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ART “4” “2”-DAY  13 February v.9.10

^ Died on 13 February 1592: Jacopo (or Giacomo) da Ponte Bassano, Bassano del Grappa Italian painter born in 1515.
— He was apprenticed to his father, Francesco Bassano the Elder [1475-1539], with whom he collaborated on The Nativity (1528). In the first half of the 1530s Jacopo was trained in Venice by Bonifazio de’ Pitati, whose influence, with echoes of Titian, is evident in The Flight into Egypt (1534). He continued to work in the family shop until his father’s death. His paintings from those years were mainly altarpieces for local churches; many show signs of collaboration. He also worked on public commissions, such as the three canvases on biblical subjects (1535–6; Bassano del Grappa, Mus. Civ.) for the Palazzo Communale, Bassano del Grappa, in which the narrative schemes learnt from Bonifazio are combined with a new naturalism. From 1535 he concentrated on fresco painting, executing, for example, the interior and exterior decoration (1536–1537) of Santa Lucia di Tezze, Vicenza, which demonstrates the maturity of his technique.
— He was the most celebrated member of a family of artists who took their name from the small town of Bassano del Grappa, about 65 km from Venice (original name: Jacopo da Ponte, because their workshop was close to the bridge). Apart from a period in the 1530s when he trained with Bonifazio Veronese in Venice, Jacopo worked in Bassano all his life. His father was a village painter and Jacopo always retained something of the peasant artist, even though the influence of, for example, the fashionable etchings of Parmigianino is evident in his work. He treated biblical themes in the manner of rustic genre scenes, using genuine country types and portraying animals with real intereSaint In this way he helped to develop the taste for paintings in which the genre or still-life element assumes greater importance than the ostensible religious subject. From around 1560 his work became vested with a more exaggerated search for novel effects of light, taking on something of the iridescent coloring of Tintoretto. Bassano had four painter sons who continued his style: Francesco Bassano the Younger [11 Jan 1549 – 03 Jul 1592], Gerolamo Bassano [08 Jun 1566 – 08 Nov 1621], Giovanni Battista Bassano [1553-1613], and Leandro Bassano [10 Jun 1557 – 15 Apr 1622] who was also his assistant. Francesco II (who committed suicide by throwing himself out of a window) and Leandro both acquired some distinction and popularity working in Venice.

A Rural Scene (600x560pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1304pix)
The Departure of Abraham for Canaan (600x744pix)
A Venetian Prosecutor (600x456pix)
The Three Magi (1562, 92x118cm; 720x924pix, 171kb)
Madonna and Child between St James the Greater and St John the Baptist (1550, 191x134cm; 800x551, 76kb)
The Way to Calvary (1540, 145x133cm; 600x546pix, 118kb) _ Much of the impact of the composition derives from its dynamic organization along the main diagonals. We 'enter' the scene from the bottom right corner, where Saint Veronica in her Venetian gown strains forward to wipe the sweat and blood off Christ's face; follow the lines of the wooden upright of the cross, Christ's body collapsed under the weight, the tormentor's brutal blows, to the furthest point in the upper left, where the executioner pulls on the rope around Christ's waist, urging him on to Golgotha in the distance. His windblown cloak picks up the red of Veronica's dress. Alternatively, we can scan the picture from upper right, from the mounted officers pointing to and discussing the events below; follow the wooden lance shaft to where John's green cloak, seized by a soldier, seems to flow around the head-dresses and shoulders of the Maries into Veronica's out-thrust veil. The Virgin's dark mantle isolates her as she stands, becalmed in the jostling crowd, wiping the tears from her eyes. However we read the painting, we are inexorably drawn to Christ, crowned with thorns. Although his eyes turn to Veronica, his is the only figure depicted virtually in full face, the Man of Sorrows of devotional imagery.
Supper at Emmaus (1538, 235x250cm; 900x812pix, 162kb)
Garden of Eden (1573, 77x109cm; 814x1175pix, 155kb) _ The Arcadian scene is dominated by the bright sky of early morning above the distant mountains, the lush vegetation, the clearings amidst the woods, verdant bushes, trees, plants, flowers, and farmyard animals: a goat, a rooster, a rabbit, lambs, and many birds above. There is even a peacock in the predominant position, turned toward the future, to the right, which undoubtedly alludes to the immortality of the first human beings before original sin, and a lizard (not a symbol of vanitas as has recently been proposed), lying in the traditional manner, with its head to the east - the sun is rising in that direction above the far-off Monte Grappa in the background. The presence of the human beings appears to be a secondary element, whose emblematic significance is left to our imagination. Nothing concrete, no attribute reveals the identity of this couple half-concealed among the trees and the rolling ground. The man, in a prominent position, bends over the woman, perhaps to receive the fateful requeSaint The delicate poetry of this "genre" - painting, whose evolution was greatly influenced by the works that Jacopo produced in the early 1570 - which is the presumed date of this painting -, was later spread widely by his studio. It is not impossible that his son Francesco may have played a part in the execution of the landscape of this painting, for which Jacopo had made a preparatory drawing in sanguine, now in Berlin, of the two figures.
The Last Supper (1542, 650x1188, 132kb) _ This is one of the masterpieces of 16th-century Italian painting. Instead of the elegant grouping of figures in Leonardo's painting, which inspired it, this dramatic scene features barefoot fishermen at the crucial moment when Christ asks who will betray him, and the light passing through a glass of wine stains the clean tablecloth red. Recent restoration has only now revealed the extraordinary original colors, which had been heavily painted over in the 19th century, when the emerald green and iridescent pinks and oranges were not in fashion.
Saint Valentine Baptizing Saint Lucilla (1575, 1108x750pix, 151kb)
Madonna and Child with Saint John the Baptist (1570, 600x448pix, 73kb)
Noah's Sacrifice (1574, , 634x1050pix, 145kb) _ This work is typical of Bassano's mature painting. He uses the biblical episode of Noah coming out of the ark to paint yet again a huge number of animals. This type of composition, where the subject is obviously only an excuse for painting the countryside and nature, especially animals, was a huge success in the art market of the day. Jacopo Bassano and his sons continued to produce many such scenes.
Saint Jerome (1556, 119x154cm; 720x905pix, 125kb) _ Although he worked mainly in his native Bassano (from where he gets his name), away from the main artistic centers, Jacopo Bassano played an active role in the cultural life of the time. Student of Bonifacio Veronese and follower of Titian, Pordenone, Lorenzo Lotto, and Savoldo, and an admirer of German engravings, he was inspired by Mannerism and by Parmigianino in particular. He developed and refined a style where a polished use of color turns Mannerist preciosity into an extreme realist representation, achieving in his later works a sensibility which prefigures the 17th century. The striking naturalism of Saint Jerome belongs to the beginning of this late period. The saint is portrayed in meditation in the cave which was his refuge and behind which we can glimpse on the right the rain-swept countryside. The livid autumn twilight highlights with realistic truth every vein and wrinkle of the body consumed by a life of privation and picks out the details of the objects on the ground: the hour-glass, the leather-bound volumes, the skull rolled into the shadow. The rare patches of color pulsate with a shimmering brightness in the play of light and shadow on the dark brown of the rock, conveying the everyday truth of the melancholy of the place and the time of day. The expressive freedom of color and effects of light inspired El Greco during his formative years in Venice although the artistic visions of the two painters were very different. In fact, for Bassano effects of color and light are essential to achieve a material reality, while for El Greco they are the fundamental elements of his stunning abstract precepts.
Sheep and Lamb (1560, 604x844pix, 68kb) _ This painting anticipates a new genre in painting, which would become popular in the 17th century.
The Annunciation to the Shepherds (1533, 700x560pix, 122kb)
Saint Roche among the Plague Victims and the Madonna in Glory (1575, 350x210cm; 1139x670pix, 109kb) _ This work introduces a scene from life into an altarpiece, utilizing scenic devices derived from Mannerism but achieving very different results. There is an obvious kinship with Tintoretto, but Bassano has retained his own style in the impasto brushwork, the subtle taste for the picturesque and the peacefully slow movements. The novelty of this painting can be seen by comparing it with the
      _ Madonna with Saints and Members of the Pesaro Family (1526, 478x266 cm) by Titian [1490-1576]. That work is composed similarly, on a diagonal in depth, and is also connected with a given social class, though a different one. In Titian's painting the scene is solemnly ceremonial and is laid at the door of a temple out of which the Virgin has just come. It is clear that the Venetian aristocrats and the Virgin all belong to the same exclusive elite. Here, however, the Virgin is relegated to a respectful distance, like a pendant image. The figures scattered about below, who are entirely absorbed by their own daily life and humble piety, do not notice her.
The Purification of the Temple (502x850pix, 145kb)
–- Three Martyrs (07 Jun 1578, 102x79cm; 900x695pix, 85kb) painted by Jacopo Bassano with the assistance of his son Leandro.
Susanna and the Elders (1571, 85x125cm; 638x953pix, 106kb) _ compare:
 _ by Allori: Susanna and The Elders
 _ by Batoni: Susanna and the Elders
 _ by Cagnacci: Susanna and the Elders

 _ by Lotto: Susanna and the Elders (1517)
 _ by Altdorfer: Susanna in the Bath and the Stoning of the Elders (1526)
 _ by Tintoretto: Susanna and the Elders (1556)
 _ by Badalocchio: Susanna and the Elders (1609)
 _ by Gentileschi: Susanna and the Elders detail (1610)

 _ by Guercino: Susanna and the Elders (1617)
 _ by Reni: Susanna and the Elders (1620)
 _ by Van Dyck: Susanna and the Elders (1622)
 _ by Rembrandt: Susanna and the Elders (1647)
 _ by Ricci: Susanna and the Elders (1713)

^ Born on 13 February 1941: Sigmar Polke, German Capitalist Realist painter.
— Born at Oels, Lower Silesia, he moved with his family in 1953 from East Germany to Willich, near Mönchengladbach, West Germany. After completing an apprenticeship as a painter of stained glass, he began studying in 1961 under Gerhard Hoehme and Karl-Otto Götz at the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf. In 1963 together with Konrad Fischer-Lueg and Gerhard Richter (who was also a student of Götz), Polke launched Capitalist Realism in response to Pop art, exhibiting the first works in this genre in Düsseldorf. In paintings such as Biscuits (1964, 80x75cm) Polke took as his motifs such ordinary food items as chocolate, sausages, or biscuits, isolating them and apparently depriving them of their tactility in order to elevate them to the status of aesthetic signs. At about the same time he began producing a series of sketched faces and stylized mannequin-like figures influenced by the work of Francis Picabia, as in Lovers II (1965, 190x142cm).
     Such Pop-related images, pictured in various combinations and in a number of techniques, became from this time standard elements of Polke's work. They continued to feature, for example, in two series of paintings that he instituted in 1963, Grid Pictures and Fabric Pictures, in both of which he played with codes, disguises and processes by which familiar things were made to seem strange. The Grid Pictures, such as Vase II (1965), were painted with the aid of epidiascopes and slide projections, usually from crude half-toned newspaper photographs; this technical procedure may have been prompted by the example of Andy Warhol's screenprinted paintings based on similar source material. The scattered dots in more complex works such as Crowd (1969, 180×195cm) form a virtually abstract pattern that makes the imagery almost invisible when viewed from near the surface. Graphic alterations help to increase this sense of unfamiliarity, blurring the boundary between the objective reproduction of reality and the subjective production of art.
      A different process was used for the Fabric Pictures. In these Polke used printed fabrics, which in their triviality reveal the tastelessness of everyday life, as background patterns for gestures and motifs drawn from earlier art and especially from mainstream modernism. Irreconcilable images are brought together, as in Dürer Hare (1968, 80×60cm), in which a hare as drawn by Dürer nestles in the decorative pattern on a piece of cloth. {Dürer's Young Hare (1502, 25x23cm) is a painting.}
      In works such as Untitled (Referring to Max Ernst) (1981) he continued to appropriate images and techniques from other artists and found materials.
      Such examinations of accepted opinions about works from the history of art also prompted Polke to produce pictures in which he quoted characteristic features of modern art and commented on them by giving them the appearance of trademarks, as in the exaggerated and crude brushstrokes in Modern Art (1968, 150×125cm).
      In other paintings, such as Left Hand Lines (1968, 155×125cm), Polke introduced another variation of his attack on conventional ideas about individuality and innate creativity by altering the lines of his own palm. As if to escape sole responsibility as the author of his own work, he even presented some pictures as dictated by forces beyond his control, as in Higher Beings Commanded: Paint the Top Right Corner Black (1969, 150×120cm).
      In 1973 Polke initiated a series entitled Original and Forgery, in which he both summarized and extended his concern with questions of evaluation. The series, prompted by the theft in 1973 of a painting by Rembrandt from the Münster Kunstverein, included work in various media: small black and white photographs using the title of the series; large paintings representing, in some cases, stolen works of art; commentary in the form of small collages; rows of mirror fragments and neon tubes; and a text written in collaboration with Achim Duchow, Franz Liszt Likes Coming Round to my House to Watch Television. By such means Polke questioned and re-evaluated concepts of reproduction, copy, imitation and mimicry; authorship and copyright; and the fine line between change and reinterpretation bordering on vandalism.
      From 1970 to 1971 Polke lectured at the Hochschule für Bildende Kunst in Hamburg, and he was made professor there in 1975. After his recovery from a severe illness he traveled widely for a few years, first in Pakistan and Afghanistan and later in Mexico and Australia, where he was confronted by myths and strange images to which he alluded in double-exposed photographs. In the 1980s he concentrated on large gestural paintings such as The Copyist (1982, 260×200cm), in which he worked both with traditional materials and with chemicals, varnishes and mixtures of pigments, solvents and toxins. Streams of varnish wash into each other, accentuated by harsh colors such as orange and bilious green, giving the impression of a veil held over a visionary apparition or hallucination, with images superimposed or showing through. Rusting and other chemical reactions caused by the mixture of such different materials introduce other textures, materials and surfaces, with the artist himself acting not just as the maker of the marks on the canvas but also as a witness to the physical process of formation. The viewer is encouraged to take an active role in dismantling the hidden layers (both literal and metaphorical) of each picture. Polke's love of experiment, of abrupt stylistic changes and of contradiction, irony and mocking distance thus remained essential to his uncategorizable and innovative art.

Hannibal with his Armored Elephants
Heron Painting II
Ich mach das schon Jess
Lingua Tertii Imperii
Magnetic Landscape
Measuring Clothes
This is how you sit correctly (after Goya)
Tischruecken (Seance)
Two Palm Trees
Woman at the Mirror
Children's Games (1988, 300x225cm; 533x700pix, 270kb)
Klassenzimmer (1995 4-color offset photolithograph, 55x75cm; 1339x1528pix, 342kb)
Lager (1982; 1600x1005pix, 178kb)
In der Oper aka Entscheidung der Frage, ob den Schwämmen Bewusstsein zukommt (1973 offset lithograph; 1063x1600pix, 226kb) gray on green.
^ Died on 13 February 1916: Wilhelm Hammershøi, Copenhagen painter born on 15 May 1864. — {was he hammer shy ever since being hit on the head with one?} — He was the brother and teacher of Svend Hammershøi [10 Aug 1873 – 27 Feb 1948].
— Hammershøi attended the Kongelige Akademi for de Skønne Kunster, Copenhagen, under Frederik Vermehren, between 1879 and 1884. He also studied under Frederik Rohde [1816–1886], Vilhelm Kyhn and Peder Severin Krøyer. Hammershøi's style matured early in his life and did not change much during the 30 years of his career.
     Hammershøi’s first work to be exhibited officially was Portrait of a Young Woman: The Artist’s Sister Anna Hammershøi (1885). In this picture the main characteristics of his distinctive manner of painting portraits and interiors are already evident. He concentrated on the sitter’s expression and stance and omitted anything not essential. The black gown makes a fine point of departure for the blank face, which contrasts with the expressive, fidgety hands, showing the artist’s sympathetic insight into the dreamy world of his younger sister. The simple backdrop — a brownish wall and a white door — emphasizes the image of an isolated figure in an empty room. — Brother and teacher of Svend Hammershøi [10 Aug 1873 — 27 Feb 1948].
— Pintor impresionista y naturalista, uno de los más importantes de Dinamarca. Sus raices se pueden encontrar en la Era Dorada de la tradición de la primera mitad del siglo XIX, aunque permanece profundamente original. Solo maneja un número límitado de géneros bien definidos: interiores - casi siempre de su propia casa - sin ninguna presencia humana, excepto a veces por un caracter femenino, generalmente visto desde atrás, vistas arquitectónicas, paisajes y unos pocos retratos. Hombre secreto y solitario, tuvo pocos amigos. Diaghilev y Rainer Maria Rilke eran sus admiradores. Su obra muestra un parecido extraordinario con algunas tendencias figurativas contemporáneas. Su técnica suave, cautivan la atención de quien lo ve por su enigmática y secreta cualidad y el uso de un limitado rango de colores.
— Vilhelm Hammeshøi durante toda su vida se circunscribió a unos cuantos motivos pictóricos: retratos de familiares y amigos cercanos, pinturas de interior de su hogar, edificios monumentales de Copenhague y Londres, y paisajes de Selandia. Los mismos motivos reaparecen una y otra vez. No hay acción en sus cuadros; a éstos los impregna una actitud fundamental y determinada: tras la calma extrema y la inmovilidad, se percibe el acecho de un elemento indefinible y amenazador. Su escala de colores es muy limitada y la domina una variación de tonos grises. Hammershøi fue alumno en la Academia de Arte en Copenhague de 1879 a 1884 y, en 1883, fue además alumno de Krøyer en la Escuela Libre de Estudios para Artistas. A su debut en Charlottenborg en Copenhague, en 1885, había ya encontrado su forma de expresión. Su arte despertó gran admiración, pero también indignación en los círculos más conservadores de la vida artística, siendo rechazados sus trabajos en 1888 y en 1890 por el comité de censura de las exposiciones de la Academia. Ese rechazo fue uno de los motivos por los que, en 1891, y a iniciativa de Johan Rohde, se organizara la Exposición Libre. No fue sino hasta después de 1900 que recibió un reconocimiento oficial. Hammershøi iba frecuentemente de viaje, especialmente a Paris, Londres, Holanda e Italia. No obstante, y a pesar de que se podía identificar rasgos familiares en la pintura internacional de la época entre diferentes artistas, especialmente J.M. Whistler, no es posible encontrar prototipos propiamente dichos para el arte de Hammershøi.
— “Hammershøi is not one of those one need talk about in a rush. His work is long and slow and at whatever moment one turns to it, it will always offer ample reason to talk about the most crucial and fundamental things in art.” (Rainer Maria Rilke, 1905) In his own lifetime he was one of the most celebrated artists in Europe. Thereafter his work descended almost fully into oblivion outside his home country, Denmark. Many of Hammershøi’s paintings are interior views of his own apartment in Copenhagen. Resembling a non-stop inner monologue he portrays in a few muted tones and with decisive geometrical stringency his sparsely-furnished apartment. His doors spit insults, the floorboards remain silent. It’s almost as if painting had departed, leaving the world behind it as an interior.
     Hammershøi’s paintings also include deserted city views and landscapes, as well as enigmatic nudes and portrait paintings. While Hammershøi’s oeuvre speaks entirely for itself, it nonetheless contains visible references to turn-of-the-century Symbolist art movements that reach far beyond Scandinavia. Accordingly Hammershøi can best be appreciated in the context of contemporaries such as Ferdinand Hodler, Fernand Khnopff, Edgar Degas, Emil Nolde, and Félix Valotton. Among them Hammershøi is a major protagonist of the Symbolist movement. Only in the last few years has Vilhelm Hammershøi’s fascinating oeuvre regained international attention.
— Hammershøi modtog tegneundervisning tidligt og hans talent blev dyrket af familien, særligt af moderen, fra otteårsalderen. Som ung blev han optaget på Kunstakademiet, hvor han bl.a. studerede hos Vermehren , for derefter at studere ved Kunstnernes Frie Studieskoler, der på daværende tidspunkt var under P.S. Krøyers ledelse. Han debuterede i 1885 ved Charlottenborgs Forårsudstilling med værket Ung Pige, der var et portræt af hans søster Anna Hammershøi. Maleriet blev ikke særlig godt modtaget, til mange af de yngre kunstneres store fortrydelse. Hans talent skaffede ham allerede i hans levetid en plads i verdenskunsten, bl.a. hos den berømte tyske digter og forfatter Rainer Maria Rilke, der formulerede to berømte og meget rammende sætninger om Hammershøis kunst: at han måtte gense hans værk for at høre ham "tale og tie" og at Hammershøis værk var "langt og langsomt". Hammershøis særegne stil er gennemgående i hele hans öuvre, en stil der ikke ændrede sig synderligt over årene. Han havde allerede i portrættet af søsteren Anna indfanget sit eget talent, og hans udvikling rent stilmæssigt må siges kun at bestå af små forskydninger, ikke radikale brud.
      Hammershøis æstetiske valørmaleri er renset, både set med datidens og nutidens øjne, hvor tiden og stedet er indhyllet i en drømmende, ofte melankolsk og næsten kvælende, metafysisk stemning. Hans værk er kontemplativt, tænkende, og beskriver ikke farten i det gryende moderne liv. Hans omdrejningspunkt blev de lukkede rum, åbne og lukkede døre og figurer der ikke sjældent vender ryggen til beskueren. Motivkredsen omfatter hjemmet, moderen, søsteren, hustruen, de københavnske huse og pladser og rolige billeder af naturen. Hans værker er aldrig anekdotisk fortællende og referencer til tidlig hollandsk kunst og den danske nationalromantik findes kun stilistisk set; indholdet er et ganske andet. Selvom Hammershøi stilmæssigt ikke ligger så langt fra genremaleriets idealer, var han indholdsmæssigt langt tættere på de nye strømninger der kom til at præge 1890'erne og begyndelsen af det nye århundrede. Han var med i kredsen der startede Den frie Udstillingsbygning, en nær ven af J.F. Willumsen og i kontakt med mange af de kunstnere og forfattere der kaldte sig (og senere har fået betegnelsen) symbolister.

Hvile (1905; 700x631pix, 172kb) almost monochrome
Sunlit Room (1905; 600x472pix)
(Girl Embroidering?) (882x833pix, 53kb)
Warning: the following links are to images that are small; and some of them are of inferior quality.
Self Portrait
The painter and his wife (1898; 544x654pix, 16kb)
The painter's sister (1885)
InWeiße Türen/Offene Türen (1904)
Interieur 1904 (part of a dining room)
Gentofter See (1903)
Fredriksborg Castle (1894)
Interior (1906?? =1899 !)
The British Museum (1905)
Specks of Dust in the Sun's Rays (1900)
Ida Isted (1890)
Amalienborg Square (1896)
The Music Room (1907)
Nude (1909)
The four rooms (1914)
Interior (1899, 64x58cm) _ As in this case, the interiors by the Danish artist Hammershøi are usually of his own house in Copenhagen. Several others also include a figure seen from behind, but many are of the empty rooms. He travelled and exhibited in Europe, and was well known in London early in this century. He had lived here in 1896-1897, partly in the hope of meeting Whistler, whom he admired. — In December 1898 Hammershøi moved into the old merchant house at Strandgade 30, Copenhagen, built in 1636. This painting portrays one of its rooms, and the model is his wife Ida, whom he married in 1891. The table was originally larger and filled most of the foreground, and the figure was added at the end. Pencil underdrawing is visible through the paint layer. The artist painted the interior of this house more than sixty times, sometimes portraying empty rooms, sometimes including the figure of his wife in a long black dress. She is either viewed in profile or from the back, often reading a letter or a book. In all the interiors a sense of stillness prevails, and they show the influence of 17th-century Dutch painting, particularly that of Jan Vermeer.
Interiør, Strandgarde 30, med ung kvinde set fra ryggen (1904) _ The symbolism from about 1900 can be seen in works of L.A.Ring, Vilhelm Hammershøi, Ejnar Nielsen and J.F. Willumsen etc. An example is this Hammerhøi picture of a woman standing with her back turned at the observer. The secrecy of the figure, the big empty wall spaces , the asceticism of the architectonic style and the colors gives the picture an evocative character that suggest a number of symbolical meanings surpassing the mere perception of the painting.
Study (Baker shop) (1888, 113x91cm) _ This is Hammershøi's first study in full size. It is characterized by a strict, horizontal composition. In the foreground is the shop counter, in the background the shelves. The room is dark, with a soft light coming in from the left. Behind the counter, separated from the spectator, is a young girl with her back turned. The bread and cakes in the shop are hardly visible, and it is obvious that the composition, not the situation, was what interested Hammershøi. He doesn't paint a girl working, but a soft shape contrasting with the straight lines of the rest of the room. The beauty of the lines and shapes is the real theme of the image.

Died on a 13 February:

^ 1821 Jean-Jacques Lagrenée “le jeune”, Parisian painter, designer, and engraver, born on 18 September 1739. He was a student of his brother Louis Lagrenée “l 'aîné” [21 Jan 1724 – 19 Jun 1805], with whom he went to Russia, where he stayed from 1760 to 1762. Although in 1760 he had only obtained second place in the Prix de Rome competition, he received permission to stay at the Académie de France in Rome, where he spent the years 1763 to 1768. In Rome he discovered the works of antiquity and followed the example of Giovanni Battista Piranesi [1720-1778] in drawing and engraving antique sculpture. He also painted a ceiling in the Palazzo Senatorio ‘in the arabesque taste’ (since destroyed). He was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1769. He exhibited regularly at the Salon between 1771 and 1804 and he was as prolific as his brother. LINKS
–- Helen Recognizing Telemachus, Son of Odysseus(1795; 575x771pix, 53kb _ .ZOOM to 951x1541pix, 104kb)

1788 Jean-Germain Drouais, French painter who died (full coverage) on 25 November 1763. —(090211)

Born on a 13 February:

^ 1921 Wou-Ki Zao (or Chao Wu-chi; Zhao Wuji), Chinese French painter, draftsman, and printmaker. He studied at Hangzhou National Academy of Art, Zhejiang Province, from 1935 to 1941 and taught there from 1941 to 1947. The teaching was partly in the old Chinese tradition and techniques and partly in academic Western styles; his early works included small landscapes in the Chinese manner, but he was more attracted by the works of Matisse and Picasso, which he knew only from reproductions. In 1948 he settled in Paris, where he attended the Académie de la Grande Chaumière, and soon began to meet many other artists, including Henri Michaux, Alberto Giacometti, Joan Miró and Maria Elena Vieira da Silva. His works of 1949 to 1955, such as Piazza (1950), owed much to the example of Paul Klee, with spidery imagery of figures, ships, mountains and buildings combined with misty, almost monochromatic color. As early as 1954, however, in much larger paintings such as Riven Mountain (1956, 130x195cm), he developed a fusion of traditional Chinese landscape painting and Western lyrical abstraction. Instead of legible images, his pictures, done with calligraphic brushstrokes or a palette-knife and washes of color, suggest a state of flux and evoke impressions of mysterious landscapes, space, clouds, fire and water, light and darkness, calm and tumult.
Composition 1
Composition 10
Composition 185
Composition 2
Composition 255
Composition 262
Composition 273
Composition 274
Composition 275
Composition 278
Composition 281
Composition 283
Composition 3
Composition 353
Composition 359
Composition 360
Composition 376
Composition 378
Composition 379
Composition 396
Composition 398-1
Composition 398-3
Composition 399
Composition 4
Composition 400
Composition 401-4701472
Composition 401-4703650
Composition 5
Composition 6
Composition 8
untitled? cover of the book Zao Wou-Ki —(080212)

^ 1904 Karl Beutler, German painter. Wurde in Scherzingen TG geboren. Schon früh zeigte sich ein Hang zum Malen und Zeichnen bei ihm. Seine Eltern bestanden aber darauf, dass er eine Malerlehre machen soll, um eine gute Grundlage für die Zukunft zu haben. In Frauenfeld absolvierte er die Lehre von 1921 - 1924 und lernte dort den Kunstmaler Peter Eilers aus München kennen. Diese Begegnung war grundlegend für die Zukunft. Da reifte der Entschluss, Kunstmaler zu werden. Es folgten Aufenthalte in Brüssel (1924-1925), dann weiter in Genf an der "Ecole des Beaux Arts" (1927-1928). In dieser Zeit lernte er Bruno Hesse, ein Sohn von Hermann Hesse kennen, durch welche Freundschaft er bei Cuno Amiet auf der Oschwand eingeführt wurde. In der Folge besuchte er oft die Oschwand, da ihn die Werke von Cuno Amiet sehr beeindruckten. So lange Amiet lebte, blieb er immer mit ihm in Kontakt und erlebte sehr inhaltsreiche Stunden auf der Oschwand. Er lernte dort auch viele Maler kennen.
     Von 1928 - 1935 ist er in Paris gewesen, in der Académie Julian als Schüler von Paul Albert Laurens, Académie Ranson und Académie Grande Chaumiére. In diese Zeit fiel auch die Gründung eines eigenen Ateliers im "Spycher" in Scherzingen.
     1935 verheiratete er sich und kam dadurch auf die Vögelinsegg, wo seine Frau das bekannte Kurhaus führte. Das brachte neue Möglichkeiten und Verbindungen mit Künstlern im In- und Ausland. Reisen in den Tessin, Italien und später nach Mallorca brachten Anregungen und Licht in seine Palette. Von der südlichen Landschaft war er stets begeistert, aber seine Leidenschaft sind immer die Blumen. In letzter Zeit namentlich auch die Sonnenblumen. Mit seinen Maler-Kollegen Josef Büsser und Willy Thaler erlebte er in Venedig eine glückliche Zeit.
Maler an der Arbeit, Selbstbildnis (1938, 97x57cm; 1308x800pix, 138kb)
Frau in gelber Schürze (1945, 38x46cm)
Die Blonde (1942, 55x46cm)
Aussicht vom Spycher (1946, 50x61cm)
Mosti Scherzingen (1947, 46x38cm)
Scherzingen (1949, 38x46cm)
Ferien im Tessin (1945, 46x38cm)
Verschneites Dorf (1963, 50x65cm)
Landschaft mit Baum (1963, 38x46cm)
Münsterlingen 01 (1964, 50x61cm)

1892 Grant DeVolson Wood, US painter who died (full coverage) on 12 February 1942.

^ 1889 Georg Schrimpf, German painter and graphic artist who died on 19 April 1938. — {He must've hated it as a kid if they called him “a little Shrimp”} — He was self-taught; a legacy allowed him to travel widely through Europe and to devote himself to painting. From 1909 he was in Munich where he developed a decorative Expressionist style. His first designs were published in Franz Pfemfert’s politically motivated arts periodical Die Aktion. During World War I Schrimpf was in Berlin, where he was encouraged by Herwarth Walden. He continued to work in an Expressionist style comparable to that of Heinrich Campendonk, providing designs for influential periodicals such as Walden’s Der Sturm, Der Anbruch and Kunstblatt. He married the German painter Maria Uhden [1892–1918] in 1916, and her premature death in childbirth was to have a striking effect on his subsequent artistic work, which was more lyrical and precise, and which most often featured young women, for example Young Girl Seated (1923) and Girl by a Window (1937). He participated in the brief period of Communist government in Munich (1919), but his encounter with the Italian primitives and the artists associated with Pittura Metafisica on a trip to Italy in 1922 confirmed a tendency towards a timeless, poetical realism that places his post-war work firmly within the more romantic trends of the Neue Sachlichkeit. He taught at the Staatliche Kunstschule in Munich from 1926, and in 1933 was appointed a professor at the Staatliche Westenriede-Gewerbeschule in Berlin-Schönberg by its National Socialist director, the German painter Alexander Kanoldt [1881–1939]. He received official commissions from the Third Reich until shortly before his death. Despite this his work was also included in the notorious exhibition Entartete Kunst which the Nazis opened in Munich on 19 July 1937 to stigmatize what they called “degenerate art”, where Schrimpf found himself in the company of such artists as George Grosz [26 Jul 1893 – 06 Jul 1959], Ernst Ludwig Kirchner [1880-1938], Max Ernst [1891-1976], Karl Schmidt-Rottluff [1884-1976], Max Pechstein [1881-1955], Paul Klee [1879-1940], Otto Griebel [1895-1972], Ernst Barlach [1870-1938], and other Expressionists, Impressionists, Dadaists, Neo-Objectivists, Surrealists, Cubists, and Fauves.

1869 Hugo Ungewitter, German artist who died possibly in 1944.

^ 1847 Victor-Gabriel Gilbert, French artist who died in 1935. — LINKS
Le Marchand de chansons (1903)

1793 Henry Bryan Ziegler, British artist who died on 15 August 1874.

1792 Lucie-Marie Mandix Ingemann, Danish artist who died on 15 January 1868.

1791 Sil'vestr Feodosievich Shchedrin, Russian painter who died (full coverage) on 08 November 1830. —(051107)

1785 Johann Baptist Pflug von Biberach, German artist who died on 30 May 1855.

^ 1755 Philibert-Louis Debucourt, French painter and printmaker who died on 22 September 1832. Debucourt was trained as a painter at the French Academy and exhibited pictures at its official Salon throughout his career. In the 1780s he began experimenting with color intaglio prints that reproduced his own compositions representing the elegant lives of the French nobility in the years before the Revolution. Most of the prints he made later were reproductions after the designs of other artists.— LINKS
–- La Promenade Publique (1792, 47x65cm; 1158x2030pix, 363kb) _ The Public Promenade was inspired by Vauxhall Gardens, a print made in London in 1785 by Thomas Rowlandson, which was an instant success on both sides of the channel. Partly society fashion plate and partly gossipy caricature, that large color aquatint depicted the celebrities and the upper crust of cosmopolitan London parading themselves at the city's most famous night spot. By the time Debucourt produced this, his own French version, seven years later, he had become interested in new printmaking techniques that simulate the look of watercolor paintings. His achievement here is the last and perhaps the greatest French color print of the eighteenth century. Engaging in its satire, the print is also provocative in foreshadowing the massacres of the French nobility in September 1792.
–- very different La Promenade Publique (633x887pix, 121kb) painting. —(070212)

1721 Jean Huber, Swiss silhouettist, painter, draftsman and printmaker, born on 21 August 1786. His paternal ancestors were patrician Genevese merchant bankers. As a young man he soldiered at Kassel in Germany and in Italy, where he fought for Savoy in the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748). In 1752 he was elected to Geneva’s Council of Two Hundred and served his native city as a magistrate. He had no formal artistic training, but from his youth he clipped out of paper or cards freehand profiles of a kind that later came to be called silhouettes. He also devised what he called tableaux en découpures, cut in vellum or parchment on the scale of large reproductive prints; these represented antique subjects, landscapes, and genre scenes, such as The Poultry Yard. He was the father of Jean-Daniel Huber [09 Oct 1754 – 31 Dec 1845]. — (060120)

1682 (12 Dec?) Giovanni Battista Piazzeta, Venitian painter and drafstman who died on 28 April 1754, son of Giacomo Piazzeta. Most of G. B. Piazzetta's works are of religious subjects, yet he also painted genre scenes and occasional portraits; especially famous are his portrait heads in black-and-white chalk. His somber art, dependent on chiaroscuro and on a limited, almost monochromatic palette, is intense in feeling and deeply realistic, in contrast to the virtuoso performances and brilliant high-keyed palette of his Venetian contemporaries. Domenico Maggiotto was an assitant of Piazzetta, whose students included Giovanni Battista Casanova, Georges Desmarées, Franz Anton Kraus, Giuseppe Nogari, Johann Heinrich Tischbein I, Paul Troger.

^ 1652 Antonio-Domenico Gabbiani, Italian painter who died on 22 November 1726. He was first trained by the Medici court portrait painter Giusto Suttermans and then with the painter Vincenzo Dandini. On 20 May 1673 he arrived in Rome, where he studied for three years under Ciro Ferri and Ercole Ferrata at the Accademia Fiorentina. He responded in particular to the paintings of Pietro da Cortona and Carlo Maratti who were both to be important influences on him. Though not precocious, Gabbiani became one of the most noted painters from the Accademia. After a period in Venice (1678–9) with the portrait painter Sebastiano Bombelli, he was in Florence in 1680. By 1684, the year in which he executed an Annunciation (destr.) for the Palazzo Pitti, he was an independent painter. His first important public commission, the Saint Francis de Sales in Glory (1685) for the church of Santi Apostoli, Florence, shows the influence of Maratti in its grandiose composition and that of Dandini in the treatment of figures. In Prince Ferdinando de’ Medici Gabbiani found a particularly loyal patron, and he painted his portrait, Ferdinando de’ Medici and his Musicians (1685). One of the works executed for Ferdinando was possibly a portrait of his sister, which Chiarini has identified with the painting of Anna Maria Luisa de’ Medici (1685). Further works from this period are the group portrait of Three Musicians at Ferdinando’s court and a Group of Courtiers (1690) — The students of Gabbiani included Giovanna Fratellini, Ignazio Enrico Hugford, Benedetto Luti, Giovanni Battista Ranieri del Pace, Tommaso Redi. — LINKS
The Abduction of Ganymede (1700; 451x700pix, 78kb) _ The Iliad (Book XX, 232-235) of Homer mentions "...Ganymede, handsomest of mortals, whom the gods caught up to pour out drink for Zeus and live amid immortals for his beauty's sake." and says that Tros, king of Troy and Ganymede's father, received in compensation for the loss of his son "under the Dawn and under Helios the finest horses in the world". According to the version favored by artists through the centuries, either Zeus sent an eagle, or else assumed the form of an eagle himself, to carry the young man off to Olympus. Zeus immortalized Ganymede by making him into the constellation Aquarius, next to the constellation Aquila. The abduction of Ganymede has been seen as an allegory referring to the flight of the intellect, liberated from earthly desires, toward the heaven of contemplation.
 _ See also the pictures:
The Abduction of Ganymede (1532, 163x70cm; 800x331pix, 72kb) by Correggio
The Abduction of Ganymede (1575; octagon 800x798pix, 172kb) by Mazza
The Abduction of Ganymede (1635, 171x130cm; 1090x780pix, 127kb) by Rembrandt van Rijn _ A mirror-image of most of this picture appears on a postage stamp of Gambia (722x497pix, 98kb)
The Abduction of Ganymede (1000x453pix, 106kb) by Peter Paul Rubens
— by Campagnola [1482->1514] Jupiter and Ganymede above an Extensive Landscape (1500 drawing, 15x12cm; 390x306pix, 53kb)
— by Michelangelo [1475-1564] The Abduction of Ganymede (1533 drawing, 19x33cm; 529x800pix, 50kb)
— by Corinth [1858-1925] Legends of Mythology: Ganymede and the Eagle (1920 color lithograph; 615x728pix, 97kb) from the series The Loves of Zeus.
— by Mignard [07 Feb 1606 – 20 Mar 1668] F#*>/F#*>Ganymede and Eagle (etching 1667, 14x20cm)
— by Annibale Carracci [1560-1609] F#*>/F#*>Ganymede and Eagle (etching).
— by Benoît Louis Henriquez Enlèvement de Ganymède (engraving; 1246x1058pix, 775kb) _ Ganymede is shown as Zeus' cup bearer, holding the cup, and awaiting two winged figures to fill it in. Zeus is shown as the eagle, and one can see the gods' banquet in the background opening of the clouds.
— by Aimee Francesca Cummings Ganymede and the Eagle (2002; 618x514pix, 85kb)
Punch 06 Oct 1915 cartoon Ganymede and the German Eagle (etching; 827x600pix, 411kb gif) _ The eagle, wearing a German WWI spiked helmet, is carrying a terrified old mustachioed Turk; the legend reads: Sultan: “Of course I know it's a great honour being ‘taken up’ like this: still, I'm beginning almost to wish the bird had left me alone.” Turkey was allied with Germany in World War I.
— Mosaic in Bignor Roman Villa, Sussex, England: [Ganymede and the Eagle] (227x350pix, 81kb)
Links to mostly ancient images of Ganymede

1647 Pieter van der Leeuw, Dutch artist who died on 11 September 1679.

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