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ART “4” “2”-DAY  16 February v.10.10
^ Died on 16 (20?) February 1699: Jean-Baptiste Monnoyer, Franco-Flemish flower-painter born on 19 July (12 Jan?) 1636.
— At an early age he studied history painting in Antwerp but had arrived in Paris by 1650, when he worked on the decoration of the Hôtel Lambert. He collaborated with Charles Le Brun on decorations for the royal châteaux of Marly (Yvelines) and Meudon (Seine-et-Oise) and the Grand Trianon at Versailles. He was presented to the Académie Royale in 1663 and received (reçu) in 1665. His morceau de réception was the painting now known as Flowers, Fruit and Objets d’Art. Originally entitled A Sphinx on a Pedestal, a Clock, a Carpet, a Globe, Two Vases of Flowers, it displays objects associated with the artist’s trade with a high degree of verisimilitude. Monnoyer sent four still-lifes of flowers to his first Salon in 1673, and it was with this genre that he quickly became associated. He rose to prominence in the Académie and was made Conseiller in 1679.
— Born in Lille, Monnoyer was trained in Antwerp. He had Claude Le Ragois de Bretonvilliers as a teacher. Monnoyer became a member of the Academy in Paris in 1665 and worked for Louis XIV. It is said that he was annoyed because his son Antoine, an inferior flower-painter, was allowed to alter some of his works, and in a fit of pique he went to London about 1685. There he worked for the Duke of Montagu's new (and very French) town house and he remained in London until his death {and afterwards?}. His flower-pieces are rich and splendid, yet painted with the greatest regard for botanical accuracy: they frequently appear in English sale-rooms under his nickname 'Baptiste'. He also published books of engravings of flowers. Many pictures have been wrongly attributed to him, and his oeuvre is difficult to define because of the lack of signed and dated pictures.
— Jean Vauquer was a student of Monnoyer.

Flowers _ Monnoyer was the most successful specialist in flower painting of his period. His flower-pieces are rich and splendid, yet painted with the greatest regard for botanical accuracy.
— other Flowers _ Monnoyer's flower pieces are characterized by his ability to subordinate each flower to a complete ensemble. Each one is perfectly drawn, exactly like those of his Dutch and Flemish contemporaries, but Monnoyer managed to envelop them in deep-toned shadow that emanates from the background. The result is both mysterious and luxuriant.
Still-Life of Flowers and Fruits (1665, 146x190cm) _ Monnoyer was, in his prime in the 1670s, the foremost still-life painter in Europe, but his skill has been much underestimated in recent years, due to the proliferation of incorrect attributions to him. He specialized in flower pieces of the most elaborate design, although in the early part of his career he produced more conventional still-life paintings, such as this one, executed in 1665 and submitted to the Academy at the time of the painter's admission in the same year.
^ Born on 16 February 1787: Andreas Schelfout, Dutch painter and watercolorist who died on 19 Apr 1870.
— He was originally trained as a gilder and frame maker, and from 1811 to 1814 he was apprenticed to the decorative painter Joannes Henricus Albertus Antonius Breckenheijmer [1772–1856]. Schelfhout’s first mature painting, Landscape with Farm and Trees (1817) shows a thorough observation of nature and an interest in the detailed representation of foliage.
      Although Schelfhout was primarily a landscape painter, about 1820 he painted a narrative genre scene, The Courtyard, which was entirely in line with contemporary taste. Colorful staffage of busy fishermen also plays an important role in Beach View Near Scheveningen. The watercolor Royal Drive on the Beach at Scheveningen offers the same kind of lively image. In his later work Schelfhout often left the figure-painting to specialists, collaborating particularly with Joseph Jodocus Moerenhout [1801–1874] (The Falcon Hunt, 1841) and Pieter Gerardus van Os.
     Schelfhout was considered one the best landscape painters of his time. He trained several painters who later would become famous for their landscapes, such as Johan Bartold Jongkind, Jan Hendrik Weissenbruch, and Wijnand Nuyen. In his own work Schelfhout was inspired by the art of the Golden Century, especially by the landscapes of Jacob van Ruisdael [1628-1682] and Meindert Hobbema [1638-1709]. Schelfhout can be considered in a way as the last disciple of the 17th-century landscapists. However, toward the end of Schelfout's life, he began to lose the favor of the critics and of the public.

–- The Country Road (38x49cm; 771x1000pix, 151kb _ ZOOM to 1156x1500pix, 175kb)
–- People in a winter landscape (53x71cm; 542x746pix, 53kb _ ZOOM to 813x1119pix, 55kb)
Winter Loggers (35x31cm; 905x809pix, 163kb)
Winterlandschap (66x86cm) _ This painting is a typical example of the winter scenes which brought international fame to Schelfhout.
Zomerlandschap (1835, 66x89cm) _ In a landscape such as this one, the tiny human figures serve only to set off the vastness of the landscape. On the right there is a man with two donkeys loaded with the harvest from a field in the background. In the distance there are boats and a house. The sky gets most of the attention in this composition. Schelfhout has painted dark clouds which foretell the coming of a summer storm.
^ Died on 16 February 1941: Fritz von Wille, German landscape painter born on 21 April 1860. von Wille— [“Where there's a Wille, there's a Waye?”]
— Fritz von Wille besuchte Zeichenklasse der Düsseldorfer Akademie von 1879-1882, wendete sich danach als „Autodidakt" der Landschaftsmalerei zu; durch seine wohlhabende Frau wirtschaftlich abgesichert, widmete er sich ganz der Landschaftsmalerei; bevorzugte Themen waren Landschaften der Eifel; seine Ausstellungen machten ihn bekannt, und Kaiser Wilhelm II erwarb das Gemälde „Die blaue Blume", das die Weinfelder Kirche inmitten eines Blumenmeers darstellt und zum Lieblingsbild des Kaisers wurde; 1910 erhielt er den Professorentitel; nach mehreren Jahren, die er in Reifferscheid lebt, erwarb er 1911 Burg Kerpen, die er zu seinem Wohnsitz und Atelier ausbaut; nach dem Niedergang des Kaisertums gerät auch Fritz v. Wille in Vergessenheit; seine Bilder wurden wieder gezeigt in der NS-Zeit, da sie dem Kunstideal der Nationalsozialisten entsprachen; 1941 starb der Künstler in seinem Atelier in Düsseldorf. Seine letzte Ruhestätte befindet sich in Burg Kerpen; Gemälde des Künstlers sind zu sehen im Gebäude der Kreisverwaltung Daun, im Eifel-Ardennenmuseum / Bedahaus in Bitburg und im Leopold-Hoesch Museum Düren.
Photo of Wille >>>

Springiersbach im Frühling (441x567pix, 74kb)
Blick vom Reiler Hals auf die Marienburg (464x567pix, 72kb)
Mosenberg (60x80cm; 700x942pix, 51kb)
Tal bei Nideggen in der Eifel (60x80cm; 334x456pix, 32kb) _ Fritz von Wille gilt heute unbestritten als der bedeutendste Eifelmaler. In seinen Bildern hat er die herbe Schönheit der Eifel entdeckt und sie uns in unzähligen Variationen überliefert.
Ginsterblüte am Weinfelder Maar (60x80 cm; 544x738pix, 34kb)
^ Died on 16 February 1823: Pierre-Paul Prud'hon, French Neoclassical painter and draftsman known for his softly modeled, emotionally Romantic style, born on 04 April 1758.
— 1774 Sent to the Dijon Academy by the bishop of Mâcon 1777 Marries 1780 Arrives in Paris 1784 Travels in Italy 1784 Wins the Dijon prix de Rome 1791 First exhibit at the Salon 1801 Receives commissions from Napoleon 1803 Wife dies, he initiates an affair with student Constance Mayer 1808 Made chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur. 1810 Appointed drawing master to the Empress Marie-Louise 1816 Gains membership in the Institute de France. / 26 May 1821 Companion and student Constance Mayer (born in 1775) commits suicide in his studio
— Prud’hon studied under François Devosges III. He is best known for his allegorical paintings and portraits, most of which were done during the turbulent years of the Revolution (1789–1799) and the heroic years of the First Empire (1804–1815). It is paradoxical that, while actively supporting the rigorous social reforms of the Jacobins and seeking approval in Napoleonic circles, Prud’hon should have produced work that generally shows great charm and sentimental appeal; these qualities distinguish his oeuvre from the more austere Neo-classicism of David and his school and place him historically in close relation to an earlier 18th-century European tradition of sensibilité and to the Anacreontic manner that was fashionable with a number of artists working in Italy when he was there.
      His letters from Rome contain statements of admiration for the noble and graceful forms of ancient statuary and for the work of Raphael; but these are balanced by an equal admiration for the handling of expression by Leonardo da Vinci and Anton Raphael Mengs. Later, in Paris, while he analysed physiognomy and gesture in the work of Poussin, he also studied the subtle chiaroscuro in Correggio’s work and the tenebrist practice of Caravaggio and applied these to his mythological and religious works. Prud’hon’s style is thus characterized by a softer, more lyrical form of Neo-classicism and occasionally by a dark and disquieting Romanticism. His independence from his Parisian contemporaries can be attributed partly to his idiosyncratic choice of models for study and partly to influences from patrons and teachers during his formative years.
— The students of Prud'hon included Jean-Baptiste Mallet, Ary Scheffer, Johann Friedrich Waldeck.

Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck with Wife and Children (1802)
Venus Bathing (1814, 27x22cm)
David Johnston
The Empress Josephine
Innocence Preferring Love to Wealth
Count Alexander Osterman-Tolstoy
Andromache and Astyanax
Justice and Divine Vengeance Pursuing Crime
“Je ne me bats point contre un insensé” (1804, 12x8cm) from Julie; ou La Nouvelle Héloise: lettres de deux amants habitants d’une petite ville au pied des Alpes (1761) of Jean-Jacques Rousseau [28 Jun 1712 – 02 Jul 1778].
^ Born on 16 February 1731: Marcello Bacciarelli, in Rome, Italian Polish painter who died on 18 (05?) January 1818 in Warsaw.
— He studied in Rome under Marco Benefial and in 1750 was summoned to the Dresden court of Elector Frederick Augustus II (Augustus III of Poland), where he worked as a draftsman in the picture gallery. In Dresden, Bacciarelli also painted portraits. Along with the entire Saxon court, he spent the years 1756–1764 in Warsaw, working as portrait painter to the aristocracy. At this time he also moved in Polish circles, getting to know the family of the future Polish king, Stanislav II Poniatowski (reg 1764–1795), among others. In 1764–1766 Bacciarelli worked at the imperial court in Vienna. From 1766 he settled permanently in Warsaw, where he was closely associated with Stanislav II and his court and worked as the chief propagator and interpreter of the artistic policy of the monarchy. In 1786 he was admitted into the Polish nobility. He became the King’s principal painter, organizing and maintaining the artistic workshop in the Royal Castle, supervising the decoration of the King’s residence (1776–1785) and coordinating the accumulation and maintenance of the royal collection. In 1786 he was appointed Director-General of the royal buildings. Bacciarelli enjoyed both the confidence and the friendship of the King. In 1787 he made a trip to Italy, where he was elected to membership of several academies. When the King was forced in 1795 to abandon the capital and abdicate the throne, Bacciarelli remained in Warsaw, maintaining overall control of artistic affairs in the city, and after the death of Stanislav II in 1798 he took control of matters relating to the King’s estate and the disposal of the royal collections. In 1816 he became honorary dean and professor at the newly founded faculty of education and fine art at Warsaw University. Bacciarelli regarded Poland as his homeland, and his descendants assumed Polish citizenship.
— W latach 50 tych pracowal w Dreznie na dworze Augusta II. Do Polski przyjechal na stale w 1766, po wczesniejszym pobycie na dworze cesarskim w Wiedniu. Byl nadwornym malarzem Stanislawa Augusta i jego doradca w sprawach sztuki. Malowal obrazy dekorujace wnetrza rezydencji królewskich (Zamek Królewski, Lazienki itp.). Najwiekszy talent wykazal jednak malujac portrety króla i magnaterii (namalowal ich okolo 200). Poczatkowo jego portrety utrzymane byly w tradycji baroku. W okresie pózniejszym, pod wplywem malarzy francuskich, tworzyl w stylu rokoko, a nastepnie neoklasycyzmu.
— Aleksandr Orlovsky and Jonas Rustemas were students of Bacciarelli.

The Academy of Krakow is founded in 1400 by King Wladyslaw Jagiello (1784; 1176x1605pix, 130kb)_ detail(764x808pix, 60kb) _ Drugi w kolejnosci obraz z cyklu przedstawia wydarzenie, które mialo miejsce w 1400 roku. Król Wladyslaw Jagiello w rok po smierci zony Jadwigi, która przekazala swój majatek uczelni, nadaje przywileje Akademii. Bp Piotr Wysz kleczacy przed wladca otrzymuje dokumentna nowo ustanawiajacy Krakowska Szkole Glówna. /powstala z inicjatywy Kazimierza Wielkiego przeszlo 30 lat wczesniej/ W ciemnoniebieskiej todze, stojacy na pierwszym planie rektor Stanislaw ze Skalmierza rozmawia z mezczyzna o wyraznych rysach Stanislawa Augusta Poniatowskiego. Obraz Bacciarellego powstal ok 1784 roku, a wiec duzo ponad 300 lat od wydarzenia przedstawianego. W nietypowy sposób, a zarazem jedyny jaki mógl sobie wyobrazic zdarzenie malarz doby Oswiecenia, artysta przedstawia obok historycznych osób mitologiczne muzy. Wsród nich mozemy rozpoznac dwie damy dworu: Minerwa - Helena Radziwillówna i Urania - Izabella Czartoryska. Za nimi stoja jeszcze Erato - muza poezji z lira oraz Klio - opiekunka historii. Dodanie do sceny historycznej postaci mitologicznych poszerza interpretacje dziela o dodatkowe znaczenia - doskonale rozumiane na salonach XVIII wiecznej Warszawy. Warto przy okazji zwrócic uwage na stroje i fryzury przedstawionych osób - szczególnie muzy wygladaja jak zywcem wziete z dworu króla Stanislawa. Bacciarelli nie musi studiowac historii, nie musi poznawac dawnej sztuki ani sledzic ksztaltowania ubioru... Wywiazuje sie z powierzonego zadania po swojemu - brak archaizacji /bez której nie moze obejsc sie malarz nastepnego stulecia/, wprowadza postacie mitologiczne, twarze przedstawionych naleza zas do znajomych artysty lub króla - nie pochodza ze sredniowiecznych sztychów czy innych dokumentów...

The Liberation of Vienna in 1683 (934x750pix, 78kb) _ Vienna was besieged by the Turks and Jan III Sobieski [17 Aug 1629 – 17 Jun 1796], who was elected King of Poland in May 1674, honored his 01 April 1683 alliance with Austria by coming to its aid with 25'000 soldiers and, as the senior commander, took command of the combined relief force of 75'000, which he led to a brilliant victory at the Kahlenberg (12 Sep 1683), one of the most decisive battles of European history. The painting is an equestrian portrait of Jan III. In Pióro Orla Polskiego wiedenska i strygonska opisujac ekspedycja the poet J. Boczylowic celebrated the king and the victory with these verses:
"Wiec juz do Wiednia, ledwo w bramie stanie,
Az 'Vivat, vivat rex!' - Niemców wolanie,
'To nasz salvator, to pan!' - wykrzykuja,
Ci suknie, ci zas rece mu caluja.
Do kosciola go Szczepana Swietego
Prowadza hurmem tryumfujacego,
'Vivat Rex' - nawet w kosciele wolaja,
Lub Cizszej kaza oni, zagluszaja.
I tam 'Te Deum laudamus' zaczeto,
Gdzie król, zwyciestwa celebrujac swieto,
Padl krzyzem, Bogu za ten cud dziekujac."

Portrait of King Stanislaw August Poniatowski in a Plumed Hat (after 1780).
— Portrait of King Jan Kazimier [1609-1672] _ detail
— Portrait of King Michal Korybut Wisniowiecki [31 Jul 1640 – 10 Nov 1673] _ detail _ The sitter was elected King of Poland in 1669.
^ Died on 16 February 1819: Pierre Henri de Valenciennes, French painter specialized in landscapes, born on 06 December 1750.
— Born in Toulouse, Valenciennes received his early training under Jean-Baptiste Despax, a history painter, and Guillaume-Gabriel Bouton, a miniaturist. He went to Italy in 1769 with his patron, Mathias du Bourg, was in Paris by 1771, and two years later entered the studio of the history painter Gabriel-François Doyen. During this period he began to sketch in the French countryside. Valenciennes returned to Italy in 1777, remaining there until 1784-85, with the exception of travels in Sicily and Switzerland and a visit to Paris in 1781. There Claude-Joseph Vernet [14 Aug 1714 – 03 Dec 1789] gave him instruction in perspective and encouraged his plein-air studies. Essentially, however, the artist appears to be self-taught as a landscape painter. Valenciennes became a member of the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in 1787 and continued to exhibit at the Salons until 1819. From 1796 to 1800 he taught courses in perspective, and in 1799-1800 published his famous treatise, Eléments de perspective pratique à l'usage des artistes, as well as an essay on landscape painting. In 1812 he was appointed Professor of Perspective at the École Des Beaux-Arts and was awarded the Legion d'Honneur in 1815. The École established a Prix de Rome for historical landscape in 1816. Strongly influenced by the classical landscape tradition of Nicolas Poussin and Claude Lorrain, Valenciennes was largely responsible for elevating the status of landscape painting in the late eighteenth century. As a respected teacher and theoretician, he helped form a generation of landscape painters, including Jean-Victor Bertin and Achille-Etna Michallon, who became Corot's masters.

–- Éruption du Vésuve Arrivée le 24 Aug de l'an 79 de J.C. Sous le Règne de Titus (1813, 148x196cm) _ Pierre-Henri de Valenciennes était un fervent partisan du paysage historique : il fut notamment l'un des instigateurs de la création en 1816 d'un Prix de Rome du paysage historique. C'est à ce genre qu'appartient cette toile, où l'artiste représente la mort de Pline l'Ancien, qui, ayant voulu s'approcher de la montagne pour voir l'éruption du Vésuve, fut puni de sa téméraire curiosité, et mourut asphyxié par la fumée. Cherchant avant tout la vraisemblance, Pierre-Henri de Valenciennes visita Pompeï, rendue célèbre par les fouilles alors en cours, et assista même à l'éruption du volcan qui eut lieu le 18 ou 19 Aug 1779, et qu'il décrit en ces termes: “A quelques milles de là, nous avons découvert très distinctement une éruption du Vésuve qui a été des plus fortes dont on puisse se ressouvenir. Ç'a été une explosion qui a porté des pierres à cinquante milles”. Dans cette toile, Pierre-Henri de Valenciennes insiste sur l'impuissance de l'homme face aux déchaînements de la nature, matérialisés par la taille du volcan, qui lance des pierres à une hauteur vertigineuse et déverse des fleuves de lave bouillonnante, et face auquel les personnages paraissent minuscules. Ce tableau marque le retour de Valenciennes au Salon après plusieurs années d'absence. La puissance de la nature déchaînée est ici mise en opposition avec la vulnérabilité humaine, reléguée de façon presque anecdotique dans la partie.
–- A Capriccio of Rome with the the Finish of a Marathon (1788, 81x119cm; 812x1216pix, 347kb _ .ZOOM to 1625x2432pix, 1132kb)
–- Italian Landscape (840x1088pix, 60kb _ .ZOOM to 1260x1632pix, 102kb)
Landscape of Ancient Greece (1786, x 152cm)
^ Died on 16 February 1680: Frans Janszoon Post (or Poost), Dutch landscape painter born in 1612.
— Post was born in Leiden and active mainly in Haarlem. In 1637-1644 he was a member of the Dutch West India Company's voyage of colonization to Brazil and became the first European to paint landscapes in the New World. He observed the unfamiliar flora and fauna with an appropriate freshness, creating scenes of remarkable vividness and charm, and he continued to paint Brazilian landscapes after his return to the Netherlands (indeed he is not known to have painted any other type of picture). Because of his "naive" style, he has been called the Douanier Rousseau of the 17th century, and he was virtually forgotten or regarded as a curiosity until the 20th century. His brother Pieter [1608-1669] was one of the outstanding Dutch architects of the 17th century (the Huis ten Bosch near The Hague is his most famous work) and also occasionally painted.
— One of the first European-trained artists to paint in the Americas, Frans Post accompanied the newly appointed Dutch governor on an expedition to the colony of Brazil from 1637 to 1644. Probably taught by his painter father, who was the brother of architect Pieter Post, Frans used his early training to paint Brazilian landscapes, plants, animals, and natives. Together with Albert Eckhout and other artists and scientists, he recorded various aspects of Brazilian life, capturing the local atmosphere and topography. Post's experiences in South America remained a fundamental influence; for the rest of his career, he produced imaginary Brazilian landscapes. More than thirty paintings by the artist were presented to Louis XIV of France in 1679 and were later used by the Gobelins Tapestry Manufactory as the basis for the popular tapestry series, " Les anciennes Indes”. Towards the end of his life, Post's memories of Brazil began to fade, and his works became increasing decorative.

ZOOM IN on capybara photoRio San Francisco (1635, 60x95cm; 519x800pix, 92kb _ ZOOM to 1037x1600pix, 157kb) in the foreground a young capybara drinking from the river.
Ilha de Itamaracá (1637, 34x42cm; 567x800pix, 68kb _ ZOOM to 1117x1576pix, 115kb) _ see photo of Itamaracá from the air
Brazilian Landscape - Brazilian Landscape _ Post painted only Brazilian landscapes while in Brazil and later in Haarlem.
Hacienda (1652, 45x65cm) _ From 1637 to 1644, Post accompanied the retinue of Prince Johan Maurits of Nassau Siegen to Brazil, where he painted the landscape around Pernambuco and on a number of oceanic islands, as well as genre scenes of local life. This Dutch artist's sensitivity to specific situations, landscape and people make Post's Brazilian paintings an invaluable source of information regarding not only the flora and fauna of the region, but also the dress and customs of the time. On his return, Post settled in Haarlem and, like all his Dutch colleagues, he specialized, concentrating especially on tropical and exotic views. In his paintings, we note that, although he supplies details and specific information about this far-off land, the paintings themselves are nevertheless organized along the lines of conventional Dutch landscape paintings. The gaze of the spectator is drawn from the foreground into the depths of the landscape. This distant view with atmospheric changes and a large proportion of sky, are typical features of Dutch painting. Genre-type figures are also included in the compositional structure of these Brazilian scenes.
The Ox Cart (1638, 61x88cm) _ The Dutch Republic settled overseas territories as colonies, often gained in battle with other seafaring powers. For their apparent truthfulness, Dutch pictures show little of colonial working life, concentrating rather on colonial benefits to trade, art, and science. The most impressive colonial artistic project was the transcription in texts, maps, and pictures of the sites, peoples, fauna, and flora of eastern Brazil, under Dutch control from 1630 to 1654. Scientists trained in medicine, biology, and cartography, and artists, including Frans Post, gathered material for the Historia Naturalis Brasiliae, a large natural and ethnographic study of Brazil, illustrated with 533 woodcuts of exotic discoveries from swordfish to chiefs of indigenous tribes. Frans Post's records of Brazilian rivers, roads, and fields fit well-established schemes of Dutch landscape painting. But for its inclusion of workers of African origin and the exotic tree, his Ox Cart resembles near-contemporary Dutch pictures. Although not intended perniciously, such paintings of Dutch Brazil mark the indigenous scene as Dutch indeed, easily and rightfully accessible to Dutch cultivation.
Le Cheval Rayé from the Les Anciennes Indes _ Detail: Coat of arms in border (Woven at the Gobelins Tapestry Manufactory; after a cartoon by Albert Eckhout and Frans Post, 330x574cm) _ Studies made by two Dutch artists during an exploratory expedition to Brazil from 1637 to 1644 were the inspiration for this tapestry. The newly appointed Dutch governor, Prince Johan Maurits of Nassau, led a group of scientists and artists, including Albert Eckhout and Frans Post, to Brazil, where they studied and painted the unusual plant and animal life of this country. Many of the plants, fish, birds, and other animals woven in this hanging can be traced to life studies made by Eckhout and Post in South America. French artists at the Gobelins manufactory, who designed the cartoon to heighten the tapestry's impression of drama and exoticism, probably introduced other animals, such as the Indian rhinoceros and "striped horse" or zebra.
Landscape near Porto Calvo, with a fig tree in the foreground _ Le paysage semble devoir représenter la forteresse portugaise de Porçao près de Porto Calvo dans l'Alagoas, conquise par les Hollandais en 1637 et visible au fond du tableau. Le prince de Jean-Maurice de Nassau-Siegen [1604-1679], capitaine-général des possessions hollandaises au Brésil de 1636 à 1644, offrit trente-quatre paysages brésiliens à Louis XIV en 1678-1679. Le tableau a peut-être été peint sur place par Frans Post, ou à son retour en Hollande en 1644 à partir de croquis réalisés lors de son dans la région du Pernambouco.
Serinhaem village, Brazil (112x145cm)
A planter's house near the Paraiba River, Brazil _ (104x130cm)

Died on a 16 February:

^ 1990 Keith Haring, of AIDS, US pop painter born on 04 May 1958. — Haring's distinctive cartoonish style of drawing became well-known in New York even before anyone knew the name of the artist. He created a universe of crawling children, barking dogs, and dancing figures that initially populated the subway system, but eventually became an international phenomenon. He did large public murals in Bordeaux and Paris, France, on the Berlin Wall, and in Washington DC. He graduated from Kutztown Area Senior High School in 1976 and spent some time traveling across the US before studying at the Art Center in Pittsburgh. In 1978 he moved to New York to attend the School of Visual Arts, where his original approach was soon apparent in graffiti-inspired symbols expanded into large-scale designs of generative energy. At the height of the Punk Rock movement in the late 1970s he participated in the lively New York club scene, working with such street artists as ‘Samo’ Jean-Michel Basquiat [1960~]. In the summer of 1980 he took up drawing, inventing intricate cartoon-style murals of mutant figures locked in hyper-physical engagement. He was a meteoric star in US art during the 1980s, exhibiting and working on projects throughout the US, Europe, and Asia, and his work became a symbol of the tribal undercurrents that permeate metropolitan life. His accessible imagery stems as much from Islamic and Japanese art as the sign language of contemporary culture. In 1986 Haring opened his own retail outlet, The Pop Shop, in New York and was continuously engaged in projects of an extraordinarily diverse nature, from murals on the Berlin Wall to paintings on hot air balloons, motor cars and decorative accessories. A giant ‘spectacolor’ billboard broadcast his famous Radiant Child image in Times Square, first in 1982. He fell victim to the AIDS epidemic in 1988 and died at the age of 31. — Keith Haring drawing in the New York City subway in 1981LINKS
Untitled-820914 _ two figures fighting merge?
Untitled (1980, 122x161cm) _ spotted dog on a pedestal?
Untitled (for Cy Twombly) (1988, 91x91cm) radiating hand?

^ >1944 Mary Harriet “Mainie” Jellett, Dublin Irish painter born on 20 April 1897.
–- Abstract Composition (1965, 92x71cm; 1124x877pix, 221kb) _ Jellett studied under both Andre Lhote and Albert Gleizes in the early 1920s and their influence is apparent in the combination of bold color and abstract form in this painting. The curved forms are closely related to the Jellett's series of cubist works based on the Mother and Child theme and also demonstrate her knowledge of Gleizes's principle of 'translation' and 'rotation'. During the 1920s, she developed compositions from those with a single element rotated on a single axis to more complex compositions with rotations of seven and eight elements. _ The pseudonymous Ira M. Telleg has transformed this picture into
      _ Abstruse Decomposition aka Rebase Saber (2006; screen filling, 224kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1858kb)
–- a different Abstract Composition (1926, 184x92cm; 79kb) _ Jellett was ten years clear of Ben Nicholson in consistently producing pure abstract compositions. By 1925 her work was on view alongside that of Picasso and Robert Delauney at the Versailles exhibition L'Art d'Aujourd'hui. Jellett's work stood as a beacon of Modernism in Ireland; her example acted both as a powerful spur to young artists such as Gerard Dillon and a persistent thorn to traditionalist critics such as AE. In 1926 she began a long series of lectures on modern art (the first of which was entitled 'Cubism and Subsequent Movements in Painting') which underlined her position as an important modernist figure, not just in Ireland but of international standing.
–- Three Elements (91x71cm; 165kb) _ Jellett painted this in the late 1920s, when her colors had become muted, and the content more detailed and linear than in her abstractions of the first half of the twenties. _ To Telleg this picture was crying out to be transformed into
      _ S.O.S. Romania aka Rebase Saber (2006; screen filling, 181kb _ ZOOM to 1318x1864pix, 645kb)
–- Madonna and Child (1925, 25x11cm; 900x375pix, 60kb) Without the title it would be difficult to guess what this is supposed to represent, if anything. —(070215)

1929 Hugo Muhlig, German artist born on 09 November 1854.

1917 Giulio Rosati, Italian artist born in 1858. — Different? from US painter Giulio Rosati [1853-1897] ?

1915 Alfred-Wierusz Kowalski, Polish painter born on 11 October 1849. From 1868 to 1870 he studied at the Warsaw Drawing Class under Rafal Hadziewicz [1803–1886], Aleksander Kaminski [1823–1886] and Wojciech Gerson. In 1871 Kowalski enrolled at the Akademie in Dresden and in 1872 he went to Prague with his friend, the Czech painter Václav Brozík. In 1873 Kowalski went to Munich, where he studied for one year at the Akademie under Alexander Wagner [1838–1918] and then for a short time at Józef Brandt’s private studio. Kowalski’s success in selling work in Munich persuaded him to settle there. In 1890 he was nominated Honorary Professor at the Akademie. On a visit to Poland about 1897 Kowalski purchased an estate (Mikorzyn) near Konin, where he stayed during subsequent visits, making sketches for use in his paintings.

1904 José Frappa, Spanish artist born on 18 April 1854. . — {Ce qui me frappa le plus à propos de Frappa, c'est que rien ne me frappa.

^ 1771 Giuseppe Marchesi “il Sansone”, Bolognese painter born on 30 July 1699. After initially studying with Aureliano Milani, he entered the studio of Marcantonio Franceschini, whose refined classical style had a decisive influence on his development. His first independent work was the huge Abduction of Helen (1723). During the 1730s he proved himself to be a capable practitioner of large-scale fresco painting with his ambitious decoration of the vaults and cupola of Santa Maria di Galliera, the Oratorian church in Bologna. Franceschini’s influence is particularly evident in Marchesi’s interpretation of Ovidian pastoral myths, where his suave, languorous figures, his comely maidens and scantily clad nymphs represent the transformation of Franceschini’s elegaic classicism into an elegant late Baroque idiom with clear analogies to Rococo. Marchesi was among the more prominent painters in Bologna in the mid-18th century and an active member of Bologna’s Accademia Clementina, which Franceschini had founded. His works must have had a particular appeal to English patrons, as many of them have been discovered in English country-house collections, for example a series of paintings of The Four Seasons that was sold at Agnews, London, on 22 May 1966.
The Stigmata of Saint Francis (544x580pix, 36kb)
Armida si inamora di Rinaldo (220x190cm; 364x310pix, 46kb) _ Fa parte di una serie di tre tempere che sviluppano con la massima concentrazione la sequenza piu' significativa della vicenda tassesca di Rinaldo e Armida. Questa prima raffigura il momento in cui Armida, decisa ad uccidere nel sonno l'eroe cristiano, se ne innamora e, lasciato cadere il pugnale, lo incorona di ghirlande di fiori. Le tempere possono essere riferite con certezza a Giuseppe Marchesi. Resta invece da definire l'originaria collocazione di questi dipinti, che rientrano nel gusto tipico bolognese di sostituire alla pittura parietale ad affresco quella a tempera su tele incassate nel muro. Forse provengono dal bolognese Palazzo Alamandini, dove Marcello Oretti notava tre tempere raffiguranti altrettante Storie del Tasso di mano del Marchesi. L'utilizzazione dei soggetti tasseschi che il Marchesi propone rispecchia la grande voga che la Gerusalemme Liberata continu˜ a riscuotere nel corso del XVII e XVIII secolo. Anche in questo caso gli episodi degli amori di Armida e di Rinaldo, che rappresentano uno dei grandi momenti a carattere erotico che interrompopno il fluire eroico della Gerusalemme, vengono riletti attraverso il gusto enfatico ed esibito, del contemporaneo melodramma. La datazione piu' verosimile dei dipinti in esame, dovrebbe cadere negli anni '50, quando il rimando all'integro classicismo di Franceschini si e' ormai stemperato in un fare pittorico e allentato.

^ 1738 Karel de Moor, Leiden Dutch painter and printmaker born on 25 February 1656. He is considered one of the most important Dutch portrait painters of the late 17th century and the early 18th. He studied in Leiden with Gerrit Dou, Abraham van den Tempel, Frans van Mieris I, and Godfried Schalcken. In 1683 he became a member of the Leiden Guild of Saint Luke, of which he later occupied numerous administrative posts. In 1694, or shortly before, he founded the Leidse Tekenacademie together with Willem van Mieris and Jacob van Toorenvliet [1635–1719] and, with van Mieris, was director until 1736. During his early career de Moor not only was active as a portrait painter but also produced genre and narrative pictures; in these latter he conformed closely to the Leiden ‘Fine’ Painters of the preceding generation. The city governors of Leiden commissioned an overmantel (destroyed by fire in 1929) from him for the Stadhuis. Despite his success as a genre and narrative painter, he gradually devoted more and more of his output to portraiture, for which he acquired a considerable reputation during his lifetime. The influence of his teachers, particularly van den Tempel and Schalcken, can be seen in his portraits, but his best works show considerable originality, as can be seen from the group portrait of the Governors of the Leiden Cloth Hall (1692). De Moor’s reputation extended far beyond the borders of his native country; in 1714 he was knighted by Emperor Charles VI (reg 1711–1740), and Peter the Great of Russia is also believed to have sat to him for a portrait. De Moor also produced a number of engravings and mezzotints (e.g. the Self-portrait, 1690). His students included his son Karel Isaac de Moor [1696–1751], who was also active as a portrait painter.
An Allegorical Portrait of a Young Lady Holding a Medallion (312x252pix plus frame, 74kb) _ with a man sitting next to her, his hand on her shoulder.

Born on a 16 February:

1861 Michal Gorstkin Wywiorski, Polish painter who died in 1926. — {Not to be confused with the relative who not only lacked polish, but was downright obnoxious (the guy wore ski... inside the house!): Michael Worstkin Gywiorski}— He studied at the Munich Academy of Fine Arts under Stanislwaski and was active in Munich, Berlin, and Poland's Poznan Province.
— /S#*>Cossacks Gathering for the Hunt = Kozacy wyruszajacy na polowanie (68x113cm, 450x900pix, 87kb)
Dawn Departure (34 1/2 x 37 1/2 inches; 600x477pix, 43kb) of a fishing boat from the beach.
— (house under snow) (18x30cm; 465x800pix, 192kb) _ detail (517x800pix, 209kb)
— (roses in a vase) (704x486pix, 90kb) with a small porcelain figurine of a pair of lovers.

1852 Théodore Jacques Ralli, Greek artist who died on 02 October 1909.

1841 Jean-Baptiste-Armand Guillaumin, French painter who died (full coverage) on 26 June 1927. — (060205)

1833 Józef Szermentowski, Polish painter who died (full coverage) on 06 September 1876. — (050902)

^ 1822 Herman Frederik Carel ten Kate, The Hague Dutch painter and printmaker who died on 26 March 1891. — {Son of Nine Kate? Father of Eleven Kate? Or was he the tenth child of parents who included the birth order number among the names they gave to each of their children?} — Like his contemporaries David Bles, A. H. Bakker Korff, and Charles Rochussen, he favored historical genre scenes, specializing in military subjects. Between 1837 and 1841 he was a student of Cornelis Kruseman; from 1840 to 1841 he traveled in Belgium, Germany, Italy, and France. In Paris he took advice from Ernest Meissonier, who influenced his work. After his return to The Hague he studied at the municipal academy until 1842.
Tavern Interior (12x15cm; 570x720pix, 63kb)
(Going Fishing?) (812x1296pix plus frame, 393kb)
P. C. Hooft (332x216pix, 94kb gif)

1776 Jean-Lubin Vauzelle, French artist who died in 1837. — {Ne comptez pas trop sur l'Internet, si vous êtes un oiseau, un papillon, un aviateur, ou un ange, faites très attention à Vauzelle.}
La salle d'introduction du musée des Monuments français (1804; 576x700pix, 236kb) _ La salle d'introduction présentait un résumé de l'évolution de la sculpture française. Le premier plan présente un montage caractéristique de Lenoir, associant le tombeau de Diane de Poitiers aux cariatides de la châsse de sainte Geneviève. Le tombeau de Mazarin sculpté par Coysevox apparaît en arrière plan. Les destructions de la Révolution ont été à l'origine de la création du musée des Monuments français. Autodidacte passionné, Alexandre Lenoir [1761-1839] se consacra à la sauvegarde des monuments du passé, des tombeaux (notamment ceux de Saint-Denis et de Sainte-Geneviève) et des sculptures.
     Il a été mandaté par la Constituante en 1791, et rassembla les oeuvres épargnées au couvent des Petits Augustins qui compose aujourd'hui une partie de l'École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts. Alexandre Lenoir dut restituer l'essentiel de ses collections à leurs anciens propriétaires, publics ou privés, sous la Restauration, en 1816. Le reliquat a été rassemblé pour partie en 1824 au Louvre, dans la galerie d'Angoulême sous le terme générique de musée de la sculpture française, et pour partie en 1836 au musée de Versailles
      Viollet-le-Duc suggérera de réunir cet ensemble dans le Palais de Chaillot en 1897, dans les bâtiments rendus vacants après l'Exposition Universelle de 1878. Sa proposition a été acceptée le 04 novembre. Alexandre du Sommerard a été désigné le 20 décembre pour constituer le musée de la sculpture comparée. L'institution a ouvert ses quatre premières salles au public le 28 May 1882, trois autres salles en 1886 et enfin sa bibliothèque et son fonds documentaire en 1889.
      Le Palais du Trocadéro, considérablement modifié sous la direction de l'architecte Jacques Carlu pour l'Exposition Universelle de 1937, est devenu le Palais de Chaillot. Réaménagé dans sa totalité, le musée est devenu celui des Monuments français. Très avant-gardiste en termes de conceptions muséographiques et d'expérimentation intellectuelle, notamment sous l'impulsion de l'archéologue Paul Deschamps, a dû fermer ses portes faute de budget suffisant. La réouverture programmée, pour 1998, semble repoussée à une date très lointaine. — (060215)

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updated Tuesday 16-Feb-2010 4:19 UT
Principal updates:
v.9.10 Monday 16-Feb-2009 3:19 UT
v.7.10 Friday 16-Feb-2007 2:41 UT
v. 6.10 Wednesday 15-Feb-2006 21:48 UT
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