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ART “4” “2”-DAY  09 February v.10.11
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DEATHS: 1909 CONDER — 1891 JONGKIND — 1675 DOU
BIRTHS: 1699 JEAURAT — 1650 VERKOLJE — 1950 MARISCAL
^ Died on 09 February 1909: Charles Edwin Conder, English painter, active in Australia and France, born on 24 October 1868.
— He was sent to Australia in 1884 to learn surveying under his uncle W. J. Conder. After about two years in survey camps, he attended evening classes at the Royal Art Society, Sydney; in 1887 he worked as a lithographic draughtsman for The Illustrated Sydney News. Tom Roberts, then in Sydney on a visit from Melbourne, was among the open-air landscape painters that he knew at this time. He taught Conder some of the principles of Impressionism, such as truth to the momentary effect of light and to color values, and the rejection of the academic ideal of high finish. The most important painting of Conder’s Sydney years, The Departure of the ‘SS Orient’ from Circular Quay, 1888 (1888), already showed a distinct personal style, combining humour with nostalgia and selective observation with decorative finesse of handling and design. In December 1888 Conder joined Roberts and Arthur Streeton in Melbourne. During the following summers they painted together at the outer suburbs of Mentone, Box Hill and Eaglemont. Conder lived in a room in Melbourne fitted out in the Aesthetic style and used his studio as a form of self-expression. His friends in Melbourne included the English novelist Mrs Mannington Caffyn, who included a written portrait of Conder in her Australian novel A Yellow Aster (1894). In 1889 Conder joined Roberts, Streeton, Frederick McCubbin and others at the Buxton Galleries, Melbourne, in a show of small cedar panels, predominantly cigar-box lids, known as the ‘9 by 5 Impression Exhibition’ after the size of the panels.

LINKS
Le Moulin Rouge (549x739pix)
Swanage Bay (1901, 46x61cm) _ Although born in London, Conder grew up and first went to art school in Australia. He moved to Paris in 1890. While living there in the 1890s he often stayed in Normandy, where he painted
Swanage (1901, 23x31cm) _ Conder stayed at Swanage in Dorset with his friend Augustus John [1878-1961] in the early summer of 1900. Both artists were working on large, decorative paintings, but Conder also made a series of oil sketches of the coast. This one is of the Swanage Coastguard Station, and a photograph from the time shows that it is portrayed quite accurately, even to the mast and flags at the top right. These artists were used to living in good company in London and Paris, and their working holiday in Swanage was an escape to sober living and hard work.
Departure of the Orient, Circular Quay (1888, 45x50cm; 677x750pix, 143kb)
Scene on the Ept (1894, 45x56cm; 490x600pix, 150kb)
–- Un soir d'été (24x30cm; 1122x1400pix, 103kb)
—(070208)
^ Born on 09 February 1699: Étienne Jeaurat (or Joras), French painter who died on 14 December 1789.
— He was a favorite student of Nicolas Vleughels, who, when appointed director of the Académie Française in Rome in 1724, took Jeaurat with him, though it is hard to discern any Italian influence at all in Jeaurat’s work. Jeaurat was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale, Paris, in 1731 and was received (reçu) two years later as a history painter with his Pyramis and Thisbe (1733). Jeaurat rose to the highest posts in the Académie, becoming professor in 1743, rector in 1765 and chancellor in 1781. He exhibited regularly at the Salon between 1737 and 1769, and the Gobelins factory made tapestries after his designs. Unlike his exact contemporary Chardin, Jeaurat had a highly successful official career with his many posts; in 1767, for instance, he was also appointed Garde des Tableaux du Roi at Versailles; and he was always accepted as a history painter, an ambition that constantly eluded Greuze.
— La véritable vocation de Jeaurat est la peinture de genre. Ses envois au Salon de l'Académie le prouvent (notre tableau a été exposé à celui de 1741 sous le numéro 19). Son répertoire est varié: pastorales, jeux d'enfant, turqueries; scènes domestiques dans la veine de Chardin ou de J.F. de Troy; scènes villageoises proches de l'art flamand. C'est dans le genre "poissard" que l'artiste, inspiré par ses amis littérateurs et sans doute aussi par les gravures de Hogarth, crée ses oeuvres les plus personnelles. Il laisse ainsi de la vie du peuple de Paris des témoignages d'un réalisme truculent.
— Etienne-Pierre-Adrien Gois and Gabriel de Saint-Aubin were students of Jeaurat.

LINKS
L'Accouchée (1865; 600x484pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1129pix)
Bain de Femmes (1741, 64x52cm)
Jeune Dessinateur (64x54cm; 512x420pix, 49kb)
 
^ Died on 09 February 1891: Johan Barthold Jongkind, Dutch Realist painter and printmaker born on 03 June 1819.
— Jongkind's small, informal landscapes continued the tradition of the Dutch landscapists while also stimulating the development of Impressionism.
— Originaire de Latrop, aux Pays-Bas, Johan Barthold Jongkind fit sortir l'art néérlandais de son provincialisme idyllique et devint du même coup l'un des plus notables précurseurs de l'évolution européenne ultérieure. Elève d'Andreas Schelfhout à La Haye et d'Isabey à Paris, il se fixa de 1855 à 1860 à Rotterdam, mais passa ensuite les trente dernières années de sa vie a Paris. Ses premières oeuvres hollandaises — surtout les représentations fluviales et marines — se distinguent cependant déjà par une atmosphère étonnamment transparente et un haut degré de luminosité. Créée en 1856, la toile intitulée Le Port de Rotterdam semble avoir pour sujet réel les teintes vaporeuses suspendues entre les objets, ainsi que les reflets de l'eau. Le coloriage de Jongkind obéissait encore aux règles de la cohésion tonale, mais dans la luminosité de ses atmosphères l'artiste dépassait jusqu'aux Français les plus hardis. A quel point il était attaché a l'inspiration puisée aux mille aspects de la nature vivante ressort aussi du fait qu'il aimait peindre et repeindre le même motif sous un éclairage different. Né exactement la même année que Colbert, et à peu près contemporain des principaux pleinairistes de l'école de Barbizon, Jongkind allait devenir, a côté de Boudin, l'un des plus grands promoteurs de l'impressionisme. Il n'a pas seulement enthousiasmé Manet, mais aussi, comme pas un autre, confirmé Monet dans son esthétique. Jongkind est mort à Côte-Saint-André, France.

LINKS
–- Le Pont de la Tournelle (1859, 53x45cm; 1342x1151pix, 154kb)
–- Windmill near Rotterdam () badly crackled in the dark areas.
Notre-Dame de Paris, Vue du Pont de l'Archévêché (1849; 601x1056pix, 161kb)
Notre-Dame de Paris, au Clair de Lune (1879; 600x784pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1829pix)
Vue de Bas-Meudon (1865; 600x852pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1988pix)
–- Clair de Lune (1853; 971x1390pix, 88kb) some bad scratches, needs restauration.
–- Harbor Scene (07 Aug 1865, 14x23cm; 670x1078pix, 53kb) sketchy
La Seine et Notre-Dame à Paris (1864)
In Holland; Boats near the Mill (1868)
The Church of Overschie
Honfleur (1865, 52x82cm) _ This canvas was painted in August–September 1865, during Jongkind's third visit to Honfleur, on the Normandy coast, where Monet also worked in the early and mid-1860s.
53 images at the Athenaeum33 images at ARC
—(070208)
^ Born on 09 February 1650: Jan Verkolje (or Verkolye) Sr., in Amsterdam, Dutch Baroque painter and engraver who was buried in Delft on 08 May 1693.
— Jan Verkolje spent six months as the student of Jan Andrea Lievens [1644–1680], when he completed unfinished mythological and genre pictures by Gerrit Pieterszoon van Zijl [1619–1665]. Verkolje married in Delft in 1672 and in the following year joined the city’s Guild of Saint Luke, serving as its dean between 1678 and 1688.
      Verkolje’s genre scenes, for example The Music Party (1673), The Messenger (1674) and The Elegant Couple (1674), were influenced by Gabriel Metsu, Gerard ter Borch II and Caspar Netscher. Verkolje’s portraits commanded high prices and were greatly valued for their outstanding finish, a style more polished than that of his predecessors. His work as a mezzotint engraver was equally appreciated and sought after. On the basis of a few mezzotints made between 1680 and 1684 after the work of English artists, it is generally supposed that Verkolje lived in London at that time, although this is unproven. As a draftsman, he made precise, small cabinet pieces usually employing pen and ink with brown wash or watercolor heightened with white chalk.
— Among the many students of Jan Verkolje were his sons Nicolaas Verkolje [11 Apr 1673 – 21 Jan 1746] and Jan Verkolje Jr., Albertus van der Burch [1672->1727[, the mezzotint engraver Jan van der Spriet (active about 1700), Willem Verschuuring [1657-1715] and Thomas van der Wilt [1659-1733].

LINKS
The Music Party (1673) _ Dutch painters achieved stunning naturalistic effects in pictures of various social situations, including musical companies. These artists shared an interest in using perspective to accurately describe architecture, as well as in painting refined lighting effects. Jan Verkolje was an artist who carefully examined the physical world and created pictures based on everyday life. The work of Verkolje and his peers, Johannes Vermeer and Pieter de Hooch among them, appealed to the increasingly wealthy Protestant middle class in the Netherlands, who preferred scenes that reflected their own tastes and interests, instead of paintings with religious or mythological subject matter. Here, the prosperity of Dutch society is evident in the depiction of a well-to-do young people enjoying their leisure time with music, reading, and an apparently playful conversation. A young servant carrying fruit enters the scene in the background; such servants, originally from the colonies the Dutch had established, were brought to the Netherlands and made a part of the household and raised as Protestants. The young servant, dressed as a courtier, is another symbol of middle-class affluence in seventeenth-century Dutch life.
Futile attempt to wean a baby (1675, 51x58cm; 700x600pix, 183kb) _ the baby at the breast of its mother is distracted by her playing with the dog, while no attention is paid to the servant approaching from the back with plate and spoon in hand.
 
^ Died on 09 February 1675: Gerrit Dou (or Dow, Dov), Dutch Baroque painter born on 07 April 1613.
— Dou was born in Leiden. He learned glass painting from his father and in 1628 became Rembrandt's first student. After some early portraits, he painted chiefly small domestic scenes characterized by minute detail often painted under a magnifying glass, skillful chiaroscuro, and lifelike effect. Among these are A Poulterer's Shop {a fowl picture} and Evening Light. Dou's work was very popular and continued to be influential until the mid-19th century when appreciation for precision in painting declined under the pernicious influence of impressionism.
— As the son of a glass engraver Gerard Dou began by learning to engrave and paint glass. In 1628 he became a student of Rembrandt. There he learned the art of depicting contrasting light and dark. It was to become his speciality: Dou's candlelight scenes became especially popular. His other works - he mainly produced genre paintings - sold for considerable sums. Dou's accurate
Meticulous Dou According to the biographer, Houbraken, Dou was a slow and careful painter. It was once remarked that he would wait before starting a painting until the dust had settled in his studio. Then no particles would be able to spoil the painting.
and detailed manner of painting was typical of the 'fijnschilder' school. One of these 'Leiden fijnschilders' was his student Frans van Mieris. In 1665 Dou featured in a one-man exhibition 1665 exhibition In 1665, twenty-seven works by Gerard Dou were exhibited at the home of the painter Johannes Hannot. All the paintings were from the collection of one person, Leiden art collector Johan de Bye. Dou was 52 in 1665 and his candlelight paintings were world-famous.. He enjoyed an international reputation: various foreign monarchs collected work by him. Yet Dou was never tempted to leave Leiden. He died there in 1675.
— In 1628 Dou became the first student of the young Rembrandt van Rijn, basing his early work closely on his master's. After Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam, Dou developed a style of his own, painting usually on a small scale, with a surface of almost enamelled smoothness. He was astonishingly fastidious about his tools and working conditions, with a particular horror of dust. Some of his pictures were painted with the aid of a magnifying glass. He painted numerous subjects, but is best known for domestic interiors. They usually contain only a few figures framed by a window or by the drapery of a curtain, and surrounded by books, musical instruments, or household paraphernalia, all minutely depicted. He is at his best in scenes lit by artificial light.
      With Jan Steen [1625-1679] Dou was among the founders of the Guild of St Luke at Leiden in 1648. Unlike Steen he was prosperous and respected throughout his life, and his pictures continued to fetch big prices (consistently higher than those paid for Rembrandt's work) until the advent of the sloppy and lazy Impressionism influenced taste against the neatness and precision of his style. Dou had a workshop with many students, including Quirijn van Brekelenkam, Frans van Mieris and Godfried Schalcken. They perpetuated his style and Leiden continued the fijnschilder tradition until the 19th century.

LINKS
Self-Portrait (1650, 48x37cm; _ ZOOM) with pipe (opium pipe?) and book open to a full-page illustration. _ This is not a picture of a man smoking a pipe, but a picture of a painting of a man smoking a pipe. In front of the painting-within-a-painting hangs a green curtain on a copper rail. It is so realistic you might even mistake it for a real curtain - in the seventeenth century it was not uncommon to protect paintings from strong light. Gerard Dou tried to trick the viewer into actually attempting to draw the curtain. Meanwhile the artist looks on: the man with the pipe in the window is Dou himself.
     In this painting, Gerard Dou harks back to a story from Classical Antiquity. In Greece, in the fifth century BC, two painters, Zeuxis and Parrhasios, held a competition to see who could imitate nature the closest. Zeuxis painted a bunch of grapes that looked so real that the birds flew down to peck at them. Zeuxis appeared to have won the battle, until he tried to draw back the curtain covering Parrhasios's painting - it was the painting itself. Gerard Dou was a ‘fijnschilder’ (a painter with an extremely precise style). Perhaps he even saw himself as a second Parrhasios.
     Dou included another deceptively real detail: the paper on the stone frame bearing his signature. This motif may have been taken from earlier paintings, for instance, the Self Portrait (1530, 38x30cm) by Jacob Corneliszoon van Oostsanen [1470-1533].
     Other artists also painted curtains in front of their paintings. Dou may have borrowed this trompe-l'oeil effect from his teacher Rembrandt, who included a curtain in his Holy Family of 1646 (47x69cm; 750x1091pix, 127kb). Artists often employed this repoussoir trick to enhance the impression of depth. Gerrit Houckgeest, for example, incorporated a curtain in a painting of a church interior. In addition to a curtain, Dou often also included a figure in a niche or leaning from a window. For example, his Girl with an Oil Lamp and Fisherman's Wife both feature a window.
— earlier Self-Portrait (1638)
— a later Self-Portrait (1663)
— an ever later Self-Portrait (1665)
Old Woman Reading a Lectionary (Rembrandt's Mother) (1630, 71x55cm; _ ZOOM) _ Young Dou admired and imitated Rembrandt, his teacher, closely. He frequently used Rembrandt's schemes and paraphernalia. A comparison of his Old Woman Reading a Bible (also called Rembrandt's Mother) with Rembrandt's Old Woman Reading (1631) shows the master's superiority and the student's limitations. The face Dou painted is like a mask; it has a frozen surface which appears to have been over-exposed to the light.
      The woman is reading about the entry of Jesus into Jericho, an episode from Saint Luke's Gospel (19:1-27). The illustration shows the tax-collector Zacchaeus, who climbed into a tree to observe the event. Jesus, who is shown looking up at him, went to the man's house despite his disciples' objections to his visiting a tax-collector, for the profession was considered corrupt. To Protestants, the story proved that sinners are saved by faith (to Catholics too, but not by faith ALONE: “Zacchaeus stood up and said to the Lord, "Look, Lord! Here and now I give half of my possessions to the poor, and if I have cheated anybody out of anything, I will pay back four times the amount." [Luke 19:8] See also 1 Cor 13:2 ” if I have a faith that can move mountains, but have not love, I am nothing.” and 13:13 “these three remain: faith, hope and love. But the greatest of these is love.” and James 2:17: “faith by itself, if it is not accompanied by action, is dead.”).
“He wanted to see who Jesus was, but being a short man he could not, because of the crowd. 4 So he ran ahead and climbed a sycamore-fig tree to see him, since Jesus was coming that way. 5 When Jesus reached the spot, he looked up and said to him, "Zacchaeus, come down immediately. I must stay at your house today." (Luke 19:3-5)
     _ Gerard Dou painted this old woman in great detail. He was particularly accurate in his rendering of the various materials: the different types of fur in the cap and the collar, the structure of the paper, the cotton and the velvet, the gold of the brooch. Dou delicately depicted the skin of the face and hand, and even the capitals in the book are legible. Gerard Dou's minutely detailed style earned him the name 'fijnschilder'. He developed his method of painting in the studio of Rembrandt, his teacher. Dou was admired in his own day for the accuracy of his 'fijnschilder' paintings.
     When Dou painted this portrait he was still a student at Rembrandt's studio. The models, like this elderly woman, were often employed on a regular basis. This painting was therefore at one time attributed to Rembrandt. In fact, the latter's painting of the same subject, an old woman with a book, was quite different. In Rembrandt's The Prophetess Anna (aka Rembrandt's Mother) (1631, 60x48cm), the contrast between light and dark is dramatic, while Dou distributed the light evenly across the entire picture. Moreover, Dou painted everything precisely, while Rembrandt only used detail in selected places.
     The old woman in Dou's painting is reading in a lectionary the account of the entry of Christ into Jericho, in the Gospel according to Saint Luke. Dou's lectionary is rendered in much more detail than the book in Rembrandt's painting. It is another indication of the difference in approach between the two artists. Rembrandt showed with a few strokes of the brush that this was a book with text; in Dou's painting you can actually read the capital letters. Another fine example of a book in a painting by Dou can be seen in his Self Portrait.
Rembrandt's Mother (600x484pix, 124kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1129pix, 427kb) _ Not reading, seated holding a fan, pensative, while the servant pours a drink.
Rembrandt's Mother (600x484pix, 124kb _ ZOOM not recommended to blurry 1400x1014pix, 131kb) _ Looks more like an old man, reading; book's cover, not text, is seen.
The Night School (53x40cm; _ ZOOM) _ Four candles illuminate this scene. The rest is clothed in darkness. Children are gathered in the candlelight doing their lessons. In the foreground a girl is reciting her lesson. The teacher holds her curling paper down with a stick, while at the same time admonishing the boy on the right. An hourglass on the table shows when the lesson is over. This small painting must have been made before 1665: that was the year it was first exhibited 1665 exhibition In 1665, twenty-seven works by Gerard Dou were exhibited at the home of the painter Johannes Hannot. All the paintings were from the collection of one person, Leiden art collector Johan de Bye. Dou was 52 in 1665 and his candlelight paintings were world-famous. This finely painted picture was the showpiece of the exhibition due to the wonderful light effects in it.
     This panel has always been called The Night School, although whether it really depicts a night school is doubtful. In the seventeenth century, the children who went to school in the evenings were the less well off. During the day they had to work or learn a trade. The children in this painting appear rather too well dressed to be 'working children'. They seem more likely to be children of the upper middle classes who could go to school during the day. Besides, for the seventeenth century, this is an extremely well-behaved class.
     It is unlikely that this is a real night school, although Gerard Dou appears to have made a close observation of school life, as the various realistic details show. The boy being told off by the schoolmaster has a typical seventeenth-century school bag - a wooden box - under his arm. Dou has also precisely depicted the lanterns that children carried with them in the dark. A little further back, several children are seated around a table. One boy is looking up. He is wearing a hat indoors, which was apparently quite normal at the time. The boy with the school bag has his hat under his arm: he is about to be given a dressing-down by the schoolmaster.
     Dou specialised in night scenes by candlelight. His precise, refined technique attracted considerable admiration. Dou's candlelit scenes were imitated well into the nineteenth century, for instance by Petrus van Schendel.
     Dou was probably attempting to depict a 'Good Upbringing' with this painting. It apparently illustrates of the classic adage that a person who uses 'more oil than wine' at night - meaning that he studies by oil lamp rather than drinking - will gain immortality. Furthermore, the subjects children learned at school varied greatly. It depended on the teacher's interests and education, although all children had to learn to read and write. Boys also studied mathematics and history, while the girls were mainly taught to sew. All children had to study the Bible.
      Dou had learned from his master, Rembrandt, how to achieve contrast between light and shade. Rembrandt had observed this in the work of the Utrecht 'Caravaggists' who, in the 1620s, painted many night scenes. Hendrick ter Brugghen [1588 – 01 Nov 1629] was one of the most famous Caravaggists.
     With the help of chiaroscuro effects, Dou leads the eye of the spectator from one intimate tableau to another. The curtain, which has been pulled to one side, acts as a frame, a repoussoir providing a sense of depth. A repoussoir is an element in a composition that appears to force the remainder into the background. Large objects or figures in the foreground are ideal repoussoirs. They enhance the sense of depth. Trees and curtains are especially common repoussoirs.
The Violin Player (1653, 32x20cm; 683x440pix, 97kb _ ZOOM to 1183x754pix, 113kb _ ZOOM+ to 2366x1507pix, 998kb) _ A man is leaning comfortably out of the window while playing his violin and gazing into the distance. Here Dou follows a composition by Gerrit van Honthorst, though he has transferred it to a smaller format. This refined painting style was very highly regarded by collectors because it was so exquisitely executed, and it also commanded very high prices. Dou’s gift for accurate observation is revealed in the sheet music blowing about in the wind and the richly ornamented carpet hanging over the parapet. His smoothly applied paint shows no sign of brushstrokes. Gentle lighting effects, a subtle use of light and dark areas and his soft modelling reveal the influence of his teacher Rembrandt. The viewer looks through the window into a painter’s workshop where a young man is grinding pigments. The relief under the parapet is a reference to this and shows, among other things, a putto holding a mask in front of his face, an act symbolizing painting. The musician himself could be the artist: portraying artists as musicians was a common theme in Dutch painting. Here, Dou was probably taking music as an inspiration for artists as his theme.
A Hermit Praying (1670, 34x27cm; 1325x1062pix, 1066kb) with hands folded over a large rosary, resting on a Bible. Densely pockmarked, as if fine snow was falling.
Interior with a Woman Peeling Apples (600x738pix, 146kb)
The Lacemaker (600x504pix, 124kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1196pix, 461kb)
The Cook at the Window (600x484pix, 124kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1020pix, 414kb)
Cardplayers by Candlelight (1660) _ Dou can be credited with starting a hardy vogue around the middle of the century for small pictures of nocturnal scenes lit by candlelight or lanterns, which usually throw a harsh red light. In these paintings the incident depicted — children at school, card players, a group around a table — is usually more important than the dramatic potential of the chiaroscuro.
Old Woman with a Candle (1661, 31x23cm) This painting by the student of Rembrandt and the founder of the Leiden school of 'fine painting' represents a type common in Leiden from the mid-1640s: the bust portrait of an allegorical figure in an architectural frame. Here the old woman is shielding a candle flame, symbol of the transience of human life.
Woman Peeling Carrot (57x43cm) _ Dou popularized the the compositional device of a figure engaged at some occupation at a window.
Officer of the Marksman Society in Leiden (1630, 66x51cm) _ The cavernous background contains all the detail of a still life in the carefully painted armor, drum, saddle and guns seen in what must be an arsenal. It is only the figure of the officer with his plumed headband which makes this a genre painting. Like most of Dou's works this picture is quite lacking in incident. The man is no more than a carefully painted object included in the picture along with the rest of the contents of the store-room. _ detail _ The artist is more interested in the still-life occupying the foreground of the painting than the the stiff figure in the background whose clothing seems to be part of the still-life. The helmet, the drum and the shield can be found in several other paintings of the artist.
Painter in his Studio (1647, 43x34cm) _ It is assumed that the painter represented is Rembrandt, the master of Dou.
Old Woman (1645, 20x16cm) _ This small painting is part of a series painted of the same sitter who was probably the artist's mother.
A Woman (82x65cm) _ At one time this portrait was attributed to Jan Vermeer van Delft.
Old Woman Watering Flowers (1664, 28x23cm) _ Dou popularized the the compositional device of a figure engaged at some occupation at a window.
The Physician (1653, 49x37cm) _ Dou was an assistant and student of the young Rembrandt between 1628 and 1631. He became a master of the genre painting with a lot of still-life elements. A characteristic example of his works is The Physician
The Quack (1652, 112x83cm) _ This painting shows the characteristic qualities of the style of Dou and of the Leiden school he was to start: meticulous drawing, high or ever slick finish, and dark glossy colors — hence the name of the school: the Leiden Fijnschilders”.
Young Mother (1658) _ In 1660 the States of Holland selected Dou's Young Mother as one of the precious gifts to Charles II on the occasion of the Restoration. This picture is painted so finely as hardly to be distinguished from enamel.
The Grocer's Shop (1647, 38x29cm) _ Dou popularized the the compositional device of a figure engaged at some occupation at a window. The earliest dated one is this The Grocer's Shop. Soon after, the window motif occurs frequently in the Leiden School. The window frames quickly become more elaborate, bas-reliefs are introduced under the sills, and the windows are draped with curtains.
A Poulterer's Shop (1670) _ Signed on the sill: GDOV [Gd in monogram]. Dou popularised 'niche' pictures of this type, showing an interior seen through an aperture. The painting is a late work, probably of about 1670, and signed below the peahen. The relief on the parapet, showing children playing with a goat, is probably based on a marble bas-relief by François Duquesnoy [1597-1643], famous Flemish sculptor who worked in Rome. The design is also recorded on an ivory plaquette. It appears in other paintings by Dou from 1651 onwards. This painting can be compared with another work by Dou, the Grocer's Shop of 1672.
The Prayer of the Spinner (28x28cm)
34 images at ARC
 
^ Born on 09 February 1950: Javier Errando Mariscal, dissenyador, dibuixant, pintor, i escultor valenciano.
— Mariscal estudia disseny gràfic a l'Escola Elisava i art imprès a l'Escola Eina de Barcelona. Dibuixa, edita i distribueix El Rrollo enmascarado, el primer còmic underground de l'estat espanyol (1974). Posteriorment, publica els seus dibuixos a Star, El Víbora, Cairo o Vogue. Ha realitzat tot tipus de treballs gràfics, d'illustració i publicitaris, com la creació del conegut logotip BAR CEL ONA (1979), a més de dissenys d'objectes i mobiliari, decoració i interiorisme que han tingut una difusió internacional, com la collaboració amb la firma Menphis de Milà. A partir del 1988, data en què el dibuix del seu personatge "Cobi" és triat com a mascota olímpica, participa en activitats relacionades amb el projecte de Barcelona 92.
      També fou autor de les mascotes "Petra", per als paralímpics, i "Nosi", per a l'Olimpíada Cultural dels mateixos Jocs Olímpics del 1992. També ha creat sèries de dibuixos animats per a la televisió, com The Cobi Troupe (1990). La seva obra plàstica ha tingut una important projecció exterior i ha donat peu a nombroses publicacions, així com a exposicions nacionals i internacionals, entre les quals destaca "100 años con Mariscal", a València i Barcelona (1988), i una mostra itinerant a la Takashimaya Art Gallery a Tòquio, Osaka, Kyoto i Yokohama. La seva obra pictòrica, de caràcter irònic i quotidià, està influenciada per la seva activitat com a illustrador. El 1987 participa en la VIII Documenta de Kassel (Alemanya).

Infinita Highway Gilson (1083x1422pix, 103kb)
Far de Fomentera
Vinyetes
Carros (1998) [baix]


carros

Died on a 09 February:

^ 1960 Aleksandr Nikolayevich Benois, Russian theater art director, painter, and ballet librettist born on born on 04 May (21 Apr Julian) 1870. With the painter Léon Bakst [10 May 1886 – 28 Dec 1924] and Sergey Diaghilev [31 Mar 1872 – 19 Aug 1929] he cofounded the magazine Mir iskusstva, from which sprang the Diaghilev Ballets Russes. Benois aspired to achieve a synthesis of new western European trends and certain elements of traditional Russian folk art; Mir iskusstva, established in 1899 in St. Petersburg, attacked the low artistic standards of the realist Peredvezhniki Society and the deadening influence of the Russian Academy and stressed individualism and artistic personality. The magazine, which he coedited until 1904, soon exerted great influence on stage design. Benois began his career about 1901 at the Mariinsky Theatre, St. Petersburg, as scenic designer for the ballets Sylvia and Cupid's Revenge. When the Diaghilev Ballets Russes opened in 1909, Benois designed decor and costumes for, among others, Les Sylphides (1909), Giselle (1910), and Petrushka (1911), on which he collaborated with Igor Stravinsky. His later works include grand designs for La Valse (1929), The Nutcracker (1940), and Graduation Ball (1957), for which he also wrote the libretto. Among his writings are Reminiscences of the Ballet Russe (1941) and Memoirs (1960). Benois's collaboration with Stravinsky and Michel Fokine presented some of the greatest dance drama inhistory and helped found modern ballet. — Russian painter, mainly in watercolor, art historian and stage designer. Born in Saint-Petersburg of French and Italian descent, son of Nikolai Benois, architect to the Imperial Palaces in Peterhof. Briefly attended a part-time course in stage design at the Academy of Arts 1887, but otherwise self-taught as an artist. Studied law at the University of Saint-Petersburg 1890-1894, and while still a student formed a circle with a number of friends, including Diaghilev, Somov and Bakst, for the purpose of studying art. This later developed into Mir Iskusstva, which held exhibitions and published a journal of the same name, 1898-1904. Traveled widely in Europe and was influenced by the art of the eighteenth century. Became very active and influential as a stage designer, including sets and costumes for Le Pavillon d'Armide (1907) and, for Diaghilev, Petrushka (1911) and Le Rossignol (1914). Edited the periodical Khudozhestvennye sokrovishcha Rossii 1901-1903, and wrote several books on art and volumes of memoirs. Curator of Painting at the Hermitage 1918-25, then moved in 1926 to Paris, where he continued to paint and design for the theater. Benois died in Paris. — LINKS
Chinese Pavilion, the Jealous One (612x638pix, 103kb)
Limburg an der Lahn (1894, 36x26cm; 512x378pix, 25kb)
View of the ''Monplaisir'' and Catherine's Block, Peterhof (1921 slightly tinted lithograph, 25x36cm; 575x893pix, 325kb)
Stage design for Petrushka (1911; 348x478pix, 58kb)
— a different Stage design for Petrushka (1911; 348x486pix, 60kb)
Stage design for Petrushka (1920; 430x540pix, 118kb)

1920 Pietro Scoppetta, Italian artist born on 15 February 1863. — {Scoppetta? scopetta? little broom?}

^ 1918 Wilhelm List, Austrian artist born on 22 November 1864. — {It seems that not many Internet artists' biographies' lists list List} — List studied at the Academy in Vienna, where he was a student of Griepenkerl, and then attended the classes of William Bouguereau in Paris. In 1897 he was co-founder of the Viennese Secession and exhibited there first. Comparable to Gustav Klimt, he revealed himself as a remarkable portraitist, as shown in The Woman in black and white, where his technique of divided colors and fine long brush strokes, with a dominance of blue, evokes the works of Edmond Aman-Jean during the same period. But List is best known for his engravings, where he used wood and lithography in turn. He collaborated on the review Ver Sacrum from 1898 to 1903, and he was one of the twelve illustrators of the 1902 catalogue for the Viennese Secession which was dedicated to Beethoven. He left the Vienna Secession together with the artists around Klimt in 1905. — LINKS
The Transfiguration of Saint Elisabeth (1905, 161x79cm; 313x640pix, 36kb)
(Autumn River Landscape) (350x290pix, 46kb)
Untitled (Love of Music?) (woodcut; 640x599pix, 187kb)

1916 Aloys François Joseph Loir, French artist born on 22 December 1845.

^ 1905 Adolf Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel, German Realist painter, draftsman, illustrator, printmaker, and teacher, born on 08 December 1815. He was the most important artist working in Berlin in the second half of the 19th century and in his later years was one of the most successful and respected artists in Germany. Living virtually all his life in Berlin, he executed numerous paintings and illustrations relating to events in Prussia’s recent history and was the foremost chronicler of the life of Frederick the Great (reg 1740–1786). Through his portraits and industrial scenes and his more intimate studies of interiors and local religious events he became one of the greatest German proponents of Realism. — LINKS
–- Meissonier's Studio, circa 1880-1889 (22x30cm; 870x1186pix, 117kb)
The Artist's Sister with a Candle (1847)
Die Schachpartie (1836; 600x590pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1377pix)
255 images at Bildindex —(070208)

1675 Ambrosius Brueghel, Antwerp Flemish painter born on 10 August 1617.— After the death of his father, Jan 'Velvet' Brueghel [1568 – 13 Jan 1625], Ambrosius was placed under the guardianship of Rubens, Hendrick van Balen, Cornelis Schut, and Pieter de Jode. — Ambrosius Brueghel was grandson of Pieter Brueghel the Elder [1525-1569], half-brother and possibly student of Jan Brueghel the Younger [13 Sep 1601 – 1678], nephew of Pieter Brueghel the Younger [1564-1638]


Born on a 09 February:


>1963 John N. Clarke, British painter, printmaker, and digital artist..
Self-Portrait (1347x1798pix, 583kb)
Milk Snatcher (1982, 88x95cm; 2224x3072pix) _ first in his blood sacrifice series.
Rainbow Scribble Board (4821x6803pix, 2001kb) Milk Snatcher developed using phutto “just to keep the gook on his toes”.
sack (5180x8130pix, 2586kb) _ one of his paintings about blood sacrifice.
Last Blair Standing (2008; 4680x4596pix, 2225kb)
Tribute (2009, 6184x8762pix, 2228kb) _ Jeff Lynne impersonator (Dr. Johhny) and G.T. (from Coronation Street) pay tribute the founder of E.L.O.
Saatchi the tank engine (2484x3432pix, 1925kb) _ After a long day collecting eggs, Saatchi returns to the roost and the comforting teat of Nigella.
Egg Head (2009; 3600x2291pix, 1309kb) mostly grayscale, pencil on paper scanned and then enhanced in photoshop.
Vulture Capitalism (2008; 2718x2029pix; 1759kb)
Eyes on the future (2009; 5674x7488pix, 1912kb)
The Ghost of Tommy Garrity (3063x4069pix, 1816kb) combined artwork and photos
Earthalien (7600x6587pix)
Heavenraser (2112x2866pix, 1878kb) —(100224)

^ 1932 Gerhard Richter, German painter. — LINKS
–- Farbtafel (900x672pix, 25kb) _ 8 rectangles of different colors. _ The pseudonymous Gersoft Poorter has demonstrated that such pictures can be done much more economically of bandwith, namely only 6kb for not one, but all eight together of his screen-filling
      _ Farblauch 1, Farblauch 2, Farblauch 3, Farblauch 4, Farblauch 5, Farblauch 6, Farblauch 7, and Farblauch 8. You can make them almost any size you want by adjusting the size of your browser window, and you can rapidly click from one to the next.
–- 9 von 180 Farben (622x800pix, 22kb) _ 9 rectangles of different colors._ Again Poorter has bested that with his
      _ 3x3=9 (600x800pix, 1kb),
      _ 9 of 180 (600x800pix, 1kb), and his
      _ 180 of 9 (636x900pix, 8kb). Then, leaving the bare HTML for a graphic program, he produced the much more interesting
      _ 9 Nov 1800 (screen-filling, 186kb)
–- 1260 Farben (B. 52) (697x858pix, 135kb) _ Poorter could have made an HTML table to emulate this picture, but it would have been tedious. So he produced the slightly more imaginative
      _ 1260621 (1000x1414pix, 273kb)
–- Grün-Blau-Rot (683x900pix, 58kb) _ Poorter, who can never leave bad enough alone, offers this more rotten version,
      _ Grin, Blow, Rot (screen-filling, 303kb)
–- Rot-Blau-Gelb (454x900pix, 36kb) _ More rot which Poorter couldn't resist rotting further into
      _ Rot, Blow Gel (1000x1414pix, 300kb)
–- Abstraktes Bild (450-2) (690x800pix, 45kb)
–- a different Abstraktes Bild (693x854pix, 104kb)
–- yet another Abstraktes Bild (781x776pix, 35kb)
–- 1970-264 (1970; 506x760pix, 21kb) white clouds in a blue sky, nothing else. _ Poorter has again demonstrated that he can be a maximalist, by combining this and the almost as bland previous picture and metamorphosing them into the colorful symmetrical abstractions rich in fine detail
      _ Abs on the Track to Build (2006; 724x1024pix, 314kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 644kb _ ZOOM+ to 2636x3728pix, 4020kb) and
      _ Build Abs on the Track (2006; 724x1024pix, 314kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 644kb _ ZOOM+ to 2636x3728pix, 4020kb) —(070208)

>1929 Howard Earl Kanovitz [–02 Feb 2009], US painter who was a a pioneer of the Photo Realism style of painting, which emerged in the 1960s as a reaction against abstraction in general and Abstract Expressionism in particular. Rather than entirely deconstructing or obliterating the recognizable in their painted imagery, the Photo Realists sought nearly, but not quite, to recreate the real and thus suggest an ambiguity between that and what is imagined. They drew on actual photographs as research for their paintings, sometimes as virtual blueprints, and presented their images with photographic detail. Kanovitz’s technique was to project photographic images onto a canvas and paint over them, allowing them to guide the work in composition and scale. Works presented in 1966 at his first solo show as a Photo Realist put him at the forefront of a movement that gathered momentum in the next several years and included Chuck Close, Ralph Goings, and Richard Estes. His influence was that he made working from photographs seem like a good idea. Often misunderstood as photographic replication, Photo Realism was actually more about questioning what is thought of as reality than about representing it. The son of a clothing manufacturer, Kanovitz graduated from Providence College and later spent two years at the Rhode Island School of Design; he also studied art history at New York University. As a painter, Kanovitz was a student of Franz Kline, and his early work, in the 1950s, was in the Abstract Expressionist nongeometric, emotion-infused style favored by Kline, Jackson Pollock, and others, which Kanovitz abondoned in the early 1960s. Kanovitz with no thought of becoming a painter, but rather a musician. Before becoming an artist he played the trombone professionally. He continued to play throughout his life, often in the company of his friend and fellow painter Larry Rivers, who played the saxophone. Along with Rivers, Kanovitz was among the writers, artists and musicians that made Greenwich Village and the east end of Long Island the unofficial capital of hip in the 1950s and 1960s. Willem de Kooning, Frank O’Hara, Kenneth Koch, and Terry Southern were among them.
The Opening (1967, 18x36cm; 331x600pix, 41kb) It shows painters, critics, curators and the like at the opening of an exhibition of paintings (which are not seen). The people were drawn from photographs taken at actual art openings. As companion pieces, Kanovitz made stand-alone paintings of individual people (also from photos taken at openings) who are seen looking at the painting The Opening, suggesting the relationship between looking and being looked at, and also this painting in which five persons, seen from their back, are looking at The Opening:
— .The People (center) (1968, 359x505pix, 61kb)
East End Trilogy (1980, 82x70cm; 720x531pix, 144kb).
The Ground Above Us (1980, 82x61cm; 460x332pix, 33kb).
Visible Difference (1980, 82x70cm; 732x531pix, 137kb).
Windmill Antilles (1980, 82x70cm; 721x531pix, 123kb).
howardkanovitz.com —(090210)

1815 Federico de Madrazo y Kuntz [–10 Jun 1894], Spanish painter. — LINKS
Self-Portrait (1840; 1253x936pix, 401kb)
Doña Amalie de Llano y Dotres, Condesa de Vilches (not “Witches”) (1853, 126x89cm; 2235x1576pix, 354kb) she is dressed and posed so as to appear to have the waist of a wasp.
Elizabeth Wethered Barringer (1852, 142x100cm; 1024x683pix, 143kb) not at all weathered, the painting is in excellent condition..
Pedro de Valdivia (790x615pix, 159kb) —(090208)

1815 Reinhard Sebastian Zimmermann, German painter who died (main coverage) on 16 November 1893. —(100208)

^ 1794 (or 10 or 11 Feb 1794) Henri Auguste Calixte César Serrur, French painter who died (main coverage) on 02 September 1865. —(100208)

^ 1662 Paolo de Matteis, Italian painter and silversmith who died on 26 July (26 Jan?) 1728. He studied under Francesco di Maria. De Matteis was important to the history of painting in Naples in the transitional period between the 17th and 18th centuries. His elegant art encouraged the movement away from Baroque drama towards a more tender, rocaille style in harmony with the earliest manifestations in Naples of the Arcadian school of poetry and of the Enlightenment. He painted frescoes, altarpieces and allegorical and mythological pictures. — De Matteis was first trained in Luca Giordano's workshop in Naples. Before 1683 he launched his career in Rome, where, according to legend, he was "discovered" by the Spanish ambassador while copying altarpieces in Saint Peter's Cathedral. When the ambassador was nominated Viceroy of Naples, de Matteis followed him there. Responding to changing tastes and Carlo Maratta's influence, de Matteis developed a delicate, graceful manner that broke with the vigor of the Baroque. Within ten years, his reputation was international, rivaling that of Francesco Solimena. From 1702 to 1705, de Matteis worked for the French court in Paris, where he met influential nobles and bankers; the elegant French style confirmed the direction his painting had already taken. Returning to Naples, which the Austrians had seized from Spain, de Matteis accepted commissions from both the Austrian aristocracy and intellectuals and nobility abroad. Renowned for his speed and virtuosity, he also painted decorative schemes for Neapolitan churches. In 1712 the third Earl of Shaftesbury, a renowned aesthetician, hired de Matteis to paint a canvas according to the Earl's own aesthetic theories. Between 1723 and 1725, de Matteis lived in Rome, where he received a commission from Pope Innocent XIII. In his final years, he made models for sculpture in silver. — The students of de Matteis included Sarnelli, Inácio de Oliveira Bernardes, Francesco Peresi. — LINKS
An Allegory of Divine Wisdom and the Fine Arts (1685, 359x253cm; 480x340pix, 49kb) _ At the very top of the composition, a personification of Science extends her arm to Painting, while Architecture sits at her feet with a compass and a rolled-up architectural drawing. Virtue holds a laurel wreath over the head of the central figure, who displays a canvas of Time revealing Truth. Known for his facility, Paola de' Matteis supposedly completed this elaborate canvas, his earliest known painting, in only five days, soon after his return from Rome. The smooth, clear contours and idealized beauty of Virtue reflect the classicizing lessons he learned there, while the foreshortened figure of Science reveals his roots in the dramatic Neapolitan Baroque.
Galatea (768x784pix)

1617 Nicolaas van Eyck I, Dutch artist who died in 1679.

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