ART 4 2-DAY 11 February v.9.10
Died on 11 February 1830: Johann Baptist (or Giambatista) Lampi I,
in Vienna, artist active in Austria, Italy, Poland, and Russia, born on
31 December 1751 in Austrian South Tyrol (now under Italian rule).
— He was the youngest son among the 14 children of Matthias Lampi [1698–1780], a minor church and decorative painter, and his wife, Klara Margarete Lorenzoni. After early training by his father, he went to Salzburg (17681870) to study under his uncle Peter Anton Lorenzoni , who painted altarpieces. In Salzburg he probably also received instruction in historical and portrait painting from Franz Xaver König  and Franz Nikolaus Streicher . Between 1770 and 1773 he studied in Verona under Francesco Lorenzi , a student of Giambattista Tiepolo. Lampi became a member of the Accademia di Belle Arti in Verona in 1773; during this time he painted several works for churches in the VeronaTrento area and also painted frescoes, for example the ceiling (1772) of the Assunta in Romeno. Influenced at first by the late Baroque style of the Tiepolo school, Lampi gradually began to adopt a classicizing approach, as in the altarpiece Christ on the Cross (1779). However, his work was inclined to be dry and academic, and his only successful religious picture, with its simplified forms and subdued coloring, is the Dead Christ (1779).
Of his three sons and four daughters, Johann Baptist Lampi II [04 Mar 1775 – 17 Feb 1837] and Franz Xaver Lampi [22 Jan 1782 – 22 Jul 1852] were the most important artists. Johann Baptist the younger followed in his father’s footsteps as a portrait painter, and his style is often indistinguishable from the latter’s. Franz Xaver is also noted as a portrait painter. Johann Baptist Matthias Edler von Lampi [1807–1857], the son of Johann Baptist the younger, was a painter working in Vienna.
— Besides his children, JB Lampi I had among his students Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller, Eustatie Altini, Vladimir Borovikovsky, Franz Eybl, Peter Fendi.
— Catherine II (1793; 122kb) _ Catherine II [02 May 1729 – 17 November 1796] was a German-born empress of Russia (from 1762), who led her country into full participation in the political and cultural life of Europe, carrying on the work begun by Peter the Great [09 Jun 1672 – 08 Feb 1725]. With her ministers she reorganized the administration and law of the Russian Empire and extended Russian territory, adding the Crimea and much of Poland.
— Prince Nikolay Yusupov _ Nikolai Borisovich Yusupov [1751-1831] was a Russian statesman, minister of lands, member of the State Council, diplomat, director of the glass and porcelain plants of Saint-Petersburg, director of the Imperial Theaters, curator of the Hermitage, collector. In Italy he bought paintings and sculptures for Catherine II.
— Le comte Stanislas Félix Potocki et ses deux fils (1789, 138x119cm) _ Le comte Potocki [1745-1805], entouré de ses deux fils Félix-Georges Potocki [1776-1810] et Stanislas Potocki [1872-1831], est ceint du grand cordon bleu de l'ordre polonais de l'Aigle blanc, qu'il reçu en 1775. Le tableau avait pour pendant un portrait de la comtesse Potocka.
— The architect La Tour (1790, 75x61cm; 700x520pix)
Born on 11 February 1791: Francesco
Hayez, Italian historical painter and printmaker who died
on 12 December 1882.
Hayez was born in Venice. He studied under Maggiotto, and then at the Academy of Venice; after which he went to Rome, where he won the first prize from the Academy of Saint Luke. He afterwards then went to Milan where he was appointed a professor of the Academy. He painted frescoes in the Vatican in Rome, and Rinaldo and Armida for the Academy of Venice. Italy’s greatest exponent of historical Romantic painting, he was also greatly admired for his portraits. He played an important part in the cultural life of Italy during its emergence as a modern nation state. He died in Milan.
— The students of Hayez included Giuseppe Bertini, Filippo Carcano, Tranquillo Cremona, Domenico Induno.
— The Education of Achilles (1813; 600x768pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1792pix)
— Odysseus in the Court of Alcinous (1813; 600x848pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1979pix)
Rinaldo and Armida (1813) Crusaders Thirsting near Jerusalem (1846)
The Kiss (1859) _ a work which reveals the principal components of the style of the founder of Lombard Romanticism, i.e. the influence of the Venetian painting – in the sense of a harking back to sixteenth-century artists like Titian and Savoldo – and an abstraction of Purist derivation.
Alessandro Manzoni (118x92cm)
>Died on 11 February 1921: William
Blake Richmond, London English painter, sculptor, and designer,
born on 19 (29?) November 1842.
Richmond [self~portrait >] was born in London, the son of a painter and Academician. His father was a great admirer of William Blake, the visionary, painter, and poet, hence naming his son in his honor. Richmond entered the RA Schools in 1858, where he was a contemporary and friend of Albert Moore.
He was an accomplished portraitist, and throughout his life he had a considerable output of portraits of ’the great and the good.’ Like many other serious minded Victorian artists, he was not comfortable with being ‘merely’ a portrait painter. He traveled to Italy, therefore, to study great works of the Old Masters. Richmond painted large scale classical pictures following this visit. These works show the influence of Lord Leighton, in their high degree of finish, and father static nature. He was elected a Royal Academician in 1895. He lived well into the 20th century, when his art was deeply unfashionable.
— Richmond entered the Royal Academy schools in 1857 and exhibited there from 1861. As a painter he was active in three main fields: history painting (e.g. The Procession of Bacchus at the Time of the Vintage, 1869), portraiture, an area in which he was prolific, and landscape (e.g. Near Viareggio, 1876). His best-known portrait is The Sisters (1864), the daughters of Dean Liddell of Christ Church, Oxford. Richmond also designed and sculpted the monument to William Gladstone (1898) in Hawarden church, Clwyd.
Richmond was born in London, the son of the painter George Richmond RA, a devotee of William Blake, who named his son after the artist. Richmond received a classical education, learning Latin and Greek, and also came under the instruction of John Ruskin, a friend of George Richmond. He entered the RA Schools in 1858 and was a keen student of drawing from the Antique. He was, however, dissatisfied with the teaching and left shortly afterwards. In 1859 he made his first visit to Italy, where he copied Giotto's frescoes in the Arena Chapel, Padua, and was influenced by the rich colors of Titian in Venice.
Richmond's first RA exhibit in 1861 was a portrait group of his brothers, and portraiture continued to be a major part of his work throughout his life. His sitters included Darwin, Holman Hunt, Gladstone and Browning. Richmond was determined, however, to paint not only portraits, and therefore decided to return to Italy for a few years and also visited Algiers in 1870. Richmond began to paint high art subjects on a monumental scale and was also commissioned to paint frescoes and design mosaics for the ceiling of Saint Paul's Cathedral, 1891-4. Visits to Greece in 1882 and 1883 resulted in several epic classical works such as Venus and Anchises (1890) which combined classical forms and swirling drapery with minute attention to the details of plants and flowers. He was elected ARA 1888 and RA 1895.
Sir William Blake Richmond, KCB RA, died on Friday 11 February 1921 at his home, Beavor Lodge, Hammersmith, aged 78. If heredity counts for anything in art, Sir William Richmond had every claim to be an artist, for not only was he the son of the distinguished portrait painter George Richmond RA [28 Mar 1809 19 Mar 1896], he was the grandson of Thomas Richmond, a prolific and successful miniature painter, whilst his grandmother was the daughter of George Engleheart [1750-1829], the contemporary and rival of Conway.
Partly for reasons of health, he was educated privately; which as his parents were highly cultivated people and their house a center of artistic society, rather of the imaginative and even mystical type, meant that the boy was bred upon art and music. The household friends were men like Samuel Palmer and Edward Calvert, while over them all brooded the memory of William Blake, to walk with whom George Richmond used to say ‘was like walking with the Prophet Isaiah.
After the friend of his father William Blake Richmond was named. In early boyhood he had a passion for music, but before he was 14 he had turned to drawing and entered the RA Schools. At this date he was much influenced by the group of Pre-Raphaelites, men several years older than himself and already coming to the front Holman Hunt, Millais, and Burne-Jones and perhaps still more by their great literary advocate John Ruskin.
Partly stimulated by them, and partly by a first visit to Italy, he painted several pictures, chiefly illustrating poetical or classical legend, or Bible stories a class of work he preferred above all others, even when he had become, in the sixties and seventies, a favorite portrait painter.
The pictures at which he worked hardest, and into which he put most of himself shown to the end of the century were such as The Death of Ulysses, The Song of Miriam, and best of all An Audience at Athens during the performance of Agamenmon.
Several of the portraits are greatly admired, especially the Lady Hood, and the Andrew Long, and the beautiful Three Daughters of Dean Liddell, a work of about 1870. The picture of Long in particular is admirable, not only for its design and execution, but for its grasp of character.
Richmond had many sitters amongst eminent men; Gladstone sat to him twice; he painted Darwin and Browning; and, in 1887, he went to Berlin and painted Prince Bismarck.
At a later stage he was given the formidable commission to decorate Saint Paul’s Cathedral, and to this work for many years he gave his utmost energies. There were many who thought it a mistake to attempt such a colossal undertaking, seeing that it is quite uncertain that Wren ever contemplated anything of the kind for his great church, and seeing that mosaic decoration has never taken root in England, but Richmond was courageous enough to make the effort, filled as he was with Italian memories and Italian ideas. The work so far as it has gone, has been as much attacked as praised.
Richmond’s solid reputation will rest rather on his portraits, often beautiful and always full of the truth of character, and upon some at least of his large ‘historical,’ or rather ideal pictures, of which The Audience at Athens has the most enduring merit.
Sir William Richmond, who had known and loved Assisi well since 1868, when he spent a summer in that city, published in 1919 Assisi Impressions of Half A Century. In this book recollections of blissful days with his paint-box among the kindly friars and genial farm folk, mingle with his discourse on the upper and lower churches, and the hills and valleys of the neighborhood. A number of his own sketches reproduced in color, illustrate many of his reminiscences.
–- Henry Dawson Greene [1862-1912] of Slyne and Whittington Hall [Child, Dog, Flowers] (76x122cm)
— Mrs. Ernest Moon (1888, 127x102cm; 512x404pix, 30kb) _ Richmond is best remembered for his academic pictures, but like his father before him he was a highly gifted portraitist. Here he shows the contrasting colors and textures of opulent fabrics against the simple white of the woman’s dress. This, combined with the languid posture and expression of the sitter, creates a uniquely ‘aesthetic’ image. Contemporary critics also noted its affinities with the Italian Renaissance painter Bronzino. The sitter was Emma Moon, a young Australian who married an English barrister. This portrait celebrated their marriage, and she is shown wearing the richly decorated coat which she embroidered herself.
— The Slave (1886, 91x53cm) _ Richmond's source for The Slave, and its meaning, remain obscure. Possibly it is connected to Orientalist depictions of captive women, a theme perhaps inspired by his visit to the Middle East in 1885.Sir William Blake Richmond was a painter of allegorical, mythological and religous subjects, as well as landscapes and portraits. He also made sculpture, and decorated the interior of Saint Paul's Cathedral. He was initially influenced by the Pre-Raphaelites, and knew Holman Hunt and Millais through his father, George Richmond. Richmond believed passionately in the necessity for serious subject matter in art, and the primacy of academic painting.
— The Libyan Desert Sunset (1888, 29x40cm) _ pinkish brown almost-monochrome.
Born on 11 February 1881: Carlo
Dalmazzo Carrà, Italian Futurist
painter who died on 13 April 1966.
— He was apprenticed to a team of decorators at the age of 12, after the death of his mother. His work took him to Milan, London and Switzerland, as well as to the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900. He visited museums, and in Milan in 1906 he enrolled at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera, studying under Cesare Tallone. By 1908 he was arranging shows for the Famiglia Artistica, an exhibiting group. He met Umberto Boccioni and Luigi Russolo, and together they came to know Filippo Tommaso Marinetti and to write the Manifesto dei pittori futuristi (1910). Carrà continued, however, to use the technique of Divisionism despite the radical rhetoric of Futurism. In an attempt to find new inspiration Marinetti sent them to visit Paris in autumn 1911, in preparation for the Futurist exhibition of 1912. Cubism was a revelation, and in 1911 Carrà reworked a large canvas that he had begun in 1910, The Funeral of the Anarchist Galli. He had witnessed the riot at the event in 1904. The crowd and the mounted police converge in violently hatched red and black, as Carrà attempted the Futurist aim to place the spectator at the centre of the canvas. In the reworking he attempted to make the space more complex and the lighting appear to emerge from within.
Nel 1895 Carrà si trasferisce a Milano. Nel 1905 segue i corsi della Scuola serale d’arte applicata al Castello Sforzesco; l’anno seguente può iscriversi all’Accademia di Brera. Con Boccioni e Russolo, nel 1910 Carrà incontra Marinetti, aderisce alle istanze del futurismo e firma il Manifesto dei pittori futuristi [English translation], seguito poco più tardi dal Manifesto tecnico [English translation]. Dipinge allora I Funerali dell’Anarchico Galli, uno dei simboli del neonato movimento: nel febbraio del ‘12 espone quest’opera, accanto ad altre notissime, alla Galleria Bernheim Jeune a Parigi, in una mostra itinerante futurista che approda poi a Londra, Berlino, Bruxelles, Amsterdam. Chiamato alle armi, nel 1917 approda a Ferrara, dove conosce Savinio [Andrea de Chirico], il suo fratello Giorgio De Chirico e Filippo De Pisis [11 May 18961956].
Nel 1919 Carrà torna nel capoluogo lombardo; avvia la collaborazione con Valori Plastici. Nel ‘21 scrive come critico d’arte su L’Ambrosiano. Nello stesso anno dipinge Il pino sul mare.
Nel 1922 partecipa per la prima volta alla Biennale di Venezia. Nel 1926 Carrà partecipa di nuovo alla Biennale, alla I Mostra del Novecento Italiano e ad una mostra alla Galleria Pesaro. Due anni dopo, alla XVI Biennale veneziana, ottiene una sala personale con 14 opere.
L’attività espositiva è molto intensa anche nel periodo successivo: nel ‘30 espone con Soffici alla Galleria Bardi di Milano; nel ‘31 allestisce una sala alla I Quadriennale Nazionale d’Arte romana, dove vince il 2° premio per la pittura.
Fra il 1933 e il ‘38 Carrà è chiamato a realizzare pitture murali per grandi edifici pubblici, dal Palazzo dell’Arte - in occasione appunto della V Triennale d’arte - al Palazzo di Giustizia di Milano. Nel 1935 espone 46 opere in una importante personale alla Galleria del Milione. Nel 1941 assume la cattedra di pittura all’Accademia di Brera.
Gli anni del dopoguerra sono dedicati anche alla pubblicazione di nuovi volumi critici. Nel 1948 Francesco Arcangeli cura una mostra antologica a Bologna. E’ vincitore del Gran Premio per un artista italiano alla Biennale di Venezia del 1950. Nel 1962 apre una grande mostra celebrativa della sua opera al Palazzo Reale di Milano.
— Roberto Crippa and Gianni Dova were students of Carrà.
The Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1908)
Leaving the Theatre (1909)
I Funerali dell’Anarchico Galli (1911, 198x266cm)
Inverno sul lago
Born on 11 February 1876: Harold Gilman,
Town Group painter who died on 12 February 1919.
— He developed an interest in art as a boy, during a period of convalescence. He spent a year at the University of Oxford, but left on account of his health to work as a tutor with an English family in Odessa. On his return in 1896 he attended Hastings School of Art and then the Slade School of Fine Art, London (1897–1901). Afterwards he spent over a year in Spain, copying paintings by Velázquez in the Prado. He married a US painter, Grace Canedy, whom he met in Madrid. They settled in London, but after the birth of a daughter made a long visit to Canedy’s family in Chicago where a second daughter was born and Gilman came under pressure to join his father-in-law’s business.
About this time the two dominant influences on Gilman's art were Velázquez [06 Jun 1599 – 07 Aug 1660] and Whistler [11 Jul 1834 – 17 Jul 1903], as seen in the sure sense of tone and use of direct painting in The Thames at Battersea (1908). In 1907 he met Walter Sickert [31 May 1860 – 22 Jan 1942] and became a founder-member of the Fitzroy Street Group; he also joined the Allied Artists' Association in 1908. By September 1908 he was living at Letchworth, Herts, which became the subject of works by him and by Spencer Gore. In 1911 he was a founder-member of the Camden town group. By this time his style reflected an awareness of the work of Vuillard, for example in paintings such as Old Lady (1911), while the subject of the nude reclining on a bed was one treated also by Sickert.
Gilman's understanding of Post-Impressionism soon exceeded that of Sickert and he began to use stronger color, thicker impasto and compositional designs almost claustrophobic in their rigidity. The care with which Gilman composed his paintings can be seen in An Eating House (1913), where the surface bears evidence of a grid that has either been kept in position while the picture was painted, or imposed at a late stage while the paint was still wet. The sense of privacy conveyed by this picture is characteristic of Gilman's work as a whole: the faces of the eaters are hidden beneath cloth caps and behind wooden partitions, one of which runs the entire width of the picture, creating a barrier between the viewer and the scene.
Gilman further affirmed his independence from Sickert in 1914 by exhibiting with Charles Ginner [04 Mar 1878 – 06 Jan 1952] as a ‘Neo-Realist'. He married again in 1917 and the following year went to Nova Scotia on a commission from the Canadian War Records. One of his last works, Interior (1918), with a woman seated on a double bed, indicates his use of strong patterning and a preference for intimate subject-matter. His career was terminated by the influenza epidemic of 1919.
— Edwardian Interior (1905, 53x54cm) _ The drawing room of the Rectory at Snargate, in Romney Marsh, where Gilman's father was the vicar. The girl is the artist's youngest sister, Irene. The fashion for depicting domestic interiors seems to have been especially strong among students of the Slade School, which Gilman attended from 1897 to 1901. His work developed quickly away from the early style shown here to one which emphasised color and texture. This can be seen in a later work, Lady on a Sofa (next).
— Lady on a Sofa (1910, 31x41cm) monochrome _ It is not clear whether this painting shows a sleeping figure or someone caught in a moment of introspection. Many artists during this period made paintings of single figures engaged in solitary, private, activities such as reading. Gilman first met Walter Sickert in 1907. Both were founding members, in 1911, of the Camden Town Group, which also included Charles Ginner, Spencer Gore [26 May 1878 – 27 Mar 1914], and William Ratcliffe [06 Oct 1870 – 06 Jan 1955]. The vigorously dabbed brushwork, which creates a rich surface texture, and the warm and highly charged colors, are typical of the work of this group of artists.
— Canal Bridge, Flekkefjord (1913, 46x61cm) _ Flekkefjord is in Norway. It is not known why Gilman twice visited Scandinavia, in 1912 and 1913. It is possible that he went with the painter William Ratcliffe, who had family there. The visits were effectively working expeditions, and Gilman made many studies of towns and scenery. This bridge is painted accurately, but it is likely that Gilman chose the subject thinking of van Gogh's painting of a similar bridge in Provence. Gilman at first rejected Van Gogh's style, but later he came to admire him deeply. His friend Wyndham Lewis recalled that he had a number of Van Gogh postcards on his walls, and when he painted a picture that particularly pleased him, he would hang it next to them.
— Leeds Market (1913, 51x61cm) _ Gilman was a member of the Camden Town group of artists who painted images of urban life. This work was painted from a detailed drawing made on the spot during a visit to Leeds. The vibrant, working-class life of the market provided subject matter for several Camden Town painters. They were influenced by the Impressionists and their followers such as Van Gogh and Gauguin. This can be seen here in the strong colors and use of small, regular brushmarks. These give the painting a tight structure which is complemented by the pattern of iron struts of the market’s roof.
— Mrs. Mounter at the Breakfast Table (1917, 61x41cm) _ Harold Gilman was one of the founders of the Camden Town Group, whose members adopted the style and techniques of the Post-Impressionists. They chose scenes from everyday life for their subjects, using bold colors, strong outlines and emphatically textured paint surfaces. The name of the group came from the seedy area of North London where some of them lived, and where many of their pictures were painted. Mrs. Mounter was Gilman's landlady. Critics at the time were struck by the combination of a Continental style of painting with an unmistakably British subject.
Mrs. Mounter is one of a series of images of Gilman's landlady in Maple Street that he painted between 1914 and 1917. During his career Gilman came increasingly to paint and draw the surrounding subjects that were important and dear to him. Mrs Mounter is not glamorized; he wanted to recreate specific real characters on canvas. This approach derived from his admiration not only of Van Gogh's directness in portraiture but also that of Cézanne and Gauguin. Therefore the same motifs of Mrs. Mounter, the patterned wallpaper and crockery feature repeatedly in his later work.
Gilman has combined the structural elements of draftsmanship that he learnt as a young man at the Slade School of Art, with a more restrained handling of the color and impasto that he had been experimenting with from 1913, resulting in his distinctive mosaic-like style. The paint carefully applied in flat planes and definite vertical of the doorway counteract the strong coloring resulting in this balanced composition. The influence of Matisse is evident in the outlining of Mrs. Mounter, thus containing the color as in a stained glass window. Mrs. Mounter has a sense of monumentality and tranquillity akin to Johannes Vermeer's paintings of women in simple interiors that also have a strong geometric element, such as Young Woman with a Water Pitcher (1667). Mrs Mounter is highly finished and very worked up yet it remains an intimate portrait.
Gilman developed a very individual style that had gone largely unnoticed when he died suddenly during the Spanish influenza epidemic of 1919. He sold very few works during his lifetime and it was not until the 1955 Arts Council exhibition of his work that he began to receive recognition for his short-lived but significant contribution to British modernism.
— The Old Lady (1911; 750x607pix, 73kb) _ Gilman's mother, who often sat for her son, was the model for this study of the English ritual of afternoon tea. Gilman's response to the Post-Impressionists whose work he had seen exhibited in London in 1910 and in Paris the following year, was to brighten his palette and use these small, thick interlocking brushstrokes. The impasto is uniformly dense and his mother is painted in the same style as her tea kettle.
— A Swedish Village (1912, 41x51cm; 511x640pix, 78kb)
— Romney Marsh (430x600pix, 83kb)
— Seated Girl in Blue (600x429pix, 90kb)
— The White Jumper (1913; 392x600pix, 52kb)
Et partout devant lui, par milliers, les oiseaux,
De la berge fangeuse où le Héros dévale,
S'envolèrent, ainsi qu'une brusque rafale,
Sur le lugubre lac dont clapotaient les eaux.
D'autres, d'un vol plus bas croisant leurs noirs réseaux,
Et dès lors, du nuage effarouché qu'il crible,
Enfin, le Soleil vit, à travers ces nuées
|LE SERPENT ET LA LIME
On conte qu'un serpent voisin d'un Horloger
(C'était pour l'Horloger un mauvais voisinage),
Entra dans sa boutique, et cherchant à manger
N'y rencontra pour tout potage
Qu'une Lime d'acier qu'il se mit à ronger.
Cette Lime lui dit, sans se mettre en colère :
Pauvre ignorant ! et que prétends-tu faire ?
Tu te prends à plus dur que toi.
Petit Serpent à tête folle,
Plutôt que d'emporter de moi
Seulement le quart d'une obole,
Tu te romprais toutes les dents.
Je ne crains que celles du temps.
Ceci s'adresse à vous, esprits du dernier ordre,