ART “4” “2”-DAY 20 February v.10.10
1909: LE MANIFESTE FUTURISTE
|^ Born on 20 February 1844: Mihály
Munkácsy von Lieb, Hungarian Realist painter who died on 01 May 1900.
— Munkácsy was an outstanding Hungarian realist painter of the 19th century. He started to paint during the years he spent in Arad as a joiner. With the help of patrons he studied at the Viennese, Munich and Düsseldorf academies. Munkácsy painted his first major work, the outstanding The Condemned Cell in Düsseldorf in 1872, then together with his friend László Paál, he moved to Paris, where be lived until the end of his life. Munkácsy painted his genres in the style of realism between 1873 and 1875: Midnight Ramblers, Farewell, Churning Woman, Woman Carrying Brushwood, and Pawnshop were the zenith of his career. He married the widow of Baron de Marches in 1874, and his style changed from that time on. Departing from the typical subjects of realism, be produced colorful salon paintings and still-lifes. This was the period when be also turned to landscape painting; his growing interest is marked by such great paintings as Dusty Road. Corn Field, and Walking in the Woods. The assimilation of László Paál's style is apparent in the landscapes painted during the 1880s, such as Avenue and Colpach Park. His realist portraits — e.g. of Franz Liszt and Cardinal Haynald — were also born at about this time, together with his religious paintings, such as Christ before Pilate, Golgotha and later, Ecce homo. Towards the end of his career he painted two monumental works: Hungarian Conquest for the House of Parliament and a fresco entitled Apotheosis of Renaissance, for the ceiling of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna.
— Yawning Apprentice (Ásító inas) (1869)
— Woman Churning (Köpülő asszony) (1873)
— Woman Carrying Faggots (Rőzsehordó nő) (1873)
— The Pawnbroker's Shop (Zálogház) (1874)
— Dusty Road I (Poros út I) (1874)
— László Paál (Paál László portréja) (1877) _ László Paál [30 Jul 1846 – 03 Mar 1879] was a Hungarian painter.
— Portrait of Cardinal Lajos Haynald (Haynald Lajos arcképe) (1884) _ Lajos Haynald [03 Oct 1816 – 04 Jul 1891] was ordained a priest on 15 October 1839, consecrated a bishop on 15 August 1852, appointed archbishop of Kalocsa, Hungary, on 17 May 1867, and made a cardinal on 12 May 1879.
— Ecce Homo (1896)
Born on 20 February 1863: Lucien Pissarro,
French-born English artist who died on 10 July 1944, eldest son of Camille Pissarro [10 Jul 1830 – 13 Nov 1903] and father
of Orovida Pissarro [08 Oct 1893 – 1968]. He was a landscape painter,
engraver, and, during the earlier part of his career, designer and printer
of fine books; an important link between English art and the French Impressionists.
— Lucien Pissaro was born in Paris. Taught by his father, Lucien began his career as a landscape painter, but by the 1880s got interested in woodcuts and wood engravings and in 1884-1890 worked for the printer Manzi. In 1886 he participated in the 8th Impressionist exhibition with 10 paintings and graphic works. He was one of the first to join the Neo-Impressionist movement and exhibited at the first Salon des Indépendants. In 1888 he exhibited with the avant-garde group Les Vingt in Brussels. In 1890 he moved to England and became its citizen in 1916. In Britain he established friendly contacts with the Pre-Raphaelites and plein-air painters. In 1894 he founded the Eragny Press (the name comes from a place near Dieppe), which played a significant role in the development of European book art. In 1896 Lucien Pissarro left the Société des Indépendants, and from 1904 exhibited at the New English Art Club, and later with the Fitzroy Street Group. In 1911 he became a co-founder of the Camden Town Group and in 1919 a co-founder of the Monarro group, which propagated Impressionism in England. The correspondence between Camille and Lucien Pissarro is an important document of the Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist movements.
— Lucien Pissaro was born in Paris. His brothers also became artists. He studied under his father; but was also influenced by Seurat. He exhibited at the last Impressionist Exhibition (1886) and at the Salon des Indépendants (1886–1894). He was commissioned to do woodcut illustrations for La Revue Illustrée in 1886. He visited England 1870 and 1883–1884 and settled in London in 1890, meeting Ricketts and Shannon and contributing woodcuts to The Dial.
Lucien Pissaro moved to Epping in 1893 following his marriage to Esther L. Bensusan, with whom he ran the Eragny Press from 1894 to 1914. They lived at ‘The Brook’, Stamford Brook, from 1902. He exhibited with the N.E.A.C. from 1904 and became a member in 1906. About 1908 he began to attend Sickert's gatherings at Fitzroy Street. He was a founding member of the Camden Town Group in 1911 and of the Monarro Group in 1919. He was naturalized British in 1916 but liked to call himself a ‘Channel painter’. In 1922 he made the first of many visits to the south of France. His works were included in the exhibitions of Three Generations of Pissarro at Miller's, Lewes, 1943, and the O'Hana Gallery 1954. He died at Hewood, Somerset. His Notes on the Eragny Press, and a Letter to J. B. Manson, edited with a biographical and critical supplement by Alan Fern, was privately printed in 1957.
— Snow Scene, East Knoyle Church (1917, 59x70cm, 776x952pix, 75kb _ ZOOM to 2322x2835pix, 8198kb) _ Like his father, Lucien Pissarro was interested in depicting the passing effects of light on the natural world, often painting outdoors to observe the colors and tones of nature at first hand. In this view of East Knoyle, where he lived at the time, he captures the luminous effect of the evening light on the white snowy landscape when even the shadows, painted in a light tone of violet, seem to glow.
— The Church at Gisors (1888, 50x73cm)
— La Maison de la Sourde (1888, 58x72cm)
— Rye from Cadborough, Grey Afternoon (1913) Royal Museum & Art Gallery View across fields with the town of Rye on top of a hill in the background.
— Willows, Fishpond, Dorset (506x666pix, kb) _ In the foreground a hedge terminating in a bush runs from the right-hand bottom corner to the center, where it partially hides a cottage standing beyond a lane which runs across the picture.
— April, Epping (1894, 60x73cm)
— Le brusq (1925, 71x56cm; 553x700pix, 179kb)
— Old Mark's Field, Coldharbour, Surrey (53x65cm)
— Rade de Bormes (1923, 54x66cm; 585x700pix)
— Esther (1893; 600x569pix) the artist's wife, in profile.
|^ Died on 20 (+ or - 5) February 1479: Antonello da Messina, Messina Sicilian
painter born in 1430. He probably introduced oil painting and Flemish
pictorial techniques into mid-15th-century Venetian art. His practice
of building form with color rather than line and shade greatly influenced
the subsequent development of Venetian painting.
Little is known of Antonello's early life, but it is clear that he was trained in Naples, then a cosmopolitan art center, where he studied the work of Provençal and Flemish artists, especially that of Jan van Eyck. His earliest known works, a Crucifixion (1455) and Saint Jerome in His Study (1460), already show Antonello's characteristic combination of Flemish technique and realism with typically Italian modeling of forms and clarity of spatial arrangement.
In 1457 Antonello returned to Messina, where he worked until 1474. The chief works of this period, the polyptych of 1473 and the Annunciation of 1474, are relatively conservative altarpieces commissioned by the church, but the Salvator Mundi (1465), intended for private devotions, is bold and simple, showing a thorough understanding of the human form and the depiction of personality. It was but a short step from the Salvator Mundi to such incisive characterizations of human psychology as seen in Portrait of a Man (1472), a work that presaged the uncanny vitality and meticulous realism of such panels as Portrait of a Condottiere (1475), which established his reputation in northern Italy.
From 1475 to 1476 Antonello was in Venice and possibly Milan. Within a short time of his arrival in Venice, his work attracted so much favourable attention that he was supported by the Venetian state, and local painters enthusiastically adopted his oil technique and compositional style. In Saint Sebastian (1476), his most mature work, Antonello achieved a synthesis of clearly defined space, monumental, sculpture-like form, and luminous color, which was one of the most decisive influences on the evolution of Venetian painting down to the days of Giorgione. In 1476 Antonello was again in Messina, where he completed his final masterpiece, The Virgin Annunciate (1476).
— The Three Angels' Visit to Abraham (600x843pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1968pix, kb)
— San Cassiano Altar (1476; 775x903pix, 94kb)
— Christ at the Column (1479) _ detail (583x409pix, 46kb)
— Virgin of the Annunciation (700x485pix, 60kb)
— Virgin Annunciate (1476, 45x35cm; 931703, 105kb)
— Crucifixion (1475, 42x25cm; 868x498pix, 122kb)
— a different Crucifixion (1475, 52x42cm; 1009x705pix, 135kb)
— The Dead Christ Supported by an Angel (1478 Panel, 74x51cm; 850x568pix, 82kb)
— Saint Sebastian (1477, 171x85,5cm; 1100x552pix, 128kb)
— Saint Jerome in his Study (1460, 46x36cm; 858x646pix, 166kb)
— Portrait of a Man aka Il Condottiere (1475, 35x38cm; 756x672*pix, 65kb)
— Portrait of a Man dressed in black (1474; 1022x696pix, 122kb)
— 64 ZOOMable images at Wikimedia — 44 images at Bildindex
>Born on 20 (26?) February
Daumier, prolific French caricaturist, painter,
and sculptor, who died on 11 (10?) February 1879. He is especially renowned
for his cartoons and drawings satirizing 19th-century French politics and
society. His paintings, though hardly known during his lifetime, helped
introduce techniques of Impressionism into modern art. He was born on 20
(or 26) February 1808.
F#*>/F#*>— In his lifetime he was known chiefly as a political and social satirist, but since his death recognition of his qualities as a painter has grown. In 1830, after learning the still fairly new process of lithography, he began to contribute political cartoons to the anti-government weekly La Caricature. He was an ardent Republican and was sentenced to six months' imprisonment in 1832 for his attacks on Louis-Philippe, whom he represented as `Gargantua swallowing bags of gold extorted from the people' [<<<]. On the suppression of political satire in 1835 he began to work for Charivari and turned to satire of social life, but at the time of the 1848 revolution he returned to political subjects. He is said to have made more than 4000 lithographs, wishing each time that the one he had just made could be his last. In the last years of his life he was almost blind and was saved from destitution by Corot.
Daumier's paintings were probably done for the most part fairly late in his career. Although he was accepted four times by the Salon, he never exhibited his paintings otherwise and they remained practically unknown up to the time of an exhibition held at Durand-Ruel's gallery in 1878, the year of his death. The paintings are in the main a documentation of contemporary life and manners with satirical overtones, although he also did a number featuring Don Quixote as a larger-than-life hero. His technique was remarkably broad and free. As a sculptor he specialized in caricature heads and figures, and these too are in a very spontaneous style. In particular he created the memorable figure of Ratapoil, who embodied the sinister agents of the government of Louis-Philippe. A similar political type in his graphic art was Robert Macaire, who personified the unscrupulous profiteer and swindler. In the directness of his vision and the lack of sentimentality with which he depicts current social life Daumier belongs to the Realist school of which Courbet was the chief representative. As a caricaturist he stands head and shoulders above all others of the 19th-century. He had the gift of expressing the whole character of a man through physiognomy, and the essence of his satire lay in his power to interpret mental folly in terms of physical absurdity. Although he never made a commercial success of his art, he was appreciated by the discriminating and numbered among his friends and admirers Delacroix, Corot, Forain, and Baudelaire. Degas was among the artists who collected his works.
Prolific caricaturist, painter, lithographer and sculptor. Especially renowned for satirical cartoons and drawings of 19th-century French politics and society. His paintings, not widely known during his lifetime, helped introduce the techniques of Impressionism into modern art. The child of artists, received a typical lower middle-class education, but wanted to draw his studies did not interest him. Thus his family placed him with an old and fairly well-known artist, Alexandre Lenoir. Lenoir, student and friend of Jacques-Louis David, was more aesthetician than painter. He had a pronounced taste for Rubens, one of whose works he owned himself. A collector of sculpture, he had preserved the most beautiful medieval and contemporary sculptures from the Revolutionaries, which interested Daumier. At 13 Daumier to seek paid employment when his father suffered a mental breakdown. Honoré Daumier first served as a messenger boy for a bailiff and, through experience, acquired familiarity with the world of law courts He also worked as a bookseller's clerk at the Palais-Royal, one of the busiest spots in Paris. There Daumier saw, from his employer's window, all characters of the Comédie humaine whom he would later discuss with his friend Balzac: not only men and women of fashion, intellectuals, and artists, but also "captains of industry," or swindlers, as they were more often called all of whom lent themselves to caricature. In about 1825-28, Daumier decided to embark on the artistic career of which he had always dreamed. He was a young man of about 18 or 20, from a family of painters, had had an opportunity to admire Rubens, had learned to analyze sculpture, and finally had spent time observing the appearance and behavior of different classes of French society. Unable to earn a living from painting or sculpture, he accepted commissions for lithographs portraits and cartoons of “caricatures de moeurs”.
— Daumier began work as a graphic artist, having learnt lithography techniques in 1830, and been employed on Charivari and La Caricature (1830-35) until the latter's suppression by the government. He was imprisoned in 1832 for his anti-monarchical satire of Louis Philippe as Gargantua and during the course of his life he produced over 4000 lithographs of political and social comment, including large scale works (e.g. Rue Transnonian le 15 Avril 1834).
After 1848, he produced watercolors which continued this vein, parodying the Courts of Justice, and depicting the existence of the poor. He created two memorable characters in Robert Macaire, the corrupt and money obsessed bourgeois, and Ratapoil (skinned rat), the sinister government agent.
He also experimented with oils including several on the theme of Don Quixote, although many of his pictures remained unfinished, producing loosely handled, thickly impasto works of strong chiaroscuro (e.g. Third Class Carriage).
He also produced sculpture which showed the same roughness of handling and concern for social issues (e.g. Ratapoil, bronze, 1851, Buffalo, Albright-Knox Art Gallery; Refugees, bronze relief, 1850, Washington, DC).
Daumier became blind in old age, and was rescued from poverty by Corot, who was one of his many artistic admirers. Degas collected his work which was appreciated by Delacroix and Baudelaire as well as, perhaps not surprisingly, Balzac. He was also greatly admired by the 20th century Expressionists, who applauded both his radical stance and the freedom with which he used materials."
–- Wagon de 3ème Classe (1858, 26x34cm; 4/5 size, 165kb) _ Wagon de 3ème Classe (1865, 65x90cm; 662x931pix, 150kb) _ Honoré Daumier was deeply interested in people, especially the underprivileged. In Third-class Carriage he shows us, with great compassion, a group of people on a train journey. We are especially concerned with one family group, the young mother tenderly holding her small child, the weary grandmother lost in her own thoughts, and the young boy fast asleep. The painting is done with simple power and economy of line. The hands, for example, are reduced to mere outlines but beautifully drawn. The bodies are as solid as clay, their bulk indicated by stressing the essential and avoiding the nonessential. These are not portraits of particular people but of mankind.
–- Pauvres moutons ah! vous avez beau faire Toujours on vous tondra (1830; 226kb) _ #18 of the series Caricatures Politiques.
–- En 1864 au Château La Mission Haut Brion - Grand Premier Crû (color lithograph, 23x24cm; full size, 225kb) bestial-faced wine drinker.
–- La cour du roi Pétaud (colored lithograph 28x54cm; 4/5 size) published in La Caricature, 23 August 1832.
— Le Meunier, son Fils, et l'Âne (600x440pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1027pix)
— Le Fardeau (1853; 600x500pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1167pix) _ aka in another version as La Lavandière (600x384pix _ ZOOM to 1400x896pix)
–- Le Tailleur (1835 lithograph with hand coloring; 2/3 size, 195kb _ .ZOOM to 4/3 size) plate 2 from the series Types Français. _ The text is: Il marche cambré les épaules en porte-manteau et les coudes en dehors. Ses habits, coupés dans le dernier genre, jarent souvent avec ses bottes et son chapeau; il a presque toujours un nom très euphonique, tel que Wahaterkermann ou Pikprunmann.
–- Le Banquier (1835 lithograph with hand coloring; 1025x758pix, 70kb _ .ZOOM to 2050x1517pix, 298kb) plate 6 from the series Types Français. _ The text is: Appelé capacité financičre parce qu'il n'est autre chose qu'un récipient, un coffre exclusivement propre aux finances.
–- Le Perruquier du Faubourg (1836 lithograph with hand coloring; 2/3 size _ .ZOOM to 4/3 size) plate 13 from the series Types Français. _ The text is: Il est causeur, cancannier, mauvaise langue, mais brave homme; il a la main rude et pesante, un rasoir qui manque de fil, et une savonette qui pue les fines herbes.
–- Le Coiffeur (1836 lithograph with hand coloring; 1002x767, 68kb _ .ZOOM to 2003x1454pix, 271kb) plate 12 from the series Types Français. _ The text is: La coiffure est un art qui a son language, ses principes, ses académies et ses savans. Le véritable artiste Coiffeur est Français, Parisien, Languedocien ou Provençal, mais surtout Gascon.
–- Le Charcutier (1836 lithograph with hand coloring; 1071x745pix, 88kb _ .ZOOM to 2142x1490pix, 356kb) plate 18 from the series Types Français. _ The text is: L'action du foie sur le physique du Charcutier détermine une maigreur extrême ou produit un embonpoint excessif; quand au moral,le charcutier,qui s'intitule souvent Chaircuitier,est un peu stationaire , du reste il est Joli garçon (Comme vous voyez) etfait rapidement fortune.
–- Le Rapin (1836 lithograph with hand coloring; 955x756pix, 76kb _ .ZOOM to 1910x1513pix, 301kb) plate 17 from the series Types Français. _ Rapin = apprenti dans un atelier de peinture; par extension et péjoratif: artiste peintre _ The text is: Méprise la foule qui rit de ses cheveux graisseux, de sa barbe sale, de ses ongles bleus, de sa chemise noire, de ses habits décolorés et de ses airs de génie: il méprise Raphaël ou Wateau, suivant la mode parmi les rapins de son temps, il méprise la fortune qu'il ne peut atteindre et l'instruction après laquelle il méprise de courir, il méprise tout et croit quel'univers le regarde..... A trente ans vous le trouverez Professeur de dessin à Brive la Gaillarde. _ The pseudonymous Domiénic Dézonoré claims that the ghost of Daumier told him that the background of this picture was left unfinished, and asked him to complete it, which Dézonoré has done as
_ Rapin Passes by Rapin, Rapin, Rapin, Rapin, the Butler, Rapin, and Rapin (2007; 955x756pix, 84kb _ .ZOOM to 1910x1513pix, 319kb)
–- Le Cuisinier (1836 lithograph with hand coloring; 2/3 size, 226kb _ .ZOOM to 4/3 size) plate 10 from the series Types Français. _ The text is: Le cuisinier est un article d'exportation Française. L'Angleterre particulièrement en fait une prodigieuse consommation. Il est également très goûté à Paris où il est un puissant moyen gouvernemental.
–- L'Écrivain public (1836 lithograph with hand coloring; 2/3 size, 226kb _ .ZOOM to 4/3 size) plate 4 from the series Types Français. _ The text is: L'écrivain public est le confident des femmes de chambre, le poëte des cuisinières, l'interprête amoureux des soldats, et le jurisconsulte des portiers. Son état est le dernier refuge des éducations manquées et forme les invalides de la littérature.
–- Le Goût (lithograph with watercolor additions 19x23cm; full size, 166kb _ .ZOOM to double size) no. 3 of the series Les cinq sens published in La Caricature 18 August 1839. _ The text is what the butler raiding the master's liquor cabinet says to himself: Fichtre! je m'étonne pas si ce gaillard-la a de l'esprit... et il m'appellevieille bête! Donne m'en comme ça tous les matins, animal, et moi aussi j'en aurai de l'esprit !
–- Cortège du Commandant Général des Apothicaires (lithograph with watercolor additions, 32x53cm; ) published in La Caricature of 01 August 1833.
–- Un Joli Calembour (1842 lithograph, 21x25cm; 693x829pix, 70kb) no. 27 from the series Les Baigneurs. _ The text is: — Avez-vous du six, Général ? . . – Attendez donc Baron, je vais vous faire une petite culotte qui ne vous irait pas mal dans ce moment ci! hi!
— Daumier (1808-1879) - Over a hundred prints at the University of Montana Museum of Fine Arts.
— Daumier - Australian National University - View a survey of enlargeable prints which showcase the caricaturist's sharp and satirical pen with respect to situations and facial expressions.
— Daumier - Boston College - View Jeffery Howe's photos of two sculptures, each a bust of a legislator, that show that Daumier's satirical style was not limited to lithographs.
— Daumier - Encyclopedia.com - Read a brief biography.
— Daumier - J. Paul Getty Museum - Profile accompanied by an image of the watercolor called A Criminal Case.
— Daumier - La Caricature, 1832 - View the satirical drawing of King Louis-Philipe for which the Daumier was sentenced to serve six months in prison at Ste-Pelagie. With details.
— Daumier - MSN Encarta - Read the article. Follow selected links to view examples of Daumier's work.
— Daumier - Musée d'Orsay - Profile focuses on Daumier's technique for modeling caricatures in clay. View an image of a bust.
— Daumier - National Gallery of Art - Link to an extensive biography, including a bibliography, as well as images of paintings and numerous drawings.
— Daumier - Norton Simon Museum - Painting Mountebanks Resting and text about Daumier's switch from caricatures to oils.
— Daumier - U. of Michigan SILS Art Image Browser - 16 thumbnail images of lithographs to enlarge for viewing.
— Daumier - UM Missoula, Museum of Fine Arts - Directory for the print collection offers links to more than 100 lithographs.
— Daumier - University of Brighton, UK - Course in narrative art presents the Daumier's perspective on politics, among other societal ills. Includes his captions.
— Daumier - University of California, Berkeley - Press release about an exhibition of 50 lithographs offers a biography and a description of the prints.
— Daumier - WebMuseum - Comments on Daumiers paintings and offers eight of them for viewing.
1909: Le Manifeste Futuriste.
Le Figaro publie le manifeste suivant, composé par l'écrivain Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. Ce manifeste est considéré comme étant le texte fondateur du mouvement futuriste.
1. Nous voulons chanter l'amour du danger, l'habitude de l'énergie et de la témérité.
2. Les éléments essentiels de notre poésie seront le courage, l'audace, et la révolte.
3. La littérature ayant jusqu'ici magnifié l'immobilité pensive, l'extase et le sommeil, nous voulons exalter le mouvement agressif, l'insomnie fiévreuse, le pas gymnastique, le saut périlleux, la gifle et le coup de poing.
4. Nous déclarons que la splendeur du monde s'est enrichie d'une beauté nouvelle: la beauté de la vitesse. Une automobile de course avec son coffre orné de gros tuyaux tels des serpents ŕ l'haleine explosive... une automobile rugissante, qui a l'air de courir sur de la mitraille, est plus belle que la Victoire de Samothrace.
5. Nous voulons chanter l'homme qui tient le volant dont la tige idéale traverse la terre, lancée elle-męme sur le circuit de son orbite... C'est en Italie que nous lançons ce manifeste de violence culbutante et incendiaire, par lequel nous fondons aujourd'hui le Futurisme parce que nous voulons délivrer l'Italie de sa gangrčne d'archéologues, de cicérones et d'antiquaires...
F. T. Marinetti
— MARINETTI LINKS