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DEATH: 1660 NEEFFS
BIRTHS: 1821 ZIEM — 1915 ANGUIANO — 1836 VEDDER — 1878 MALEVICH — 1802 HUGO
^ Born on 26 (21?) February 1821: Félix~François~Georges~Philibert Ziem, (or Siem), French painter, specialized in Veniscapes, who died on 11 November 1911 {at 11:11:11 ?}.
— He studied architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Dijon until he was expelled in 1838 for unruly behavior. In 1839 he left for Marseille, where he was Clerk of Works on the construction of the Marseille canal. In November 1839 he was noticed by Ferdinand Philippe, Duc d’Orléans, who accepted two watercolors that Ziem presented to him and commissioned a further six. This first success decided Ziem’s vocation, and he started a drawing class that was attended by Louis Auguste Laurent Aiguier [1819–1865] and Adolphe Monticelli. During this period he also encountered the Provençal artists Émile Loubon [1809–1863], Prosper Grésy [1804–1874] and Gustave Ricard.

LINKS
–- Venise (54x81cm; 288kb)
The Market (_ ZOOMable)
Grand Canal, Venise (55x88cm)
Le coup de canon (69x112cm)
On the banks of the Bosphorus (45x77cm)
On the Venetian Lagoon
Gloire de Venise (55x77cm)
Campement (84x115cm)
Constantinople (56x81cm)
Constantinople au Soleil Couchant (69x112cm)
Le Pont de bois à Venise — (43x63cm)
— Scène Venétienne (69x95cm)
Un Port Oriental (23x28cm)
Venise, Le Grand Canal (68x107cm)
In Harbor (75x100cm)
Harbor at Constantinople (1886; 523x912pix, 162kb)
La Tour Penchée de San Pietro à Venise (54x84cm; 437x699pix, 48kb)
—(070225)
^ >Born on 26 February 1915: José Raúl Anguiano Valadez, Mexican critical realist painter, draftsman, sculptor, muralist, and engraver, who died on 13 January 2006.
— Anguiano, born in Guadalajara, Jalisco, developed a portentous work in his beginnings; was medullary part of the movement “Jóvenes Pintores de Jalisco”, cofounder of the Salón de la Plástica Mexicana and of the Escuela Nacional de Pintura y Escultura La Esmeralda, also cofounder of the Taller de la Gráfica Popular and member of the League of Revolutionary Writers and Artists. His initial work was based in a realistic mexican vision that touched in moments the universe of dreams; without concessions, the young Anguiano created works worthy of recognition as the legacy of a great master and The Thorn is a forceful example. Already in his last years, the master Anguiano has led to a work that is far from his original plastic motivations.
— He started drawing cubist pictures at the age of 5, taking as his first models movie stars, as Mary Pickford, Pola Negri and Charlie Chaplin. His first artistic influence or aesthetic emotion came from The Holy Family by Rafael Sanzio.
     At the age of 12, Anguiano attended Guadalajara's Free School of Painting as a student of Ixca Farias. From 1928 to 1933, he studied under the Master painter José Vizcarra, the disciple of Santiago Rebull and José Salomé Piña, and organised the group Young Painters of Jalisco with other artists. During this period, Anguiano worked with different kinds of models: workmen, employees and a few intellectuals like Pita Amor.
     In 1934 Anguiano moved to Mexico City. He began teaching in primary schools and taught drawing and painting at La Esmeralda academy and the UNAM School of Art. Anguiano is member of the Mexican Artistic Renaissance movement which was started in the 1920's by the Mexican School of Art in which he belonged. This renaissance began with the San Carlos Academy movement -- among whose leaders were Ignacio Asúnsolo and José Clemente Orozco -- and which emerged out of the students’ and teachers’ discontent with the traditional paintings methods (academicism), and the close contact that the young artists had with the problems of Mexico and its people, explaining the marked critical realism to the painters of the time, including Anguiano himself.
     The same year, Anguiano received a commission to paint his first mural, Socialist Education, a 70-meter fresco. Other works followed, including Mayan rituals (oils on canvas and wood) and Trilogy of Nationality (acrylic on canvas and wood).
     In 1936 he moved into his surrealist period, which lasted almost a decade. He painted circus performers and prostitutes. The most notable among his works of the time are: The Madame (1936), The Clown's Daughter (1940), the Pink circus artist and the Grey circus artist (1941). Also during this period, Anguiano produced a series of drawings based on his dreams, with cold tones and silver-grays predominating.
     In 1937 Anguiano joined the Revolutionary Writers and Artists League. Together, with Alfredo Zalce and Pablo O'Higgins, he was also a founding member of the Popular Graphics Workshop, where artist practised a graphic style based on Mexico's folk traditions. This was due to the powerful influence of the recently discovered José Guadalupe Posada and Goya.
     Raúl Anguiano belonged to the so-called "Third Generation" of post-revolutionary painters, along with Juan O'Gorman, Jorge González Camarena, José Chávez Morado, Alfredo Zalce, Jesús Guerrero Galván and Julio Castellanos, all known for being unorthodox, associated in politics and in art, while at the same time, holding to certain traditional canons. Anguiano's work is viewed as an expression of its time because of its undeniably Mexican flavour, and the link to his people is clear, not only in his murals but also on canvas, etchings, pencil and ink drawings, lithographs and illustrations, and also more recently in sculpture and ceramics. Without compromising his personality or ethnic roots, and at the same time not allowing them to limit him, Anguiano has vindicated and taken advantage of the principles of modern art, giving him a universal and transcending character of his boundary work.
Photo of Anguiano (542x811pix, 40kb) before a Crucifixion mural in progress.

–- Pescadores (Nov 1961, 70x50cm; 900x655pix, 46kb _ .ZOOM to 1800x1309pix, 134kb)
Mujer Pensativa (1976; 50x45cm plus empty space making it 50x70cm; 514x463pix, 455kb)
Muchacha de Juchitán (1974, 61x91cm; 440x640pix, 40kb)
El Rebozo (1983 3-color lithograph, 80x58cm; 440x323pix, 59kb)
The Thorn (1966, 110x159cm) _ This is a work that with masterful stroke, attests the life of the lacandones in the jungle of Chiapas; work accomplished in acrylic on canvas, presents an Amerindian with knife in hand who is taken a thorn from the sole of the foot, the environment is that of desolation and leads the spectator to sense a precarious feeling in which live these indigenous of Mexico. As the background we can observed a devastated jungle, the large tree stumps show the destructive hand of man that is going leveling his environment. This work is a judgment about the presence of man as a destructive element of an unrepeatable planet.
Head of a Woman (1978 drawing, 63x50cm; 648x512pix, 158kb)
—(100113)
^ Born on 26 February 1836: Elihu Vedder, in Rome, US Symbolist painter, illustrator, sculptor, and writer, who died on 29 January 1923.
— He studied under Tompkins Harrison Matteson in Shelbourne, NY, and went to Paris in March 1856. After eight months in the studio of François-Edouard Picot, he settled in Florence until the end of 1860. There he learnt drawing from Raffaello Bonaiuti, became interested in the Florentine Renaissance and attended the free Accademia Galli. A more significant artistic inspiration came from the Italian artists at the Caffè Michelangiolo: Telemaco Signorini, Vincenzo Cabianca [1827–1902] and especially Nino Costa [1827–1902]. This group sought new and untraditional pictorial solutions for their compositions and plein-air landscapes and were particularly interested in the experiences of Gustave Courbet and the Barbizon painters. They became known as Macchiaioli for their use of splashes (macchia) of light and shadows and for their revolutionary (maquis) attitude to prevailing styles. Among Vedder’s most notable Florentine landscapes are Mugnone Torrent near Fiesole and Le Balze, Volterra; he also made many sketches, drawings and pastels of the Tyrrhenian coast, Lake Trasimene, the Roman Campagna, Egypt and Capri, which exemplify the realistic approach to landscape practiced by the artists of the Macchiaioli.

LINKS
–- The Sphinx of the Seashore (1879, 41x71cm; 770x1392pix, 204kb _ .ZOOM to 1541x2785pix, 741kb)
–- Dominicans. A Convent Garden, near Florence (1859, 29x24cm; 1032x838pix, 68kb)
–- Bed of the Torrent Mugnone, near Florence (1864; 17x41cm; 454x1165pix, 46kb)
–- Death of Abel aka The Dead Abel (1869, 31x116cm; 289x1187pix, 25kb _ .ZOOM to 578x2374pix, 84kb _ .ZOOM+ to 1157x4750pix, 353kb)
Marsyas Enchanting the Hares (1899, 30x44cm; 786x1184pix, 186kb) _ According to the usual Greek version of an Anatolian legend, Marsyas found the oboe that the goddess Athena had invented. He practiced in the woods and soon wild animals came to listen. Thus assured of his skill, Marsyas challenged Apollo to a contest with his lyre. When King Midas of Phrygia, who had been appointed judge, declared in favor of Marsyas, Apollo punished Midas by changing his ears into donkey's ears.
      In another version the Muses were the judges, and they awarded the victory to Apollo, who tied Marsyas to a tree and flayed him. In Rome a statue of Marsyas, a favorite art subject, stood in the Forum; this was imitated by Roman colonies and came to be considered a symbol of autonomy.
The Old Well, Bordighera (1899, 49x98cm)
39 images at ARC
—(070225)
^ Born on 26 February 1878: Kazimir Severinovich Malevich, Ukrainian Cubist painter who died on 15 May 1935, persecuted by the Soviet authorities. His artwork was collected by Nikolai Khardzhiev, and was plundered by crooks when Khardzhiev left the Soviet Union in 1993. — {His name is NOT to be spelled Male-Witch.}
— Malevich was born near Kiev. He studied at the Moscow Institute of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture in 1903. During the early years of his career, he experimented with various Modernist styles and participated in avant-garde exhibitions, such as those of the Moscow Artists’ Association, which included Vasily Kandinsky [04 Dec 1866 – 13 Dec 1944] and Mikhail Larionov, and the Jack of Diamonds exhibition of 1910 in Moscow. Malevich showed his Primitivist paintings of peasants at the exhibition Donkey’s Tail in 1912. After this exhibition, he broke with Larionov’s group.
      In 1913, with composer Mikhail Matiushin and writer Alexei Kruchenykh, Malevich drafted a manifesto for the First Futurist Congress. That same year, he designed the sets and costumes for the opera Victory over the Sun by Matiushin and Kruchenykh. Malevich showed at the Salon des Indépendants in Paris in 1914. At The Last Futurist Exhibition in Petrograd in 1915, Malevich introduced his non-objective, geometric Suprematist paintings. In 1919, he began to explore the three-dimensional applications of Suprematism in architectural models.
     About 1914, after two years of painting in a Cubo-Futurist style, Malevich began to work in an abstract style, which he called Suprematism. For Malevich, the guiding principle of Suprematism was “the supremacy of pure sensation in creative art,” best represented by the square, which he considered the most elementary, basic, and thus supreme formal element; but he increasingly combined the square with the circle, other geometric shapes, and even curved lines. He began by limiting himself in his Suprematist paintings to black, white, gray, and red, but he expanded his palette as his compositions became more complex.
      Malevich, like other artists of his time, believed that the external world could no longer serve as the basis for art, which had, instead, to explore pure non-objective abstraction in the search for visual analogues to experience, both conscious and unconscious. As he wrote in 1915, “Nothing is real except sensation . . . the sensation of non-objectivity.” He first showed his Suprematist works at The Last Futurist Exhibition in St. Petersburg in December 1915. The exhibition, which included a broad sampling of then-current tendencies in Russian avant-garde painting, has become famous for inaugurating the two directions that would largely govern artistic production in Russia (including architecture, graphic design, theater, and the decorative arts) for the next seven years: Suprematism, and the closely related (although more socially oriented) movement Constructivism [more]. Other artists affiliated with Suprematism include Ilya Chashnik, Ivan Kliun, El Lissitzky [23 Nov 189030 Dec 1941], Liubov Popova, Ivan Puni, Aleksandr Rodchenko, Olga Rozanova, Nikolai Suetin, and Nadezhda Udaltsova.
      Following the Russian Revolution in 1917, Malevich and other advanced artists were encouraged by the Soviet government and attained prominent administrative and teaching positions.
      Malevich began teaching at the Vitebsk Popular Art School in 1919; he soon became its director. In 1919–20, he was given a solo show at the Sixteenth State Exhibition in Moscow, which focused on Suprematism and other non-objective styles. Malevich and his students at Vitebsk formed the Suprematist group Unovis. From 1922 to 1927, he taught at the Institute of Artistic Culture in Petrograd, and between 1924 and 1926 he worked primarily on architectural models with his students.
      In 1927, Malevich traveled with an exhibition of his paintings to Warsaw and also went to Berlin, where his work was shown at the Grosse Berliner Kunstausstellung. In Germany, he met Jean Arp [16 Sep 1886 – 07 Jun 1966], Naum Gabo, Le Corbusier, and Kurt Schwitters [20 Jun 1887 – 08 January 1948] and visited the Bauhaus, where he met Walter Gropius. The Tretiakov Gallery in Moscow gave Malevich a solo exhibition in 1929.
Malevich, left, with Khardzhiev      Using the pretext of Malevich's connections with German artists, Soviet authorities, who repressed any non-realist art, arrested him in 1930 and destroyed many of his manuscripts. In Malevich's final period, he was forced to paint in a representational style. Malevich died Leningrad.
     This artwork had been among the Russian avant-garde artwork and writings collected by Nikolai Khardzhiev [1903-1996], which, when he left the Soviet Union in 1993, was plundered by corrupt officials, confidence men, and crooked art dealers. Malevich died in poverty in Amsterdam, where the Stedelijk Museum has the best collection of his work, acquired, as by other museums and collectors, under questionable circumstances.
[1933 photo: Malevich, left, with Khardzhiev, in Moscow >]

LINKS
Self Portrait (1933, 73x66cm)
An Englishman in Moscow (1914, 88x57cm)
The Aviator (1914, 125x65cm)
Complex Presentiment: Half-Figure in a Yellow Shirt (1932, 99x79cm).
Morning in the Village after Snowstorm (1912, 81x81cm) _ The paintings of the Russian avant-garde have, in general, elicited two types of interpretation: one focuses on issues of technique and style; the other concentrates on social and political issues. The former method is usually applied to Kazimir Malevich’s early paintings, grounded as they are in the forms of Cubism, Futurism, and other contemporaneous art movements; the latter largely avoids Malevich in favor of more politically engaged artists such as El Lissitzky, Aleksandr Rodchenko, and Vladimir Tatlin.
      From the formalist’s standpoint, Morning in the Village after Snowstorm is, in its mastery of complex colors and shapes, a perfect example of the newly created Russian style, Cubo-Futurism. The figures have been called a continuation of the genre types Malevich portrayed in his Neo-primitive paintings, their depiction seemingly reliant on Fernand Léger’s work, which Malevich could have known from an exhibition in Moscow in February 1912 or through reproductions. This phase in Malevich’s career has been seen as his formidable stopover on his journey toward abstraction and the development of Suprematism.
      But to ignore the political and social dimensions of Malevich’s art would be a disservice. Malevich came from humble circumstances and it is clear in autobiographical accounts that vivid memories of his country childhood compensated for his lack of a formal art education. Morning in the Village after Snowstorm demonstrates that his hard-won skills as a sophisticated painter were rooted in an unmistakably Russian experience. If art can be said to augur the future, then Malevich’s repeated decision—on the brink of the October Revolution—to depict peasants cannot have been merely coincidental.
Untitled [RFD mailbox?] (1916, 53x53cm) _ Kazimir Malevich proposed the reductive, abstract style of Suprematism as an alternative to earlier art forms, which he considered inappropriate to his own time. He observed that the proportions of forms in art of the past corresponded with those of objects in nature, which are determined by their function. In opposition to this he proposed a self-referential art in which proportion, scale, color, and disposition obey intrinsic, nonutilitarian laws. Malevich considered his non-objective forms to be reproductions of purely affective sensations that bore no relation to external phenomena. He rejected conventions of gravity, clear orientation, horizon line, and perspective systems.
      Malevich’s units are developed from the straight line and its two-dimensional extension, the plane, and are constituted of contrasting areas of unmodeled color, distinguished by various textural effects. The diagonal orientation of geometric forms creates rhythms on the surface of the canvas. The overlapping of elements and their varying scale relationships within a white ground provide a sense of indefinitely extensive space. Though the organization of the pictorial forms does not correspond with that of traditional subjects, there are various internal regulatory principles. In the present work a magnetic attraction and repulsion seem to dictate the slow rotational movement of parts.
Red House (1932, 63x55cm; 578x491pix, 25kb)
Black Circle (105x105cm; 543x541pix, 10kb) _ This ridiculously simplistic picture, which could appeal only to the greater fools, has been countered by the elaborately colorful Plaque Circus aka Ball Lab (2006; 707x1000pix, 322kb _ ZOOM to 1000x1414pix, 817kb) of the pseudonymous Pochtipaz Lenientovich Machoviedma.
112 images at RAG
—(060211)
^ Died on 26 February 1660: Peeter Neeffs I (or Neefs, Nefs), Flemish painter specialized in Religious Subjects, born in 1578.
— He studied under Hendrik van Steenwyck II and was active in Antwerp. Most of his pictures are interiors of Gothic churches, some of them night scenes illuminated by artificial light. They are generally small, painted on copper, and executed in a precise, neat way, similar in style to those of the Steenwycks. His son, Pieter Neefs the Younger [1620->1675] painted the same subjects and it is very difficult to distinguish between their hands. Another son, Lodewijk [1617–] was also a painter, but little is known of his work.

LINKS
Interior of a Gothic Church (781x1107pix, 164kb)_ The Steenwijck tradition of painting church interiors was continued in Antwerp by the Flemish painters Pieter Neeffs the Elder, who entered the Antwerp guild in 1609 and died in 1660, and his son Pieter Neeffs the Younger, their hands often are virtually indistinguishable. Neeffs the Elder, however, made one innovation; he can be credited with popularizing church interiors seen by night dramatically illuminated by one or two sources of artificial light.
— a different, though very similar Interior of a Gothic Church (503x708pix _ ZOOM to 1258x1770pix, 388kb)
— a quite different Interior of a Gothic Church (611x800pix, 169kb)
Interior of a Church (1619; 600x857pix _ ZOOM to 1400x2000pix, 695kb)
Interior of Antwerp Cathedral at Night (1638, 39x50cm; 635x800pix, 76kb _ ZOOM to 1274x1606pix, kb) _ 2/3 of the picture is in deep shadows. Left foreground, in the part that is lit (much more than warranted by the torch carried by a man and a candle on the nearest pillar), there is a priest guiding two gentlemen, a dog running ahead of them.
Interior of the Cathedral at Antwerp (410x600pix, 80kb) in daytime. There are people and a dog, not running.
Interior of a Church, inspired by the Antwerp Cathedral (1644, 89x112cm) _ See the very similar Interior of a Church, inspired by the Antwerp Cathedral (116x182cm) by Hendrick van Steenwyk II.
Pillared Hall (514x833pix _ ZOOM to 1284x2082pix, 366kb) with a man entering with a torch in the left hand and brandishing a sword with the right hand, two men playing chess on an oversized board, a man wrapped in a cloak sleeping seated on the floor near them, and various other figures, such as two seated beggars, one of them with a semi-transparent left leg, a man carrying a heavy sack past them, another about to run into, unawares, the sword brandisher; and a man warming himself by a fireplace.
—(060225)
^ Born on 26 February 1802: Victor-Marie Hugo, French author who was also an artist. He died on 22 May 1885.
HUGO THE AUTHOR AT HISTORY “4” TODAY
— That titan of Romanticism who is now best known as the author of Les Misérables and Notre-Dame de Paris, spewed out thousands of pages of plays, verse, novels, criticism and political, social and philosophical essays throughout his career. Few connoisseurs outside of France have realized that he also spewed out drawings — about 4000 of them. Hugo the artist was as big a dynamo as Hugo the litterateur. He produced only works on paper of astonishing invention, spontaneously dashing them off in dark brown or black pen-and-ink wash, sometimes with touches of white and rarely with color. Most are small, and date from the 1850s and 1860s. Not surprisingly from an author, Hugo was expert at tapping into the unconscious. His otherworldly "Planet" drawings immediately bring to mind Odilon Redon.
      Other works are Romantic outpourings that can seem more than a little weird on closer inspection. These dark and wind-whipped landscapes and/or brooding castles, cells, and escarpments occupy an ambiguous space made more unsettling by quick shifts in scale and undecipherable figures in the distance. Perhaps more shocking to the contemporary viewer are Hugo's proto-Surrealist use of automatic techniques and his proto-Abstract Expressionist experiments with tache and free brushwork. To keep his art fresh, he would cheerfully experiment with his children's stencils, ink blots, puddles and stains, lace impressions, "pliage" or folding (i.e. Rorschach blots), "grattage" or rubbing, using match sticks or his fingers instead of pen or brush, and even toss in coffee or soot to get the effects he wanted.
      It seems that some drawings were made with his left hand or while not looking at the page. His Mushroom (1850), for example, has a sickly, poisonous cast from sparingly applied orange and green. This monumental fungus looms over a landscape like something that crawled out of a recently nuked field. Radical shifts of scale, a plethora of textural effects and various layerings of ink wash make this surreal vision endlessly haunting. The work is a technical tour de force, done with pen and brown ink-wash, black ink and crayon, white gouache, reserves and a stencil, watercolor, and by partly scraping and rubbing the sheet and by dabbing it with his fingers.
      Lyrical abstractions, mystical nether worlds, and vaguely limned castles, landscapes, seascapes, all aswirl in tempests or eerie in moonlight, plus architectural motifs and even calling cards were churned out by Hugo with the same spontaneity of the pen and brush that he employed for his writings. They convey a turbulent search for meaning beyond the ordinary, as do Hugo's literary works. Hugo would turn from writing to art, whenever sentences eluded him, often using the end of his quill pen to start a drawing. His art kept helped to keep his words flowing, while his love of words fed his art.
      Beside labeling and inscribing drawings, Hugo would at times incorporate words as formal elements. The latter is often the case in his ornately handmade calling cards, like a 1855 effort with the letters of his name forming a stand for a drawing of a landscape with castle, all this hovering in the center of a sheet saturated in brown ink with some ghostly white clouds. Many of his calling cards were created as gifts to visitors and friends while he was in political exile from France (1855-1870) and living in the English Channel Islands. His drawings, originally a sideline, became much more to Hugo shortly before his exile. He stopped writing to become more involved in politics and turned to drawing as his exclusive creative outlet during the period 1848-1851.
      In 1853, he became interested in séances, or "table-turning." It wasn't long before Hugo quit, but not before he realized how effective those sessions were in setting free his unconscious. His artwork became much more experimental from that time forward. Hugo considered himself a true artist, keeping his most radical works to himself. Although he tried to hide his art from the public, he shared his drawings with family and friends. Some people did see at least a few of his works, and they garnered favorable comments from many artists (van Gogh liked them) and were fought over by his admirers. In his will, he left the many in his possession to the Bibliothèque Nationale. Hugo may have been right to fear that his art, if known by the public, would overwhelm his fame as a literary giant. While much of Hugo's output of words is all but unreadable today, it is hard to imagine his drawings would ever be considered dull.

LINKS
Octopus with the initials V. H. (1866)
Planète (1854)
Tache d'encre légèrement retouchée sur papier plié (1857)
Landscape with Castle (1848, 12x20cm)
L'Éclair (1868, etching 22x13cm, facing L'Éclair by Hugo's friend Paul Meurice)
 

Died on a 26 February:

1985 Anna Elisabeth Angermann, German painter born on 05 August 1883. Bereits früh Zeichenunterricht bei O. Popp, danach Teilnahme im Schüleratelier von A. J. Pepino. 1903-06 Stud. an Kunst-HS Weimar bei M. Thedy, H. Olde, S. Schneider. 1906 läßt sie sich als Porträtmalerin in Dresden nieder. 1912 Studienreise nach Rügen, wo sie Bekanntschaft mit K. Hagemeister schließt. Angeregt durch eine Ausst. frz. Impressionisten, fühlt sie sich seit 1914 der impressionist. Malweise verbunden. Während der Zeit des Faschismus protestiert sie gegen die Ausst. Entartete Kunst. Bis 1933 Mitgl. des Künstlerverb. Dresden, ab 1945 Gewerkschaft Kunst, 1951 Verb. Bildender Künstler der DDR. Als Nestorin der Dresdener Malerei war die über 100jährige noch künstler. tätig. – A. gestaltete v. a. die Themenkreise Mensch und Natur, bes. die Elbauen und den Grillenburger Forst, wo sie oft zus. mit C. Querner arbeitete, sowie Blumenstücke und Stilleben. Im Porträt sah sie ihre Hauptaufgabe. Ihr Werk zeigt kraftvolle Selbstbildnisse als Ölbilder mit feinsten Farbnuancen, Aquarelle, Pinsel- und Kohlezeichnungen (oft auf getöntem Grund) in expressiv- postimpressionist. Auffassung, der sie kontinuierlich treu blieb. Weder der Jugendstil ihrer Weimarer Ausbildungszeit noch der später in Dresden heimische Expressionismus hatten nachhaltige Wirkung auf ihr Schaffen.

1983 Llazar Nikolla, Albanian artist born on 27 December 1906. —(060204)

1970 Ahti Lavonen, Finnish informalist painter and sculptor born on 21 March 1928. —(060202)

1967 Max Taut, German architect born on 15 May 1884. —(060203)

1963 Franz von Zulow, Viennese artist born on 15 March 1883. —(060205)

1961 Karl Albiker, German artist born on 16 September 1878. —(060201)

1958 Taikan Yokoyama, Japanese artist born on 18 September. —(060205)

1941 Marco Calderini, Turin Italian artist born on 20 July 1850. —(060202)

1933 Frigyes Spiegel, Budapest Hungarian architect born on 24 April 1866. —(060205)

1940 Johannes Bernardus van Loghem, Haarlem Dutch artist born on 19 October 1881. —(060202)

1940 Nicolae Tonitza, Romanian artist born on 13 April 1885. —(060205)

1927 Hermann Obrist, Swiss artist born on 23 May 1862. —(060204)

1911 Frederick James Shields, English artist born on 14 March 1833. —(060205)

^ 1909 Emmanuel PoiréCaran d'Ache, French satiric political cartoonist born on 06 November 1858. The grandson of a Napoleonic officer, he was born and educated in Moscow but settled in Paris, where he gained great popularity as a contributor to several periodicals. He was an early exponent of the episodic strip cartoon technique and was also a well-known illustrator. He spent five years in the French army and often favored military subjects (including the Dreyfus affair) in his illustrations. Essentially self-taught, he was particularly influenced by the contemporary German caricaturists Wilhelm Busch [15 Apr 1832 – 09 Jan 1908] and Adolf Oberländer.
“L'argent, c'est le sang des autres” (3-color lithograph 47x31 cm; 372x600pix, 65kb) in Le Rire of 17 Nov.1900 (special issue on the Anglo-Boer war: “Kruger le Grand et John Bull le Petit”).—(060202)

1903 Edmund Mahlknecht, Austrian artist born on 12 November 1820.

1883 Miguel Angelo Lupi, Lisbon Portuguese artist born on 08 May 1826. — (030203)

1878 Jean-Pierre-Alexandre Antigna, French artist born on 07 March 1817. —(060201)

^ 1871 Sophia Amelia Peabody Hawthorne, US part-time artist born on 21 September 1809. She was the wife (married in 1842) of Nathaniel Hawthorne [04 Jul 1804 – 19 May 1864].
Ilbrahim and the Quaker (drawing; 512x653pix, 39kb) illustration for Nathaniel Hawtorne's story The Gentle Boy: A Thrice Told Tale (1839).

^ 1834 Johann Nepomuk Franz) Alois (or Aloys) Senefelder, German inventor of lithography born on 06 November 1771. The son of an actor at the Theatre Royal in Prague, Senefelder was unable to continue his studies at the University of Ingolstadt after his father's death and thus tried to support himself as a performer and author, but without success. He learned printing in a printing office, purchased a small press, and sought to do his own printing. Desiring to publish plays that he had written but unable to afford the expensive engraving of printing plates, Senefelder tried to engrave them himself. His work on copper plates was not proving very successful when an accident led to his discovery of the possibilities of stone (1796). One day he jotted down a laundry list with grease pencil on a piece of Bavarian limestone. It occurred to him that if he etched away the rest of the surface, the markings would be left in relief. Two years of experimentation eventually led to the discovery of flat-surface printing (modern lithography). He documented his discovery in Vollständiges Lehrbuch der Steindruckerey (1818). Senefelder later accepted an offer from a music publisher, Johann Anton André, to set himself up at Offenbach and train others in his lithographic process. In later years the king of Bavaria settled a handsome pension on Senefelder.
Pattern design for textile printing (1803; 455x257pix, 121kb)

>1830 Joseph-Denis (or Joseph-Dionysius or Joseph-Désiré) Odevaere, Flemish Neoclassical painter born on 02 December 1775 (or 02 October 1778). — He attended evening classes at the Bruges Academie in 1794-1795 and then went to Paris, where he entered the studio of the Bruges artist Joseph-Benoît Suve. In 1801 he began training under Jacques-Louis David and in 1804 won the Prix de Rome for his Death of Phocion, in which he faithfully adhered to the principles of David's teaching. Before going to Italy he spent a year in Bruges carrying out portrait commissions, including the Marquis de Chauvelin (1805).
     During his time in Rome (1805-1812) he copied antique and Renaissance works, taking a particular interest in Raphael, who features in his wash drawing the Master of Urbino Introduced by Bramante, he did Julius II (1807), a study for a lost painting. About 1811 he was among the artists chosen to decorate the Palazzo del Quirinale for Napoléon's visit, although he never made more than a sketch, Tanaquil Predicting the Future Greatness of Servius Tullius (1812). Odevaere successfully exhibited in Paris in 1812 and then moved to Ghent, showing works at the Salon there two years later.
    After the union of the Low Countries in 1815 he became official painter to William I. As such he made several works illustrating the history of the Dutch royal family, including the Prince of Orange Wounded at Waterloo (1817) and the Battle of Nieuwpoort (1820). In 1815 he was commissioned to recover works of art taken from the Low Countries by the French. David's arrival in Brussels in 1816 coincided with the beginning of Odevaere's most ambitious composition, the Departure of the Athenians for Salamis (1825), inspired as much by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres as by David, although the latter frequently advised Odevaere on the painting.
     From 1825 to 1829 he worked on a series of paintings conveying his support of the philhellenic committees created during the Greek War of Independence. The Last Defenders of Missilonghi (1826) and the Victory of Constantin Canaris were shown at exhibitions charging an entrance fee in aid of refugees. Throughout his life, however, Odevaere was noted for his opportunism and conceit, traits that emerged in the many articles he sent to local newspapers, particularly L'Oracle. He was also the author of several treatises on art.
Lord Byron on his Death Bed (735x1048pix, 398kb)
François Wynckelman, François van der Donckt and Joseph Odevaere (1805, 256x132cm; 1279x650pix, 100kb) one is sitting, one is standing, and on is in a portrait hung on the wall.
A Prominent Gentleman with his Daughter and Hunting Dog (1814, 177x130cm; 1179x850pix, 119kb) —(091206)

1814 Johan Tobias Sergel (or Sergell), Stockholm Swedish artist born on 28 August 1740. —(060204)

1811 James Sharples, US artist born in 1752. —(060202)

1784 James Morgan, New Jersey artist. —(060204)

1738 Burchardt Precht, German artist born on 24 October 1651. —(060201)

1678 Gilles Guérin, Parisian artist born in 1612. —(060202)

1672 (burial) Abraham van Dijck (or Dyck), Amsterdam Dutch artist born in 1636. — Related? to Anthony van Dyck [22 Mar 1599 – 09 Dec 1641]? —(060202)


Born on a 26 February:


1951 Steven Bell, English artist.. —(060201)

^ 1937 Eduardo Arroyo, Spanish painter, sculptor, potter, printmaker, and stage designer. As a painter he was mainly self-taught. After working as a journalist in 1957, he left Spain in 1958 to avoid military service, settling in Paris. There he continued to work both as a journalist and painter. From 1968 to 1972 he lived in Milan, returning to Paris in 1973. His work developed from expressionism to realism (Nueva figurina), which reflected on the pictorial language and function of painting and the artist’s role in society. He manipulated ready-made images, words and elements derived from commercial art and the work of other painters. His pieces formed series whose titles referred to the legacy of the Spanish Civil War and the contemporary political situation to help make their critical point. His work frequently provoked controversy, for example his series Arcole Bridge and Saint Bernard’s Pass (1962–1966) was based on the theme of Napoleon Bonaparte as a symbol of imperialism (e.g. Arcole, 1964). He presented dictators, bullfighters, soldiers and Spanish gentlemen (e.g. Spanish Gentleman, 1970) as a metaphorical list of his dislikes. Through his work he attacked such political figures as Winston Churchill and Adolf Hitler as well as Miró and perpetrators of uncommitted painting (e.g. Blind Painters, 1975). From 1976 he painted portraits of such artist friends as Gilles Aillaud [1928~], Aldo Mondino [1938~] and Antonio Recalcati [1938~]. In 1980 Arroyo produced a series of mask-like bronze heads of chimneysweeps (e.g. Chimneysweep I, 1980). — Eduardo Arroyo después de finalizar sus estudios en la Escuela de Periodismo en 1957 se instaló en París, donde frecuentó asiduamente la comunidad de exiliados españoles e inició su formación como pintor. El año 1960 participó en el Salón de la Joven Pintura en el Museo de Arte Moderno de París con el cuadro La Corrida de Papillón y al año siguiente expuso por primera vez su obra en la Galería Claude Levin de París. Conectó con los círculos intelectuales y artísticos de vanguardia. Sus obras sobre los retratos de dictadores entre los que se encontraban Franco, Hitler, Mussolini, y Salazar, presentadas en la Bienal de Venecia de 1963, provocaron una protesta oficial de la diplomacia española. A mediados de los años sesenta comenzó a colaborar con los pintores Gilles Aillaud y Antonio Recalcati en las representación de una misma temática dando una visión violenta de la Historia de España. En 1973, todavía bajo la dictadura de Franco, fue expulsado de España. Su pintura tiene una gran inspiración literaria y se le llama figuración narrativa. Además adopta influencias del estilo dadaísta, del superrealismo o del pop. Destacan entre sus obras Los Deshollinadores, y la más reciente Toda la ciudad habla de ello del año 1982.
Deshollinador I (1985 colored etching, 56x76cm; 471x609pix, 154kb)
Deshollinador II (1985 colored etching, 56x76cm; 471x609pix, 153kb)
Vestido bajando una escalera (398x218pix, 13kb)
MDCS (398x218pix, 13kb)
María Dolores (1993, 70x50cm; 480x367pix, 32kb) not much more than a stick figure.
Tristán e Isolde (235x450pix, 11kb)
Socrates (1989)
Untitled (1999) head of a woman wearing a hat and dark eyeglasses.
Waldorf Astoria (2000)

^ 1935 Napoleon Tiron, Romanian sculptor.
— Buddy Bear front back (photos) _ one of 120 identical white standing bear sculptures that were painted over by artists from 120 countries to become “United Buddy Bears”. This one was painted over by Napoleon Tiron and Stefan Tiron [1976~] (his son?). —(060205)

1934 José Luis Cuevas, Mexican sculptor. —(100225)

^ 1934 Gabriel Messil, Buenos Aires Argentinian artist who died on 22 December 1986. — Related? to Gabriela Messil [1965~]? — Si las estructuras primarias se caracterizaban al principio por sus formas puras y su materialidad indubitable, las pinturas de la etapa posterior de Messil muestran espacios ambiguos basados en la dinámica de los planos y de las líneas. Los últimos diez años del siglo 20 fuelon muy ricos ya que Messil no escatimó riesgos en los cambios que efectuó en su pintura..Una amplia libertad del color, no sujeto ya, a las estructuras compositivas, puso de relieve la mayor espontaneidad con que el artista encaró las obras de esos años que incluyeron, también, pinturas-collages y las “máscaras” de papel que el artista dejaba incorporadas a la tela. La obra plástica de Messil se inscribe en un conceptualismo pictórico centrado en la idea de la obra en proceso que plantea la existencia de un pensamiento visual fundado en la capacidad autorreferencial del lenguaje. Este lenguaje, en constante mutación y proceso de investigación es el que crea sus medios expresivos; su sintaxis discursiva.
S/T (1974, 150x150cm; 350x344pix, 11kb) _ The title is not intended to mean “Simply Terrible” nor “Sloppy Technique” or “Suspected Traitor”. “Sobre Tela” might seem more likely, but it is just “Sin Título”. The pseudonymous Raphael Messier has taken a negative approach to improving this picture and has metamorphosed it into the symmetrically radiant
      _ Shining Track aka Must Sum (2006; screen filling, 162kb)
S/T (1980, 120x120cm; 350x348pix, 16kb) monochrome _ “Similar Tedium”? _ Messier messed with this picture too, and gave it color and symmetry as the stunning
      _ Superioridad Táctica aka Nut Stun (2006; screen filling, 315kb)
S/T (1983, 80x80cm; 350x360pix, 16kb) almost monochrome _ “Simpletons' Trap”? Its improvement is Messier's next project.
Desarrollo (1978, 80x80cm; 350x350pix, 10kb) monochrome. _ To Messier's friendly rival, the pseudonymous Michael Messiest, Messil's picture ought to have been named Subdesarrollo, so he made a picture which is to it what a butterfly is to a caterpillar: the very colorful
      _ Singular Tesoro aka Sub Us (2006; screen filling, 162kb _ ZOOM to 1000x1414pix, 299kb) —(060203)

1923 Claude Parent, Neuilly-sur-Seine French architect. —(060204)

1921 Angelo Mangiarotti, Italian designer. —(060203)

>1911 Taro Okamoto [–07 Jan 1996], Japanese avant-garde painter and sculptor. His mother was the poetess and novelist Kanoko, and his father the manga artist Ippei. He began studying oil painting in Tokyo in 1929, but moved with his family to Europe and began studying in Paris in 1930. An encounter with the works of Picasso in 1932 threw him into the world of abstract art, and the next year he began a four-year association with other abstract artists. He then began to focus on more realistic forms. The attraction of primitive art forms for Okamoto led him to study ethnology, psychology, philosophy and folklore at the University of Paris under Professor Marcel Mauss and to associate with College of Sociology member and adherent of mysticism, Georges Bataille, and artists such as Max Ernst, André Breton, and Louis Aragon. He exhibited his Wounded Arm in 1932. He was returned to Japan in 1941 and in 1942 was drafted and sent to fight in China. Upon his return to Tokyo in 1946, he found that all his works had been destroyed in an air raid. Many of his works, such as Strict Orders, are expressions of his resulting anti-war feeling. From 1947 he began to develop an artistic philosophy of his own known as Polarism (taikyoku-shugi) – advocating the synthesis of opposites - and in 1948 founded the Night Society (Yoru no Kai) along with critic Kiyoteru Harada with the aim of integrating literature and avant-garde art. In 1952 he encountered prehistoric Jomon Japanese pottery, inspiring his first mosaic tile mural, Mythology of the Sun. In the years following he made mainly works using tiles, and began writing more about art and its primitive roots. Of his six books Today’s Art (1954). His most famous work is the huge sculpture Tower of the Sun.
Stitch (654x2343pix, 149kb) mural —(100225)

^ >1906 Nicos Chatzikyriakos-Ghikas (or Hadjikyriacos-Ghika) “Niko Ghika”, Athens Greek artist who died on 03 September 1994 {the way I transliterate Greek, his name is Niko Xatzêkuriákou Gkika}. Having completed his artistic formation as a student under Parthenis in Athens and Galanis in Paris, Ghika settled for a few years in the French capital, where he became a regular contributor to the annual Salon des Surindépendants. In 1934 he moved back to Greece, and in 1937 embarked on the renovation of his ancestral home on the island of Hydra. It was in Hydra that he reformulated his art and combined the analytical cubism of his Paris period with a new perception of nature and light, whilst capturing the essence of the islands architecture. It was thus that he started to paint the first works, which decidedly expressed what many perceive as the quintessence of his artistic style, principles and aesthetic convictions.
     Ghika said: “It is torture for a Scandinavian artist and generally for a Northener to inset Greek light face to face, especially that merciless light of the islands which changes every now and then. There is another light in Santorini, a different one in the Small Cyclades, another kind in the Central Aegean. Rarely will a ‘colorist’, specially if he has abstract tendencies, be able to set up a Greek landscape without the help of line, what with the shattering of a surface which takes place by itself as the eye meets explosions of light and color everywhere.”
     There is an art historical theory that Impressionism, as advocated by the French Impressionists and their followers, could never quite succeed in Greece because of the quality of the Mediterreanean light. As both Mrs Lambraki-Plaka and Manolis Vlachos have pointed out Impressionism was a medium for plein air painting conceived in Northern Europe, and conducive to rendering its light and atmosphere. Greek artists, however, had to adapt the principles of Impressionism to fit the bright, strong light of Greece. In order to capture the light and atmosphere of their country they thus painted objects with sharp outlines, diffused surfaces, lack of detail and a flattening of the chromatic surface as Ghika did in Composition en Blanc, for example. In this way their style and technique became markedly different from Impressionism with its dilution of shapes, fragmentation of chromatic tone and array of pure colors.
     Whilst not painting in an impressionist style, Ghika did prescribe to modern artistic trends set by the Impressionists, such as painting en plein air, and obviously shared their preoccupation of capturing the light and atmosphere of a place. However, instead of producing a mere transcription of a given place, the quality of its light and its varying atmospheric feel, Ghika combined both emotive response and intellectual, analytical abstraction in his compositions, to create works that were both deeply personal and quintessentially Greek. Ghika was one of the most significant Greek artists of his generation, a leading figure in the artistic movements of the 1930s and one of the most important exponents of modern Greek art.
–- Autoprosôpografía (1942, 60x44cm; 456x336pix, 21kb)
–- Hydra: Synthesis in White aka Composition en Blanc (1938, 58x70cm; 900x1090pix, 104kb) painted in the Greek island Hydra, not to be confused with the legendary monster who fought Hercules, shown for example on a Greek urn (600x702pix, 683kb) nor with its albino relative depicted by the pseudonymous Guy K. Pélerin-Alamec in
      _ White Synthetic Hydra (2006; 600x620pix, 64kb). Composition en blanc depicts the houses, walled gardens, steep stairs and coastline of Hydra as steeped in the dazzling white midday glare of the sun that sharply outlines the objects in its path. The essential ‘Greekness’ of the place is further underlined by the Greek flag in the upper left corner of the composition, the blue of which rivals the azur of the sea and the sky, and the frequent use throughout the painting of parallels of white and blue that mirror the national flag. It appears that by painting in this natural environment, Ghika was not only inspired by the landscape of Hydra, but also portrayed his feelings and a sense of national pride on the canvas through a personal depiction of his relation to the place, its atmosphere and local colors.
      _ Ghika's painting has a deceptive title: there is absolutely no pure white in it. The scrupulously honest Pélerin-Alamec has countered this by producing
      _ All White aka Tout Blanc aka Todo Blanco aka Vollständig Weiß aka Tutto Bianco aka Todo Branco aka Vsyo Bieloye aka Holo Leuko aka Bardhë aka Alb aka Hvit aka Bijeli aka Shiroi aka Fehér aka Putin (no! not the man) aka Lavan aka Beyaz aka Valkoinen aka Cio Blanka (2006; screen filling, 1kb _ ZOOM to 1000000x1414214pix, 1kb) and
      _ No White, Absolutely the Opposite aka All Black aka Tout Noir aka... (you get the idea) (2006; screen filling, 1kb _ ZOOM to 1000000x1414214pix, 1kb); click in the upper left corner of any of these to switch from white to black or vice versa. They all load instantly, so don't wait for the image to change: it won't.
–- Promontory in the Sea III (604x900pix, 90kb) This title has no apparent relationship with the picture, so Pélerin-Alamec decided upon an even more nonsensical title for the much more colorful and symmetrical picture into which he transformed this one:
      _ Premonitory in C Sharp (2006; screen filling, 329kb _ ZOOM to 1000x1414pix, 858kb)
–- Moon Over Pond (900x693pix, 104kb) what is supposed to be the moon is recognizable, not so the main part of the picture which is supposed to be the pond, but might almost as well be titled Still Life With Vegetation. For the sake of truth in titling, Pélerin-Alamec has enhanced a combination of part of this picture and part of the following, creating the mostly symmetrical
      _ Moon Over Menuhunem aka Lune Nulle (2006; screen filling, 201kb _ ZOOM to 1000x1414pix, 387kb).
–- Lady Menuhin (900x638pix, 82kb) _
–- Still Life With Vegetables (oblong; 626x900pix, 63kb)
–- Long Walls (900x508pix, 78kb)
–- Interior With Still Life (426x510pix, 29kb) —(070225)

1905 Rex Distin Martienssen, South African architect who died on 23 August 1942 —(060203)

^ 1896 Fernando Leal, Mexican painter who died on 07 October 1964. A native of San Luis Potosí, Leal studied at the Escuela al Aire Libre, Coyoacan, under Alfredo Ramos Martínez, at age twenty; his fellows were Gabriel Fernández Ledesma, Rafael Vera de Córdoba, Ramón Alva de la Canal and Fermín Revueltas. He was one of the original muralists when that movement began in the twenties, his first mural, Los danzantes de Chalma, done in encaustic. He taught painting at the Academia de San Carlos, and in 1927 was appointed director of the Centro Popular de Pintura in Nonoalco, whose mission was to make art accesible to the working classes. Leal was one of the founders of the group ¡30-30!, which published a review in opposition to academic ideology in art. He collaborated with Diego Rivera, Jean Charlot, José Clemente Orozco, Ramón Alva de la Canal and David Alfaro Siqueiros in the Escuela Nacional Preparatoria's murals. He was one of the first artists to use indigenous themes as subjects for large scale murals. Leal painted several of them over next three decades such as the one for the Bolívar Amphiteathre in the Escuela Nacional Preparatoria in 1930-1933, notable for its depiction of scenes from the life of Simón Bolívar. In 1952 he was appointed Minister of Culture and created a campaign for artists´rights in 1959. He left incomplete at his death a book on life at the San Carlos Academy. — He was the father of Fernando Leal Audirac [16 Nov 1958~].
Ariel y Caliban (1939, 65x50cm; 850x651pix, 106kb)
Renato Leduc (1930, 90x59cm; 840x547pix, 81kb)
Rubén Salazar Mallen (1949, 65x50cm; 567x420pix, 30kb) —(060202)

^ 1890 Achille Virgilio Socrate Funi [–26 Jul 1972], Italian painter of the group Valori Plastici, to which also belonged Carlo Carrà, Giorgio de Chirico, Armando Spadini, Arturo Martini, and others. . — {Funi, funny name}
L’architetto Mario Chiattone (1924, 103x103cm; 508x500pix, 41kb) portrait of the Italian architect born on 11 November 1891.. —(070815)

^ 1886 (25 Feb?) Georgy Ivanovych (or Yegor Ivanovich) Narbut, Ukrainian graphic designer and book designer who died on 23 May 1920. He received no special artistic training, but his tastes and later his style were formed under the influence of artists from the Mir Iskusstva group, particularly Ivan Bilibin. The influence of Bilibin’s style is apparent in Narbut’s illustrations to the tale about Yegor Khorobr (1904) and to Aleksandr Pushkin’s poem Ruslan and Ludmila (1905). In 1910, having traveled abroad, Narbut spent some time in the studio of Simon Hollósy in Munich. On his return to Saint-Petersburg, where he was based from 1906 to 1917, he created several fantastic compositions that incorporated architectural motifs and were imbued with a sense of disquiet, such as Landscape with a Comet (watercolor, 1910). In his later years Georgy Narbut illustrated and designed books of Ivan Krylov’s fables (1912) and Hans Christian Andersen’s fairy tales (1912-1913). In his illustrations for the book The Year 1812 in Krylov’s Fables (1912) he perfected the technique of representing images as silhouettes against a contrasting background, which he also used in a number of portraits and compositions from the years 1913 to 1918.
Byvaya Malorossiya. Bandurist-Kobzar (1907; 593x400pix, 89kb) —(060204)

1836 Frederick Arthur Verner, Canadian artist who died in London on 06 May 1928. —(060205)

1836 Elihu Vedder, US artist who died in Rome on 29 January 1923. —(060205)

^ 1834 Giuseppe Sciuti, Italian painter who died on 13 March 1911.
I prigionieri di Castelnuovo dopo la capitolazione del 1799 (1871; 998x1411pix, 273kb)
I tristi effetti della guerra (1870; 2298x1584pix, 563kb)
La pace domestica (1870; 1863x1403pix, 445kb)

1824 Carl Goebel, Viennese artist who died on 10 February 1899. —(060202)

1808 (see at 20 February) Honoré de Daumier whose birth date was more probably 20 February.

1741 (infant baptism) Cornelius Hoyer, Danish artist who died on 02 June 1804. —(060202)

1730 (infant baptism) Johann Peter Alexander Wagner, Austian artist who died on 07 Jan 1809 —(060202)

1651 Pieter IV van der Hulst (or Hult, Verhulst), Dutch artist who died in 1727. — Relative? of sculptor Rombout Verhulst [1624-1698]?

1605 Laurent de La Hyre (or La Hire), Parisian artist who died on 29 December 1656. —(060202)


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Thought for the day:
“Man's accidents are God's purposes.” — Sophia Amelia Peabody (Mrs. Nathaniel Hawthorne) [21 Sep 1809 – 26 Feb 1871]

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