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ART “4” “2”-DAY  10 February v.9.a0
^ Died on 10 February 1772: Louis Tocqué (or Toucquet), French portrait painter and engraver born on 19 November 1696.
— He was the student and son-in-law of Jean-Marc Nattier [17 Mar 1685 – 07 Nov 1766] (who was good at painting pretty women, while Tocqué was happier with plain ones). He admired Rigaud and Largillièrre and adapted their styles, and Nattier's, to the requirements of his own time. He worked in Paris except for a stay in Saint-Petersburg and Copenhagen (1756-1759) and a second trip to Copenhagen in 1769.
— He studied briefly under the history painter Nicolas Bertin but was more influenced by the portrait painter Jean-Marc Nattier, whose studio he entered about 1718, and whose daughter he married in 1747. In Nattier’s studio he made copies of portraits by van Dyck, Nicolas de Largillièrre, and Hyacinthe Rigaud [1659-1743] (e.g. a copy of Rigaud’s portrait of Cardinal de Fleury). He may have participated in Pierre Crozat’s project, begun in 1721, to publish engravings of pictures in the collection of the Regent, Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, making drawings alongside Nattier and Watteau, and he may also have made engravings after the paintings by Charles Le Brun in the Grande Galerie at Versailles under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Massé (about 1724).
— Jean Valade was a student of Tocqué.

Marie Leczinska, Queen of France (1740, 277x191cm; 1070x782pix, 133kb)
A Man
Ekaterina Golovkina
Empress Elizabeth Petrovna
Louis, Grand Dauphin of France
Mademoiselle de Coislin
^ Died on 10 (09?) February 1667: Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo, Spanish painter born in 1612.
— Del Mazo was a student of Diego Velázquez, married his daughter Francisca Velázquez on 21 August 1633. Velázquez, who then held the position, arranged for Philip IV to appoint Mazo as Ujier de Cámara in 1634, and Mazo and his bride lived in the same house as Velázquez, and Mazo succeeded him as court painter in 1661. Among Mazo's very few signed works is a portrait of Queen Mariana (1666), and many of the works now attributed to him were formerly thought to be of Velázquez, whose mature style del Mazo imitated with great skill.

The Artist's Family (1660, 148x174cm)
The Hunting Party at Aranjuez (1635, 187x249cm; _ ZOOM to 1501x2024pix, 358kb)
View of the City of Zaragoza _ View of Zaragoza (1647, 181x331cm)
Infante Don Baltasar Carlos (1635, 144x109cm; _ ZOOM to 2071x1576pix, 304kb) _ Mazo, one of the true followers of Velázquez, is credited with a number of works formerly attributed to his master (and his father-in-law). Baltasar Carlos [17 Oct 1629 – 09 Oct 1646] was the son of King Philip IV [l [08 Apr 1605 – 17 Sep 1665]. The influence of Velázquez [bap. 06 Jun 1599 – 06 Aug 1660] (who made several portraits of Baltasar Carlos) is very strong both in the composition and in the landscape background. It is assumed that this is a variant of a lost Velázquez portrait. Some scholars attribute this painting to Alonso Cano [1601-1667].
Queen Mariana of Spain in Mourning (1666, 197x146cm) _ The painting follows the style of Velázquez in its handling, though lacking his supreme skill as a painter of convincing interiors. The room in the background represents the Pieza Ochavada in the Royal Palace in Madrid, before the destruction of the building by fire in 1734. The boy king Charles II [06 Nov 1661 – 01 Nov 1700] is shown there with a group of attendants and a toy coach. He became king at the death of his father, Philip IV, for whom his mother, Mariana of Austria [23 Dec 1634 – 1696], is in mourning.
^ Born on 10 February 1795: Ary Scheffer, Dutch French Academic painter, sculptor, and lithographer, who died on 15 June 1858.
— He received his earliest training in the studio of his parents, German Johann-Bernhard Scheffer [1764–1809] and Dutch Cornelia Scheffer [1769–1839], who were both artists, as was his brother Henri Scheffer [1798–1862]. He then attended the Amsterdam Teeken-Academie (1806–1809). At the first Exhibition of Living Masters in Amsterdam in 1808 he showed Hannibal Swearing to Avenge the Death of his Brother Hasdrubal, a predominantly monochrome and loosely done painting, which reveals his familiarity with the Dutch pictorial tradition. After his father's death the family moved to Paris in 1809, where he was trained in 1810 by Pierre-Paul Prud'hon and at the École des Beaux-Arts in 1811 by Pierre-Narcisse Guérin. Scheffer exhibited at the Salon from 1812. His early work was Neoclassical in style (e.g. Hannibal Swearing to Avenge his Son's Death, 1810) but by 1814 he had introduced color and drama into his work (e.g. Orpheus and Eurydice , 1814). He was highly popular in Paris during the 1830s for his sentimental merging of a highly finished technique and Romantic subject-matter. He worked in a range of genres from portraiture to exotic and literary themes (e.g. Leonora, 1828). He was a supporter of Greek independence, an enthusiast for English and German literature and a friend of Gautier, and therefore could be seen as representing the acceptable face of Romanticism.
— Scheffer's students included Thomas Armstrong, Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi, Gustave Colin, Louis-Joseph-Auguste Coutan, Louis-Joseph Gallait, Charles Landelle, Claudius-Marcel Popelin, Charles Verlat, and ... {take a deep breath} ... Marie-Christine-Caroline-Adélaïde-Françoise-Léopoldine de Bourbon princesse d'Orléans et duchesse de Württemberg.

–- Saint Augustin et sa Mère Sainte Monique (1855, 145x110cm; 512x617pix, 20kb _ .ZOOM 1 to 1024x1234pix, 69kb _ .ZOOM 2 to 2048x2469pix, 385kb)
La Mort de Géricault (1824, 36x46cm; 840x1034pix, 138kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1728pix, 721kb, and admire the network of aging cracks in the paint) _ The death of Géricault [26 Sep 1791 – 26 Jan 1824] at the age of thirty-three came about as a result of an infection following a riding accident, but the circumstances were never satisfactorily explained, and Géricault was thought to have neglected various ailments from which he was already suffering, and even to have attempted suicide. He had struggled to win artistic recognition, and there seemed a tragic inevitability about his end. It was fitting that the Salon of 1824 - often called the 'Romantic' Salon for including so many icons of the movement - should also have contained the moving memorial to Géricault painted by Ary Scheffer. Mourned by his friends, the painter lies on his deathbed in his small room in the rue des Martyrs, his favorite sketches and pictures on the wall above - indeed a martyr to art.
The Ghosts of Paolo and Francesca Appear to Dante and Virgil (1835, 167x234cm; 814x1208pix, 98kb) _ The painting illustrates a famous episode from the fifth canto of Dante's Inferno, in which Dante and Virgil see Paolo and Francesca condemned to the darkness of Hell with the souls of the lustful. This is the prime version of a composition Scheffer repeated several times (the first in 1822) and it has a frame which he specially devised to suit the subject.
— almost identical The Ghosts of Paolo and Francesca Appear to Dante and Virgil (1855, 171x239cm; 770x1141pix, 96kb)
Sérénade sur la Terrasse du Château d'Arenenburg (600x833pix _ ZOOM not recommended to cracked and very blurry 1400x1943pix, 547kb)
Margaret at the Fountain (1852)
The Souliot Women (1827, 248x354cm) {en français ce n'est PAS Les femmes du soûlaud}
Faust and Marguerite in the Garden (1846, 218x135cm)
Francesca da Rimini (1835)
Mme. Frederick Kent (1847, 119x74cm)
Macbeth et les Sorcières (65x81cm)
^ >Died on 10 February 1765: Jean-Baptiste-Henri Deshays (or Deshayes) de Colleville “le Romain”, French painter, specialized in historical painting, born on 26 May 1729.
— He was first trained by his father, Jean-Dominique Deshays[1700–], an obscure painter in Rouen. After a brief period at Jean-Baptiste Descamps’s École Gratuite de Dessin, he entered the studio in Paris of Hyacinthe Collin de Vermont in 1740. There he acquired the foundations of the mastery of drawing for which he later became celebrated. In late 1749 he moved to the studio of Jean Restout II, who was, like Collin de Vermont, a student of Jean Jouvenet, and whose work continued the grand tradition of French history painting. It was from Restout that Deshays learnt the importance of dramatic composition and strong coloring in large religious paintings. While he was in Restout’s studio, Deshays entered the Prix de Rome competition, winning second prize in 1750 with Laban Giving his Daughter in Marriage to Jacob, and the first prize in 1751 with Job on the Dung-hill. Before going to Rome, Deshays spent the obligatory three years at the Ecole des Elèves Protégés; from its director Carle Vanloo he learnt a more fashionable facility and tempered the severity inherited from Jouvenet with a more appealing manner. During this period he undertook a number of commissions for religious paintings, including two vast canvases, a Visitation and an Annunciation, for the monastery of the Visitation at Rouen. He completed his artistic education with four years at the Académie de France in Rome under its director, Charles-Joseph Natoire. During this time he made a great many copies of works by Raphael and the Bolognese masters Domenichino, Guercino, and the Carracci.
— Deshays enjoyed a brief, but brilliant, career; he was extolled by Diderot as "the first painter of the nation" (Salon of 1761). Born in Colleville, near Rouen, he spent his formative years in Normandy. He studied first under his father, a minor painter, subsequently receiving instruction in drawing from Collin de Vermont, religious painting from Jean Restout, and the rococo style from François Boucher. He won the Prix de Rome in 1751 but spent the next three years in the studio of Carle Vanloo before taking up residence at the French Academy in Rome, then under the direction of Charles Natoire. Deshays returned to Paris in 1758, married the elder daughter of Boucher, and was made a full member of the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in 1759. The artist exhibited at only four official Salons, all to extraordinary acclaim. Deshays's rich imagination and powers of expression were inspired by the great history painters of the seventeenth century, Eustache Le Sueur, Charles Le Brun, Rubens, and the Carracci (Agostino [1557-1602], Annibale[1560-1609], Lodovico [1555-1619]) . The majority of his oeuvre is made up of religious and mythological compositions, conceived in the grand French decorative tradition.
— The students of Deshays included Jacques Gamelin, Jean-Baptiste-Pierre Le Brun, François-Guillaume Ménageot.

–- The Abduction of Helen (1761, 54x87cm; 756x1250pix, 102kb _ .ZOOM to 1513x2500pix, 822kb)
Saint Andrew Refusing to Worship Idols. (1759, 445x215cm) _ The subject is drawn from Jacques de Voragine's Golden Legend. It shows the martyrdom of Saint Andrew, when he is about to be nailed to the cross and is asked to worship idols. The painting was intended for the Church of Rouen whose patron saint is this holy apostle. According to Jacques de Voragine (De Sancto Andrea Apostolo), the proconsul of Achaea Aegeus (whose wife Saint Andrew had converted and baptized) told Saint Andrew, who was trying to convert him too: "Tu es Andreas, qui superstitiosam praedicas sectam, quam Romani principes nuper exterminare iusserunt." And after having him imprisoned, at last et ad sacrificia idolorum iterum invitare coepit dicens: "Nisi mihi obtemperaveris, in ipsam, quam laudasti, crucem faciam te suspendi."
^ Died on 10 February 1861: Francis Danby, English painter of Irish birth (16 November 1793), specialized in landscapes.
— Danby was born in Ireland but worked in Bristol for the first part of his career, where his landscapes and scenes of rustic life made him the best known member of the Bristol School. In 1824 he moved to London where he concentrated on painting large-scale Biblical subjects and fantasy landscapes rivalling those of John Martin. After his wife left him in 1829 he moved to Switzerland and Paris. He returned to London in 1838 but his paintings became increasingly unfashionable.
— Danby was a landowner’s son and studied art at the Dublin Society. In 1813 he visited London, then worked in Bristol, initially on repetitious watercolors of local scenes: for example View of Hotwells, the Avon Gorge (1818). In about 1819 he entered the cultivated circle of George Cumberland [1754-1849] and the Rev. John Eagles [1783-1855]. Danby’s discovery of the ‘poetry of nature’ in local scenery and insignificant incident was influenced by the theories of Eagles, published as The Sketcher (1856), and, less directly, by those of William Wordsworth, who had been associated with Bristol earlier in the century. Danby’s distinctive work began with the small panel paintings he produced for his Bristol audience. Boy Sailing a Little Boat (1822.) recalls the rustic scenes of William Collins and the Bristol artist Edward Villiers Rippingille, but Danby emphasized the effect of sun and shade rather than sentiment
      Danby became the best-known member of the Bristol school of painters but preferred to exhibit more ambitious paintings in London. The Upas, or Poison-tree in the Island of Java attracted considerable attention when first shown at the British Institution in 1820, by its large scale (168x229cm) and sublime motif: a despairing adventurer coming upon the remains of his predecessors in the moonlit poisoned valley. It has deteriorated badly, like many of his works. Disappointed Love (1821) was his first Royal Academy exhibit. It differs from his Bristol works in its narrative content and in the pathetic fallacy by which the oppressive trees and wilting weeds echo the girl’s despair.
      When Danby moved to London in 1824 he abandoned naturalistic landscape and contemporary genre subjects to concentrate on painting poetical landscapes in the manner of Claude Lorrain and J. M. W. Turner’s Snow Storm: Hannibal and His Army Crossing the Alps (1812), and also large biblical scenes to rival John Martin. Danby’s relationship with Martin was ambiguous, but undoubtedly competitive. Danby was elected ARA following the exhibition at the Royal Academy in 1825 of the Delivery of Israel out of Egypt (Exodus. xiv) (1825). His poetic treatment of landscape seems to have inspired Martin’s Deluge, which was shown the following year at the British Institution. Danby himself was already contemplating painting a Deluge and his An Attempt to Illustrate the Opening of the Sixth Seal in turn owed much to Martin’s conception of the Sublime.
      Danby quarreled with the Royal Academy in 1829, when not elected RA (Constable won by one vote). At the same time his marriage had collapsed, and he had taken a mistress; his wife left London with the Bristol artist, Paul Falconer Poole, whom she subsequently married. The ensuing scandal forced Danby to move abruptly to Paris in 1830. Between 1831 and 1836 he worked in Geneva, producing chiefly watercolors and topographical paintings. He then lived in Paris, copying Old Master paintings. He returned to London late in 1838 where Deluge (1840.) reestablished his reputation when exhibited privately in Piccadilly, London, in May 1840. A huge rock rises in the midst of the flood, swarming with figures who struggle to gain the highest point. Their diminution implies immensity. The color is appropriately, but uncharacteristically, somber. Despite its success, it was his last work of this type.
      Danby continued to paint poetic fantasy landscapes throughout the 1840s and 1850s (e.g. Enchanted Castle - Sunset, 1841), although they became increasingly unfashionable. He also produced landscapes and marine paintings, which derive in color and conception, although not in execution, from those of Turner. These found admirers, although they were too rich in color and imprecise in detail for wide popularity. Evening Gun (1848, destroyed, but replica exists), showing naval vessels in harbor, was well received at the Royal Academy in 1848 and the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1855. Danby moved to Exmouth, Devon, in 1847 where he built boats and painted. He was embittered by a life of nearly constant debt and by his failure to gain academic honors. He died a few days after Poole was elected RA. Two of his sons, James Francis Danby [1816-1875] and Thomas Danby [1817-1886], became painters.

The Deluge (1840, 284x452cm) _ This painting depicts the story of the Flood as told in the book of Genesis (6:12 - 8:22). It shows the terrible punishment brought down by a wrathful God upon sinful mankind. In this huge, bleak painting Danby shows the weather at its most overwhelming and destructive, God’s flooding of the world described in the Bible (Genesis 7). Helpless naked figures, including a lion {a naked lion, how tragic!}, cling or are caught in the branches of a fallen tree and clamber to the rock’s summit as the waters rise. Black cataracts of water continue to fall as the red sun slips below the horizon. But there is some hope, in the distance bathed in moonlight, is Noah’s Ark, and on the right in a curious episode a glowing angel grieves over a dead mother and her presumably innocent child.
The Deluge (1840, 71x110cm) _ smaller version.
The Shipwreck (The Wreck of the Hope) (1859, 77x107cm) _ As so often in paintings by Danby and his contemporary and rival John Martin, humanity appears insignificant and helpless in the face of nature’s power. A wrecked ship lurches to one side, about to be swamped by the stormy seas or dashed upon the rocks. Most of it is already submerged and time is running out for the remaining survivors. One of the lifeboats is upturned in the water, some figures cling to wreckage on the left, while the rest wait desperately in line for the sole escape route to the rocks on the right.
Sunset at Sea, after a Storm (1824, 90x143cm) _ This astonishingly dramatic sky shows the clouds of a violent storm dispersing in the red glow of a setting sun. But however beautiful the effect of limpid blue seen through brilliant orange, this sky carries a threat. Just visible in the left foreground is a raft to which cling the few feeble survivors of a shipwreck. They have survived the storm but now night is falling. The drama of the picture made it a hit when it was exhibited at the 1824 Royal Academy exhibition. It made Danby’s name and was bought by the artist Sir Thomas Lawrence.
Children by a Brook (1822, 35x46cm) _ This is one of several small poetic landscapes with figures that Danby painted during his early years in Bristol. The scene is probably imaginary but inspired by the landscape of the Frome valley at Stapleton. Such works were painted for local collectors, unlike the more spectacular pictures Danby sent up for exhibition in London, where he moved in 1824.
Scene from A Midsummer Night's Dream (20x28cm).
^ Died on 10 February 2005: Fritz Scholder, US expressionist painter and sculptor born on 06 October 1937, dies of complications of diabetes. His "Indian" series of paintings in the 1960's and 70's reimagined the depiction of Amerindians. Although best known for his paintings, Scholder produced work in a variety of media - lithographs, photographs, sculpture and books.
—      Born in Breckinridge, Minnesota, Fritz William Scholder was the fifth Fritz in a family of primarily German ancestry. He was one-quarter Amerindian (one of his grandmothers was from the Luiseño tribe in California). He grew up in Wahpeton ND and in Pierre SD. As a child he collected stamps and coins and was fascinated by foreign cultures, especially ancient Egypt.
      In 1957, he studied at Sacramento City College under Wayne Thiebaud, who arranged for his first one-man show.
      Scholder received a B.A. from Sacramento State College in 1960 and an M.F.A. from the University of Arizona in 1964. Soon after, Lloyd Kiva New, the arts director at the newly established Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe NM invited Scholder to join the faculty.
      In 1967, while teaching painting at the institute, he began his "Indian" series. His innovative approach, based on research and observation, was a radical departure from traditional, sentimental renderings of mythic Amerindians. He said that he was the first artist to paint an Amerindian wrapped in a US flag, an image that still resonates: Indian No.4 (848x745pix, 124kb). It is based on 19th-century prison photographs of Amerindians dressed in surplus flags in lieu of their confiscated tribal regalia. Scholder recognized that it was time for a painter of Amerindians to develop a new way of painting them, which he expressed as “Real, not Red.”
      Beginning in 1972, Scholder's world revolved around his adobe-walled compound in Scottsdale, Arizona, where he lived and produced series noteworthy both for their subjects and for their titles, including "Mystery Woman," "Monster Love," "Martyr" and "Shaman." His favorite subject was women, and he approached this and other subjects, including mortality and isolation, with renderings of single and paired figures as well as skulls and skeletons.
      Scholder traveled to Egypt, Transylvania and other exotic locales, accumulating artifacts and occult objects that have figured prominently as props in his work. His house included a skull room and he surrounded himself with taxidermic creatures, including a 3.3-meter African lion and a buffalo.
      In 2001, the Institute of American Indian Arts dedicated a museum gallery in Scholder's honor.In 2001 Scholder, said he was a "natural optimist, which might be surprising, because I like the dark side of things." He regularly fashioned self-portraits in different guises, including a buffalo and a sphinx. His last, rendered in 2003, shows him seated with an oxygen tube in his nose as a pool of blood accumulates on the floor alongside a book and a photograph. In the foreground, an Egyptian cat gazes up at him.
      Much of Scholder's art exudes an air of mystery. His paintings, which celebrate paint with drips, smears, energetic brushwork and vivid underpainting, have been described as symbolist or colorist. Abstract Expressionists like de Kooning and Franz Kline informed his style, and the influence of Francis Bacon, Richard Diebenkorn, Goya, Paul Gauguin, Edvard Munch and Cy Twombly is also evident.
2001 photo of Scholder (600x426pix, 17kb)
Scholder talking to students (Nov 2000 photo; 1200x1600pix, 355kb)

Carnival E (1386x1039pix, 324kb) _ detail (543x727pix, 139kb)
The Odyssey #2 (1976 color lithograph, 76x56cm; 1330x960pix, 246kb) _ detail (532x596pix, 125kb)
Bicentennial Indian (474x640pix, 25kb)
Indian with Rays (600x447pix, 59kb)
Indian with Tomahawk (1970; 405x400pix, 38kb)
Half Breed (1974; 530x400pix, 33kb)
Indian with Blue Window (1978, 76x57cm; 480x358pix, 18kb)
Crow Indian (lithograph, 29x18cm)
Indian in a Spotlight (1972 lithograph, 44x57cm)
Indian Target (lithograph, 53x63cm)
Screaming Artist (lithograph, 76x57cm)
Squatting Woman (lithograph, 31x18cm)
Tired Indian (lithograph, 21x18cm)
Woman in Orange Chair (lithograph, 51x77cm)
The End of the Trail (1970; 389x300pix, 27kb)
Strawberry Fields II (293x300pix, 23kb)
— Sholder's web site
A Lust for Life illustrated article
^ Buried on 10 February 1660: Judith Leyster, Dutch Baroque painter, baptized as an infant on 28 July 1609, who married Jan Miense Molenaer [1610 – 15 Sep 1668] in 1636.
— She painted genre scenes, portraits and still-lifes, and she may also have made small etchings; no drawings by her are known. She specialized in small intimate genre scenes, usually with women seated by candlelight, and single half-length figures set against a neutral background. She was influenced by both the Utrecht Caravaggisti and Frans Hals, under whom both she and Molenaer studied.
— Judith Leyster was born in Haarlem. Her father started in the textile trade but later became a brewer with his own brewery. Judith Leyster was probably taught by Frans de Grebber and apparently went on to work in Frans Hals' studio. Leyster's paintings reveal the influence of the latter, already a famous artist, and of his younger brother, Dirck Hals, as well as of the painter she was to marry in 1636, Jan Miense Molenaer. Like Dirck Hals, Leyster generally painted genre pieces depicting merry, music-making groups, although usually these companies were small.
— Leyster was extremely successful in her day as a portrait and genre specialist. Little is known about her early training but she was mentioned in about about Haarlem as being a local artist. In her early twenties she became the only female member of the Haarlem painters' guild and soon had students of her own. Even though her work is closely identified with that of Hals, their relationship remains unclear. What is known is that she successfully sued Hals for a breach of ethics after he took on one of her students. Judith Leyster is one of the very few women to have been accepted as a member of the Haarlem Guild of Painters.
      Although a contemporary historian described her as a leading light in art (punning on her name Leyster, which means "lodestar") she remained unknown for a long time and her works were either believed lost, or were attributed to Frans Hals. She probably worked in his studio around 1630 and was also a friend of his family, for one year later she became godmother to Hals' daughter Maria. Like Hals at the same time, the young Leyster adopted the style of the Utrecht Caravaggisti, with their strong chiaroscuro modelling in the manner of Caravaggio. From the mid-1620, she concentrated more on vividly illuminated genre scenes, generally featuring half figures of merry musicians, gamblers and whores, strongly influenced by the painting of Terbrugghen and Honthorst. While the Utrecht school of painters still rounded the surfaces of their objects smoothly between light and shade, Hals and his school adopted a broad, vibrant and independent brushstroke. Leyster's work can be distinguished from that of Hals through her generally more discordant handling of color, her sketchier treatment of hands, the wryly distorted smiles of her figures and her altogether flightier brushwork.

Self-Portrait (1635, 72x651007x887pix, 136kb)
The Serenade (1629)
Carousing Couple (1630, 68x54cm, 970x767pix, 130kb)
A Boy and a Girl with a Cat and an Eel (59x49cm; 793x637pix, 40kb).

Died on a 10 February:

1942 Nikolay Andreyevich Tyrsa, Russian artist and illustrator of children's books, born on 10 May 1887.
Anna Akhmatova (1928 drawing, 37x23cm; 749x479pix, 15kb)
Illustrations for Lesnye Domishki of Vitaly Byanin.
Illustrations for Snezhnaya Kniga of Vitaly Byanin.

1927 Nils Gustav Wentzel, Norwegian painter born (full coverage) on 07 October 1859. —(070209)

1917 John William “Nino” Waterhouse, English painter born (full coverage) on 06 April 1849. —(080917)

1901 (11 Feb?) Telemaco Signorini, Florentine painter, writer, critic, illustrator, etcher, and teacher, born on 18 August 1835. He was a major figure of the Macchiaioli group, painting primarily landscapes, seascapes and street scenes in towns and villages in Tuscany and Liguria. As with many of the Macchiaioli, he did not always date his paintings, and their chronology must be deduced from exhibition catalogues and other contemporary sources. As a writer and critic he was the most ardent spokesman for, and promoter of the Macchiaioli and wrote with insight and cutting wit about the art world of the second half of the 19th century. — Giovanni Boldini was a student of Signorini.

1837 (29 January Julian) Alexandr Sergeyevich Pushkin, Russian poet, novelist, dramatist, short-story writer, not a painter, but a painted, for example by Kiprenskyby Tropininby Serovby Bruni. Pushkin was born on 06 June (26 May Julian) 1799.

1720 Hendrik Govaerts (or Goovaerts), Flemish artist born on 21 July 1669.

1685 David Teniers III, Flemish painter born on 10 July 1638, son of David Teniers the Younger [15 Dec 1610 – 25 Apr 1690] and grandson of David Teniers I [1582 – 29 Jul 1649]

1674 Leonaert Bramer, Dutch painter born (full coverage) on 24 December 1596. —(051223)

1657 Sebastian Stoskopff, Alsatian painter baptized as an infant on 31 July 1597. He was born and brought up in the independent Protestant republic of Strasbourg. In 1615, after serving his apprenticeship in the studio of the miniaturist and engraver Friedrich I Brentel, he became the student of the painter and architect Daniel Soreau [–1619] in Hanau, near Frankfurt am Main; after Soreau’s death he had to finish his master’s paintings. He remained in Hanau until 1621 and there came across examples from Flanders and the Netherlands of still-life painting, the genre to which he was to devote himself. In 1621 he went to Paris, remaining there until 1640 apart from a trip in 1629 to Venice, where he met his future biographer, the historian Joachim von Sandrart. Like other Protestant painters he frequented the Saint-Germain-des-Prés district of Paris and came into contact with the still-life painters Lubin Baugin and Jacques Linard. In 1641 he settled in Strasbourg, where he was accepted (reçu) as a master.

^ 1526 Bernardo Zenale, Italian painter and architect born in 1463. In 1481 Zenale was already a qualified master and a member of the Scuola di San Luca, the painters’ guild, in Milan. In 1485 he and Bernardino Butinone were hired by Simone da San Pellegrino and other officials of San Martino, Treviglio, to paint a large altarpiece for the high altar; the carving of the frame was sub-contracted to Ambrogio and Giovanni Pietro Donati. By January 1491 the altarpiece had been installed, and Zenale and Butinone made a final payment to the Donati brothers. The two-tiered polyptych, in an elaborate pedimented frame, shows the Virgin and Child, Saint Martin and the beggar, and other saints. The architectural setting for each group, shown in steep perspective, is festooned with swags and encrusted with decorative patterning. — Bambaia was a student of Zenale. — LINKS
The Presentation of the Child Jesus in the Temple (600x927pix)

Born on a 10 February:

^ 1932 Atsuko Tanaka, Japanese woman avant-garde artist who died on 03 December 2005 from pneumonia after never recovering from a spring 2005 automobile accident. In 1950 she began studying at the Art Institute of Osaka Municipal Museum of Art (Osaka Shiritsu Bijyutsukan Fusetsu Bijyutsu Kenkyu*jo), in preparation for art-school entrance exams. In 1951 she entered the Department of Western Painting at Kyoto Municipal College of Art (Kyoto Shiritsu Bijyutsu Daigaku), which is now known as Kyoto City University of Arts (Kyoto Shiritsu Geijyutsu Daigaku). In 1955 she joined the artist group Gutai founded in 1954, which reacted to US Abstract Expressionism and the French Informel movement by advocating a radically nontraditional, experimental use of nonrepresentational materials. There she found herself with former classmates from the Osaka Art Institute Kazuo Shiraga.and Akira Kanayama, whom she would marry in 1965, after they both withdrew from Gutai. Tanaka became widely known for works that combined sculpture, electric sound and light, and performance.
     In the mid-1950's Tanaka made works of colored fabric that were cut with scissors and pinned unstretched to gallery walls, challenging traditional definitions of painting and artistic craft. Later she created performances in which she would peel away layers of brightly colored dresses that she had made herself, until she was wearing only a black leotard or a rubber suit that made her appear nude. The dress theme also led to her most famous work, Electric Dress (1956; 450x345pix, 34kb), an assemblage of scores of colored lights that almost completely obscured Tanaka when she wore it for public performances. A sound piece, Work (Bell) (1956), consisted of a sequence of ringing sounds circulating the gallery by means of a single button that viewers were invited to press. After the experimental works of the 50's, Tanaka devoted herself mainly to producing abstract paintings and drawings. Her lively, colorful compositions of circles and lines were initially inspired by the cords and colored bulbs of the Electric Dress. — (051211)
Untitled (1985, 162x130cm; 624x495pix, 49kb) mostly colorful circles.
'83A (1983; 480x357pix, 62kb)
'77Q (1977; 480x388pix, 67kb) something like a blue planet, on a white background, surrounded by many moons of various colors and a few moon-sized hoops, each attached to the planet by multiple cables.
D4 (80x56cm; 480x357pix, kb)
Untitled (1986; 480x353pix, 47kb) On a white background, mostly red with some black, circles superimposed on thick curved lines.
Untitled (1) (1956 color drawing, 110x77cm; 864x675pix, 74kb)
Work (1964, 65x53cm; 749x600pix, 149kb) —(051211)

1931 Waldo Díaz-Balart y Gutiérrez, Cuban Systematic-Constructivist painter active in Spain.
Desarrollo cromático de CEL (2000, 34x34cm; 447x450pix, 12kb)
19 images at —(091115)

1888 Wilhelm Thöny, Austrian painter and printmaker who died on 01 May 1949. After receiving training as a pianist and singer he studied painting at the Akademie der bildenden Künste in Munich. He was involved in the foundation of the Neue Sezession in Munich in 1913 and in 1923 he returned to Graz to found the Secession there. He moved to Paris in 1931 and emigrated to New York in 1938. His early figure paintings, such as The Bridge (1925), reveal a somber melancholy that is reminiscent in its expressiveness of Edvard Munch [12 Dec 1863 — 23 Jan 1944]; the individualized portrait does not stand out, but rather man is shown as the prisoner of an oppressive and speechless dream world. The best known of Thöny’s subjects are the cityscapes of Paris and New York, as in Paris, Ile de la Cité (1935) and New York at Night (1936). The combination of a fluffy mass of color and a nervous line creates a shimmering, pulsating effect. A metallic hard grey-blue base dominates the use of color, sometimes in combination with coloristic effects and sometimes with a great deal of black. The reality of what is perceived mingles with irrational elements and the skyline of Manhattan in particular is transported into the realms of the mysterious and visionary. Many of Thöny’s works were destroyed in 1948 by a fire in a New York warehouse.

1878 Otto Eduard Pippel, German artist who died in 1960.

1824 (17 Jan 1817?) Eugenio Lucas Velázquez, Madrid Spanish painter who died on 11 September 1870, admirer and imitator of Goya. — Father of Eugenio Lucas Villaamil [1858-1918] — He was long known as Eugenio Lucas y Padilla, but his real surnames were Lucas Velázquez. He came late to painting, in 1844 still stating his profession as that of cabinetmaker. It is possible that he studied at the Academia de San Fernando in Madrid, but he may have been largely self-taught. His early work included portraits (e.g. Jenaro Peréz Villaamil, 1849), scenes of the Spanish Inquisition and subjects from contemporary life (e.g. Scene with Bandits, 1855). By the mid-1850s he was well established: in 1853 he was appointed Pintor de Cámara Honorario to Queen Isabella II, and he was made a Knight of the Order of Carlos III as a reward for his idealized portrait of Pedro de Valdivia, which the Spanish government gave as a present to the cathedral of Santiago de Chile. Lucas Velázquez showed his work successfully at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1855, and in the same year he was one of three connoisseurs asked to value Francisco de Goya’s Pinturas Negras (1820–1823), then still in the Quinta del Sordo, Goya’s country house near Madrid.

^ 1793 Léon-Matthieu Cochereau, French painter who died on 10 August 1817.
Intérieur de l'Atelier de David au Collège des Quatre Nations (1813, 90x105cm; 102kb) _ His master, the Neoclassicist painter Jacques Louis David, remains one of France's most famous names; his own is barely known. The fame of Cochereau rests on this single painting. Completed when he was 20 and exhibited at the Salon of 1814, the painting shows him and his fellow students at work in David's studio. Instead of relying on the models of the ancients and painting from plaster casts, as was customary, they work from the live model. The atelier is in effect a laboratory; by means of their own observations, from life, they apply what they have learned in didactic lectures. They are much like students of medicine. .
Paris, boulevard des Capucines en 1809 (480x603pix, 56kb)

^ 1755 (11 Feb?) Nicolas-Antoine Taunay (or Tonnay), French painter who died on 20 March 1830. He was the son of Pierre-Henri Taunay [1728–1781], a painter–enameller at the Sèvres factory, and entered the studio of Nicolas-Bernard Lépicié at the age of 13. Later he worked in the studios of Nicolas-Guy Brenet and Francesco Casanova. With a group of friends that included Jean-Louis Demarne, Lazare Bruandet, and Jean-Joseph-Xavier Bidauld, he made trips to the forests of Saint-Germain, Fontainebleau, and Compiègne to learn to draw directly from nature. He visited the Dauphiné and Switzerland in 1776 with Demarne. That same year he made vignette illustrations for an erotic book, Journée de l’amour by Charles-Simon Favart [1710–1792] and others. Taunay exhibited landscape paintings at the Salon de la Jeunesse in 1777 and 1779 and at the Salon de la Correspondance in 1782. — LINKS
L'extérieur d'un hôpital militaire (1803, 46x65cm) _ Ce tableau est une réduction avec variantes de l'oeuvre présentée au Salon des artistes français à Paris, en 1798. Un charettes de blessés de l'armée de Bonaparte arrive devant un couvent transformé en hôpital.
Le Triomphe de la Guillotine (1795, 129x168cm; 575x747pix, 201kb)

1670 Norbert “Cefalus” van Bloemen (or Blommen), Flemish artist who died in 1746; brother and student of Pieter van Bloemen [bap. 17 Jan 1657 – <06 Mar 1720], and brother of Jan Frans van Bloemen “Orizzonte” [bap. 12 May 1662 – 13 Jun 1749]. Norbert joined his brothers in Rome, where they had been since 1686. Like them he was a member of the Schildersbent (which gave him the nickname Cephalus). After failing to succeed as an artist in Italy, however, Norbert returned to Antwerp. His fortunes were no better there, and he set off again, eventually settling in Amsterdam, where he painted history subjects, interior genre scenes, and portraits, for instance that of the art dealer and collector Jan Pieterszoon Zoomer.

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