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DEATHS: 1894 CAILLEBOTTE — 1862 AUDUBON
BIRTHS: 1865 HUDSON — 1830 WALLIS — 1815 MEISSONIER

^ Born on 21 February 1865: Grace Carpenter (Davis) (Hudson), US painter who died of coronary occlusion on 23 March 1937.
— She was born to well-educated pioneer parents in Potter Valley, California, Mendocino County. She showed an early talent for portraiture that was developed by professional training in San Francisco in the late 1870's. In 1891, soon after her marriage to Dr. John Wilz Napier Hudson MD [08 Jul 1857 – 18 Jan 1936], she painted a portrait of an Indian child, National Thorn, that was first in a numbered series of over 684 oils, the last completed in 1935. Nearly all her native subjects were local Pomo peoples, although in 1901 she painted 26 canvases during a year's sojurn in the Hawaiian Islands. Hudson's reputation as an Indian painter was national during her lifetime; today her work enjoys renewed interest and recognition for its fine and sympathetic portrayals of native peoples.

— Grace Carpenter was born, lived most of her life and died near Ukiah, California. The daughter of newspaperman-photographer Aurelius Ormando Carpenter [28 Nov 1836 – Feb 1919], she became interested in Amerindians as a young girl. Her family was among the few White settlers in this valley, so that she early developed a concern and sympathy for the local impoverished Pomo Indians. At age 14, Hudson began studying at the School of Design under Virgil Williams and at the San Francisco Art Institute under Raymond Dabb Yelland [02 Feb 1848 – 27 Jul 1900]. From Williams she learned classical techniques of drawing and modeling from plaster casts. The landscape class with Yelland was distinctive because it was at the only art school in the country where students went into the outdoors directly to paint with their teachers. On 29 April 1890, Grace married John Hudson, a physician who, in 1895, gave up his medical career to work as an ethnologist of the Pomo Indians. Her husband's career change was to have a profound influence on Grace's art career. In 1893, she exhibited at the World Columbian Exposition a painting of a crying Indian baby, Little Mendocino. The work won critical acclaim and convinced the artist to focus all her efforts on painting the Pomoan Indians. She gained fame for specializing in painting Amerindians, in particular children, and was a frequent contributing artist and illustrator for Sunset, Cosmopolitan, and Western Field. Despite her success in some circles, in her own time, Grace Hudson's art was criticized for its subject matter, considered by some as "unworthy." The great irony is that it is now considered by some as "too sentimental." The Pomo Indians who lived in the area, and whom she painted so skillfully, did befriend her and called her "Painter Lady."

— Thought by many art critics to be California's greatest painter, Grace Carpenter Hudson was born near Ukiah in Potter Valley, California. The daughter of a newspaperman-photographer, she studied at the Mark Hopkins Institute in San Francisco and was a student of Virgil Williams at a time when San Francisco was an important art center. She returned to Ukiah, 160 km north along the "Redwood Highway" to teach painting. During this time she also became an illustrator for Sunset, Cosmopolitan, and Western Field magazines. In 1890 she married John Hudson who was a Pacific Coast ethnologist for the Field Museum and a researcher on the language and art of the Pomo Amerindians. Immersed in their culture, Hudson began to specialize in painting the Indian children she spent so much time with. These are the works she later became so famous for even though she did travel and paint extensively throughout Europe and Hawaii. In 1904 she was commissioned by the Field Museum to paint portraits of the Pawnee Indians, with a special series of the Indian chiefs of Oklahoma. She returned to Ukiah where she lived and painted actively until her death.

— Grace Hudson’s paintings of Amerindian children were enormously popular in her lifetime. She created them by means of a thorough first-hand knowledge of the tribes in her native California. She was born and raised in Ukiah, in the Potter Valley, the daughter of a newspaperman and photographer. She received her formal art training in San Francisco, where she studied under Virgil Williams. In 1890, she married John W. N. Hudson, who became later a prominent Pacific Coast ethnologist for the Field Museum of Chicago and diligently researched the life, language, and art of California’s Pomo Amerindians. As a direct result of her husband’s activities, Grace Hudson found her subjects and began painting genre portraits of Amerindian children, often depicted in lighthearted human interest situations. She began exhibiting them and attracted immediate praise. One critic singled out her work at an exhibit in 1897 and proclaimed that her pictures touched “the popular heart” and effectively conveyed “human thoughts and interest” to the viewer. Grace Hudson’s work appealed to a popular audience with a turn-of-the-century taste for the sentimental. Yet as popular as they were with a broad audience, Hudson’s painting often succeed today on their own terms. Most of her miniature canvases of 1900 were intended to fill the insatiable demand for her works which had grown in the art public. Even as she worked, Grace increasingly sought respite from the routine of her studio. When the hop season began, she visited the summer camps along the Russian River, prepared to record another aspect of the lives of the local Amerindians.

— Raised in Potter Valley, near Ukiah, California, Grace Hudson became an acclaimed painter of Native American subjects, especially the Pomo Indians, independent tribes of coastal and inland Northern California. She left over 684 oil paintings and numerous pieces in other media including weavings, hooked rugs, and monochromatic sketches. The Grace Hudson Museum in Ukiah has the largest body of her remaining work. As a child, she migrated with her family including a twin sister from Kansas Territory in 1857 and settled first in Grass Valley, California, and in 1860, they moved to Potter Valley, among the only white settlers. The Pomo Indians had much suffering and early death, and she early developed a sympathy and concern for them. Her mother was also one of the first schoolteachers among the tribes and collected their baskets because of her respect for their workmanship. Her father had a business as journalist and photographer, and from him, she learned about the effects of light and composition. Grace began art studies at age thirteen at the San Francisco Art Institute and later studied at the California School of Design with Virgil Williams and Raymond Yelland. From Williams, she learned classical techniques of drawing and modelling from plaster casts in classical motif for sculpture. The landscape class with Yelland was distinctive because it was held at the only art school in the country where students went into the outdoors directly to paint with their teachers. Hudson got a reputation for working very rapidly and skillfully in her classes, and by age sixteen, won the Alvord Gold Medal, presented by the President of the San Francisco Art Association for the best full-length study in crayon. In 1884, at age nineteen, she eloped with William Davis, a man fifteen years older. Her parents were extremely upset, and the marriage ended a year later. She returned to Ukiah to paint, teach and illustrate for magazines including Sunset, Cosmopolitan, and Overland Monthly, and her work from that time period carries the signature "Grace Carpenter Davis." She opened her studio to the public and exhibited her work which had no particular focus and included genre, landscapes, portraits and still lifes in all media. In 1890 with her parents' blessing, she married John Wilz Napier Hudson, a physician for the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad Company who gave up practice to research the Pomo Amerindians and follow his deep interests in archeology and ethnography. They shared a sense that the Indians were a vanishing race and should be portrayed with sensitivity and respect for their culture. In 1891 a visit to her studio by H. Jay Smith opened the door for her recognition far beyond her own region when he ordered work by her for the Minneapolis Art Association exhibit where it got much attention. A year later, the painting Little Mendocino got much attention at the Midwinter Fair in San Francisco, and the following year it was hung at the World's Fair in Chicago, where an honorable mention diploma for it. From that time, her reputation was established, and she meticulously photographed and documented her oil paintings for posterity, one of the reasons being for copyright purposes because other artists tried to copy her popular work. By 1900, her national reputation was secure, but she was exhausted, and she spent three months alone in Hawaii and then rejoined her husband, who had been named Assistant Ethnographer of the Field Columbian Museum. She traveled widely with him and documented many other Indian tribes including the Pawnee in Oklahoma Territory. Sadly many of her paintings and their extensive collection of Indian artifacts left behind in California were destroyed by the earthquake and fire of 1906. In 1912, they moved into a Hopi style house in Ukiah and, with the exception of a trip to Europe in 1925, lived the rest of their lives there, active in the cultural life around them. She had a unique studio with an elaborate system of moveable skylights which she manipulated from skills learned from her father. She painted from Indian models who came to her studio. She had no children and, in her will, left her possessions and her husband's to a nephew, Mark Carpenter who made their home with over 30'000 objects a museum.

— Grace Hudson was born, lived most of her life, and died in Potter Valley, near Ukiah, California. The daughter of a newspaperman and photographer, she became interested in Amerindians as a young girl, and this was to become her specialty as an adult artist. At age 14, Hudson left Potter Valley to study at the School of Design in San Francisco under Virgil Williams, Raymond Yelland, Domenico Tojetti, and Oscar Kunath [1830-1909]. Upon completion of her studies in 1884, she returned to the Ukiah area where she began teaching painting. Five years later she opened her own studio. The following year, in 1890, Grace married John Hudson, a doctor who gave up his medical career to work for Chicago's Field Museum as an ethnologist and researcher on the local Pomo Indians. Her husband's career change was to have a profound influence on Hudson's own art career. Perhaps the pivotal event which led her to an exclusive concentration on Amerindians, and particularly children, as subjects, however, happened in Chicago in 1893. Hudson had exhibited a painting of a crying Indian baby called Little Mendocino at the World Columbian Exposition. The work received enormous critical acclaim and convinced the artist to focus all her efforts in this area. Hudson did suspend her Amerindian paintings briefly during a 1901 trip to Hawaii, where she began to paint Chinese and Japanese children. She soon switched to figure paintings of native Hawaiian children, and these portraits were later exhibited in San Francisco to great admiration. In 1904 Hudson was commissioned by her husband's employer, the Field Museum, to paint portraits of Pawnee Indians in Oklahoma. The commission included painting chiefs and elders. Though older tribal members were often suspicious about having their images recorded, because of her long-term relationship with her Amerindian neighbors in Ukiah Hudson was able to gain their trust. Hudson gained fame for her specialized art and was a frequent contributing artist and illustrator to periodicals such as Sunset, Cosmopolitan, and Western Field. Despite her success in some circles, in her own time Hudson's art was criticized for it subject matter, considered by some as "unworthy." The great irony is that it is now considered by some as "too sentimental." The Pomo Indians who lived in the area, and whom she painted so skillfully, did befriend her and called her "Painter Lady." She and her husband had a totem pole erected in front of their house, and in general, were interested in all things Amerindian. Whether or not she lost her objectivity when painting her subjects, her work is masterful in documenting their lives and culture.

— Grace Hudson was born in Potter Valley, near Ukiah, California, where she lived for most of her life. The daughter of a newspaperman and photographer, she became interested in Native Americans as a young girl, and this was to become her specialty as an adult artist. At age 14, Hudson left Potter Valley to study at the School of Design in San Francisco. Upon completion of her studies in 1884, she returned to the Ukiah area where she began teaching painting. Five years later she opened her own studio. The following year Hudson married a doctor, John Hudson, who gave up his medical career to work for Chicago’s Field Museum as an ethnologist and researcher on the local Pomo Indians. Her husband’s career change had a profound influence on Hudson’s own art career. The Pomo Indians who lived in the area, and whom she painted so skillfully, called her “Painter Lady.” However, the pivotal event that led her to an exclusive concentration on Amerindians, particularly children, as subjects, happened in Chicago in 1893. Hudson had exhibited at the World Columbian Exposition a painting of a crying Indian baby called Little Mendocino. The work received great critical acclaim and convinced the artist to focus all her efforts in this area. Hudson gained fame for her specialized art, and was a frequent contributing artist and illustrator to periodicals such as Sunset, Cosmopolitan, and Western Field. One critic singled out her work at an exhibit in 1897 and proclaimed that her pictures touched “the popular heart” and effectively conveyed “human thoughts and interest” to the viewer. Hudson’s work appealed to a popular audience with a turn-of-the-century taste for the sentimental. However, despite her success in some circles, some criticized her art for its subject matter, considered by some as “unworthy.” Hudson’s paintings often succeed today on their own terms, but the work she put into them came with a price. Most of her miniature canvases of 1900 were intended to fill the insatiable demand for her works which had grown in the art public. Even as she worked, Grace increasingly sought respite from the routine of her studio. In 1904, she was commissioned by the Field Museum to paint portraits of the Pawnee Indians, with a special series of the Indian chiefs of Oklahoma. Hudson returned to Ukiah where she lived and painted actively until her death.

LINKS
Baby Bunting (1894; 650x618pix, 130kb)
The Seed Conjurer (1896; 166kb)
Joseppa (1933; 99kb)
Boy with Fox (1922, 69x59cm; 489x419pix, 68kb) depicts the poignant relationship between the Pomoan culture and surrounding nature, which Hudson pursued throughout her career.
The Watermelon (1914, 62x76cm; 349x430pix, 25kb) _ between a dog an a boy, the artist's godson, named Hudson after her (his Amerindian name is Shi-ya-li).
A Hunter (430x305pix, 15kb)
Cooking Bread (1925; 343x450pix, 33kb)
Mendocino Streamside (343x542pix)
Captain John aka Ab-ba-ba-pomo (416x311pix)
Landscape (25x20cm; 850x673pix, 74kb)
Indian Child with Tears (20x16"; 800x631pix, 106kb).

 

^ >Died on 21 February 1894: Gustave Caillebotte, French painter and collector born on 19 August 1848.
— Caillebotte’s parents, of Norman descent, were wealthy members of the Parisian upper middle class, and his paintings often evoke his family background. After studying classics at the Lycée Louis Le Grand, he obtained a law degree in 1870, and during the Franco–Prussian War he was drafted into the Seine Garde Mobile (1870–1871).
      He joined Léon Bonnat’s studio in 1872 and passed the entrance examination for the École des Beaux-Arts on 18 March 1873. The records of the École make no mention of his work there, and his attendance seems to have been short-lived. He was very soon attracted by the innovative experiments, against academic teaching, of the young rebels who were to become known as the Impressionists. In 1874 Edgar Degas, whom Caillebotte had met at the house of their mutual friend Giuseppe de Nittis, asked him to take part in the First Impressionist Exhibition at the Nadar Gallery in the Boulevard des Capucines in Paris. However, it was only at the time of their second exhibition in April 1876 that, at Auguste Renoir’s invitation, Caillebotte joined the Impressionist group. From then on he was one of the most regular participants in their exhibitions (1877, 1879, 1880, 1882). He organized the show of 1877 and made great efforts to restore the cohesion of the group by persuading Claude Monet to exhibit in 1879. Having inherited a large fortune from his parents, Caillebotte had no need to sell his pictures and could afford to provide crucial financial assistance for his artist friends. He purchased their work, much disparaged at the time, and amassed the famous collection of Impressionist masterpieces that he left to the State.

LINKS
–- Self-Portrait (1892; 841x814pix, 64kb _ .ZOOM to 1918x1527pix, 191kb)
–- Périssoires sur l'Yerres (1877, 103x156cm; 748x1175pix, 113kb _ .ZOOM to 997x1567pix, 185kb _ ZOOM+ to 1400x2198pix)
–- Périssoires, venant(1877; 748x1175pix, 113kb _ .ZOOM to 2109x2762pix, 762kb)
–- Périssoires, partant(1878; 748x1175pix, 113kb _ .ZOOM to 1423x1006pix, 762kb)
–- Le Pont de l'Europe à Paris (1876; 804x1183pix, 87kb _ .ZOOM to 1006x1479pix, 139kb _ .ZOOM+ to 1676x2465pix, 300kb) _ The iron trellis overlooks the Saint-Lazare train station (not seen in this picture), which was portrayed by Monet in a dozen paintings made in early 1877, and included at the third Impressionist exhibition that year, at which Caillebotte (who soon purchased three of Monet's variations) did not show his Le Pont de Europe à Paris, possibly not to detract from Monet's paintings.
Sur le Pont de l'Europe (1877, 106x131cm; 600x755pix, ZOOM to 1400x1762pix, 594kb) _ Very different from the preceding. This one shows only a small section of the trellis, with a few persons, seen from the back, who have stopped to look at the train station, partly seen in the background.
–- Raboteurs de Parquets (1875, 106x131cm; 795x1132pix, 96kb _ .ZOOM to 1192x1696pix, 202kb _ .ZOOM to 1788x2544pix, 252kb) _ This was Caillebotte's first painting to be exhibited, at an Impressionist exhibition in 1875. At the time, the painting, with its dramatic perspective and ocher tones, was dismissed as vulgar. Today, it is considered a major work of the time.
–- a quite different Raboteurs de Parquets (1876; 647x800pix, 54kb _ .ZOOM to 970x1200pix, 76kb) _ This one is not as well known. The two planers are seen from their left side instead of three planers, two of them seen of head-on, in the preceding picture.
Le Peintre sous son Parasol (1878, 80x65cm; 1062x844pix, 47kb) _ The subject is Caillebotte's friend Édouard Dessommes, painting at Yerres.
–- Nu au Divan (1880, 130x196cm; 868x1185pix, 182kb _ .ZOOM to 1303x1956pix, 461kb) _ This picture belongs with a group of studies of male and female nudes painted by Caillebotte about 1880. It is unique, however, for the uncompromising realism of its anatomical observation and for its apparent sexual innuendo. The model would eventually become Caillebotte's mistress. The artist has challenged the prevalent standards of taste and morality, which accepted in paintings only the academic tradition of idealized nudes. Because of its effrontery, this picture was neither exhibited nor sold during Caillebotte's lifetime.
—(070220)
^ Born on 21 February 1830: Henry Wallis, English Pre-Raphaelite painter, writer, and collector, who died on 20 December 1916.
— Wallis studied at the Royal Academy Schools of Art, and also at Gleyre's studio and the Beaux Arts in Paris between 1840 and 1850. He was a prolific painter and in later years painted in Italy, Sicily and Egypt. His most famous work is The Death of Chatterton, which portrays the death of the 17 year old poet Thomas Chatterton, who committed suicide by taking arsenic. Chatterton was a brilliant young poet, influencing Keats and Wordsworth, who called him 'the Marvellous Boy'. The model for the dead poet was George Meredith, then aged about 28. Two years later Meredith's wife eloped with Wallis. Wallis painted the picture in the actual attic in Gray's Inn where Chatterton died.
— Wallis first studied at F. S. Cary’s academy and in 1848 entered the Royal Academy Schools, London. He is also thought to have trained in Paris at some time in the late 1840s or early 1850s, first in Charles Gleyre’s atelier and subsequently at the École des Beaux-Arts. He specialized in portraits of literary figures and scenes from the lives of past writers, as in Dr. Johnson at Cave’s, the Publisher (1854). His first great success was the Death of Chatterton , which he exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1856. The impoverished late 18th-century poet Thomas Chatterton, who while still in his teens had poisoned himself in despair, was a romantic hero for many young and struggling artists in Wallis’s day. He depicted the poet dead in his London garret, the floor strewn with torn fragments of manuscript and, tellingly, an empty phial near his hand. The painting was universally praised, not least by John Ruskin who described it as ‘faultless and wonderful’, advising visitors to ‘examine it well, inch by inch’. Although Wallis was only loosely connected with the Pre-Raphaelite movement, his method and style in Chatterton reveal the importance of that connection: the vibrant colors and careful build-up of symbolic detail are typical Pre-Raphaelite concerns. The success of Chatterton was such that, when exhibited in Manchester the following year, it was protected from the jostling crowds by a policeman. It was bought by another artist, Augustus Egg.
     Wallis's next success came in 1858 with the exhibition at the Royal Academy of The Stonebreaker. Accompanied by quotations from Tennyson's poem A Dirge (1830) and Thomas Carlyle's Sartor resartus (1834), its theme was the human cost of hard labor and poverty. It showed a dead stone-breaker slumped by the roadside in a symbolically twilit landscape. Although Wallis was not the first to portray such hardships, his painting attracted much attention through its combination of shocking realism and glorious sunset. Critics disagreed about it: The Illustrated London News proclaimed it ‘shocks the sight and offends the sense', while The Spectator found it ‘a picture of the sacredness and solemnity which dwell in a human creature, however seared, and in death, however obscure'.
      In the early 1860s Wallis was an exhibitor, along with various Pre-Raphaelites, at the Hogarth Club, London. He also continued to show history paintings, many with a literary theme, at the Royal Academy until 1877. His work was engraved for the Art Journal, for example Found at Naxos, which appeared in 1878. He was also a prolific watercolorist, exhibiting over 80 examples at the Old Water-color Society, to which he was elected in 1880. He traveled widely in Europe and the Near East; many of his later paintings show scenes or events apparently witnessed during the course of his travels, such as Winnowing Corn, Capri (1862) and a watercolor of A Coffee Merchant, the Bazaar at Suez, exhibited at the Old Water-color Society in 1887. In late life he made less impact as a painter than he did as an authority on Italian and oriental ceramics, about which during the last two decades of his life he wrote a number of books and articles, many of them illustrated by his own drawings. He also built up a huge collection of ceramics, which is now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. In the 1890s he was also involved in campaigns to preserve ancient Egyptian monuments.

LINKS
–- The Stonebreaker (1857, 65x79cm; 639x781pix, 98kb _ .ZOOM to 960x1172pix, 139kb _ .ZOOM+ to 1919x2344pix, 603kb)
The Death of Chatterton (1856, 61x91cm; 96kb) _ The painting was exhibited with the following quotation from Marlowe: 'Cut is the branch that might have grown full straight / And burned is Apollo's laurel bough.' La peinture fait référence à l'idée de l'artiste martyre de la société. La lumière pâle de l'aube brille par la fenêtre illuminant le poète et sa chair blême, des feuilles de poésie sont déchirées sur le plancher. L'éclairage dur, les couleurs, la main et le bras sans vie augmentent l'impact émotif de la scène. Une fiole de poison sur le plancher indique la méthode de suicide. Wallis a essayé de recréer avec la même vérité le grenier de l'auberge où Chatterton s'est tué. Le romancier George Meredith [1828-1909] lui sert de modèle. _ another version, almost identical except for size: .The Death of Chatterton (1856, 17x25cm; full size, 89kb)
    _ Thomas Chatterton [20 Nov 1752 – 24 Aug 1770] was the chief poet of the 18th-century “Gothic” literary revival, England's youngest writer of mature verse, and a precursor of the Romantic movement.
      At first considered slow in learning, Chatterton had a tearful childhood, choosing the solitude of an attic and making no progress with his alphabet. One day, seeing his mother tear up as waste paper one of his father's old French musical folios, the boy was entranced by its illuminated capital letters, and his intellect began to be engaged.
      He learned to read far in advance of his age but only from old materials, music folios, a black-letter Bible, and muniments taken by his father from a chest in the Church of Saint Mary Redcliffe. At seven Chatterton entered Colston's Hospital, but his learning was acquired independently. His first known poem was a scholarly Miltonic piece, “On the Last Epiphany,” written when he was 10. About a year later an old parchment he had inscribed with a pastoral eclogue, “Elinoure and Juga,” supposedly of the 15th century, deceived its readers, and thereafter what had begun merely as a childish deception became a poetic activity quite separate from Chatterton's acknowledged writings. These poems were supposedly written by a 15th-century monk of Bristol, Thomas Rowley, a fictitious character created by Chatterton.
      The poems had many shortcomings both as medieval writings and as poetry. Yet Chatterton threw all his powers into the poems, supposedly written by Rowley, in such a manner as to mark him a poet of genius and an early Romantic pioneer, both in metrics and in feeling.
      In 1767 Chatterton was apprenticed to a Bristol attorney but spent most of his time on his own writing, which for a while he turned to slight profit in Felix Farley's Bristol Journal and Town and Country Magazine. The life was irksome to him, however, and pressures began to build up, compounded of a fight for a free press, contempt for Bristol and his dowdy family, a philandering attitude to local girls, and the “death” of Rowley.
      Chatterton sent James Dodsley, the publisher, letters offering some of Rowley's manuscripts, but Dodsley ignored him. Horace Walpole [24 Sep 1717 – 02 Mar 1797] received similar offers and at first was enchanted with the “old” poems; but, when advised by friends that the manuscripts were modern, he treated Chatterton with chilly contempt, advising him in a letter to stick to his calling. Chatterton rewarded him with bitter but noble lines. By a mock suicide threat, “The Last Will and Testament of me, Thomas Chatterton of Bristol”, he forced his employer, John Lambert, to release him from his contract and set out for London to storm the city with satires and pamphlets. A lively comic opera, The Revenge, brought some money, but the death of a prospective patron quenched Chatterton's hopes. At this time he wrote the most pathetic of his Rowley poems, “An Excelente Balade of Charitie.” Though starving, Chatterton refused the food of friends and, on the night of 24 August 1770, took arsenic in his Holborn garret (into which he had moved in June 1770) and died.
      This gave him a posthumous fame. The just tributes of many poets came after controversy between the“Rowleians” and those who rightly saw Chatterton as the sole author. Coleridge wrote a “Monody” to him; Wordsworth saw him as “the marvelous boy”; Shelley gave him a stanza in “Adonais”; Keats dedicated Endymion: A Poetic Romance to him and was heavily influenced by him; and Crabbe, Byron, Scott, and Rossetti added their praise. In France the Romantics hailed his example, and the historically inaccurate play Chatterton by Alfred de Vigny [27 Mar 1797 – 17 Sep 1863] was the model for an opera by Ruggero Leoncavallo.

The Room in Which Shakespeare Was Born (1853, 29x42cm) _ Wallis launched his career exhibiting a sequence of paintings of interior scenes connected with the life of Shakespeare [1564-1616]. This one showing the playwright's birthplace in Stratford-upon-Avon is based on a passage from a contemporary biography by Charles Knight (1842) describing 'the mean room, with its massive joists and plastered walls, firm with ribs of oak'. Wallis has painted the room in remarkable detail. Every nail securing the floorboards is visible. And Wallis has even taken note of Knight's passage describing how 'hundreds amongst the hundreds of thousands by whom that name is honoured have inscribed their names on the walls of the room.
—F#*>/F#*> Bank of England & Royal Exchange, Cornhill, with King William Street (engraving, 20x41cm; full size)

 
^ Died on 21 February 1862: John Woodhouse Audubon, US painter, specialized in wildlife, born on 30 November 1812.
— John Woodhouse Audubon in Henderson, Kentucky, the second son of the artist and naturalist John James Audubon [26 Apr 1785 – 27 Jan 1851], the famous painter of birds. At an early age J.W. showed artistic promise and was encouraged to join his father in his scientific interests. While his brother Victor Gifford Audubon [1809-1860] assisted with the business and record-keeping functions related to the various Audubon publications, John Woodhouse was an active traveler and collector of specimens, as well as a draftsman. In 1833 he accompanied his father on an expedition to Labrador. Later that same year John James was able to write, "John has drawn a few Birds, as good as any I ever made, and in a few months I hope to give this department of my duty up to him altogether."
      While the Audubon family was in London in 1834, both sons studied painting, John apparently making portraits and copies of works by Henry Raeburn [1756-1823] and Bartolomé Esteban Murillo [01 Jan 1618 bap. – 03 Apr 1682]. By this time the senior Audubon's projects had become family enterprises. John Woodhouse traveled to Florida and Texas in 1837 on collecting missions. He would return to the Southwest nine years later to gather specimens of mammals as well as birds. During the years 1839-1843 John Woodhouse was chiefly responsible for the production of the second version of The Birds of America, overseeing the reduction of 500 plates to their smaller size and working with the lithographer. Within a few years he also painted, in oil, half of the subjects used as illustrations in The Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America (1845-1848) and supervised the printing of all of the plates. In 1856 he published a second reduced-size edition of The Birds of America and in 1860 began to produce a second, folio size edition of it, this time by lithography rather than engraving. Because many of the subscribers to the latter were Southerners, the venture was ruined by the Civil War.
      Both John and Victor Audubon built homes on the land surrounding their parents' house in New York. John had nine children, two by his first wife, Maria Rebecca Bachman, daughter of the Rev. John Bachman (collaborator on The Quadrupeds), and seven by his second wife, Caroline Hall. He exhibited portraits as well as animal paintings in New York throughout the 1840s and 1850s,

John James Audubon the artist's father (112x91cm; 480x383pix, 22kb)
Townsend's Meadow Mouse, Meadow Vole and Swamp Rice Rat aka Rice Meadow House (56x72cm; 374x480pix, 21kb)
A Young Bull (1849, 35x50cm; 390x577pix, 71kb) _ detail (390x520pix, 84kb) front half of bull
Long-Tailed Red Fox (1854, 56x69cm; 390x489pix, 68kb) _ detail (390x520pix, 89kb) front half of fox.
Black-Footed Ferret (1846, 55x68cm) _ detail 1 the ferret, cropped close _ detail 2 head and neck of the ferret
 
^ Born on 21 February 1815: Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier, French Academic painter specialized in historical scenes, sculptor, and illustrator, who died on 31 January 1891.
— Although Meissonier was briefly a student of Jules Potier [1796–1865] and Léon Cogniet, he was mainly self-taught and gained experience by designing wood-engravings for book illustrations. These included Léon Curmer’s celebrated edition of J.-H. Bernardin de Saint-Pierre’s Paul et Virginie (1838), the series Les Français peints par eux-mêmes (1840–1842) and Louis de Chevigné’s Les Contes rémois (1858). Such images, typically measuring 6x9cm and composed of still-life motifs (books or drapery cascading from a chest, intricately arranged and exhaustively detailed), helped form the style for which Meissonier became famous as a painter.
— In the 1830s he was earning a livelihood as a book illustrator with Tony Johannot _ In 1834 he made his Salon debut _ In 1838 he married Jenny Steinheil [—Jun 1888] _ In 1859 he was commissioned to paint the Battle of Solferino _ 1861 Elected to the Académie des Beaux-Arts _ 1870s Served as president of the Institut de France _ 1870s Serves as president of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts _ In 1890 he married Mlle Bezançon

— Meissonier was born at Lyon. From his schooldays he showed a taste for painting, to which some early sketches, dated 1823, bear witness. After being placed with a druggist, he obtained leave from his parents to become an artist, and, owing to the recommendation of a painter named Jules Potier, himself a second class Prix de Rome, he was admitted to Leon Cogniet's studio. He paid short visits to Rome and to Switzerland, and exhibited in the Salon of 1831 a picture then called Les Bourgeois Flamands (Dutch Burghers) but also known as The Visit to the Burgomaster, subsequently purchased by Sir Richard Wallace, in whose collection (at Hertford House, London) it is, with fifteen other examples of this painter. It was the first attempt in France in the particular genre which was destined to make Meissonier famous for microscopic painting, miniature in oils. Working hard for daily bread at illustrations for the publishers — Curmer, Hetze and Duboclier — he also exhibited at the Salon of 1836 the Chess Player and the Errand Boy. After some not very happy attempts at religious painting, he returned, under the influence of Chenavard, to the class of work he was born to excel in, and exhibited with much success the Game of Chess (1841), the Young Man playing the Cello (1842), The Painter in his Studio (1843), The Guard Room, the Young Man looking at Drawings, the Game of Piquet (1845), and the Game of Bowls — works which show the finish and certainty of his technique, and assured his success. After his Soldiers (1848) he began A Day in June, which was never finished, and exhibited A Smoker (1849) and Bravos (Les Bravi, 5852). In 1855 he touched the highest mark of his achievement with The Gamblers and The Quarrel (La Rixe), which was presented by Napoleon III, to the English Court. His triumph was sustained at the Salon of 1857, when he exhibited nine pictures, and drawings; among them the Young Man of the Time of the Regency, The Painter, The Shoeing Smith, The Musician, and A Reading at Diderot’s. To the Salon of 1861 he sent The Emperor at Solferino, A Shoeing Smith, A Musician, A Painter, and M. Louis Fould; to that of 1864 another version of The Emperor at Solferino, and 1814. He subsequently exhibited A Gamblers’ Quarrel (1865), and Desaix and the Army of the Rhine (1867). Meissonier worked with elaborate care and a scrupulous observation of nature. Some of his works, as for instance his 1807, remained ten years in course of execution. To the great Exhibition of 5878 he contributed sixteen pictures: the portrait of Alexandre Dumas which had been seen at the Salon of 1877, Cuirassiers of 1805, A Venetian Painter, Moreau and his Staff before Hobenlinden, a Portrait of a Lady the Road to La Salice, The Two Friends, The Outpost of the Grand Guard, A Scout, and Dictating his Memoirs. Thenceforward he exhibited less in the Salons, and sent his work to smaller exhibitions. Being chosen president of the Great National Exhibition in 1883, he was represented there by such works as The Pioneer, The Army of the Rhine, The Arrival of the Guests, and Saint Mark. On the 24th of May 1884 an exhibition was opened at the Petit Gallery of Meissonier’s collected works, including 146 examples. As president of the jury on painting at the Exhibition of 1889 he contributed some new pictures. In the following year the New Salon was formed (the National Society of Fine Arts), and Meissonier was-president. He exhibited there in 1890 his picture 1807; a1so in 1891, shortly after his death, his Barricade was displayed there. A less well-known class of work than his painting is a series of etchings: The Last Supper, The Skill of Vuillaume the Lute Player, The Little Smoker, The Old Smoker, the Preparations for a Duel, Anglers, Troopers,’ The Reporting Sergeant, and Polichinelle, in the Hertford House collection. He also tried lithography, but the prints are now scarcely to be found.
      Of all the painters of the century. Meissonier was one of the most fortunate in the matter of payments. His Cuirassiers, now in the late duc d’Aumale’s collection at Chantilly, was bought from the artist for £101000 sold at Brussels for £11'000, and finally resold for £16'000 Besides his genre portraits, he painted some others: those of Doctor Lefevre, of Chenavard, of Vanderbilt,’ of Doctor Guyon, and of Stanford. He also collaborated with the painter Français in a picture of The Park at St Cloud.
      In 1838 Meissonier married the sister of M. Steinbeil, a painter Meissonier was attached by Napoleon III to the imperial staff, and accompanied him during the campaign in Italy and at the beginning of the war in 1870. During the siege of Paris in 1871 he was colonel of a marching regiment. In 1840 he was awarded a third-class medal, a second-class medal in 1841 first-class medals in 1843 and 1844 and medals of honor at the great exhibitions. In 1846 he was appointed Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur and promoted to the higher grades in 1856, on 29 June 1867, 12 July 1880, and to the Grand Cross (29 Oct 1889), the first artist to receive it. He nevertheless cherished certain ambitions which remained unfulfilled. He hoped to become a professor at the École des Beaux Art, but the appointment he desired was never given to him.
— The students of Meissonier included Édouard Détaille, Daniel Ridgway Knight, Herman Frederik Carel ten Kate, Enrique Mélida y Alinari.

LINKS
Self-Portrait (1889, 600x402pix, 68kb)
Head and Shoulders Self-Portrait (1881, 600x432pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1008pix, 463kb)
Self-Portrait sitting straight (1881, 600x446pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1041pix, 447kb) with sleeping greyhound.
Self-Portrait with headache (1881, 600x727pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1697pix, 739kb)
L'Empereur Napoléon III à la Bataille de Solférino (600x1067pix _ ZOOM to 1400x2489pix, 965kb) _ After its defeat at the Battle of Magenta on 04 June 1859, the Austrian army of about 120'000 men had retreated eastward and Emperor Francis Joseph I had arrived to dismiss General Count Franz von Gyulai and take personal command. The Franco-Piedmontese army, of approximately equal size, under the command of Napoleon III of France and Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia-Piedmont, pursued the Austrians. Neither side had accurate information about the other's troop movements, and on 24 June 1859 they unexpectedly clashed, in and around Solferino, 6 km southeast of Castiglione della Stiviere, in Lombardy, at a time when the French expected to engage only the Austrian rear guard and the Austrians expected to engage only the French advance units. The battle developed in a confused and piecemeal fashion until midday. After extremely costly fighting, the French broke the Austrian center in midafternoon. Smaller actions, including a vigorous delaying action by the Austrian general Ludwig von Benedek, continued until dark, leaving the French and Piedmontese too exhausted to pursue the defeated Austrians. The Austrians lost 14'000 men killed and wounded and more than 8000 missing or prisoners; the Franco-Piedmontese lost 15'000 killed and wounded and more than 2000 missing or prisoners. These heavy casualties contributed to Napoleon III's decision to seek the truce with Austria that effectively ended the second War of Italian Independence. The bloodshed also inspired Henri Dunant to lead the movement to establish the International Red Cross.
Le Portrait du Sergent (1874, 73x62cm; 600x503pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1174pix, 516kb)
1814Le Général Desaix et le Paysan (1867)
La Campagne de France (1861)


1814 (1862, 32x24cm) [shown here >] _ After accompanying the French army in the Austro-Italian War of 1859, Meissonier abandoned the small Dutch 17th-century genre subjects for which he had become known and turned with even greater success to depicting events in the career of Napoléon I. In this small painting commissioned by the subject's nephew, Prince Napoléon, the emperor is portrayed in a forbidding landscape just after his last, hard-won victory in the 1814 French campaign, which was fought at Arcis-sur-Aube, near Troyes: 23'000 French troops withstood the onslaught of 90'000 Austrians, but were unable to capitalize on their victory.

82 images at Bildindex

Died on a 21 February:

^ >1980 Camille Graeser, Swiss painter born on 27 February 1892. After studying under Adolf Hölzel at the academy in Stuttgart, he stayed on in Germany and practiced {he never reached mastery?} both as an interior designer (collaborating on projects with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, for instance at the Weissenhofsiedlung exhibitions in Stuttgart in 1927) and as a painter, influenced initially by Cubo-Futurism. As early as 1922 his work was non-figurative, using geometric forms; by the end of the 1930s he was seeking to justify the use of pictorial elements in his paintings. He left Germany and returned to Switzerland in 1933, and, becoming integrated into the Swiss modern art milieu, he joined the Allianz group in 1937 and participated in all the important events that marked the development of Concrete Art in Zurich. After 1945, he principally studied problems of surface and quantity, which he resolved by the use of a systematic process. The two dimensional surface of a painting is structured by means of a simple horizontal and vertical framework within which squares and rectangles are arranged. These elementary shapes, colored in such a way that their surface cannot be separated from their color, can be shifted by means of rotation, translation or permutation, for example a square taken out of line and teetering at 45°. It was one of Graeser’s most beautifully poetic inventions and is shown in Equivalence on the Horizontals (1958). Problems of quantity were approached from the viewpoint of balance and equality; neither horizontal nor vertical elements were allowed to dominate, creating compositions in equilibrium, with shape and color used in equal quantities. Graeser’s drawings, made throughout his career, use lines and figures drawn with a ruler, set square and pair of compasses to present the same subject-matter as his paintings.
–- Bewegung um ein Exzentrum (898x900pix, 32kb)
–- Elemente in Bewegung (800x792pix, 26kb) _ This rather simple geometrical abstraction in flat colors has been metamorphosed by the pseudonymous K. Momille Graisseux (born on 27 February 1892 + x) into the much more complex and fascinating
      _ Elemental Emotion (2006; 724x1024pix, 149kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 292kb _ ZOOM+ to 1448x2048pix, 855kb) and
      _ Emotioral Element (2006; 724x1024pix, 149kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 292kb _ ZOOM+ to 1448x2048pix, 855kb) —(070220)

1921 Karl Wilhelm Anton Seiler, German painter born (main coverage) on 03 August 1846. —(090220)

1911 Isidro Nonell i Monturiol, Catalan painter born (main coverage) on 30 November 1872. —(090220)

1838 Charles Thévenin, French artist born on 12 July 1764.

1766 José Galván, Spanish artist born on 19 June 1705.

^ 1665 Michel Dorigny, French painter, draftsman, and printmaker, born in 1616 (1617?). Michel Dorigny was one of the principal collaborators with Simon Vouet and probably the best engraver of his works. After Vouet’s death, he became an independent painter of considerable reputation. Had he not died at a relatively young age, he might have rivaled Charles Le Brun as an important history and decorative painter during the reign of Louis XIV. He taught his sons Louis Dorigny [14 Jun 1654 – 29 Nov 1742] and Nicolas Dorigny [bap. 02 Jun 1658 – 01 Dec 1746] to be painters and printmakers. Michel Dorigny served his apprenticeship under Georges Lallemand and from 1638 was associated with Simon Vouet, in the following decade making etchings after about 80 of his works (e.g. ceiling paintings for the chapel of the Hôtel Séguier, Paris). He was also active as a painter and was one of Vouet’s principal collaborators on his altarpieces and decorative schemes (e.g. staircase of the Hôtel Hesselin, Paris) until the death of the Premier Peintre in 1649. The previous year he had married Vouet’s second daughter. Dorigny also made a score of prints of his own, and a series of six Bacchanales indicates the style of the artist at the time of his close association with Vouet. The composition of one of these Bacchanales is repeated in the decoration of the arcading of a room in the Hôtel de Ville at Port-Marly, near Paris. This decorative scheme, originally in the château of Colombes, Hauts-de-Seine, has thus been attributed to Dorigny. It represents The Four Seasons, with a ceiling showing Daybreak and the Dew. Dorigny’s style in these pictures was directly influenced by that of Vouet, but his figures are heavier and more rounded, his coloring livelier, contrasting with earthier flesh tones. A group of paintings illustrating The Story of Diana are also probably by him. Paris guides of the 17th and 18th centuries associate Dorigny’s name with a number of prestigious decorative schemes, including the hôtel of the Abbé de la Rivière, the Hôtel Hesselin and the Hôtel Amelot de Bisseuil, but no traces of these works survive.


Born on a 21 February:


^ 1882 Jean-Théodore Jean Dupas, French Art Deco designer who died in 1964. — LINKS
Femme en Rouge (1927, 104x75cm; 490x355pix, 24kb)
— The Chariot of Aurora (1935 lacquer and metal leaf on plaster relief, 549x793cm) done in collaboration with Jean Dunand [1877-1942] _ detail. (350x504pix, 105kb)

1856 (28 Feb?) Maurycy (or Moritz; Moses) Gottlieb, Polish artist who died on 17 July 1879 — (060209)

1745 Joseph-Laurent Malaine (or Malines, Mallache), French artist who died on 05 May 1809. — {Je ne trouve pas de Malaine dans l'internet, ni de Moncoton, Monlin, Monnylon, Talaine , Toncoton, Tonlin, Tonnylon, Salaine, Soncoton, Sonlin, ou Sonnylon}

1686 Frans Xaver Hendrik Verbeeck, Flemish artist who died on 28 May 1755.

1630 Cornelis Droogsloot (or Droochslott), Dutch artist who died after 1673.

^ 1627 Philips-Ausgustyn Immenraet, Flemish painter who died on 25 September 1679.
The Wolf Hunt (155kb) _ Similar subject by other artists:
      _ Alexandre-François Desportes : The Wolf Hunt
      _ Rubens : Wolf and Fox Hunt (1620)
      _ Jacques-Raymond Brascassat : Dogs attacking a Wolf

^ 1575 (infant baptism) Maarten Pepyn (or Pepijn), Antwerp Flemish painter who died in 1642. His years of apprenticeship are obscure, but in 1600 he became a master in the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke. The following year he married Maria Huybrechts, with whom he had five children. One son became a painter, as did his daughter Katherine Pepyn [bap. 13 Feb 1619 – 12 Nov 1668], who painted portraits of clerics in the style of Rubens and van Dyck. Between 1602 and 1628 Maarten Pepyn took on eight apprentices. His portrait was painted by van Dyck (1632). Cornelis de Bie suggested that Pepyn had traveled to Italy and that Rubens, who viewed him as a rival, was pleased to see him go; this tale (disproved by Michiels, see also Hairs) is unlikely in view of the inequality of talent and because the two men were friends. Two signed and dated altarpieces by Pepyn, the triptych of Saint Elizabeth of Hungary (1623) and the triptych of Saint Augustine (1626), as well as the Crossing of the Red Sea (1626) and Saint Norbert (1637) all reveal an old-fashioned style, with stiff poses reminiscent of 16th-century sculpture. The influence of Ambrosius Francken the elder is marked. A striking feature of Pepyn’s oeuvre is its strong quality of portraiture (e.g. Saint Bernard and the Duke of Aquitaine).


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