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ART “4” “2”-DAY  18 February v.10.10
^ Died on 18 February 1683: Nicolaes (or Claes) Pieterzoon Berchem (or Berghem) van Haarlem, Dutch painter born on 01 October 1620.
— Berchem was a painter of pastoral landscapes in the Italianate manner, principally active in Haarlem. He was the son of the still-life painter Pieter Claeszoon Berchem van Haarlem [called Pieter Claesz. in references, as if Claesz was his last name and not, especially with the period after the z which some references maintain, the standard abbreviation for Claeszoon, or son of Claes, which must be short for Nicolaes. Thus this Nicolaes Pieterz. Berchem must be the son of Pieter Claeszoon Berchem, himself the son of grandpa Claes or Nicolaes Berchem]. Pieter's father was his first teacher, but although Nicolaes Pieterz. Berchem tried his hand at most subjects, no still-lifes by him are known. He visited Italy in the 1640s and perhaps again in the 1650s and became, with Jan Both, the most highly regarded exponent of the Italianate landscape. Successful and well rewarded in his lifetime, he had numerous students and his influence on 18th century English and French landscape painters was very considerable, Gainsborough and Watteau being among the artists who particularly admired his work.
— During the course of his long and extremely prolific career Berchem, the son of Pieter Claesz, the outstanding still-life painter, painted biblical, allegorical, and mythological themes, views of harbours, winter scenes, nocturnals, battles, and some genre scenes, as well as the Italianate landscapes for which he is so justly famous, but he apparently never tried his hand at still-life painting.
— Berchem's pictures have a more pronounced pastoral character than Jan Both's or Asselyn's. Shepherds and buxom shepherdesses tending their flocks and herdsmen guarding their cattle receive prominent places in his works. His lively figures are seen in sparkling Italian light among ancient ruins, fording rivers, or set against magnificent panoramic views of vast Italian valleys and mountain ranges. The large scale of his figures often suggests his paintings could be classified as pastoral genre scenes as well as landscapes — the same is true of many of Jan Baptist Weenix's (1621~1663) Italianate paintings. Wisps of white cloud float in Berchem's dazzling blue skies, and bits of vividly colored clothing worn by herders, milkmaids, and travellers brighten the cool greens of his landscapes. His peasants enjoy a life of innocence and happiness among their animals. It is an idyllic dream world which appealed to a public that found Arcadia a refuge from worldly cares and responsibility. The mood of his pictures justifies the claim that Berchem, who died in I683, the year Watteau was born, is one of the precursors of the Rococo. Berchem's success stimulated a number of close followers. Karel Dujardin (1622~1678) was his student. The genre painters Pieter de Hooch (1629~1684) and Jacob Ochtervelt, artists who soon went their own way, also studied with him.
— Nicolaes Berchem, the son of a distinguished still-life painter, Pieter Claesz., was born in Haarlem. The town was a leading centre of landscape painting in the early seventeenth century and among Berchem's teachers was the landscapist Jan van Goyen. Like many Dutch artists, Berchem travelled to Italy immediately after completing his apprenticeship. He was in Rome late in 1642 and remained there for three years. While in Italy, Berchem made many drawings of the landscape of the Roman Campagna, its cattle and peasants. On his return to Haarlem, Berchem quarried this rich material throughout a long and extremely productive career, painting (and etching) hundreds of Italianate pastoral scenes. As is evident from this painting, he interpreted the Italian landscape and the life of its peasants in an idyllic manner, emphasizing its timeless continuity by the inclusion of antique monuments. These buildings cannot be identified, as they are only loosely modelled on actual ruins. Berchem uses a bright, highly-colored palette and applies the paint in short, stabbing brush strokes. In seventeenth-century Holland there was a constant demand for exotic landscapes of this type and Berchem was a highly successful artist. He moved to Amsterdam, which had a larger art market than Haarlem, in about 1677. His work was widely imitated and copied during his lifetime and his paintings enthusiastically sought after in France in the eighteenth century and in England in the nineteenth.

–- Landscape with Muleteer and Herdsman (1655, 46x57cm; half-size) _ you may want to increase the brightness of your screen, as most of the picture is in the deep shadows of a wooded area.
Shepherd at the Well and the Spinning Girl (1652 etching, 26x21cm) _ A shepherd boy is sitting at a well playing his flute. The girl standing beside him holds a spindle, for spinning. The shepherd's dog and some cattle are milling around. This scene is typical of the work of Nicolaes Berchem, who painted and etched hundreds of idyllic landscapes, most of which were inspired by his travels. He spent time in the German border country with Jacob van Ruisdael and possibly visited Italy. Berchem's Italianate landscapes were copied by many other artists. This work was no exception: the shepherd boy also graces an eighteenth-century writing desk, as a decorative wooden inlay.
Three Resting Cows (1657 etching, 18x24cm) _ Three cows are resting with two shepherds in the shade of a tree. A sheep is depicted in the bottom righthand corner, while a goat appears behind the cows. As in many of these Italianate landscapes, the scene is lit by a low, evening sun. In the hazy distance looms the outline of the mountains. Perhaps this was a landscape Nicolaes Berchem had seen in Italy. Even so, the picture was not drawn directly from nature. He borrowed two of the cows from a print made by Paulus Potter in 1643. Potter, who specialized in depicting animals, placed his cows in a typically Dutch landscape, while Berchem preferred a more southerly countryside.
View of the Colosseum in Rome (1683 drawing, 52x62cm) _ The Colosseum in Rome was a popular subject, as the two artists at work in this drawing of the ruins by Nicolaes Berchem demonstrate. Meanwhile, and as they sketch, two women are doing their washing in the foreground and an old shepherd tends his herd of goats. This is the foremost plan of the composition. The two other plans are occupied by the massive ruined arches in the middle distance and the sunlit stands in the background. Berchem signed his drawing 'NcBerchem' in an elegant hand. He began using this signature in 1679.
     The Colosseum was built in the first century AD to present gladiatorial contests and animal fights to crowds of up to 50'000 spectators. After the fall of the Roman Empire the huge amphitheater was used as a fortress and for Christian pageants until in the late Middle Ages it began to be stripped for building materials. The overgrown ruins subsequently became a favorite subject for artists. Over the centuries, the Colosseum has often pictured in paintings, drawings, and photographs. Whether Nicolaes Berchem ever saw the Colosseum is uncertain. He may well have based this impressive drawing on one of the many prints and sketches of Rome's ruins available at the time.
Landscape with Herdsmen Gathering Sticks (1652)
A Moor Presenting a Parrot to a Lady (1665)
A Southern Harbor Scene (1658, 83x104cm)
Italian Landscape at Sunset (1671)
Italian Landscape with Bridge (1656, 44x61cm) _ This mature work of Berchem, influenced by Italian painting, was painted after his second journey to Italy.
Peasants with Cattle by a Ruined Aqueduct (1658, 47x39cm)
Herders watching their cattle at the waterside (51x62cm)
One of the 12 angel musicians18 Feb 1455: mort de Fra Angelico, 55 ans, moine peintre de Madone, un des plus importants du Quattrocento.
      Ce peintre toscan du début de la Renaissance fut surnommé Angelico ("angélique" en français) du nom de l'angélique docteur, saint Dominique, et Beato ("béni" en français) pour la profondeur spirituelle de sa peinture. De son vrai nom Guido di Pietro, l'Angelico est né en Toscane, près de Florence. Il entra dans un couvent de dominicains observants à Fiesole, en 1418. Vers 1425, il devint moine et prit le nom de Fra Giovanni. Il débuta sa carrière comme enlumineur de missels et d'autres ouvrages religieux dans le scriptorium de son couvent. Dès 1418, il collabora au chantier de décoration de Santo Stefano al Ponte. Parmi ses premières œuvres importantes figurent " la Madone de l'étoile " (1433) et " Le Christ en gloire entouré de saints et d'anges " . Parmi d'autres œuvres de cette période, on trouve " le Couronnement de la Vierge " dans lequel on constate un discours plastique sur la notion d'espace et de perspective liée à la hiérarchie ecclésiastique.
      En 1436, les dominicains de Fiesole s'installèrent au couvent Saint-Marc à Florence, qui avait été récemment reconstruit par Michelozzo. L'Angelico, aidé parfois d'assistants, peignit de nombreuses fresques pour le cloître, le chapitre, et une vingtaine de cellules du premier étage. Ce vaste programme iconographique présente la caractéristique d'avoir été pensé de manière globale, et l'on trouve dans certaines fresques des éléments qui répondent ou approfondissent des questions traitées dans d'autres. Son retable pour San Marco (vers 1439) est l'une des premières représentations de la Conversation sacrée : la Vierge est entourée d'anges et de saints qui semblent partager un espace commun. La peinture de l'Angelico est profondément liée aux réflexions théologiques sur l'œuvre de saint Thomas d'Aquin que les dominicains florentins menaient à l'époque sous la houlette de l'évêque Antonin. En 1445, Angelico fut appelé à Rome par le pape Eugène IV pour peindre des fresques sur la chapelle du Saint-Sacrement du Vatican, aujourd'hui détruite. En 1447, avec son élève Bennozo Gozzoli, il peignit des fresques pour la cathédrale d'Orvieto. Ses dernières œuvres importantes sont les fresques de la chapelle " Nicoline " au Vatican, qui représentent des Scènes de la vie d'Étienne et de Laurent (1447-1449), dont l'iconographie provient de la somme hagiographique de Jacques de Voragine (1230 - 13 Jul 1298) [Aurea Legenda: des extraits en latin / complete in English translation: The Golden Legend]. De 1449 à 1452, Angelico fut prieur de son couvent à Fiesole. Il mourut dans un couvent dominicain de Rome.

Fra Angelico was an Italian painter of the early Renaissance who combined the life of a devout friar with that of an accomplished painter. He was called Angelico and Beato because the paintings he did were of calm, religious subjects and because of his extraordinary personal piety. He is also known as Guido di Pietro da Mugello, Fra Giovanni da Fiesole, or Beato Angelico. His students included Alessio Baldovinetti and Benozzo Gozzoli.
In Fiesole
Annunciation by Fra Angelico      Originally named Guido di Pietro, Angelico was born in Vicchio, Tuscany. He entered a Dominican convent in Fiesole in 1418 and about 1425 became a friar using the name Giovanni da Fiesole. Although his teacher is unknown, he apparently began his career as an illuminator of missals and other religious books. He began to paint altarpieces and other panels; among his important early works are the Madonna of the Star (1433) and Christ in Glory Surrounded by Saints and Angels, which depicts more than 250 distinct figures. Among other works of that period are two of the Coronation of the Virgin and The Deposition and The Last Judgment. His mature style is first seen in the Madonna of the Linen Weavers (1433), which features a border with 12 music-making angels. [above, left]
[fresco "The Annunciation,", 1445 >]
Fra AngelicoIn Florence and Rome
      In 1436 the Dominicans of Fiesole moved to the convent of San Marco in Florence, which had recently been rebuilt by Michelozzo. Angelico [< portrait], sometimes aided by assistants, painted many frescoes for the cloister, chapter house, and entrances to the 20 cells on the upper corridors. The most impressive of these are The Crucifixion, Christ as a Pilgrim, and Transfiguration. His altarpiece for San Marco (1439 ?) is one of the first representations of what is known as a Sacred Conversation: the Madonna flanked by angels and saints who seem to share a common space. In 1445 Angelico was summoned to Rome by Pope Eugenius IV to paint frescoes for the now destroyed Chapel of the Sacrament in the Vatican. In 1447, with his student Benozzo Gozzoli, he painted frescoes for the cathedral in Orvieto. His last important works, frescoes for the chapel of Pope Nicholas in the Vatican, are Scenes from the Lives of Saints Stephen and Lawrence (1447-1449), probably painted from his designs by assistants. From 1449 to 1452 Angelico was prior of his convent in Fiesole. He died in the Dominican convent in Rome.
      Angelico combined the influence of the elegantly decorative Gothic style of Gentile da Fabriano with the more realistic style of such Renaissance masters as the painter Masaccio and the sculptors Donatello and Ghiberti, all of whom worked in Florence. Angelico was also aware of the theories of perspective proposed by Leon Battista Alberti. Angelico's representation of devout facial expressions and his use of color to heighten emotion are particularly effective. His skill in creating monumental figures, representing motion, and suggesting deep space through the use of linear perspective, especially in the Roman frescoes, mark him as one of the foremost painters of the Renaissance

Died on a 18 February:

2001Balthasar Klossowski de Rola “Balthus”, French painter born (full coverage) on 29 February 1908. —(100217)

1999 Andreas Bernhard Lyonel Feininger, US photographer born French on 27 December 1906. — LINKS —(060216)

1917 Charles~Émile~Auguste Durand “Carolus~Duran”, French painter born (full coverage) on 04 July 1847. —(070217)

>1794 Josef Adam von Mölk (or Mölckh), Austrian painter of frescoes and altar pieces, born in 1714.
Saint Apolonia and Saint Margaret (1777; 1425x2048pix, 1191kb)
11 images of frescoes at Wikimedia —(100217)

1682 Pierre Dupuis (or Dupuy), French artist born on 03 March 1610.

1564 Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni, Italian painter born (full coverage) on 06 March 1475. —(070217)

Born on a 18 February:

^ 1922 Alexander Mikhailovich Semionov, Russian painter who died in 1984. He graduated from the Tavricheskaya Street Art School in Leningrad in 1940. He has painted landscapes, still-lifes, views of Leningrad and of ancient Russian towns. — Biografiya
65 images at leningradartist small. —(090614)

^ 1885 Henri Laurens, French sculptor who died in 1954. — LINKS

1862 Albert Welti, Swiss painter who died on 07 June 1912. — Born in Zurich, Switzerland. Studied at the Munich Academy and was Böcklin's student. A painter and engraver, he sought to depict dreams and nightmares. He executed a series of etchings based on Wagnerian operas.

1860 Anders Leonard Zorn, Swedish painter who died (full coverage) on 22 August 1920. —(070217)

^ 1857 Max Klinger, German genre and history Symbolist painter, sculptor and engraver who died on 05 July 1920. — {Not to be confused with the character Cpl. Maxwell Klinger, of MASH 4077} — Klinger's art is haracterized by symbol, fantasy, and dreamlike situations,always vivid, frequently morbid. His visionary art has been linked with that of Arnold Böcklin. He had a strong influence on De Chirico. — LINKS
81 prints at FAMSF

1853 Charles William Wyllie, British artist who died on 28 July 1923.

^ 1848 Louis Comfort Tiffany, US Art Nouveau Stained Glass artist who died on 17 January 1933. — LINKS

^ 1844 Willem Maris, Dutch artist specialized in Landscapes, who died on 10 October 1917, brother of landscape painters Jacob Henricus Maris [25 August 1837 – 07 Aug 1899] and Matthijs Maris [17 August 1839 – 22 August 1917] — LINKS — (051009)

^ 1817 Johannes Bosboom, Dutch painter who died on 13 September 1891. — LINKS
Church in the Hague (19x15cm)

^ 1815 Henri (or Hendrik) Leys, Antwerp Belgian painter who died on 26 August 1869. He studied under Ferdinand De Braekeleer and Mathieu Ignace van Brée [1773-1839]. In 1835 he made a stay in Paris, where he met Paul Delaroche and Eugène Delacroix. — Lawrence Alma-Tadema [1836-1912] was a student of Ley from 1852 to 1859.
Portrait of Henri Leys (1835 lithograph, 19x15cm; 800x609pix, 70kb) by — LINKS
The Bird Catcher (1866, 136kb)
The Artist (1850, 35x45cm; 575x729pix, 165kb)

1755 Nicolas-Didier Boguet, French artist who died on 01 April 1839.

^ 1751 Adolf Ulrik Wertmuller, Swedish artist who died on 05 August 1811. — LINKS

1602 Pieter Meulener (or Meulenaer, Molenaer), Dutch artist who died on 27 November 1654. — Relative? of Jan Miense Molenaer [1610-1668]?

Nude Descending a Staircase^ 18 February 1913 French painting Nude Descending a Staircase No.2 (1912) by Marcel Duchamp, causes a scandal at the 1913 Armory Show in New York City.
      A major proponent of Dada, Duchamp was one of the most influential figures of avant-garde 20th-century art.
      Marcel Duchamp [28 Jul 1887 - 02 Oct 1968] was a French painter and theorist, a major proponent of DADA, and one of the most influential figures of avant-garde 20th-century art. After a brief early period in which he was influenced chiefly by Paul Cézanne and Fauve color, Duchamp developed a type of symbolic painting, a dynamic version of facet Cubism, in which the image depicted successive movements of a single body.
      It closely resembled the multiple exposure photography documented in Eadweard Muybridge's book The Horse in Motion (1878). In 1912, Duchamp painted his famous Nude Descending A Staircase, which caused a scandal at the 1913 Armory show in New York City. In the same year he developed, with Francis Picabia and Guillaume Apollinaire, the radical and ironic ideas that independently prefigured the official founding of Dada in 1916 in Zurich.
      In Paris in 1914, Duchamp bought and inscribed a bottle rack, thereby producing his first ready-made, a new art form based on the principle that art does not depend on established rules or on craftsmanship. Duchamp's ready-mades are ordinary objects that are signed and titled, becoming aesthetic, rather than functional, objects simply by this change in context. Dada aimed at departure from the physical aspect of painting and emphases in ideas as the chief means of artistic expression.
      In 1915, Duchamp moved to New York City, where he was befriended by Louise and Walter Arensberg and their circle of artists and poets, which constituted New York Dada. That same year he began his major work, The Large Glass, or The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even (1915-23), a construction of wire and painted foil fitted between plates of transparent glass. In 1918 he completed his last major painting, Tu m', a huge oil and graphite on canvas, a unique combination of real and painted objects and illusionistic and flat space.
      Following his maxim never to repeat himself, Duchamp "stopped" painting (1923) after 20 works and devoted himself largely to the game of chess.
^ Marcel Duchamp, French US Dadaist Surrealist, born in 1887, died in 1968, brother of Raymond Duchamp-Villon, half-brother of Jacques Villon.
— Broke down the boundaries between works of art and everyday objects. Became an American citizen in 1947. His grandfather, his brothers, Jacques Villon, and Raymond Duchamp-Villon, and his sister, Suzanne Duchamp, were all artists. The three brothers agreed ca. 1901 to use different names professionally. Went to Paris in 1903 and studied at the Academie Julian, and did cartoons for the "Courrier FranÁaise" and "Le Rire" between 1905 and 1910. Knew Apollinaire and other artists involved in the Cubist movement. He also met Picabia, who later founded American Dada. In 1913 Duchamp abandoned conventional media and became interested in three-dimensional objects and "ready-mades." He aimed (unsuccessfully as he himself admitted) to take away the mystique of taste and destroy the concept of aesthetic beauty in art. Duchamp's "Nude Descending a Staircase" created a major stir at the Armory Show in 1913. After that time he painted few other pictures. His irreverence for conventional aesthetic standards led him to devise his famous ready-mades and heralded an artistic revolution. Thus when he arrived in America in 1915 he was already notorious. In 1923 Duchamp retired from work as an artist, although he collaborated with Man Ray on some experimental films and continued to organize exhibitions. Duchamp was friendly with the Dadaists, and in the 1930s he helped to organize Surrealist exhibitions. The Pompidou Center in Paris opened with a retrospective of Duchamp's work in 1977.
Un site Duchamp

Marcel naît le 28 Jul 1887 vers 14 heures, d'une mère normande et d'un père notaire.
Commence à peindre, dès 1902, vers 15 ans, des paysages (normands -églises, meules, pivoines, pommiers) à l'ambiance impressionniste puis quelques portraits.
son pèreIl rejoint ses frères à Paris en 1904. Vend des dessins humoristiques au Courrier français et Le Sourire. Il continue à peindre et à assimiler les influences de l'époque.
"1909 et 1910 furent les années de ma découverte de Cézanne, qui n'était reconnu alors que d'une minorité. Ce portrait [de son père] fut exécuté en 1910 et est une illustration typique de mon culte pour Cézanne allié à mon amour filial".
Après avoir épuisé les ressources de la leçon cézanienne, il s'intéresse aux Fauves: Matisse, Derain, Braque, van Dongen.
S'intéresse en même temps au cubisme et à la représentation du mouvement. Oeuvres de plus en plus personnelles, comme Jeune homme triste dans un train ou Moulin à café
moulin "Mon frère avait une cuisine dans sa petite maison de Puteaux et il a eu l'idée de la décorer avec des tableaux des copains. Il a demandé à Gleizes, Metzinger, La Fresnaye, Léger aussi je crois, de lui faire des petits tableaux de la même dimension, comme une sorte de frise. Il s'est également adressé à moi et j'ai exécuté un moulin à café que j'ai fait éclater; la poudre tombe à côté, les engrenages sont en haut et la poignée est vue simultanément à plusieurs points de son circuit avec une flèche pour indiquer le mouvement. Sans le savoir, j'avais ouvert une fenêtre sur quelque chose d'autre.
Cette flèche était une innovation qui me plaisait beaucoup, le côté diagrammatique était intéressant du point de vue esthétique."

descendant Mars 1912: c'est l'incident du Nu descendant un escalier.
Il envoie au Salon des Indépendants sa version aboutie d'un Nu étudié l'année précédente. Ce nu est destiné à être accroché parmi les oeuvres des membres du Groupe de Puteaux, dont font partie Gleizes, Metzinger et deux frères de Marcel, Jacques Villon et Raymond Duchamp-Villon, partisans du cubisme 'raisonnable'.
Malaise pendant l'accrochage, son Nu pose un problème. Ses collègues n'en trouvent pas le sujet conforme à leur cubisme (pas de nu, et encore moins qui descende un escalier). Ses deux frères sont délégués chez Marcel pour lui demander de bien vouloir au moins en changer le titre. Marcel prend mal cette manifestation de rigidité et vient récupérer son tableau, en fiacre.
À partir de ce moment, il s'éloigne des peintres professionnels et se trouve un travail -bibliothécaire à Sainte Geneviève. Il ne renonce pas pour autant à faire l'artiste, mais ça sera désormais selon ses règles à lui.
mariéeDébut juin, il assiste en compagnie d'Appolinaire à l'une des rares et tumultueuses représentations des Impressions d'Afriques de Raymond Roussel, qui suscite l'enthousiasme de ses 25 ans et oriente son travail vers des directions radicalement nouvelles.
"C'est Roussel qui, fondamentalement, fut responsable de mon Verre. Ce furent ses Impressions d'Afriques qui m'indiquèrent dans ses grandes lignes la démarche à adopter. Je pensais qu'en tant que peintre, il valait mieux que je sois influencé par un écrivain que par un autre peintre. Et Roussel me montra le chemin."

Le 21 Jun, il part seul à Munich pour quelques mois, pendant lesquels il prend les premières notes et esquisses de ce qui deviendra son plus ambitieux projet: La mariée mise à nu par ses célibataires, même. Au nombre de ces études figure Mariée (au-dessus) dont le sujet principal, sorte de guèpe mécanique, a été transposé dans le Grand Verre
roue Il multiplie les expériences amusantes comme la reconstitution approximative de l'unité de longueur (3 stoppages étalon) et compose un Erratum musical.
C'est aussi l'année où il a l'heureuse idée de fixer une roue de bicyclette sur un tabouret de cuisine. Il la fait tourner et ça l'amuse.
     Le Nu descendant un escalier est montré à l'Armory Show de New York et fait sensation.

Sa Boîte de 1914, première du genre, fabriquée en 3 exemplaires, rassemble 16 facsimile des premières notes concernant le Grand Verre.
Saisi d'une subite envie d'oeuvre qui ne soit pas d'art, il se rend au rayon quincaillerie du Bazar de l'Hotel de Ville et s'y porte acquéreur d'un porte-bouteille qui devient le premier ready-made exemplaire — avant la lettre. Il lui ajoute un titre, oublié depuis.
Il débarque à New-York le mardi 15 juin. Il y est aussitôt hébergé par Walter et Louise Arensberg, patrons des Arts comme seule l'Amérique en prodigue, éclairés et allumés. Ils resteront ses amis et collectionneurs jusqu'à leur mort, en 1954. C'est chez eux la même année qu'il rencontre Man Ray, qui sera aussi un ami toute sa vie.
Il retient le terme de Ready-Made.
Il achète deux panneaux de verre et commence à travailler sur le Grand Verre

À Bruit secret
Il fait partie, ainsi que Walter Arensberg des membres fondateurs de la Society of Independant Artists, copiée sur le modèle du Salon des Indépendants à Paris.
urinal En mai , il soumet anonymement à l'exposition inaugurale de la Society of Independants artists un urinoir renversé qu'il baptise Fountain et qu'il signe R'Mutt. À l'encontre de la devise de la société "No jury, no prizes", l'objet est jugé obscène et finalement refusé par une partie du comité fondateur, dont Duchamp fait précisément partie. Il démissionne, suivi par Arensberg. Dans la foulée, collabore à la publication de deux dadarevues: Blind Man et Rongwrong. Fountain se fait photographier par Stieglitz avant de disparaître à tout jamais, à l'instar de tous les ready-mades 'originaux'.
il peint son dernier tableau: Tu m'
Avec la sculpture de voyage dans ses bagages, Duchamp s'exile pour quelques mois à Buenos Aires. Il y joue intensivement aux échecs sans perdre de vue le Grand Verre puisqu'il expérimente le procédé d'étamage sur À regarder (l'autre côté du verre) d'un oeil, de près, pendant presque une heure.
lhoo2 De passage à Paris, il laisse à ses amis dadaïstes une reproduction de la Joconde sur laquelle il griffonne moustaches et barbiche et localise anatomiquement sa température par le fameux allographe: L.H.O.O.Q.
Rrose Sélavy, la drag-queen qui pense, commence à sévir: Fresh Widow et Why not sneeze, Rrose Sélavy?
Fréquentes collaborations avec Man Ray. Marcel poursuit sa fascination pour la rotation à travers sa Rotative plaques-verre. Publication de New York Dada dont la couverture arbore le flacon de Belle Haleine, Eau de Voilette.
Duchamp décide l'inachèvement définitif du Grand Verre.
Il s'adonne à la rotation sans retenue: Rotative demi-sphère mais avec martingale: Roulette. Il passe quelques semaines à Monte Carlo fait un dessin de probabilités : Obligation pour la roulette de Monte Carlo.
Il s'intéresse aux échecs de plus en plus sérieusement et devient champion de Haute-Normandie.
Porte Il revient à Paris et loue un petit appartement 11 rue Larrey où il habite et travaille pendant 16 ans. Il y fait notamment aménager par esprit pratique et par un menuisier sa fameuse porte paradoxale, toujours ouverte et fermée: quand on ouvre cette porte pour entrer dans la chambre, elle ferme la salle de bain; quand on l'ouvre pour entrer dans la salle de bain, elle ferme l'entrée de l'atelier.
La même année, le Grand Verre est montré pour la première fois au public lors d'une exposition à Brooklyn. Il est cassé accidentellement pendant le voyage retour.
     Duchamp réalise Anémic Cinéma avec Man Ray.
Il se marie le 07 Jun avec Lydie Sarazin-Levassor.
Il divorce en janvier.
Il se concentre sur les échecs, participe à de nombreux tournois en Europe, co-rédige un traité sur certaines fin de partie en 1929, devient membre de la Fédération Française d'Échecs en 1931 et son délégué à la International Chess Federation jusqu'en 1937. Il remporte le Tournoi de Paris en août 1932, année où est publié à Bruxelles L'opposition et les cases conjuguées sont réconciliées par M. Duchamp et V. Halberstadt, traité sur de rares fins de partie.
Parution aux éditions Rrose Sélavy des premiers exemplaires de la Boîte Verte, qui contients 94 fac-simile des notes et documents accompagnant la lecture du Grand Verre.
Marcel présente ses Rotoreliefs au Concours Lépine.
Devient conseiller artistique auprès de Peggy Guggenheim
Il commence le montage de ses Boîtes-en-valise, Le BoÓte en Valise de ou par Marcel Duchamp ou Rrose SÈlavy (The Box in the Valise of or by Marcel Duchamp or Rrose SÈlavy) no. VII from the deluxe edition (Series A), 1941 - 1942 Leather valise containing miniature replicas, photographs, and color reproductions of the artist's work 41 x 38 x 10.5 cm (éditée à 300 exemplaires (dont 20 De Luxe), sortes de petits musées portatifs qui contiennent une soixantaine de ses oeuvres principales en modèle réduit. Il réalise lui-même les 20 premiers exemplaires qui paraissent en 1941.
12km de filIl revient s'installer aux États-Unis. Il organise avec Breton l'exposition First Papers
of Surrealism à New-York. Pour le soir du vernissage, il tend à travers l'exposition 12 km de fil, obligeant les spectateurs à crapahuter pour accéder aux tableaux. Une douzaine d'enfants ont fait de l'exposition leur terrain de jeu. En cas d'objection, leur réponse est un laisser-passer: "C'est Mr Duchamp qui nous a dit qu'on pouvait jouer ici".
Il rencontre John Cage.
Il exécute un dessin qui devient la première esquisse de son dernier grand travail, qui l'occupera pendant les 20 ans à venir et ne sera révélé qu'après sa mort: Étant donnés: 1- la chute d'eau, 2- le gaz d'éclairage, sorte de deuxième volet, naturaliste et cru, peut-être amer, à la Mariée mise à nu par ses célibataires, même de sa jeunesse.
1950 à 1954
Tristes années, beaucoup des ses meilleurs amis disparaissent: Mary Reynolds en 1950, Katherine Dreier en 1952, Picabia en 1953, Louise puis Walter Arensberg début 1954.
photo Il se remarie, pour la vie, avec Alexina “Teeny” Sattler, à New-York.
Les Musées Nationaux Français acquièrent leur premier Duchamp: Joueurs d'échecs, peinture de 1911.
Il installe au Philadelphian Museum of Art la collection Arensberg qui contient 43 de ses oeuvres. Le Grand Verre, qui appartenait à Katherine Dreier, rejoint définitivement à cette collection.
Il devient citoyen américain.
Marcel Duchamp est admis au Collège de Pataphysique avec le rang de Transcendantal Satrape et l'honneur additionnel de Maître de l'ordre de la Grande Gidouille.
Des artistes américains comme Robert Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns ou Claes Oldenburg re-découvrent Duchamp après la parution de la monographie de Robert Lebel Sur Marcel Duchamp.
Première grande rétrospective de son oeuvre By or of Marcel Duchamp or Rrose Sélavy au Pasadena Art Museum en Californie.
Première grande rétrospective en Europe : The Almost Complete Works of Marcel Duchamp à la Tate Gallery.
Duchamp termine et signe Étant donnés... Seuls sa femme et son exécuteur testamentaire sont au courant.
Une bonne soirée entre amis avec les Man Ray et les Lebel, un peu de lecture (du Alphonse Allais), Teeny entend Marcel rire pendant qu'elle débarasse la table... aux premières heures du deux octobre, Marcel Duchamp s'éteint.
Sur sa tombe au cimetière de Rouen est gravée cette épitaphe: D'abord, c'est toujours les autres qui meurent.

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updated Thursday 18-Feb-2010 6:36 UT
Principal updates:
v.7.10 Sunday 18-Feb-2007 4:11 UT
v.6.10 Saturday 18-Feb-2006 6:17 UT
Sunday 27-Feb-2005 1:05 UT
Sunday 15-Feb-2004 23:21 UT

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