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DEATHS: 1639 SAVERY 1970 “ROTHCO”
BIRTHS: 1861 RUSIÑOL — 1841 RENOIR
^ Born on 25 February 1861: Santiago Rusiñol i Prats, Catalan painter and writer who died on 13 June (July?) 1931.
— Santiago Rusiñol i Prats nasqué a Barcelona el 25 de febrer del 1861 a la casa número 37 del carrer de la Princesa i va morir a Aranjuez vora els jardins reials que tant havia pintat, el dia 13 de juliol de 1931.
— He studied under Tomás Moragas [1837–1906] and exhibited as early as 1878, when he was still working in a conventional realist style. He went to Paris in 1889 with Miguel Utrillo [1862–1934] and other artists. There he and his close friend Ramón Casas, who lived with him in the Moulin de la Galette, began to paint suburban views of Paris, mainly of Montmartre, and interior scenes with figures. The pictures of Paris that they exhibited in Barcelona in 1890 and 1891 opened Catalan art to a new wave of Impressionism influenced by Edgar Degas and James Abbot McNeill Whistler, a form of modernism that was symptomatic of the cultural renewal in Catalonia, and of which Rusiñol, not only a painter but also an active intellectual, was the undisputed leader. In the small seaside town of Sitges, near Barcelona, he created an important cultural center closely bound to other European developments. Reference to Botticelli and the Pre-Raphaelites can be detected in the Symbolist style which he adopted in his three large canvases, Music, Painting, and Poetry (1894).
— Santiago Rusiñol encarna la personalitat més complexa de tots els artistes catalans de la segona meitat del segle XIX i començament del segle XX. Ell és, sens dubte, l'artista total, sempre present a les iniciatives artístiques importants d'aquell període. Fou membre fundador del grup renovador Els Quatre Gats. També fundà, a Sitges, el Cau Ferrat, un taller-museu que fou l'escenari de les famoses Festes Modernistes, en les quals s'aplegaven els joves artistes, escriptors i músics de l'època.
      Com a pintor, i malgrat l'oposició familiar aferrissada que el volia apartar del camí de l'art (fins als vint-i-cinc anys hagué de treballar a la filatura familiar), va ser alumne del pintor gironí Tomàs Moragas, fundador del Centre d'Aquarellistes i de l'Acadèmia de Dibuix i Pintura de Barcelona. De ben jove se sentí particularment atret pel naturalisme plàcid de Joaquim Vayreda.
      El 1889 s'establí a Montmartre, a París, i esdevingué amic inseparable de Ramon Casas. Visqué una bohèmia daurada a la capital francesa amb Ramon Casas, Utrillo i amb l'escultor Enric Clarasó, nascut a Sant Feliu del Racó, i tots tres introduïren a Catalunya un art nou, inspirat en l'impressionisme d'Edgar Degas i que a causa de la seva modernitat va ser designat per la crítica d'aleshores, encapçalada per Raimon Casellas, amb el nom de modernisme. Les figures, les coses quotidianes i el paisatge urbà del barri parisenc on residien eren els seus temes habituals.
      Cap a l'any 1894, la pintura de Santiago Rusiñol derivà vers el simbolisme, molt especialment en la temàtica dels jardins, especialment d'Andalusia, Castella i Catalunya, que li donaren tanta fama i èxits, amb obres plenes de poesia, riquesa d'acolorit i lluminositat. Morí pintant els jardins d'Aranjuez el 1931. Té obres en tots els museus importants del món. Es dedicà, amb molta intensitat també, a l'obra literària i destacà enormement com a comediògraf amb abundor d'obres teatrals de gran difusió i lluïment.

–- Ramon Casas a Paris (165x96cm; 802x463pix, 46kb)
–- S. Rusiñol i R. Casas retratant~se (1890; 650x800pix, 29kb)
–- La font (114x76cm; 802x520, 56kb)
–- Montserrat (339x400pix, 25kb)
–- La noia de la clavellina (1894; 820x375pix, 23kb)
 
^ Died on 25 February 1639: Roelandt Jacobszoon Savery, Flemish painter, draftsman, and etcher, born in 1576.
— As Anabaptists, the Savery family with the children Roelandt (or Roelant) Savery and his brothers Hans Savery I [1564->1622] and Jacob Savery I (II?) [1565-1603] was forced by Spanish persecution to leave its native Flanders about 1580. By about 1585 they had settled in Haarlem. The subject and miniaturist precision of Roelandt's earliest dated work, Birds by a Pond (1600), reflect the influence of Jacob, his presumed teacher. The strong Flemish current in Amsterdam about 1600 is apparent in the Village Edge, with its mixture of decorative and realistic, the gracefully swaying trees reminiscent of Hans Bol and the robust peasant figures based on Jacob’s studies from life. Also from the same year are two identical Flowers in a Niche. As earlier flower-pieces known from contemporary sources are lost, these are the earliest dated, independent flower paintings in the Netherlands.
— Savery was a painter and etcher of landscapes, animal subjects, and still-life, the best-known member of a family of artists. He was born in Courtrai, grew up in Amsterdam, studied under Hans Bol, and in 1619 settled in Utrecht, but he is best known for his association with Prague, where he worked for the emperor Rudolf II from 1603 to 1613. Rudolf's famous menagerie allowed him to study in detail the exotic animals that became the trademark of his work. He painted and drew creatures such as pelicans, ostriches, camels, and the now extinct dodo, and was one of the first artists in the Netherlands to do pictures of animals alone. His favorite subjects, however, were Orpheus and the Garden of Eden, which allowed him to include any number of colorful beasts. Savery's bright and highly finished style is similar to that of Jan "Velvet" Bruegel, but is somewhat more archaic. His rare flower paintings are sometimes of outstanding quality, and with Bosschaert he was an influential Flemish exponent of this genre in Holland. Houbraken, the Dutch painter and author of a large biographical work, says that Savery died insane.

LINKS
Turkish Battle (1814; 600x1134pix, 246kb)
Crab Fishermen (39x34cm) _ By the early 17th century, painting had begun to split into a variety of specialist fields. Roelandt Savery, who came from Kortrijk (Courtrai) but worked mostly abroad, was an interesting figure in this respect. Rudolph II of Prague commissioned him to paint landscapes after sketches and drawings made during a journey through Bohemia and the Tyrol. He was fond of picturesque locations and romantic forests and cliffs, like those in the Crab Fishermen.
The Garden of Eden (54x87cm) _ The fully-fledged animal painting emerged in the late 16th century with the rise of biological research and collections of rare creatures. Roelandt Savery in The Garden of Eden demonstrates a thorough knowledge of exotic animals such as the water-buffalo and the dromedary. The artist uses a narrative subject as a vehicle for painting his animals.
Landscape with Birds (1628, 42x57cm) _ Savery's painting, outmoded both in type and composition, adheres to the style of late Mannerism. Landscape as an imaginary combination of heterogeneous, natural and invented components, had by now been replaced by details of familiar surroundings, and animal images that seem to be taken straight from the pages of a zoological almanac had given way to portraits of domestic pets. Savery's painting calls for a close reading and an appreciative eye. His art lies in his scholarship and well-founded knowledge, reflecting the interest of the age in the natural sciences and exotic phenomena. The new Dutch painting, on the other hand, calls for a more sensually perceptive and contemplative approach. In its narrative, the landscape with birds is comparable to those Flemish floral still lifes which, for a period, presented botanic diversity in great detail. Savery's compositional form has its origins in the paradise portrayals of the 16th century, in which Adam and Eve are shown in harmony with the animal world around them. Picturesque ruins in the manner of Maerten van Heemskerck are also common features, soon to be adopted by the Italianate landscape painters. Savery's prolific drawings are spontaneous and precise, individual studies which he then transferred to his paintings.
Landscape with Animals (28x47cm) _ By the early 17th century, painting had begun to split into a variety of specialist fields. Roelandt Savery, who came from Kortrijk (Courtrai) but worked mostly abroad, was an interesting figure in this respect. Rudolph II of Prague commissioned him to paint landscapes after sketches and drawings made during a journey through Bohemia and the Tyrol. He was fond of picturesque locations and romantic forests and cliffs, like those in the Crab Fishermen. He took advantage of his time at court to study exotic animals in the zoological gardens. The influence of this period continued to make itself felt in his later work, too. Landscape with Animals, with its characteristic, paradisiacal atmosphere is a fine example.
Landscapes with Wild Beasts (1629, 35x49cm) _ Savery was a Flemish painter of landscapes, animals and flowers, trained in Amsterdam. He worked in Prague and Vienna in the sevice of Emperors Rudolf II and Mathias, but later settled in Utrecht. This painting shows Savery at his best. The subject reflects the great scientific interest in nature which was characteristic of the period.
Rocky Landscape 117x157cm) _ Roelandt Savery introduced landscape painting in Utrecht.
The Paradise (1618, 35x107cm) _ detail 1 _ detail 2
—(060529)
^ >Born on 25 February 1841: Pierre Auguste Renoir, French Impressionist painter who died on 03 December 1919.
— Son of a tailor and dressmaker, Renoir moved with his family from Limoges to Paris in 1844. He was apprenticed to a porcelain manufacturer from 1854 to 1858, where he painted rococo-style decorations. In 1862~1863 he attended the École des Beaux-Arts in the studio of Charles Gleyre (1808-1874), where he met Sisley (1839-1899), Pissarro (1830-1903), Monet (1840-1926), and Fantin-Latour (1836-1904). Renoir first exhibited at the Salon in 1864 and began at about this time to work out-of-doors. Courbet (1819-1877), Corot (1796-1875), and Daubigny (1817-1878) were important early influences, although his progress toward a more vivid and sketchy style was encouraged by the work of Monet and Manet (1832-1883). He participated in the first impressionist exhibition of 1874 but subsequently in only the second, third, and seventh group shows. In 1881-1882 Renoir visited Algeria and Italy, where his exposure to ancient and Renaissance art led him to introduce into his impressionism a new linear and sculptural direction. Afler years of financial struggle, a retrospective at Dumond-Ruel in 1892 signaled greater popular success. Although his health began to fail in the late nineties, Renoir continued to paint and even experiment with sculpture until his death.

— Renoir was originally associated with the Impressionist movement. His early works were typically Impressionist snapshots of real life, full of sparkling color and light. By the mid-1880s, however, he had broken with the movement to apply a more disciplined, formal technique to portraits and figure paintings, particularly of women (e.g. , Bathers, 1887).
      In 1854 Renoir began work as a painter in a porcelain factory in Paris, gaining experience with the light, fresh colors that were to distinguish his Impressionist work and also learning the importance of good craftsmanship. His predilection towards light-hearted themes was also influenced by the great Rococco masters, whose works he studied in the Louvre. In 1862 he entered the studio of Gleyre and there formed a lasting friendship with Monet, Sisley, and Bazille. He painted with them in the Barbizon district and became a leading member of the group of Impressionists who met at the Café Guerbois. His relationship with Monet was particularly close at this time, and their paintings of the beauty spot called La Grenouillère done in 1869 are regarded as the classic early statements of the Impressionist style. Like Monet, Renoir endured much hardship early in his career, but he began to achieve success as a portraitist in the late 1870s and was freed from financial worries after the dealer Paul Durand-Ruel began buying his work regularly in 1881.
      By this time Renoir had 'gone as far as Impressionism could take me', and a visit to Italy in 1881-1882 inspired him to seek a greater sense of solidarity in his work. The change in attitude is seen in The Umbrellas , which was evidently begun before the visit to Italy and finished afterwards; the two little girls on the right are painted with the feathery brush-strokes characteristic of his Impressionist manner, but the figures on the left are done in a crisper and drier style, with duller coloring. After a period of experimentation with what he called his manière aigre in the mid 1880s, he developed a softer and more supple kind of handling. At the same time he turned from contemporary themes to more timeless subjects, particularly nudes, but also pictures of young girls in unspecific settings.
      As Renoir's style became grander and simpler he also took up mythological subjects (The Judgement of Paris), and the female type he preferred became more mature and ample. In the 1890s Renoir began to suffer from rheumatism, and from 1903 (by which time he was world-famous) he lived in the warmth of the south of France. The rheumatism eventually crippled him (by 1912 he was confined to a wheelchair), but he continued to paint until the end of his life, and in his last years he also took up sculpture, directing assistants (usually Richard Guino, a student of Maillol) to act as his hands (Venus Victorious).
      Renoir is perhaps the best-loved of all the Impressionists, for his subjects — pretty children, flowers, beautiful scenes, above all lovely women---have instant appeal, and he communicated the joy he took in them with great directness. `Why shouldn't art be pretty?', he said, `There are enough unpleasant things in the world.' He was one of the great worshippers of the female form, and he said `I never think I have finished a nude until I think I could pinch it.' One of his sons was the celebrated film director Jean Renoir [15 Sep 1894 – 12 Feb 1979], who wrote a lively and touching biography (Renoir, Mon Père) in 1962.

—   Renoir was noted for his radiant, intimate paintings, particularly of the female nude. Recognized by critics as one of the greatest and most independent painters of his period, Renoir is noted for the harmony of his lines, the brilliance of his color, and the intimate charm of his wide variety of subjects. Unlike other impressionists he was as much interested in painting the single human figure or family group portraits as he was in landscapes; unlike them, too, he did not subordinate composition and plasticity of form to attempts at rendering the effect of light.
      Renoir was born in Limoges. As a child he worked in a porcelain factory in Paris, painting designs on china; at 17 he copied paintings on fans, lamp shades, and blinds. He studied painting formally in 1862-1863 at the academy of the Swiss painter Charles Gabriel Gleyre in Paris. Renoir's early work was influenced by two French artists, Claude Monet in his treatment of light and the romantic painter Eugène Delacroix [26 Apr 1798 – 13 Aug 1863] in his treatment of color.
      Renoir first exhibited his paintings in Paris in 1864, but he did not gain recognition until 1874, at the first exhibition of painters of the new impressionist school. One of the most famous of all impressionist works is Renoir's Le Bal au Moulin de la Galette (1876), an open-air scene of a café, in which his mastery in figure painting and in representing light is evident. Outstanding examples of his talents as a portraitist are Madame Charpentier and Her Children, Georgette-Berthe and (at her knee) Paul-Émile-Charles (1878) and Jeanne Samary.
      Renoir fully established his reputation with a solo exhibition held at the Durand-Ruel Gallery in Paris in 1883. In 1887 he completed a series of studies of a group of nude female figures known as Les Baigneuses. These reveal his extraordinary ability to depict the lustrous, pearly color and texture of skin and to impart lyrical feeling and plasticity to a subject; they are unsurpassed in the history of modern painting in their representation of feminine grace. Many of his later paintings also treat the same theme in an increasingly bold rhythmic style.
      During the last 20 years of his life Renoir was crippled by arthritis; unable to move his hands freely, he continued to paint, however, by using a brush strapped to his arm.
      Other notable paintings by Renoir include La Loge (1874); Girl with a Fan (Mlle. Alphonsina Fournez) (1875) and The Swing (1875); The Luncheon of the Boating Party (1881); and Vase of Chrysanthemums (1895) – one of the many still lifes of flowers and fruit he painted throughout his life.
—   Renoir was born in Limoges and brought up in Paris, where his father, a tailor with a large family, settled in 1845. From the age of thirteen he worked as an apprentice painter, painting flowers on porcelain plates. This early apprenticeship left a certain trace on his art, which was always decorative in spite of its later realism. After machines for coloring ceramics had been introduced, he had to switch to decorating fans and screens.
     Having saved some money, Renoir attended the École des Beaux-Arts in 1862-1863 in the studio of Charles Gleyre [02 May 1806, or 1808? –1874]. There where he formed a lasting friendship with Sisley [30 Oct 1839 – 29 Jan 1899], Monet [14 Nov 1840 – 05 Dec 1926], Fantin-Latour [14 Jan 1836 – 25 Aug 1904], and Bazille [06 Dec 1841 – 28 Nov 1870]. Some time later he met Pissarro [10 Jul 1830 – 13 Nov 1903] and Cézanne [19 Jan 1839 – 22 Oct 1906]. Starting in about 1864, he painted with them in the Barbizon district and became a leading member of the group of Impressionists who met at the Café Guerbois.
      He first exhibited at the Salon in 1864; after that the jury rejected his works and only in 1867 accepted Lise, portrait of his model and lover Lise Trehot {aka Trèschaude or Veryhot?}. In 1867, he and Monet lived at Bazille’s house. In 1868-1870, he shared a studio with Bazille [06 Dec 1841 – 28 Nov 1870] in Paris. The young artists sat for each other, i.e. Frederic Bazille at His Easel by Renoir and Portrait of Pierre-Auguste Renoir by Bazille.  Renoir spent the summer of 1869 with Monet at Bougival on the Seine; together they worked out the main principles of the Impressionist method. It was most strongly manifested in the plein-air studies of La Grenouillère (1869). See and compare it with La Grenouillère by Monet; the painters worked side by side.
      It was in the 1870s, that Renoir’s Impressionism style reached its peak. He worked at Argenteuil and in Paris. He participated in the Impressionist exhibitions of 1874, 1876, 1877 and 1882 and was a founding member of the review L’Impressionniste (1877), where he published his article on the principles of contemporary art. The Swing and the great composition of Le Moulin de la Galette, one of the finest, most smiling of his masterpieces, the models for which were his friends, mostly artists, and Montmartre girls. It is like a marvelous tissue of interwoven sunlight and soft hazy blue.
      Renoir achieved recognition earlier than his friends. In 1879-1880, he sent several portraits to the official Salon, among them Portrait of the Actress Jeanne Samary and Portrait of Mme Charpentier and Her Children. The artist found himself at a critical point. In 1880, he met Aline Charigot, a common woman, whom he would marry in 1890, they had 3 sons: Pierre Renoir [1885-], Jean Renoir [15 Sep 1894 – 12 Feb 1979], who would become an important film director, and Claude Renoir [1901–], called “Coco”. The same year, 1880, Renoir broke his right arm and for some time painted with his left hand. In 1881, he traveled to Algeria, later to Italy, where he was impressed by Raphael [06 Apr 1483 – 06 April 1520] and the Pompeii frescoes. The Luncheon of the Boating Party is certainly one of Renoir’s finest canvases.
      In the 1880s, he abandoned Impressionism for what is often called the “dry style”. He began a search for solid form and stable composition, a search, which led him back to the masters of the Renaissance. He worked more carefully and meticulously, his colors became cooler and smoother. He later returned to hot rich colors and free brushwork of his earlier days to portray nudes in sunlight, a style, which he continued to develop to the end of his life: The Bathers (1887).
      In 1886, the art dealer Durand-Ruel exhibited 32 of Renoir's paintings in New York, thus opening the US market for Impressionism. The evidence of Renoir’s (and other Impressionists’) success in the USA is a great number of their pictures in US museums.
      In December 1888, Renoir suffered the first attacks of arthritis, which would cripple his hands; in 1898 after a serious attack of the disease his right arm was paralyzed. From now on he painted, overcoming strong pains, strapping a brush to his wrist. From 1903 (by which time he was world-famous) he lived in the warmth of the south of France. The rheumatism eventually crippled him (by 1912 he was confined to a wheelchair), but he continued to paint until the end of his life, and in his last years he also took up sculpture, directing assistants (usually Richard Guino, a student of Maillol [08 Dec 1861 – 27 Sep 1844]) to act as his hands (Venus Victorious). In 1919, not long before his death, he finished, in great pain, his large-scale composition The Great Bathers (The Nymphs). Renoir died in Cagnes.

— Renoir and Monet worked closely together during the late 1860s, painting similar scenes of popular river resorts and views of a bustling Paris. Renoir was by nature more solid than Monet, and while Monet fixed his attentions on the ever-changing patterns of nature, Renoir was particularly entranced by people and often painted friends and lovers. His early work has a quivering brightness that is gloriously satisfying and fully responsive to what he is painting, as well as to the effects of the light.
      Renoir seems to have had the enviable ability to see anything as potentially of interest. More than any of the Impressionists, he found beauty and charm in the modern sights of Paris. He does not go deep into the substance of what he sees but seizes upon its appearance, grasping its generalities, which then enables the spectator to respond with immediate pleasure. "Pleasure" may be decried by the puritanical instinct within us all, but it is surely the necessary enhancer that life needs. It also signifies a change from Realism: the Impressionists' paintings have none of the labored toll of the peasants of Millet [04 Oct 1814 – 20 Jan 1875], for example. Instead they depict delightful, intimate scenes of the French middle class at leisure in the country or at cafés and concerts in Paris. Renoir always took a simple pleasure in whatever met his good-humored attention, but he refused to let what he saw dominate what he wanted to paint. Again he deliberately sets out to give the impression, the sensation of something, its generalities, its glancing life. Maybe, ideally, everything is worthy of attentive scrutiny, but in practice there is no time. We remember only what takes our immediate notice as we move along.
      In The Boating Party Lunch, a group of Renoir's friends are enjoying that supreme delight of the working man and woman, a day out. Renoir shows us interrelationships: notice the young man intent upon the girl at the right chatting, while the girl at the left is occupied with her puppy. But notice too the loneliness, however relaxed, that can be part of anyone's experience at a lunch party. The man behind the girl and her dog is lost in a world of his own, yet we cannot but believe that his reverie is a happy one. The delightful debris of the meal, the charm of the young people, the hazy brightness of the world outside the awning - all communicates an earthly vision of paradise.
      One of Renoir's early portraits, A Girl with a Watering Can, has all the tender charm of its subject, delicately unemphasized, not sentimentalized, but clearly relished. Renoir stoops down to the child's height so that we look at her world from her own altitude. This, he hints, is the world that the little one sees — not the actual garden that adults see today, but the nostalgic garden that they remember from their childhood. The child is sweetly aware of her central importance. Solid little girl though she is, she presents herself with the fragile charm of the flowers. Her sturdy little feet in their sensible boots are somehow planted in the garden, and the lace of her dress has a floral rightness; she also is decorative. With the greatest skill, Renoir shows the child, not amid the actual flowers and lawns, but on the path. It leads away, out of the picture, into the unknown future when she will longer be part of the garden but an onlooker, an adult, who will enjoy only her memories of the present now depicted.
— Born in Limoges to a tailor and dressmaker, Renoir moved with his family from to Paris in 1844. There he was apprenticed to a porcelain manufacturer from 1854 to 1858, where he painted rococo-style decorations, gaining experience with the light, fresh colors that were to distinguish his Impressionist work and also learning the importance of good craftsmanship. This early apprenticeship left a certain trace on his art, which was always decorative in spite of its later realism. His predilection towards light-hearted themes was also influenced by the great Rococco masters, whose works he studied in the Louvre. At 17, after machines for coloring ceramics had been introduced, Renoir had to switch to copying paintings onto fans, lamp shades, and screens.
      In 1862-1863 he attended the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in the studio of Charles Gleyre, where he met Sisley, Pissarro, Monet, and Fantin-Latour. Renoir first exhibited at the Salon in 1864 and began at about this time to work out-of-doors. Courbet [10 Jun 1819 – 31 Dec 1877], Corot [16 Jul 1796 – 22 Feb 1875], and Daubigny [15 Feb 1817 – 19 Feb 1878] were important early influences, although his progress toward a more vivid and sketchy style was encouraged by the work of Monet and Manet [23 Jan 1832 – 30 Apr 1883]. He participated in the first impressionist exhibition of 1874 but subsequently in only the second, third, and seventh group shows. In 1881-1882 Renoir went to Algeria and Italy, where his exposure to ancient and Renaissance art led him to introduce into his impressionism a new linear and sculptural direction. Afler years of financial struggle, a retrospective at Durand-Ruel in 1892 signaled greater popular success. Although his health began to fail in the late nineties, Renoir continued to paint and even experiment with sculpture until his death.
— Renoir ranks 47th in The Times Top 200 Artists of the 20th Century to Now.

LINKS
Self-portrait (1875; 72kb)
–- Madame Clémentine Valensi Stora aka L'Algérienne (1870; 1177x818pix, 113kb _ .ZOOM to 2354x1636pix, 420kb)
–- Mother, Child, and Cat (1895, 117x104cm; 1036x922pix, 87kb)
–- Landscape at Beaulieu(1893, 65x81cm; 911x1147pix, 150kb)
–- L'Enfant au Biscuit, Jean, son of the artist (1897, 30x26cm; 1146x897pix, 140kb) sketchy version 1, facing towards right, stops above waist level.
–- L'Enfant au Biscuit (1897; 1034x690pix, 138kb) even sketchier version 2, facing towards left, goes down to part of high chair _ Jean Renoir [15 Sep 1894 – 12 Feb 1979] became a prominent film director.
Jean Renoir Writing (1899; 1074x1031pix, 258kb) near-sighted? NOT writing, but drawing, with a pencil. This is a couple of years before the next painting, where he is shown reading laboriously, presumably soon after learning to read.
Jean Renoir Reading (1901; 843x1011pix, 156kb) near-sighted?
Jean Renoir (1899)
Jean Renoir (1901; _ ZOOMable to 325kb) with long hair and ribbons that make him look like a girl
Jean Renoir as a Hunter (1910)
Bazille Painting Le Héron (1867; _ ZOOMable to 323kb)
      _ See Nature Morte Avec un Héron (1867) by Bazille.
Claude Monet (reading book, holding pipe)
Claude Monet Reading the Paper
The Painter Alfred Sisley (1868; _ ZOOMable to 437kb)
Les Parapluies (1882 and 1886)
La famille de l'artiste
In the meadow
Feeding
–- Young Boy with a Cat
A Morning Ride in the Bois de Boulogne
–- La Loge
–- La Parisienne
–- Nini dans le Jardin
–- La Petite Fille à l'Arrosoir
–- La Balançoire
–- Le Moulin de la Galette
–- Sur la Terrace
–- Les Parapluies
–- Jeunes filles au piano
The Conversation
Madame Charpentier and Her Children Paul (at her knee) and Georgette
Jugglers at the Cirque Fernando
The Laundress (1880)
La famille de l'artiste (1896)
La promenade
Girl Seated in a Garden
Girl Seated in a Meadow (1916)
–- Déjeuner des canotiers
–- Les Baigneuses
Monet au Jardin à Argenteuil (1873; _ ZOOMable to 205kb)
–- Portrait de Monet
–- Portrait de Bazille
Richard Wagner (1900)
Young Man Walking with Dogs in Fontainebleau Forest (1866)
Woman in a Boat. (1867)
Le Pont des Arts, Paris (1867)
A Morning Ride in the Bois de Boulogne (1873)
Madame Monet with Her Son
La première sortie (1875)
Jeanne Samary
La Grenouillère _ This painting has all the ingredients of Impressionism: a sketch-like painting, which to contemporaries seemed unfinished, no carved-out details, a glitter of sun reflecting the movements of the water, the boats partly truncated to convey a sense of the passing moment, and the individual details toned down in favor of the overall picture. But, the depiction of reality is still there. Renoir has depicted an actual moment and life as it is lived, a fragment without any greater depth of interpretation. The theme is a new one: instead of something heroic, we have a casual, trivial excerpt from reality, held together by the lighting. Compare it with La Grenouillère by Monet; the painters worked side by side.
93 ZOOMable images at Wikimedia
1205 images at the Athenaeum
Renoir+ ZOOM IN + ^ Pierre-Auguste Renoir
      Renoir was originally associated with the Impressionist movement. His early works were typically Impressionist snapshots of real life, full of sparkling color and light. By the mid-1880s, however, he had broken with the movement to apply a more disciplined, formal technique to portraits and figure paintings, particularly of women (e.g. , Bathers, 1887).
      Born at Limoges, Renoir began work as a painter in 1854in a porcelain factory in Paris, gaining experience with the light, fresh colors that were to distinguish his Impressionist work and also learning the importance of good craftsmanship. His predilection towards light-hearted themes was also influenced by the great Rococco masters, whose works he studied in the Louvre. In 1862 he entered the studio of Gleyre and there formed a lasting friendship with Monet, Sisley, and Bazille. He painted with them in the Barbizon district and became a leading member of the group of Impressionists who met at the Café Guerbois. His relationship with Monet was particularly close at this time, and their paintings of the beauty spot called La Grenouillère done in 1869 (an example by Renoir is in the Nationalmuseum, Stockholm) are regarded as the classic early statements of the Impressionist style.
      Like Monet, Renoir endured much hardship early in his career, but he began to achieve success as a portraitist in the late 1870s and was freed from financial worries after the dealer Paul Durand-Ruel began buying his work regularly in 1881. By this time Renoir had 'gone as far as Impressionism could take me'. In 1881-1882 he visited Algeria and Italy, where his exposure to ancient and Renaissance art led him to introduce into his impressionism a new linear and sculptural solidity. The change in attitude is seen in Les Parapluies, which was evidently begun before the visit to Italy and finished afterwards; the two little girls on the right are painted with the feathery brush-strokes characteristic of his Impressionist manner, but the figures on the left are done in a crisper and drier style, with duller coloring. This “dry style” was a search for solid form and stable composition, a search which led him back to the masters of the Renaissance. He worked more carefully and meticulously, his colors became cooler and smoother.
     After a period of experimentation with what he called his manière aigre in the mid 1880s, he developed a softer and more supple kind of handling. At the same time he turned from contemporary themes to more timeless subjects, particularly nudes, but also pictures of young girls in unspecific settings.
      As Renoir's style became grander and simpler he also took up mythological subjects (The Judgement of Paris; 1914), and the female type he preferred became more mature and ample. In the 1890s Renoir began to suffer from rheumatism, and from 1903 (by which time he was world-famous) he lived in the warmth of the south of France. The rheumatism eventually crippled him (by 1912 he was confined to a wheelchair), but he continued to paint until the end of his life, and in his last years he also took up sculpture, directing assistants (usually Richard Guino, a student of Maillol) to act as his hands (Venus Victorious; 1914).
     Renoir is perhaps the best-loved of all the Impressionists, for his subjects (pretty children, flowers, beautiful scenes, above all lovely women) have instant appeal, and he communicated the joy he took in them: “Why shouldn't art be pretty? There are enough unpleasant things in the world.” He was one of the great worshippers of the female form, and he said “I never think I have finished a nude until I think I could pinch it.”
      One of his sons was the celebrated film director Jean Renoir [15 Sep 1894 – 12 Feb 1979], who wrote a lively and touching biography of his father, Renoir, mon père (1962).

— Pierre-Auguste Renoir, peintre et sculpteur français, considéré comme l'une des grandes figures de l'impressionnisme. Né dans une famille d'artisans, Pierre-Auguste Renoir commença à peindre, d'abord sur porcelaine dès l'âge de treize ans, puis à partir de dix-sept ans, sur éventails et sur tissus. En 1862, il s'inscrivit à l'École des Beaux-Arts et étudia dans l'académie parisienne du peintre suisse Charles Gleyre [1808-1876], où il rencontra Sisley, Bazille et Monet qui influença le début de sa carrière. En 1864, Renoir fit la connaissance de Diaz de La Peña [1807-1876] qui l'engagea à peindre en plein air. Ses premières œuvres sont encore marquées par l'influence de Courbet. La même année, il exposa pour la première fois à Paris, mais après avoir essuyé deux refus en 1866 et en 1867, il ne fut admis au Salon des artistes français qu'en 1868 avec Lise à l'ombrelle (1867).
      En 1869, il travailla avec Monet aux trois vues de La Grenouillère qui annoncent les scènes nautiques d'Argenteuil d'après 1870. En 1874, il participa à la première exposition des peintres impressionnistes chez Nadar (avec La Scène, 1874). C'est là qu'il fit la connaissance de Caillebotte. S'ouvre alors la période des toiles les plus célèbres telles les Régates à Argenteuil (1874, musée d'Orsay, Paris), Le Moulin de la Galette (1876) et Les Parapluies (1883), qui rassemblent les caractéristiques d'un impressionnisme très parisien (ambiances de loisirs, foules citadines). Une sorte de vibration, faite d'ombre et de soleil, relie tous les personnages des scènes champêtres dans une atmosphère lumineuse, bien que sa facture fasse appel à une touche fondue plutôt qu'au divisionnisme habituel impressionniste. Un effet analogue d'éclairage se retrouve dans le Déjeuner des canotiers (1881) qui témoigne d'une individualisation parfaite des personnages, dans la mobilité des gestes et des attitudes.
      En 1881, Renoir fit un voyage en Italie où il s'intéressa plus particulièrement à Raphaël. Son attention à la composition s'en trouva accrue. Vers 1888, Renoir séjourna quelques temps chez Cézanne en Provence et réalisa de nombreux nus féminins, Les Baigneuses qui semblent ne pas se baigner dans l'eau, mais dans la lumière d'une facture très souple, révélant les coloris nacrés de la peau et transmettant avec lyrisme son amour sensuel de la plasticité du sujet. Chargeant progressivement sa pâte, il superposa de plus en plus les couleurs, les brossant toujours plus afin d'obtenir une matière lisse et soyeuse, souvent rapprochée de celles de Rubens.
--// A good Renoir site with many reproductions of his paintings classified as: BathersPortraitsDancersLandscapesStill Lifes
—(100224)

Died on a 25 February:

^ >1998 Luigi Veronesi, Milan Italian abstract painter born on 28 May 1908.
–- Composizione (1242x896pix, 96kb) dull greenish gray background with very little drawn on it, in darker gray. The pseudonymous Giulio Falsonano has taken up the challenge to make out of it something worth looking at, and has come up with
      _ Compostezza (2006; screen filling, 229kb _ ZOOM to 1414x2000pix, 1284kb)
–- Prismatico No. 11 (900x678pix, 39kb)
–- Senza Titolo (900x541pix, 46kb) _ A pale circle, a thin arc, and a thick straight line. Falsonano has applied to this the power of negative imaging and of symmetry, creating the much more satisfying
      _ Senza Tetto aka Pizza Fiesta (2006; screen filling, 175kb _ ZOOM to 1414x2000pix, 694kb)
–- Costruzzione Hag 5 (679x900pix, 59kb)
–- Costruzzione WUH1 (900x674pix, 47kb)
–- Composizione B6 (900x641pix, 47kb) _ This picture has been transformed by Falsonano who enriched it with elements of other pictures by Veronesi, made it more colorful, and applied symmetry, resulting in
      _ Supposizione B~26 aka Mace Cam (2006; screen filling, 80kb _ ZOOM to 1000x1414pix, 151kb) —(070224)

>1995 Rudolf Hausner [04 Dec 1914–] Austrian painter, draftsman, printmaker, and sculptor. —(090225)

1970 Marcus Rothkowits “Mark Rothko”, US painter born (full coverage) on 25 September 1903. –(060918)

^ 1964 Alexander Archipenko, Ukrainian Cubist sculptor and painter born on 30 May 1887. He originated a new style in which the representation of the human figure was subordinated to the formal composition of voids and solids.. He began studying painting and sculpture at the School of Art in Kiev in 1902 but was forced to leave in 1905 after criticizing the academicism of his instructors. In 1906 he went to Moscow, where, according to the artist, he participated in some group exhibitions. In 1908 he established himself in Paris, where he rejected the most favoured contemporary sculptural styles, including the work of Rodin. After only two weeks of formal instruction at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts he left to teach himself sculpture by direct study of examples in the Musée du Louvre. By 1910 Archipenko was exhibiting with the Cubists at the Salon des Indépendants, and his work was shown at the Salon d’Automne from 1911 to 1913.
— Archipenko was born in Kiev. In 1902, he entered the Kiev Art School, where he studied painting and sculpture until 1905. During this time, he was impressed by the Byzantine icons, frescoes, and mosaics of Kiev. After a sojourn in Moscow, Archipenko moved to Paris in 1908. He attended the Ecole des Beaux-Arts for a brief period and then continued to study independently at the Musée du Louvre, where he was drawn to Egyptian, Assyrian, archaic Greek, and early Gothic sculpture. In 1910, he began exhibiting at the Salon des Indépendants, Paris, and the following year showed for the first time at the Salon d’Automne.
     In 1912, Archipenko was given his first solo show in Germany at the Museum Folkwang Hagen. That same year, in Paris, he opened the first of his many art schools, joined the Section d’Or group, which included Georges Braque, Marcel Duchamp, Fernand Léger, and Pablo Picasso, among others, and produced his first painted reliefs, the Sculpto-Peintures. In 1913, Archipenko exhibited at the Armory Show in New York and made his first prints, which were reproduced in the Italian Futurist publication Lacerba in 1914. He participated in the Salon des Indépendants in 1914 and the Venice Biennale in 1920. During the war years, the artist resided in Cimiez, a nice Nice suburb. From 1919 to 1921, he went to Geneva, Zurich, Paris, London, Brussels, Athens, and other European cities to exhibit his work. Archipenko’s first solo show in the United States was held at the Société Anonyme, New York, in 1921.
     In 1923, he moved from Berlin to the United States, where over the years he opened art schools in New York City; Woodstock, New York; Los Angeles; and Chicago. In 1924, Archipenko invented his first kinetic work, Archipentura. For the next 30 years, he taught throughout the United States at art schools and universities, including the short-lived New Bauhaus. He became a United States citizen in 1928. Most of Archipenko’s work in German museums was confiscated by the Nazis in their purge of “degenerate art.” In 1947, he produced the first of his sculptures that are illuminated from within. — Author of Archipenko: Fifty Creative Years 1908–1958 (1960).
— Archipenko's students included Franciska Clausen, Béni Ferenczy, Paul Outerbridge, Tony Smith.
— Archipenko ranks 95th in The Times Top 200 Artists of the 20th Century to Now.
LINKS
–- Composition: Two Figures (571x375pix, 32kb) _ This picture, together with a small contribution from the next two, has been transformed by the pseudonymous Archie Brushko into the absurdly titled but colorful symmetrical abstractions
      _ Too Truthful Figurehead aka Tar Brat (2006; screen filling, 319kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636kb, 3231pix) and
      _ Lying About the Decomposition of Two Figs by Torsion in Space aka Gift Fig (2006; screen filling, 311kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636kb, 2620pix).
–- Lying Figure (492x800xpix, 33kb)
Torso in Space (1953 color print, 38x61cm; 498x800pix, 66kb) _ See a photo of Archipenko's 51cm 1935 cast terracotta sculpture /S#*>Torso in Space (501x800pix, 27kb). _ Archipenko's experimentation with levitating forms began in 1921 with Reclining Torso. The sculpture Torso in Space was the first near-abstract and major new theme in his US (and last) period: the floating torso and a landmark innovation in the history of sculpture. Before Torso in Space, the centuries old theme of the reclining woman was expressed by sculptors as integral to the base on which the figure reposed. With Torso in Space, Archipenko freed this subject from its horizontal moorings, so to speak, in a curvilinear shape of the female form which appears to float or to be independent of its base. —(100224)

^ 1911 Friedrich Hermann Karl “Fritz” von Uhde, German painter born on 22 May 1848. He came from a family of civil servants with artistic interests. In 1866 he briefly attended the Hochschule der Bildende Künste in Dresden, but he was bored by the teaching and in 1867 he joined the army. In 1877, despite being an officer, he took leave of absence, having decided after all to be an artist. He was determined to succeed rapidly in order to justify his late start and almost to the end of his life, therefore, his work revealed a tension between innovation and conformity.
The Picture Book (1889, 61x51cm)

1910 Thomas Worthington Whittredge, US Hudson River School painter born on 22 May 1820. {same birthday and same deathday as von Uhde, but 27 more years of life.}— Whitredge started painting landscapes influenced by the works of Thomas Cole and Asher B. Durand. He spent five years in Düsseldorf and five years in Rome, where he posed for Emmanuel Leutze as Washington Crossing the Delaware. In 1865 Whittredge went on a 3000-km government tour of the Rocky Mountains with landscape painters John Frederick Kensett and Sanford R. Gifford. He painted vast panoramas like Crossing the Platte (1870) and forest scenes such as The Trout Pool and Camp Meeting.

^ 1884 William Huggins of Liverpool, British painter born in May 1820. — Not to be confused with London painter William John Huggins [1781 – 19 May 1845] much less with astronomer Sir William Huggins [07 Feb 1824 – 12 May 1910]. — LINKS
Donkeys and Sheep in a Landscape (1867, 61x47cm)
HM Brig Barracouta Surveying the Port and Bay of Mahe in the Seychelles (1825, 80x116cm, 277x400pix, 23kb) _ The fish barracouta (Thyrsites atun of the family Gempylidae) got its name by a deformation of barracuda ( (Sphyraena of the family Sphyraenidae), which is an unrelated species, though of a similar elongated shape, and with similar sharp teeth.
Tiger and Python (1880, 61x71cm; 480x572pix, 70kb)
Lion (1881, 61x71cm; )
Bideston Farmhouse (56x41cm; 576x425pix, 65kb) _ This was painted at the turning point in Huggins' career for not only was 1850 the year in which he was elected a full member of the Liverpool Academy, but that same year the London Pre-Raphaelites first exhibited in Liverpool. It was the influence of Sir John Everett Millais, William Holman Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Ford Madox Brown that encouraged William Huggins to paint in transparent glazes over a white ground. Bideston Farmhouse, an intimate study of a farmyard flooded with sunlight, is an early example of his use of glazes, leaning toward Pre-Raphaelites techniques whilst imbued with a traditional quality of observation reminiscent of John Sell Cotman.


Born on a 25 February:


1893 Rudolf Wacker, Austrian artist who died on 19 April 1939. — {Wacker, NOT Wacko}

1884 Josef Stoitzer, Austrian artist who died in 1951.

^ 1656 Karel de Moor, Leiden Dutch painter and printmaker who died (main coverage) on 16 February 1738.

^ 1616 Isaak Luttichuys (or Luthenhuys), Dutch Baroque painter who died in 1673.
— portrait of Martijn Gaertz (1656; 119kb)
A Married Man (92x70cm, 480x365pix, 60kb)


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