilinears, he made fragments paintings and Conceptual works. He furnished the covers and hundreds of illustrations for a dozen volumes of the Golden Books History of the United States, published in the 1960's. He also did illustrations for Life and other national publications. Tobey was an art educator and a historian as well. His son, David Tobey [1954~], is also a painter (and a sculptor and violinist).

Rosalyn Tobey, wife of the artist (1999; 307x415pix, 86kb) _ 50th wedding anniversary portrait. She was a pianist and teacher who died in a car accident in Mexico on 20 July 2002.
Rivera (557x359pix, 22kb _ ZOOM to 1600x1032pix, 96kb) _ Actually only about half the face of Rivera.
Frieda's World (557x829pix, 88kb _ ZOOM to 1075x1600pix, 225kb)
Frieda's Pain (557x440pix, 49kb _ ZOOM to 1600x1264pix, 227kb) _ Greatly influenced by the story of Frida Callo and Diego Rivera, (about ten years before the motion picture about them was released), Tobey felt compelled to express her life as a tribute, and also as a cathartic reaction for the pain he himself felt for her suffering. These last three paintings address this story.
Conquistador (557x357pix, 50kb _ ZOOM to 1600x1027pix, 232kb)
Maria Félix (557x414pix, 25kb _ ZOOM to 1600x1189pix,119 kb)
Spirit Dance (557x526pix, 72kb _ ZOOM to 1600x1512pix, 308kb)
Spirit Dance 2 (557x823pix, 98kb _ ZOOM to 1083x1600pix, 241kb)
Spirit Dance 3 (557x384pix, 62kb _ ZOOM to 1600x1104pix, 304kb) _ The three Spirit Dance paintings show Tobey's involvement with Day of the Dead celebrations and other ceremonial observances, dances and festivities that went along with them. Tobey marries his representationalism with his curvilinear abstract style and uses the curvilinear figures to show the ghostly musician joining along with the masked and costume-clad corporeal figures, as they ceremoniously conduct the special festivities. Spirit Dance 2 takes the spirit aspect to an additional dimension by the subtle depiction of an ancient wise man, diffusely but powerfully present in a state of deep contemplation, as if holding the sacred space for the ceremony. Spirit Dance 3 is completely in the curvilinear style, but this time is built up as a bas-relief using solid materials, string and metal.
Latin Experience (557x737pix, 102kb _ ZOOM to 1209x1600pix, 303kb)
Peruvian Flutists (558x669pix, 71kb _ ZOOM to 1333x1600pix, 246kb) _ As a necessary step in his research for a commission from the Smithsonian Institution in Washington DC, Tobey was sent to Peru for 3 months to study all aspects of the culture and to gather visual material for his mural. Of special interest to him was the study of the unique facial qualities of the natives. His paintings displayed some of the most authentic and unmixed representation of what Incans atop Macchu Picchu would have looked like centuries ago. In the following years, greatly influenced by his Peruvian studies and experiences, bold, dynamic and colorful canvases would emerge as homages to his appreciation and his love of this culture and its musical and artistic forms.
Emiliano Zapata (557x380pix, 40kb _ ZOOM to 1600x1091pix, 196kb)
Santiago (557x433pix, 25kb _ ZOOM to 1600x1243pix, 117kb)
Santiago's daughter (557x410pix, 38kb _ ZOOM to 1600x1179pix, 171kb) _ The portrait of this Mexican child was commissioned by her father, whom Alton and Rosalyn met while visiting an unearthed Guatemalan ruin in the early 80's. Atop a remote pyramid that was only accessible by foot or horseback the Tobeys met Gabriella and Santiago, a couple who would remain dear friends for life.
(Raking the Hay?) (453x600, 84kb)
(Tsarist Law and Order?) (410x333pix, 24kb) _ painted for the cover of a Time issue on the Russian Revolution.

== The Golden Book History of The United States:
In the early 1960's, Golden Books Publishers planned on creating a 12-volume set of subscription volumes containing more than a thousand pages of illustrations and text on US history, from the discovery of the North American continent in the 15th century to the beginining of the space age in the 1960's. The text in the volumes was written to be understood, appreciated and enjoyed by people of all ages and educational levels. They wanted an artist who could narrate in pictures the most important events in US history with not only imagination, but also with historical accuracy. Having proven himself as one of the US's most succesful painters of historic murals, Alton Tobey was chosen to illustrate the books; and in just over a year and a half, Tobey he made more than 350 individual paintings for this. Here are links to reproductions of a few of them:
Pilgrims boarding The Mayflower (422x913pix, 65kb _ ZOOM to 739x1600pix, 137kb)
Cartier and Agohanna (557x857pix, 73kb _ ZOOM to 1040x1600pix, 172kb)
Old Niewe Amsterdam (557x397pix, kb _ ZOOM to 1600x1139pix, 233kb)
The First Thanksgiving (557x825pix _ ZOOM to 1080x1600pix, 209kb)
The British ambushed (557x794pix _ ZOOM to 1123x1600pix, 203kb)
The death of General Wolfe (557x770pix _ ZOOM to 1157x1600pix, 201kb) _ much inferior to
      _ The Death of General Wolfe (1770, 152x214cm; 929X1262pix, 84kb) by Benjamin West [10 Oct 1738 – 11 Mar 1820].
The British surrender at Yorktown. (557x770pix _ ZOOM to 1157x1600pix, 208kb) _ British general Charles Cornwallis [31 Dec 1738 – 05 October 1805] had won some victories during the US War of Independence, notably at Camden, South Carolina (16 Aug 1780). But he is remembered mostly for completing the British defeat by his surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, where he had been besieged by by US and French ground forces, under Washington [22 Feb 1732 – 14 Dec 1799] and the comte de Rochambeau [01 Jul 1725 – 10 May 1807], and a French fleet under the comte de Grasse [13 Sep 1722 – 11 Jan 1788]. Few people realize that Cornwallis nevertheless remained popular in Great Britain and later served ably as governor-general of India (23 Feb 1786 - 13 Aug 1793; 1805) and as viceroy of Ireland (1798–1801).
Custer's Last Stand (557x717pix _ ZOOM to 1243x1600pix, 214kb) _ Not to be confused with
      _ .Custard's Last Stand
, the book by Tamar Myers, who, you'll surely be pickled or at least tickled to death to know, is also the author of
      _ .Just Plain Pickled to Death,
      _ Hell Hath No Curry,
      _ .Grape Expectations,
      _ .Assault and Pepper,
      _ .Gruel and Unusual Punishment,
      _ .The Crepes of Wrath, The Hand That Rocked the Ladle,
      _ .Play It Again Spam, Eat, Drink, and Be Wary,
      _ .Between a Wok and a Hard Place,
      _ .No Use Dying Over Spilled Milk,
      _ .Too Many Crooks Spoil the Broth,

      _ .Thou Shalt Not Grill
, and many more books, including a “Den of Antiquity Mystery ” series to which belong
      _ .Baroque and Desperate,
      _ .Gilt by Association (“it's a nightmare in shining armoire...”),
      _ .So Faux, So Good
, and
      _ .Larceny and Old Lace _ The pseudonymous Tamer Mysea has spoofed those books' titles and has transformed the cover of some of them into as many series of amazing abstract pictures (all the images in each series can be reached by clicks of the mouse from its representative image listed below):
      _ Curser's Last Strand (2007; 550x778pix, 180kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 341kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 646kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1403kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 2742kb)
      _ Clay Hit Again Sam
(2007; 550x778pix, 112kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 204kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 646kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 861kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 1763kb)
      _ Bar O.K. and the Spirits
(2007; 550x778pix, 191kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 394kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 821kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1997kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 4301kb)
      _ Between Iraq and a Harp Lace
(2007; 550x778pix, 131kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 243kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 541kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1328kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 2678kb) _ Mysea is working on transforming similarly the covers of the other books into series of pictures titled as follows:
      _ Pick Unjust Pain Or Death
      _ Hell Has No Hurry
      _ Grate Expostulations
      _ Assault and Pep Her
      _ The Gripes of Wrath
      _ The Band That Rocked the Credo
      _ Cruel and Done Usual Banishment
      _ Meet, Drink, and Be Married
      _ Not Us Crying Over Misspelled Milc
      _ Too Many Crooks and Nannies
      _ Thou Shalt Knot Krill
      _ Arson in a Dolt Place

      _ Associates Buy Kilts

      _ Son Faux, Son Gourde

Pershing at Lafayette's grave (557x389pix _ ZOOM to 1600x1117pix, 205kb)
General Robert E. Lee (557x419pix _ ZOOM to 1600x1205pix, 164kb)
The assassination of President McKinley (397x993pix _ ZOOM to 696x1600pix, 101kb)
The great Chicago fire (434x913pix _ ZOOM to 760x1600pix, 190kb)
A breadline in the Depression (478x913pix _ ZOOM to 837x1600pix, 123kb)
A World War battle (557x766pix _ ZOOM to 1163x1600pix, 226kb)
Fireside Chats (557x380pix _ ZOOM to 1091x1600pix, 180kb)
Scientist Enrico Fermi (557x777pix _ ZOOM to 1147x1600pix, 99kb)
Brothers United (600x477pix, 82kb) _ John F. Kennedy and Robert Kennedy.
Apollo Astronauts (505x600pix, 99kb) _ The portrait of the three Apollo 11 astronauts, commissioned to celebrate the lunar landing in 1969 is perhaps Tobey's most recognizable group portrait, as millions of reproductions were sold across the US. Left to right: pilot Edwin Aldrin [20 Jan 1930~], Command Module Pilot Michael Collins [31 Oct 1930~], and Commander Neil Armstrong [05 Aug 1930~].
The Roots of Westchester (1984; 423x950pix, 91kb). _ Tobey painted this mural in honor of the 300th arriversary of his home county, Westchester in New York state. He incorporated more than 100 individual portraits, from George Washington to contemporary county residents.
The Monument at Mount Rushmore (557x798pix, 94kb _ ZOOM to 1115x1596pix, 254kb)

Tobey's web site.

^ Died on 04 January 1778: Charles-Dominique-Joseph Eisen, French painter, draftsman, and illustrator, born on 17 August 1720, son of genre painter François Eisen [1695-1778], and father of artists Christophe-Charles Eisen [1744–] and Jacques-Philippe Eisen [1747–].
— Charles Eisen went to Paris about 1740 to work in the studio of the engraver Jacques-Philippe Lebas. Eisen himself engraved little, and probably produced the drawings from which Lebas or studio assistants would engrave. In 1745 Eisen was asked to illustrate a volume celebrating the betrothal of the Dauphin Louis to Maria Theresa of Spain. This was his first significant commission and was probably passed to him by Lebas. Two years later he established his reputation and independence by providing 43 drawings for an edition of the works of Nicolas Boileau. In 1748, however, the Académie de Saint Luc seized Eisen’s studio effects because he was refusing to pay the joining fee, arguing that, as an artist of exceptional talent, he should be admitted for a lesser amount. Two years later he sued successfully and was admitted without fee; his morceau de réception was a painting of Daedalus and Icarus
— Charles Eisen is best known as an illustrator of vignettes, which are small, ornamental images with no defined borders that are most often used in books (also on snuff boxes). His charm and grace, as well as his sense of humor and wit, brought him to the attention of Madame de Pompadour, mistress of Louis XV. Through Madame de Pompadour's considerable influence with the King, Eisen became a court painter and also a professor at the Acadèmie de Saint-Luc. Perhaps most importantly, he gave private instruction in drawing to Madame Pompadour herself. Eisen's popularity at the court insured that he would enjoy patronage among the aristocracy. His sure sense of line and use of brilliant color, in combination with his sense of humor and understanding of extravagant courtly tastes, resulted in paintings such as Le chien dansant.

–- Le Chien Dansant (675x568pix, 28kb)_ A young boy and girl, both fashionably dressed and coiffed, play with a tiny pet that they have dressed up in doll clothes for their own amusement. Though this is clearly a delightful and playful picture, it is also possible that Eisen is secretly making light of the aristocratic tastes which supported him. _ Compare Children Teaching a Cat to Dance (1668) by Jan Steen [1626 – 03 Feb 1679] and Chien Dansant by François Boucher.
–- Courting the Shepherdess (1760 hand colored engraving by René Gaillard, 51x41cm, 703x600pix, 50kb)
–- Putti Playing With a Goat (72x100cm; 562x799pix, 45kb _ .ZOOM to 984x1398pix, 81kb)
Culs-de-lampe et figures d'après celles de Charles Eisen pour les Contes de La Fontaine [1621-1695].
^ Died on 04 January 1927: Frederick Cayley Robinson, British Neoclassical painter born on 18 August 1862.
— Robinson was born in Middlesex and studied in London and Paris. A pioneer of twentieth century tempera painting, illustrator and theatre designer, he was elected to the NEAC in 1912 and appointed Professor of Figure Composition and Decoration at Glasgow University in 1914. Elected ARA 1921. From 1914 he lived in the block of studios at Lansdowne House, Holland Park, where Charles Ricketts and Charles Shannon were also residents.

–- A Winter Evening (1899, 61x76cm; 796x1009pix, 57kb — .ZOOM to 1592x2017pix, 195kb)
–- A winter's evening (1918, 99x77cm; 474x640pix, 47kb)
Pastoral (1924, 90x116cm)
Mother and Child - Threads of Life (1894, 61x76cm; 336x400pix, 20kb) _ A pensive woman sits at the left of the composition, facing right, with her right forearm resting on a dining table, in her hand she holds a needle and thread with which she has been embroidering a narrow hanging which lies flat on the table, steam rises from a blue and white bowl at the centre of the table. Behind her, against a lace-curtained window, sits a red-haired girl, facing right, eating from a white bowl which she holds in her right hand. At the back edge of the table wooden Noah's Ark figures stand in line. All is lit from above by a hanging oil lamp. An open triptych showing angels awaking a sleeping shepherd and the Virgin and Child hangs on the right wall.
      Presumably painted immediately after Robinson's return from Paris, where he had been studying at the Academy Julian since 1891. During his stay in France Robinson admired the work of Puvis de Chavannes and the Nabis and their influences may be seen in both the technique and obscure symbolism of this work. Enigmatic groupings of two or more female figures around a table in a lamp-lit room, frequently occur in his work. The Depth of Winter (1900, 90x116cm) is a related painting which also features an incomplete embroidery, as does A Souvenir of a Past Age (1894)
^ Buried on 04 January 1607: Gillis van Coninxloo (or Konimksloo) III, Flemish painter, draftsman, and collector, born on 24 January 1544, son of Jan van Coninxloo II [1489->1552] and brother-in-law of Pieter Bruegel II.
— Van Coninxloo was a landscape painter whose works show the transition from Mannerist to early Baroque landscape. Coninxloo studied under, among others, Pieter Coecke van Aelst, a painter of the Antwerp school of Mannerism. After a period of travel in France, he returned to Antwerp in 1570 and was made a member of the painters' guild. He left his home again in 1585 to escape religious persecution and stayed at Frankenthal in the Palatinate until 1595, when he settled in Amsterdam. The development of Coninxloo's style is often described in three periods that somewhat correspond with his residence in Antwerp (1570-1588), Frankenthal (1588-1595), and Amsterdam (1595-1606). His earlier works are deliberately composed landscape fantasies reflecting the influence of the Italianate Flemish landscapist Paul Bril. Coninxloo's later landscapes are more naturalistic and are characterized by their blending of color into a harmonious atmospheric tone.
— Van Mander, a contemporary of Gillis van Coninxloo III, wrote in 1604: ‘He is, as far as I know, the best landscape painter of his time; his style is now frequently imitated in Holland.’ Van Mander, moreover, based all his guidelines for landscape painters in his didactic poem Grondt der edel vry schilderconst (‘Principles of the noble and free art of painting’) on Gillis van Coninxloo’s ideas, since Gillis’s contributions to the development of Dutch and Flemish landscape painting were of decisive importance. More than any other artist, he represented the heroic landscape, an interpretation of nature based on reality but with a tendency to idealize the scenery, thus making the whole sublime. While his predecessors painted vast panoramic landscapes, Gillis III rendered self-contained glimpses of nature and created a sense of unity between man and nature as well as between the landscape and the viewer. A similar notion was being developed simultaneously in Italy by such artists of Netherlandish origin as Lodewijk Toeput and Paolo Fiammingo. Van Coninxloo, who never visited Italy, probably came to know this new style through prints by Cornelis Cort after Girolamo Muziano, which were then circulating throughout the Netherlands. Other northern artists such as Jan Breughel the elder and Paul Bril achieved similar results at the same time or even before. Their contribution to the development of forest landscapes may therefore be considered to be at least as important as that of Gillis van Coninxloo, if not more so.
— The students of Gillis van Coninxloo III included Hercules Seghers, Pieter Schoubroeck, Esaias van de Velde.

Wooded River Landscape with Raven Bringing Food to Elijah (115x178cm; 539x800pix, 101kb _ ZOOM to 1380x2048pix, 283kb)
Forest Landscape (1598, 42x61cm; 419x620pix, 60kb _ ZOOM to 845x1250pix, 268kb _ ZOOM++ to 1690x1690pix, 754kb, with right third cropped off) _ Taking as his starting-point Jan Brueghel, who was the first artist to paint a forest landscape abound 1595 (Galleria Ambrosia, Milan), Gillis van Coninxloo created his Forest Landscape, one of the highlights of Flemish landscape painting. In it, the viewer has a close-up view of a dense forest. He appears to be standing at a bend in the stream flowing out of the impenetrable wood towards him. In the middle, the stream runs around an island on which a traveler is encamped. The banks of the stream lend a sense of depth as they wend their way into the background. This painting achieves great intensity and an increasingly atmospheric quality in its fine shades of brown and green. Breaking through the mighty treetops, the light is reflected in the water and, against a background of impenetrable darkness, transforms the island on which the traveler is lying into an agreeable place. Through its accentuated handling of light, the forest landscape becomes highly atmospheric and seems to be positively charged with emotion.
Landscape with Leto and Peasants of Lykia (144x 204cm) _ The main subject of the painting is the landscape. The scene in the foreground is only a decoration; it depicts a story from Ovid's Metamorphoses: the peasants are changed to frogs because they did not give water to Leto. The figures of the scene were painted by Hendrick de Clerck.
Mountain Landscape with River Valley and the Prophet Hosea (20x29cm) _ The subject of this landscape is a moralistic one with a reference to a passage from the Bible, more specifically the Old Testament book of Hosea. The drawing is believed to have been done in Frankenthal, a small town in the Pfalz mountains where an important artists' colony sprang up after the fall of Antwerp to the Spanish in 1585. Many of the artists who settled there were Flemings sympathetic to the Reformation, who had been forced into exile because of their Protestant faith. Some years later, a number of them, including Gillis van Coninxloo, moved to Amsterdam. Protestant artists worked in Frankenthal in a reformed environment, which was naturally reflected in the subjects they chose to paint. That is certainly the case with this drawing. The Prophet Hosea opposed what he saw as abuses in the field of worship, making him a symbolic precursor of early Protestant leaders.
      Gillis van Coninxloo is viewed as an innovator in Flemish landscape painting. Above all, he represents the transition from the Mannerist to the Baroque landscape. The watercolor of the prophet Hosea is still done entirely in his early Mannerist style. Van Coninxloo went on to master and develop a variety of styles in his life. His influence on his contemporaries was crucial, and was felt by both Flemish and Dutch painters. In many ways, he helped Northern Netherlandish art embark on its search for a new, distinct identity.
Landscape (24x19cm)

Died on a 04 January:

2008 Joyce Carlson [16 Mar 1923–], US Disney film and theme park artist and designer. —(090103)

2005 Guy Mattison Davenport [23 Nov 1927–], US painter, illustrator, teacher, writer, translator, intellectual. —(090103)

2001 Benito Prieto Coussent [06 Jun 1907], Spanish painter.
25 images at —(100203)

1999 José Vela Zanetti, Spanish painter born (main coverage) on 26 May 1913. —(100103)

1975 Carlo Levi [29 Nov 1902–], Italian-Jewish physician turned painter, writer, and anti-fascist activist. —(090103)

^ 1926 Willem Carel (or Karel) Nakken, Dutch British painter born on 09 April 1835.
–- Cows in a Summer Landscape (515x961pix, 60kb)
–- At the Smithy (630x961pix, 108kb)
–- Landweg Achter Marlot bij Wassenaar (35x49cm; 766x1080pix, 145kb)
–- Cows by the Waterside (642x1080pix, 137kb)
–- Hay Time (502x840pix, 42kb)
–- Horses by a Gateway (1909; 568x844pix, 55kb)
–- (horsecart going out city gate) (674x892pix, 81kb) —(070102)

1915 Anton Alexander von Werner, German painter born (full coverage) on 09 May 1843. —(060103)

1910 Arthur Villeneuve [–24May 1990], Québécois Primitive painter. He was a Chicoutimi barber who closed his shop to paint because he believed he was following a divine message to paint. He painted over 2000 paintings in his lifetime. He painted brightly colored, dream-like visions in abstract patterns, based on the landscape of the region from Chicoutimi and Quebec City, sometimes filling them with a ghostly multitude of strange creatures.
Wood Point Village (1974; 400x548pix, 88kb) —(090103)

GYSES^ 1901 (17 Jan?) Nikolaos Gyzis (or Nicholas; Gysis, Gyzês), Greek painter and sculptor, active in Germany, born on 01 March 1842. He studied at the School of Arts in Athens (1853–1864) and at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich (1865–1871), where he later became a professor (1882). Despite his great love for Greece and his desire to return there, he lived and worked in Munich, perhaps fearing that he might not find the same suitable conditions in Greece as in the Bavarian capital. He attracted many of the young Greek artists who went to study in Munich. Gysis worked on almost all types of subjects, and many of his paintings were inspired by Greek life. His primary failing was that he never really managed to free himself from the academicism of Munich, despite the revolutionary changes then taking place in art. Typical examples of this type of work are: The Secret School (1876), The Betrothal (1877) and The Ex-voto (1886). Also of interest are his portraits, especially The Artist’s Wife, The Artist’s Son and The Artist’s Daughter. Influenced by the prevailing fin de siècle mood, for about the last 20 years of his life Gysis turned to both mythological and religious allegorical subjects with an intense mystical and Symbolist flavor. Representative works of this period are: Art and its Geniuses (1876), Eros and Psyche, Spring Symphony (1886) and ‘Behold the Bridegroom Cometh ...’ (1895)
— Gyzis was born on the Aegean island of Tinos and was sent for his education to Athens in 1850. He graduated from the School of Fine Arts in 1864 and a year later, after receiving a scholarship, he left for Munich to attend the Royal Academy of Arts. He was offered a permanent teaching post at the Academy in 1888. Apart from two visits to Greece, one in 1872–1874, the other in 1877, Gyzis spent the rest of his life in Munich. His work was well-known in Athens, however, since it was exhibited regularly there. Most of Gyzis's oeuvre through the mid-1880s falls within genre painting, and during the first years of his stay in Munich these works dealt predominantly with German subjects. After his first visit to Greece, which included a trip to Asia Minor in 1873 with his childhood friend and fellow student in Athens, Nikiphoros Lytras (1832–1904), Greek and "oriental" themes began to appear in his work. These were accompanied by the adoption of a brighter and more varied color range, away from the predominant browns and grays of his earlier genre pictures. After the mid-1880s his work moved increasingly toward more progressive areas—specifically, Symbolism and Jugendstil—and he was among the first artists in Germany to produce posters. A small number of his paintings allude to Greek history from the Ottoman era and the War of Independence. Gyzis is among the leading figures of what art historians have long referred to as the Greek "Munich School"—the first school proper of modern Greek art—which was made up of artists who furthered their artistic studies in Munich. The Bavarian capital was the most common destination for young Greek artists from the mid-nineteenth century on, due to the enthronement in 1833 of Ludwig I's son Otto as Greece's first king, Othon I, and close ties with Munich continued even after Othon's dethronement in 1862. The prevalent mode of painting associated with this group is that of genre (êthographia in Greek).
— The students of Gysis included Heinrich Lefler, Rudolf Levy, Ludek Marold, Georgios Roilos [1867-1928].
The Barber (1880, 93x69cm; 872x633pix, 89kb _ ZOOM to 1090x791pix, 208kb)
–- An Old Man Drinking aka The Old Toper (30x24cm; 649x510pix, 22kb _ .ZOOM to 1135x892pix, 48kb) the man seems to be the same as in The Barber.
–- Mourning in the Forester's Cottage (510x665pix, 32kb)
After the Destruction of Psara (133x188cm; 456x640pix, 73kb)
Learning by Heart (467x357pix, 41kb)
The Orphans (468x351pix, 42kb)
–- Mother and Child (900x606pix, 62kb) rough colored sketch.
The Secret School (1886; 458x580pix, 39kb) _ One of the more enduring myths of Greek national imagining is that of the Secret School (Krypho Scholio). It concerns the alleged suppression (and, in some cases, total prohibition) of education, by the Ottomans, among their subject peoples. According to the Secret School narrative, because of this suppression (especially during the first two centuries of Ottoman rule in Greece, the mid-fifteenth to the early seventeenth), Greeks had secretly organized small, underground schools for the education of their children. These schools were said to have convened in churches or monasteries, usually at night, and usually the teachers were priests.
     The painting depicts a bare, dark room in which five children sit around an old priest and are totally absorbed by the old man's words. His raised finger carries both religious and philosophical connotations, and his gentle, softly lit face exudes an aura of holiness. Behind the children sits a young man, who listens to the priest with similar attention; a rifle rests between his legs, indicating that the depicted activity is dangerous—he is there to protect the children in the case of discovery by the Turks. His youthful but virile figure alludes to the impending struggle of the Greeks for freedom and for the resurrection of their glorious past, as suggested by the large fragment of an ancient column against which two of the children rest.
     The compositional and formal elements of The Secret School are in line with the rest of Gyzis's Genre output. What sets it apart from other Genre historical works—both his own and those by other artists—is its portrayal of a scene lacking any historical basis and its allusion to a period earlier than the subject matter of the rest of the historical painting output in Greece. In a letter dated early in 1886, Gyzis wrote about his painting: “I thought to show that time in Greece, during the Turkish rule, when schools were strictly forbidden, and functioned only in secrecy. . . . I wanted to present a mystical act, in a dark, underground place, with only a single ray of light coming through.” Gyzis subscribed fully to the Secret School myth as it had been formulated by then.
     Gyzis's Secret School was one of five of his works to be included in the 1888 annual Panhellenic Exposition of Athens. A reviewer mentions Gyzis's Greek School at the Time of Slavery, which, since no other work by Gyzis deals with a similar subject, must be Secret School. By 1900 the painting was well on its way to becoming a national icon. That year, inspired by Gyzis's painting, the poet Ioannis Polemis [1862–1924] wrote The Secret School, which, through its inclusion in school textbooks, served to further perpetuate the myth.
     In a memorial speech on the event of Gyzis's death in 1901, Dimitrios Kaklamanos called The Secret School “the poem of the secret hope for the resurrection of the nation and for the freedom of the fatherland, which we feel that the old man is teaching the children, along with the alphabet.” That same year Kimon Michaelidis wrote that the painting portrays “the Pain of Slavery which weigh[ed] down the Greek nation, along with the distant Hope for Freedom.” In 1902 Montandon declared that every classroom in Greece should have a copy of Gyzis's painting, which he referred to as a truly national work because of its subject matter.
    A long 1925 commentary on the painting mentions the great hardship suffered by the enslaved Greek nation, which included the suppression of all education by the "barbaric conquerors;" nevertheless, the "national consciousness of the race, and its traditions" were the "inextinguishable fire" out of which shone the torch of freedom. The Secret School, as well as other pictures by Gyzis, portrayed the "consciousness of the race" and its "traditions;" it portrayed a "heroic effort, of great political and spiritual importance," whereby the power of the spirit was set against the "violence of the tyrant." The writer claims that the source of Gyzis's inspiration was a small monastery on his home island of Tinos, which had been called "Secret School" during the Ottoman years. He maintains that the monastery was given this name because within it was a school in which twelve monks taught local children "in secret."
     In 1943 D. Kallonas wrote that The Secret School proved Gyzis to be a "gentle praiser of Greek island life, and a melodic composer of everyday-life scenes, of the humble and pure people.” In the 1950s, the artist and critic E. Frantziskakis claimed that Gyzis's work "provides a fine and moving album of Greek history" due to its subject matter, which is "drawn, principally, from the years of enslavement." By this time both the Secret School myth and Gyzis's painting were so deeply embedded in the popular national consciousness that they were destined to endure regardless of historical, cultural, or social circumstances.
Gyzis stamp     In an article on Gyzis published in the early 1970s, art historian Yannis Papaïoannou claimed that even though The Secret School is not among Gyzis's greatest works, it transcends the boundaries of mere genre painting because its subject deals with "psychological and spiritual heroism. Its historical weight causes a sacred affection, because it brings to mind the harsh years of slavery, as well as the indomitable strength of national consciousness."
     In the 1980s art historian Chrysanthos Christou placed the painting within the phase of Gyzis's oeuvre in which he turned to the depiction of "typical moments and traditions of Greek life, in works where the artist's secret nostalgia for the distant homeland is transcribed into color and . . . melodic line." In the background information given for The Secret School, Christou refers to Gyzis's inspiration by the alleged "Secret School" monastery on Tinos, to the children's song, and to Polemis's poem. Ultimately, Christou formally vindicates The Secret School by asserting that through a "rare combination of idealistic and realistic characteristics, Gyzis achieves an impressive immediacy and conviction of the whole composition.”
     The myth of the Secret School was once again brought to the fore when Gyzis's painting came up for auction in December 1993. Although The Secret School had always remained in private collections, it was reprinted widely throughout the twentieth century and therefore was well-known even to those unfamiliar with nineteenth-century Greek art. When its inclusion in the first "Greek Sale" by Christie's, Athens, was announced, commentators in newspapers urged the Ministry of Culture to acquire the painting so that it would become, as part of the National Gallery's collection, the property of the people. The bidding rose beyond the Ministry's financial range, however, and it had to withdraw. The painting was finally sold to an anonymous buyer for a record bid of 170'000'000 drachmas (which, after Christie's fee, amounted to a total price of 187'500'000 drachmas, valued at about £400'000 at the time). When the buyer became known to be was a prominent Greek businessman, he pledged that he would make the painting readily available for public exhibitions. He sent The Secret School on a national tour all over Greece as well as in Cyprus. The tour received wide publicity and the painting was showered with eulogies. Its national significance was fully established. In the words of one art historian, The Secret School is no longer merely a history-genre work that portrays an aspect of Greek tradition and "history"; now it is regarded as a "national symbol of Hellenism"—and "justly so," he concluded.
     Gyzis's Secret School is the most widely recognized nineteenth-century Greek painting. —(060103)

1900 Pieter Lodewijk Franciscus Kluyver, Dutch painter born on 22 March 1816.
–- Anglers Near a Windmill in a Summer Landscape (770x961pix, 74kb)
–- Mother and Two Children in a Winter Landscape (623x961pix, 68kb)
–- Winter Landscape With a Mother and a Child Near the Ice (41x31cm; 955x694pix, 145kb)
–- Panoramic Landscape, Beverwijk in the Distance (644x844pix, 28kb)
–- Wood Gatherers in a Snowy Landscape (792x1041pix, 79kb)
–- Mother and Child by a Forest Stream (956x658pix, 129kb)
–- (landscape with people on a path between trees) (816x639pix, 81kb _ .ZOOM to 2040x1598pix, 527kb, if you want to admire the texture of the canvas) badly yellowed
–- (summer landscape) (630x875pix, 55kb) —(070103)

1880 Anselm Feuerbach, German painter born (full coverage) on 12 September 1829. —(051230)

1845 Louis-Léopold Boilly, French painter born (full coverage) on 05 July 1761. —(051230)

1834 Mauro Gandolfi, Italian painter born (main coverage) on 18 September 1764. —(050917)

^ 1748 Coenraet Roepel, Dutch flower painter born on 06 November 1678.
Bouquet of Flowers (1719, 91x67cm) — (060103)

1584 Tobias Stimmer, Swiss painter born (main coverage) on 17 April 1539. —(060103)

Born on a 04 January:

1959 Yoshitomo Nara, Japanese Pop artist. —(090103)

^ 1929 (04 July?) Arik (or Erich) Brauer, Austrian painter, printmaker, sculptor, stage designer, and singer. He studied from 1945 to 1951 with Albert Paris Gütersloh at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna, where his colleagues included Ernst Fuchs, Wolfgang Hutter [1928~] and Anton Lehmden [1929~], with whom he helped develop the style known as Phantastischer Realismus. He first exhibited his works with the Art-Club at the Zedlitzhalle. In 1950 he cycled from Vienna to Paris, also traveling to Spain, North Africa, Israel and Yemen. During this period he struggled to earn a living as a folk singer. From 1958 he lived and worked as an artist in Paris, but from 1964 he divided his time between Vienna and the house he had decorated himself in Ein Hod, an artists’ village in Israel.
Schiess nicht auf die blaue Blume (2003)
Friedensverhandlung (2003)
Adam im Feuerwind (2003)
Sommernacht (2003)
Das Tier will nicht
Der Duft der Erde
Der Fliegehut
Der Ölivenbaum (387x550pix, 65kb)
Der sinkende Tisch
Der Wassermacher
Die Baumseele
Die feinen Gebilde von Menschenhand
Die Neutronbombe
Die Rotfrau she may be a rotten lady, but that is not what it means.
Friede auf dem Vormarsch
Mein Vater im Winter
Tanz auf dem Autowrack
Trag mich
Fein sein beinander bleiben
An der Quelle
Bat Mizwa
Der gefangene Baum --
Der Vogeldoktor
Dichter im Wienerwald
Die Blumenhandlung
Die Katzenmutter
Die Luxustochter
Einkaufsbummerl it does not mean “a cough is a bummer”
Frag deine Katze
Gefährliche Früchte
Kalte Nudeln it does not mean “Cold Nudes”
Mana in Fülle
Mozart für einen Baum
Von Hunden gezogen
Der bunte Fund
Schau mir nicht in die Gene
Das blühende Brennholz
Die Frau überspringen
Nicht gefloign nicht gesoign
Ich in der Erde
Der Wunderrabbi im Winter (395x550pix, 54kb)
Surrealist Figure with a Cat (color etching, 40x31cm; 62kb)
Das allerletzte Abendmal
Die Braut im Morgenrot
Die Braut von Warschau
Es lebe das Leben
Warten auf die Gleichberechtigung
Von Dorf zu Dorf
Die Liebeslaube
3 trunkene Frauen
David mit dem Stein
Die friedliche Kernkraft
Unter der Brücke
Das fliegende Leben
Der Disteltreff
Die Zauberflöte
Das Schloss
Die Königin der Nacht
Dies Bildnis ist bezaubernd schön-
Zu Hilfe
Das ist der Teufel sicherlich
Die drei Knaben
In ewige Nacht gestürzet
Begrüßung (461x550pix, 52kb)
Blühende Musik
Die rote Liebe
Die trockene Weide
Seltene Blühten
Was will die Ziege
Zur falschen Zeit am falschen Ort
Der fliegende Holländer (434x550pix, 66kb)
Mit Bart und Katze
Frühling (387x550pix, 65kb)
Tanz im Grünen
Menschenrechte 01
Menschenrechte 02
Menschenrechte 03
Menschenrechte 04
Die Wasserseele
Die Pilzkönigin
Die Baumseele
Im Gespräch mit einem Vogel
Von Hunden geführt
Das Bewegungszeug
Morgenrot - Morgengrau
Das Krautkleid
Gedankenhut (71kb) nothing about a “dank hut”
Neuer Gott (1972, 25x20cm; 500x401pix, 67kb) —(060103)

1896 André Masson, French painter who died (full coverage) on 28 October 1987. —(090103)

1882 (Julian date?) Aristarkh Vasilevich Lentulov [–15 Apr 1943], Russian avant-garde artist of Cubist orientation who also worked on set designs for the theater. —(090103)

^ >1861 Charles Schreyvogel, US sculptor and painter, specialized in the US West, who died on 27 January 1912. — LINKS
–- The Triumph (783x613pix, 54kb _ .ZOOM to 1567x1227pix, 187kb) of an Amerindian on horseback.
Saving Their Lieutenant (1906, 61x76cm)
Breaking Through the Line (546x720pix, 186kb) —(070103)

^ 1745 Johann Georg Pforr, German Rococo painter who died on 09 June 1798. — Relative? of Franz Pforr [1788-1812] ?— {The artist with the pfunny name?}
Ein Dromedarius aka Trampeltier und Cameel (35x55cm; 436x560pix, 126kb)
Reiter vor einer Stadtmauer (1790, 51x70cm) —(060103)

^ 1477 Girolamo del Pacchia, Italian artist who died after 1533. Even though Giorgio Vasari mentioned Girolamo del Pacchia in his Lives of the Artists, scholars have only recently begun to separate Pacchia's work from that of his teacher Giacomo Pacchiarotti. Pacchia actually took Pacchiarotti's name, which has contributed to the confusion. Pacchia was the son of a metalsmith who specialized in weapons. By 1502 he and Pacchiarotti were Pinturicchio's assistants, decorating the ceiling of a library in Siena's cathedral. Throughout his career, Pacchia absorbed the influences of many painters. Along with many other Sienese artists, he adopted Perugino's classicizing style around 1510, when Perugino was painting frescoes in a chapel there. In 1518 Pacchia was painting frescoes for a church, under Domenico Beccafumi's supervision. Those frescoes reveal a thicker, softer impasto, with softer, more velvety effects than his earlier, more hard-edged works. Pacchia's style changed little during the remaining years of his career.
Abduction of the Sabine Women (1520, 66x145cm) _ Girolamo del Pacchia created a complex panorama to fill this long and narrow panel, whose dimensions reflect its original function as part of a marriage chest, or cassone, containing a bride's household linens. Inspired by Domenico Beccafumi, Girolamo employed delicate color and the traditional Sienese grace of line to beautify the violent subject. The intertwined limbs and intense emotion conveyed by exaggerated gestures reflect Mannerist ideals. Girolamo added the rounded forms and drama of Raphael's Roman decorations. Artists often painted the abduction of the Sabine women, an important incident in the legendary history of Rome. After founding Rome, Romulus solved the problem of a lack of women by inviting the Sabines, an ancient Italian people, to a festival. During the celebrations, the young Romans drove away the men and carried off the women.

Born on an unknown day of the year (and for whom there is room on this page):

1474 Giacomo Pacchiarotti, in Siena, painter who died in Viterbo in 1540. His style was influenced by Bernardino Fungai, who was possibly his teacher, and by Matteo di Giovanni, Perugino and Signorelli. His works include The Visitation with Saints Michael and Francis (1510) and The Ascension (1530), The Virgin and Child with Saints (1520) and the decorations which he painted between 1507 and 1514 for the Cappella Piccolomini, San Francesco, Siena (destroyed since). Often characterized as an imitator of 15th-century models, he is more significant for his synthesis of High Renaissance tendencies into a distinctly Sienese pattern of eclecticism. His linear definition, sculptural figures, self-conscious displays of perspective and harmony of design exemplify the stylistic background against which Beccafumi’s Mannerism was formed. Pacchiarotti was also a designer of pageants and was active in the resistance against Florence.

Happened on a 04 January:

2006 At 11:30 (10:30 UT) Pierre Pinoncelli, 77 ans, “performance artist”, hammers the replica of Fontaine (an ordinary urinal) of Marcel Duchamp, part of the Dada exhibition at the Centre Pompidou, in Paris. This is a repeat performance: on 24 August 1993, during an exhibition at the Carré d'art in Nîmes, Pinoncelli had urinated in that urinal, then hammered it..

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