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ART “4” “2”-DAY  05 February v.7.50
^ Born on 05 February 1808: Carl Spitzweg, Munich German painter who died on 23 September 1885.
— He began his career as a pharmacist, and turned fairly late to art, first as a newspaper caricaturist, then as a painter. Although he traveled widely (England, France, Italy, and elsewhere), he was provincial in his choice of subjects and is an outstanding representative of the Biedermeier* style. His pictures are generally small, humorous in content, and full of lovingly depicted anecdotal detail (e.g. The Poor Poet). He also painted excellent landscapes that show a debt to the Barbizon School.
— He got trained (1825–1828), at his father’s insistence, as a pharmacist, by 1829 becoming manager of a pharmacy in the Straubing district of Munich. From 1830 to 1832 he made advanced studies in pharmacy, botany and chemistry at the University of Munich, passing his final examination with distinction. On receiving a large legacy in 1833, which made him financially independent, he decided to become a painter. He had drawn since the age of 15 and had frequented artistic circles since the late 1820s; but he had no professional training as a painter. He learnt much from contacts with young Munich landscape painters such as Eduard Schleich the elder and produced his first oil paintings in 1834.
      In 1835 Spitzweg became a member of the Munich Kunstverein but left two years later due to disappointment over the reception of the first version of Der arme Poet (1837; second version 1839), a scene of gently humorous pathos that has since become his most celebrated work {it does NOT mean “the armed Poet”, “the army Poet”, nor “the arm of the Poet”}. Spitzweg’s decision to leave the Kunstverein, however, was also encouraged by his first successful attempts to sell his paintings independently. In 1839 he visited Dalmatia, where he made sketches that he used for many later works on Turkish themes (e.g. The Turkish Coffee House, 1860). From the 1840s he traveled regularly, usually with his close friend, the painter Eduard Schleich [12 Oct 1812 – 08 Jan 1874], both within Bavaria and to Austria and Switzerland and also to the Adriatic coast, especially to Trieste. At this time Spitzweg generally painted humorous scenes, most of them showing individual figures in comic situations, for example The Butterfly Catcher (1840).
— Spitzweg came from well to do middle class circumstances and originally worked as a pharmacist. Only after suffering a serious illness did he decide to follow his real calling and dedicate himself entirely to painting. Thanks to his established position in society and an inheritance, he was able to practice his art with no financial worries. Nevertheless the loner Spitzweg, who was self-taught, insisted on acknowledgement as a professional artist. This, however, came only in 1868 when he was named honorary member of the Munich Art Academy. During his lifetime Spitzweg sold upwards of 400 paintings. His admirers and buyers came especially from the new buying power of the positioned middle class, even though the real popularity that he enjoys today came only after the second World War.
      Spitzweg's small-format genre paintings reflect the life of the lower middle-class, the primarily non-political folk of the Restoration. Negative and disturbing elements are left out. For the most part the paintings show untroubled small town life or country idylls with somewhat eccentric, albeit harmless citizens who lead primarily tranquil lives. Even though Spitzweg repeatedly infuses these works with an ironic, mocking quality, the understated criticism, aimed at the self chosen limitations of the private existence of these individuals, is always rather kind-hearted. Spitzweg also showed an interest in landscape painting spurred on by his friendship with the artists Schleich and Morgenstern. His late landscape works stand out due to their very liberal painterly execution and realistic depiction and are a part of the progressive tendencies of the landscape painting movement of the day.
— * Biedermeier: Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves), who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes, and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favor of sobriety, domesticity, and often sentimentality. There were, as is to be expected, no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners, such as Waldmüller. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. biscuit

The Angler (25x18cm; 1215x850pix, 161 kb) _ A landscape, in which the figure of the angling monk was painted by Spitzweg in ten versions.
Der arme Poet (1835?, 155x221 cm?, 900x1137pix, 100kb)
  _ Der arme Poet (Erste Fassung) (1837, 38x45cm; 257x301pix, 32kb) GNM
  _ Der arme Poet (Zweite Fassung) (1839; 600x756pix, 201kb)
  _ Spitzweg was regarded as the secluded "painter-poet of Munich's Heumarkt," an eccentric who never displayed his extensive traveling. With Spitzweg, Biedermeier painting as such comes to an end. He is still describing this world, but with the objectivity and distance of the observer. He can invest the seemingly idyllic scenes and subjects with a humor that is often biting. The Poor Poet is and apt example of this. Three versions of the Poor Poet are known. It is thought that Etenhuber [1720-1782], a poet living in impoverished circumstances in Munich, was the model. Spitzweg shows the poet writing in bed to keep warm, for there is snow outside on the roofs and he has no wood to heat the stove. But he seems unconcerned at his scant means and the leaking roof, and his pen in his mouth, he counts off the meter of his rhyme on his fingers.
  _ In seinem berühmten Gemälde schildert Spitzweg einen Sonderling, der fern von der Welt seine Verse schmiedet. Eigenwillig anrührend geht der "arme Poet" unter seiner Zipfelmütze in seinem armseligen Dachstübchen seinen dichterischen Träumen nach. Die Zipfel- oder Nachtmütze erlangte in jener Zeit der politischen Reaktion einen gewissen Signalwert. Sie geisterte durch die Literatur und in aufreizender Massierung durch Zeichnungen der Karikaturisten. Als Symbol "gesicherter" Abendruhe wurde sie zum Zeichen des verschlafenen, aus der Politik ausgeschlossenen Bürgers. Insbesondere in der französischen Karikatur wurde die "Nachtmütze" zum verschlüsselten Manifest von Respektwidrigkeit.
Orientale Im Bazar (76x61cm)
Schwäbischen Mädchen an einem Gartenzaun (14x21cm)
Wascherinnen am Brunnen (29x35cm)
The Angler (25x18cm)
The Bookworm (79x50cm)
The Botanist (35x56cm)
The Convent-School Outing (1860, 32x54cm)
^ Died on 05 February 1888: Anton Mauve, Dutch Romantic painter in oil and watercolor, and etcher, of landscapes with animals and peasants; a member of the Hague School. He was born on 13 (18?) September 1838. — {Mauve paintings are not mauve paintings: they tend more to green}.
— He was born in Zaandam, the son of a Mennonite preacher. Anton Mauve spent his youth in Haarlem, where he studied under the animal painters P.F. van Os and Wouterus Verschuur, and began his career as a painter of horses. Lived on and off at Oosterbeek 1858-1874, becoming very friendly from about 1862 with Willem Mans. Settled in 1874 in The Hague, where he began to paint sheep, and scenes of horses and men hauling fishing boats on the beach. Gave painting lessons to van Gogh, his wife's cousin, for three weeks in 1881-1882. Mauve spent much time in Laren from 1882 and settled there 1885. His late pictures include scenes of peasants at their work, influenced by Millet, and some landscapes without animals or humans. He died at Arnhem.
— Mauve, like his friends Jozef Israëls and the three Maris brothers, was profoundly influenced by the French landscape painter Camille Corot [16 Jul 1796 – 22 Feb 1875] and the Barbizon school. Mauve settled at The Hague about 1870, painting in the neighbouring fishing village of Scheveningen. Herehe became part of a group of artists known as the Hague school, whose members specialized in representing landscapes and scenes of rural life in The Netherlands. In 1885 he went to live in the country at Laren, near Hilversum, where he brought together a group of landscape painters who came to be known as the “Dutch Barbizon.” Mauve's pictures are subdued in color and similar to those of Corot in their harmonies of grays and blues. His major pictures include Cows in Meadow and Dune Landscape. He was an accomplished watercolorist. His wife was a cousin of Vincent van Gogh [30 Mar 1853 – 29 Jul 1890], to whom Mauve gave advice about oil painting in 1881 and1882.
— Antonij Mauve was born in Zaandam in 1838. At the age of 16, he left for Haarlem where he was apprenticed to the artist Pieter Frederik van Os, a specialist in cattle, followed by Wouterus Verschuur who painted horses. Together with Paul Gabriel, ten years his senior, he would often go into the countryside to paint directly from nature. From the age of twenty he regularly stayed and worked in Oosterbeek, where many artists went, as well as in The Hague, Scheveningen, Amsterdam, Dordrecht and Drente. In 1871 he moved into a studio in The Hague, where he became a prominent figure in the art world. With his evocative landscapes of fields with cattle Mauve belonged to the the Hague School.
— Mauve came from a large family of clergymen in the province of North Holland. At the age of 16 he was apprenticed to the animal painter Pieter Frederik van Os [1808–1892]: animals (especially sheep, but also cows and horses) became Mauve’s preferred theme. He then was trained for a few months by Wouterus Verschuur, who gave him his love of horses, in the style, at least, of Paulus Potter and Philips Wouwerman. Initially Mauve painted horses above all else, not the shining animals Verschuur painted, but worn-out plodding beasts.
      In 1858 Mauve joined his much older friend Paul Gabriël on a trip to Oosterbeek, the Dutch Barbizon, where he met Gerard Bilders and Willem Maris, two artists who were to have an enormous influence on him. The premature death of Bilders, a painter with whom he shared emotionalism and fickleness of mood, came as a great shock to Mauve. Apart from Bilders, Willem Maris, who was six years his junior, was a lifelong friend. There are a number of similarities between their work as well as essential differences: Mauve tended to add human figures to his animal pieces, whereas the youngest of the Maris brothers did not; Mauve’s cows, horses and sheep seem more peaceful than Maris’s, at times almost listless. For a long time Mauve was impressed by Maris’s virtuosity as a painter, although he eventually adopted a different style. There is a clear relationship between man and animal or between the animals themselves in Mauve’s paintings, a noticeable difference from Maris’s pictures.
— The students of Mauve included Vincent van Gogh [1853-1886], Jan Pieter Veth, Philip Zilcken.

Morning Ride on the Beach (1876, 45x70cm) _ Four riders, seen from the back, descend at a leisurely pace from the dunes to the beach. It is a summer's day, about noon: the sun is high and shadows are short. Well-to-do, well-dressed equestrians are taking a relaxing ride on the beach at Scheveningen, a popular coastal resort of the day. At the foot of the dune are a number of bathing huts. These riding horses are an unusual feature in a painting by Mauve. He usually painted workhorses and animals in their natural environment. He was particularly famous for his landscapes with sheep.
     Morning Ride on the Beach was painted with a rough brushstroke and little detail. The woman's face, for example, is just a patch of color, with no clear expression, while the figures in the distance are one or two loosely painted strokes of the brush. And yet the subject is immediately recognizable to the viewer. Like other painters of the Hague School, Mauve borrowed this style of painting from the French impressionists. Mauve was not as extreme as some of his colleagues who built up entire compositions with dots of unmixed paint, without any contours. Only at a distance did the colors merge into a whole.
     Like the French Impressionists, Mauve focused on the atmosphere in a landscape, the soft sand and the hot haze, and particularly the way the light falls. For example, he studied the effect of the light on horses closely. The shiny coat of the dark horses tends to absorb light, while the quarters of the lighter horse reflect the sun's rays like a mirror. The rear of the grey horse is heightened with a dab of white.
     When the original, rather yellowed varnish was removed some years ago, the painting's bright, clear air reappeared. Mauve's masterpiece was returned to its former state. During restoration, horse droppings that had once been painted over were rediscovered. Mauve appears to have considered this natural phenomenon pertinant to the overall composition. Later owners thought the detail rather improper for a major work of art and painted over the offending items with a lighter shade.
      Other painters were inspired by Scheveningen, see for example:
      _ van Gogh:
      _ The Beach at Scheveningen in Calm Weather (1882)
      _ The Beach at Scheveningen in Stormy Weather (1882)

      _ Simon de Vlieger:
      _ Beach near Scheveningen with Fish-Sellers (1643)

      _ Willem van de Velde the Younger:
      _ The Shore at Scheveningen
      _ The Embarkation of Charles II at Scheveningen
      _ The Burning of the Andrew at the Battle of Scheveningen

      _ Boudin:
      _ The Beach at Scheveningen (1890)
      _ Low Tide at Scheveningen (1878)
      _ Scheveningen, Boats Aground on the Shore (1875)
      _ The Beach at Scheveningen (after Adriaen van de Velde) (1855)

      _ Adriaen van de Velde:
      _ The Beach at Scheveningen (1658)

      _ Albert Neuhuys:
      _ Cottagers At Scheveningen

      _ Rombouts:
      _ Coast at Scheveningen (1687)

      _ Salomon Leonardus Verveer:
      _ Figures in the Dunes Near Scheveningen (1866)

      _ Floris Arntzenius:
      _ Figures on the Beach, Scheveningen

      _ Jan van Goyen:
      _ Seashore at Scheveningen (1645)
      _ Beach at Scheveningen (1646)

      _ Mesdag:
      _ Summer Sunset, Scheveningen

Riders in the Snow of the Woods at The Hague (1879, 44x27cm) _ A winter woodland scene with three riders, in gentle grey, greyish white, yellow, a little brown and red. It is misty. The branches are set against the softly sunlit sky; snow has fallen and there is more snow coming. Anton Mauve has captured the atmosphere of a winter day precisely: the freezing cold, the icy mist is almost tangible. By showing the riders from behind, the sense of desolation is even greater.
     Mauve depicted the snowy landscape with a range of greys and whites. Only the white is bodycolor, the rest of the colors are watercolor. Subtle accents give the work a sense of depth. The first rider's hat, for example, is a greyish yellow to contrast against the tree. A touch of red on the hindquarters of the brown horse gives a certain emphasis. Mauve was one of the Hague School of painters: artists who focused on atmosphere and light in nature.
     Mauve's favorite theme was nature in its purest and quietest form. He painted heather, woods, beaches and dunes, often populated with sheep or cows. It was his sheep paintings that made the artist famous. Sometimes a farm worker is seen in the fields, but to preserve the integrity of the landscape Mauve usually played down the human ingredient. One notable exception is Mauve's Morning Ride on the Beach, a painting that portrays the cultivated atmosphere of Scheveningen.
      Winter landscapes were not an uncommon theme for Mauve. He regularly went out in the winter cold to capture the atmosphere and light on canvas or paper. “With unswerving courage we marched through the snow each day, armed with a paintbox that rarely remained out of use”, wrote Mauve's wife in 1885.

–- In the Pasture (59x74cm; 996x1272pix, 127kb)
Gathering Seaweed (110kb)
^ Born on 05 February 1886: Ernest Martin Hennings, US painter, specialized in the US West. who died on 29 May 1956.
— Hennings spent his childhood in Chicago and often visited and later attended the Art Institute of Chicago. After graduating in 1904, Hennings worked as a commercial artist, muralist, and book illustrator. In 1912 he traveled to Europe and studied under Franz Von Stuck and Angelo Junk at the Royal Academy in Munich, Germany. Hennings returned to Chicago in 1914 and resumed commercial work until former mayor of Chicago Carter H. Harrison, Jr., offered to buy one of his paintings under the condition that Hennings traveled to Taos, New Mexico, and become acquainted with the local art community. Harrison instigated similar deals with Hennings’ friends William Ufer and Victor Higgins. Arriving in Taos in 1917, the landscapes, Amerindians, and wildlife of Taos immediately inspired Hennings. He permanently settled there in 1921, the same year he became the youngest and penultimate member of the Taos Society of Artists. Hennings worked on many commissions, including paintings of the Navajos in the Rio Grande area for the Santa Fe Railroad.

Self Portrait (96x79cm; 576x478pix, 216kb)
The Sheep Herder (1925, 102x102cm; 675x624pix, 61kb _ ZOOM to 1012x936pix, 115kb)
An Indian Ong (36x36cm; 864x858pix, 74kb)
Vengeance (127x137cm; 780x850pix, 59kb)
Homeward Bound (436x528pix, 86kb)
Riders at Sunset (76x92cm; 445x528pix, 56kb) _ Tranquility surrounds the riders who are amidst the sage, as shadows lengthen. Hennings had a great love for New Mexico that is truly evident in his expressive paintings. In his own words: “I have been working in Taos for many years and I think that should prove that I like it here; the country, the mountains with their canyons and streams, the sage beneath the clouded skies, the adobe village with its Spanish people, and of course, the Taos pueblo with its Indians.”
Thistle Blossoms (688x700pix, 97kb)
^ Died on 05 February 1635: Joos (or Jodocus, Josse, Joost, Joeys) Momper the Younger, Flemish painter born in 1564.
— Momper was the leading member of an Antwerp family of landscape painters. He was trained by his father, but he probably went to Italy in the 1580s, in which case he would have seen the Alps: he lived in Antwerp, but his works are invariably of great mountains, sometimes influenced by Bruegel, and they form a transition between Mannerist landscape and the realistic type developed in the Netherlands in the 17th century, e.g. by van Goyen. His pictures usually have blue mountains in the background, with a yellowish-green middle distance and a darker foreground peopled by small figures, often painted by Momper himself. Attribution is difficult because of the other members of the family who worked in a similar style.

River Landscape with Boar Hunt (1610)
–- The Valley (1605, 65x106cm; 736x1218pix, 108kb _ .ZOOM to xpix, 854kb _ .ZOOM+ to xpix, 3190kb)
–- Mountain Road (1610, 33x42cm; 997x1317pix, 166kb)
Helicon or Minerva's Visit to the Muses (140x199cm) _ This painting is the result of a co-operation of three artists, Joos de Momper (landscape), Hendrik van Balen (figures) and Jan 'Velvet' Brueghel (flowers). It is an attractive work with a harmonious landscape. The foreground and background merge gradually with one another, forbidding rocks give way to a grand valley, in which the mythological scene forms a balanced component. Ovid describes (Met. 5:250-268) how Minerva visited the Muses on Mt Helicon, their home, to listen to their song and story and to see the sacred spring, the Hippocrene, which flowed from a rock after it had been struck by the hoof of the winged horse, Pegasus. The scene is a wooded mountain-side where the company of Muses are playing their instruments. Pegasus is seen in the background leaping from a high rock from which water gushes. The association of Minerva and the Muses was in line with the tradition that made her patroness of the arts.
Landscape (174x256cm) _ Joos de Momper followed in the tradition of panoramic landscape established by Patenier and Pieter Bruegel the Elder. The familiar formula of placing browns in the foreground, greens in the middle and light blues in the background establishes the sense of aerial space; also the dark shapes of flying birds against the hazy blues and whites of the sky compound the effect. In the foreground comes the usual picturesque group of figures.
Mountain Scene with Bridges (1600, 53x72cm) _ These distinctively contoured vistas, punctuated by tiny figures in the foreground, and terminating in colorful, increasingly transparent backgrounds, are unmistakably Momper. Distance, scale and breadth - a sensibility that could be called romantic - are combined here with the traditions of earlier Flemish landscape art.
Winter landscape (1620, 50x83cm) _ Momper is rightly regarded as the most important Flemish landscape painter between Pieter Brueghel and Rubens. Brueghel's influence is clearly evident in this winter landscape, and it is quite probable that his son Jan also painted a number of the figures in this picture. Momper's personal achievement lies in his rendering of landscape as a picturesque subject matter in its own right. What we see here is no longer a great universal landscape full of symbolically charged allusions, but a scene whose aesthetic appeal is valued for its own sake. Momper's painting is divided into various planes by a kind of backdrop, against which silhouettes are highlighted by a pale light or dark, thundery clouds. People are making their way along tortuous paths on terrain that seems to be hazardous. Rain-laden stormclouds, sunshine and snow set the atmosphere of the painting. In this respect, Momper has taken an important step towards emancipating the landscape painting as an autonomous genre in which the landscape is not merely a setting for some event, but is treated as a subject matter in its own right.
Tobias' Journey (90x136cm) _ An artist who owed much to Pieter Bruegel the Elder was Joos de Momper, one of the landscape painters preceding the generation of Rubens who made a real contribution to the development of that genre. Although he had also made the usual journey to Italy, it was the example of Bruegel that he followed in his many rocky landscapes, and his vision that was reflected in the vast scale of the composition and the interpretation of perspective in distant views. He usually left the staffage to be painted in by fellow artists specializing in figure painting, as in his Tobias' Journey.
Landscape with the Temptation of Christ (51x83cm)
^ Born on 05 February 1864: Arthur Wardle, British Classicist painter, mostly of animals, who died on 16 July 1949.
— Wardle was one of the finest late Victorian painters of wild animals, and occasionally of wild cats and wild women combined. Wardle also made a large number of superb studies of animals, usually in chalks on colored paper.
— As a pastelist, Wardle has taken a place in the modern British School which he can hardly be said to share with anyone else, a place gained by sheer strength of artistic personality. He had a brilliant appreciation of the genius of pastel; he used it with delightful dexterity. In the first two decades of the 20th century, Arthur Wardle was one of the best known of living British animal painters. He portrayed an astonishing diversity of subjects with an engaging naturalism, and a command of different media. Unlike most British animal and sporting artists who restricted themselves to horse and hound, deer, and domesticated beasts, Wardle both drew and painted every mammal from elephant to mouse, in watercolor, pastel, and oils. Wardle's reputation may have been made with his large mythological paintings, but his most individual work was in pastel which underwent a revival in Britain in the 1890s. Inspired by French art, many leading British artists had experimented successfully with pastel, leading to the foundation of the Pastel Society. Wardle was elected a member in 1911.

A Lionness (28x38cm)
Moon Kissed :: Endymion (25x32cm) _ Endymion was the son of Zeus and the nymph Calyce. According to Greek legend, Endymion was a beautiful young shepherd who slept in a cave on Mount Latmus in Caria. One night while Selene, the moon goddess, drove her chariot through the night sky, she caught sight of the sleeping youth and fell in love with him. Selene contrived that Endymion should sleep forever, so that every night she could descend to embrace him while he slept. Together Endymion and Selene are reputed to have had fifty daughters, representing the fifty moons of the Olympian festal cycle. The story many meanings; some believe Endymion represents the sun, which sets opposite the rising moon, the Latmian cave representing the cave of forgetfuless into which the sun plunges beneath the sea, and others regard him as the personification of sleep or death. Wardle not exclusively an animal painter. He exhibited at the Royal Academy a series of large mythological scenes, which combined figures, often loosely draped, with exotic beasts.
A Bacchante (1909, 99x150cm; 759x1050pix, 76kb) _ In this painting Wardle imagines a Bacchante dancing amongst wild flowers surrounded by 8 equally intoxicated leopards.
The Lure of the North (1912, 85x125cm; 940x1400pix, 86kb) _ This Arctic extravaganza of a painting shows a mermaid (apparently comfortable in icy water) playing her lyre surrounded by three appreciative polar bears (they look like they think that she is playing dinner music and — leaving “playing music” aside — that she IS dinner.) and seagulls hovering in the background (anxious to eat any scraps left by the bears).
The Intruder (20x24ins) _ This is one of Wardle’s finest dog paintings, for it combines his great skill at depicting terriers, with his ability to tell a story. The family of Wire Fox Terriers have been surprised by an ‘intruder,’ in the form of an Irish Terrier. It is painted in Wardle’s mature style, with a vigorous, painterly brushstroke.
Irish Setter (399x550pix, 41kb) _ with no visible means of support... and three paws not visible either, as if sunk in a haze.
^ Born on 05 February 1788: Sarah Goodridge, Massuchusetts painter who died on 28 December 1853, sister of Eliza Goodridge [1798-1882]. Her exceptional natural talent overcame her untutored beginnings to make her a highly successful miniaturist.
—      Goodridge attended district schools and briefly, at age 17, a school in Milton, Massachusetts, where she had gone to live with her elder brother's family. From an early age she had been interested in drawing, but she did not have access to instruction, and, lacking materials, she was generally limited to drawing on birch bark with a pin or on a sand-covered floor with a stick. When her brother moved to Boston, she accompanied him and took advantage of a few lessons. Until 1820 Goodridge alternately wintered in Boston and summered in Templeton, where she taught school on occasion and began making and selling portraits in crayon and watercolor. She studied oil painting for a time, but a meeting with an artist from Hartford, Connecticut, who introduced her to miniature painting on ivory, settled herchoice of medium. Not only did she take to the medium, but miniature painting was also one area of art production in which women could have productive careers during the antebellum period.
      From 1820 Goodridge lived in the home of her sister in Boston and worked steadily in miniature portraiture. Through a friend she met Gilbert Stuart [03 Dec 1755 – 09 Jul 1828], who critiqued her work, gave her further instruction in technique, and in 1825 sat for a portrait that he declared the only true likeness ever done of him. Other famous subjects of her miniatures included Isaiah Thomas [19 Jan 1749 – 04 Apr 1831], General Henry Lee [29 Jan 1756 – 25 Mar 1818], Theophilus Parsons, Daniel Webster [18 Jan 1782 – 24 Oct 1852], and General Henry Knox [25 Jul 1750 – 25 Oct 1806]. The last portrait was a copy of Stuart's only known miniature, made for Goodridge's instruction. The commissions she received over the next three decades were sufficient to support several members of her family in addition to herself. She exhibited her work on five occasions between 1827 and 1835 at the Boston Athenaeum, and in 1828–1829 and 1841–1842 she visited Washington DC with her work. In the late 1840s her output declined, and when her eyesight began to fail she gave up painting entirely in 1851 and settled in Reading, Massachusetts.
— Dozens of Goodridge’s miniatures survive today; they and her neatly written business accounts are the only evidence from her own hand. Sarah Goodridge was a prolific but not lavishly honored miniaturist who made a decent middle-class income from her trade. Born in in Templeton, Massachusetts, the sixth of nine children, she showed an early propensity for drawing. Informal instruction and self-education, and a move to Boston in 1820, brought her to study with the celebrated portraitist Gilbert Stuart. Under Stuart’s influence her skill increased markedly. Upon arrival in Boston, she opened a studio and commenced a nearly thirty-year career in making miniature portraits, often two or three per week. The Boston Athenaeum held five exhibitions of her work between 1827 and 1835, and Goodrich twice traveled to Washington to carry out commissions for her longtime friend and frequent client Daniel Webster. She never married, and earned enough money to raise an orphaned niece and take care of her invalid mother for eleven years. In 1850, due to failing eyesight, Goodridge retired to a house she bought in Reading, Massachusetts. Three years later she died of a stroke at the age of 65.

Beauty Revealed (Self-Portrait) (1823, 6.7x7.9cm; 280x350pix, 32kb) _ This is an extraordinary self-portrait no matter how you look at it. Goodridge painted it on a sliver of ivory shaved so thin that light shines through it. The miniature was a gift from the 40-year-old artist to her famous and frequent client, Daniel Webster. Over the next twenty years, Goodridge would paint her own image two more times, in 1830 and again in 1845. Yet it is to Beauty Revealed (Self-Portrait) that our eyes return. What sort of self did she fashion in that image, and how and why did she modify it over the years?
      Self-fashioning refers to the choices made by artists in self-portraits to associate their images with certain items of clothing, hairstyle, furniture, or scenery. Analyzing these choices reveals a unique perspective on an artist’s view of herself. In Beauty Revealed (Self-Portrait), Sarah Goodridge conjured herself as a kind of visual synecdoche, a part for the whole. Outwardly, at least, the artist offered far more information about her view of herself in her second self-portrait, dated 1830, and in her third and last known self-portrait (1845). Unlike Beauty Revealed, both of these include facial expressions, clothing, hairstyle, and pose that communicate historical and editorial commentary.
      What must Daniel Webster have thought about the self that Beauty Revealed revealed? Of course each brushstroke is a piece of a costume; Goodridge dressed this image with color, shadow, and light. To enhance the three-dimensional effect, she draped the breasts with gradations of color. In order to please the viewer (Webster alone, the miniature format suggests) she crafted each nipple delicately and placed it deliberately and harmoniously. As she mixed the pinks and grays in her paint box, she probably studied her own 40-year-old body and thought about how to best capture its shapes. Through this process she idealized reality. Goodridge costumed these breasts with youth, balance, paleness, and buoyancy. With masterly skill, she used the bare ivory’s luminescence to make the objects seem to glow in particular ways. In this sense the breasts that make up Beauty Revealed are clothed, arranged, fashioned, and we can interpret their adornment as we would any conventional self-portrait.
As she painted Beauty Revealed, what did Goodridge think about? Did she consider herself to be making an object that crossed the boundaries of conduct, class, and gender expectations? Perhaps these boundaries were less clearly marked than we assume today. We know this image came to Webster as a gift, and like any present it suggests a relationship. Can we infer, then, a degree of intimacy between them? Can we attribute a voice to the image? John Updike recently imagined the breasts saying, "We are yours for the taking, in all our ivory loveliness, with our tenderly stippled nipples." Goodridge’s painting does communicate availability, but instead of coquettishness, these breasts seem to confront the world of the viewer. They demand attention. They seem to come forward out of the picture plane. This effect is intentional, and it relies upon masterful use of the luminous ivory, which is thin enough to be semi-transparent. The result is that the breasts seem to glow with more light than an opaque surface would allow. The luminosity contributes to the three-dimensional effect, but the gauzy curtain surrounding the breasts really makes them pop out of the frame. Like curtains drawn back on a Vaudeville stage, the painted image of sensuously bulging fabric defines a space devoted to performance and spectacle. The fabric limits the viewer’s gaze, focuses it. The fabric also erases the rest of the body, suggesting instead its shapes in abstractions. More evocatively than words, this image seduces viewers while attesting to frank openness about female erotic power.
      What company did Goodridge imagine for her portrait? Other breasts in fine art are famously associated with the Madonna. But given Goodridge’s nonacademic artisan’s training, and her family’s association with the Boston Unitarian church, her idealized breasts probably do not derive their authority from the Madonna tradition of bared breasts in art. Perhaps a more likely source for this image is the Venus-Aphrodite motif. She would likely have seen Greenough’s Venus Victrix at the Boston Athenaeum, a sculpture whose breasts are no less ideally represented, albeit in marble and in three dimensions instead of in watercolor on a flat surface.
      Goodridge gave this image to Senator Daniel Webster in 1828. Some would argue that its meaning is therefore private, impossible for outsiders to know. However the stage, with its curtain drawn back, implies a far more public performance than an audience of just one. Fashioning the image with youth and availability suggests a universal appeal. Aligning the image with representations of a pre-Christian goddess broadcasts beyond the private intimacies shared by Goodridge and Webster alone. Goodridge’s first self-portrait communicates a message about erotic license in Anglo-American culture during the 1820s, and communicates it from a woman’s perspective, from someone who did not conform to the domestic stereotype that her peers valued. Any modesty clings to the curtain, which is drawn aside, revealing without shame, without demurring from the viewer’s gaze.
      The title Goodridge gave this self-portrait, Beauty Revealed, suggests that it should be associated with abstractions like "Beauty" (for which Venus is often a simulacrum) and surprises that get "Revealed" after a veil is lifted. The title exhibits the confidence with which she painted and labeled her breasts. Certainly she painted them for Senator Daniel Webster’s pleasure, but to some degree she also painted them for other eyes as well. She fashioned them for audiences in the future, and she relied upon the tradition of pre-Christian celebrations of female desire as a reference to authority. What is beautiful should be revealed, her self-portrait seems to say, and the curtain emphasizes the revelation.
      Perhaps the only other nineteenth-century text that dares to express the erotic jouissance of nineteenth-century, middle-class, Anglo-American culture is Walt Whitman’s "Song of Myself," composed almost thirty years after Goodridge painted Beauty Revealed (Self-Portrait). Whitman’s poem, like Goodridge’s painting, promotes erotic uses by readers and viewers. In "Whoever You Art Holding Me Now in Hand," for example, Whitman tells readers to "put your lips upon mine I permit you," and to thrust his book "beneath your clothing, / Where I may feel the throbs of your heart or rest upon your hip." Like Goodridge’s self-portrait, Whitman’s autobiographical verse joyously defies staid, conventional, shame-ruled representations in print and in pictures. Beauty Revealed (Self-Portrait) and Whitman’s autobiography fashion their makers’ naked bodies with a kind of promise, an effort to reach out and through the representation to viewers. They invite the gaze of readers and viewers without judging them or turning into a coy pose.

Self-Portrait (1845; 40kb) _ Goodrich put some of her biography into this her last known self-portrait, where she showed herself as an artist at work at her easel. She was 57 when she painted it, older than the self portrayed in Beauty Revealed. Her eyes are lowered, denying the viewer the typical eye-to-eye confrontation that usually adorns self-portraits. Partial views of her water glass, her hand, and her shawl hint at her illustrated profession. Posing herself working at her easel, she assumes an active, preoccupied role, too busy even to look at the viewer or mirror. No other female miniaturist painted herself in this pose, although several men did. This painting distinguishes Goodridge from her same-sex peers, Ann Hall, for example, who painted herself arranging flowers, but aligns Goodridge with such prominent US painters as Benjamin West, Charles Willson Peale, and John Trumbull, all of whom fashioned their self-portraits with palettes, brushes, and easels. Goodridge pictures herself as a working person, proud enough of her occupation to depict herself doing it. Unlike West, Peale, and Trumbull, who gaze piercingly outward at viewers, Goodridge refuses a returning gaze, due not to modesty but to distraction. Forever her alien twin is working, frozen in the act of daubing paint, shackled to what Greenblatt would call the authority of male painters of her era and nation.
      Goodridge was a businesswoman as well as an artist, so she must have known that her self-portraits functioned as an advertisement of her skill, as marketing tools, in effect. Her 1845 self portrait is both an example of her work, and it is an illustration of her profession. Potential clients could judge whether this likeness was accurate, and use it to assess the quality of likeness they might see in their own commissioned portraits.
      Is this figure alien to the artist? Careful analysis reveals that light falls rather unflatteringly on her brow and neck. This same light bleaches out part of the eyebrow and rather sloppily daubs yellow on the eyelashes on one side, making the pair of eyes seem unbalanced. Neither bright lips nor fashionable hair decorations embellish this figure. In fact, her scarf, her hair, her dress all seem burdens. These gender markers seem to weigh her down. The dark swags of the painted dress and knotted shawl contribute to a yoked feeling. The hair seems a heavy helmet, under which the prim, elderly looking face appears to recede. The flesh tones are as dull as mayonnaise when compared to the luminous colors of Beauty Revealed, where harmonious balance, light, and color dress the illustrated breasts with youthful energy and vigorous health. The pinks on the elder woman’s cheeks do not vibrate as the pinks giving shape to the breasts. All that her first self-portrait promotes is covered over in her final self-portrait, obscured behind the easel, the table, and the heavy clothing.

Self-Portrait (1830, 9.5x6.7cm; 344x250pix, 24kb)_ Painted between Beauty Revealed and the 1845 image, Goodridge’s 1830 self-portrait is a classic of its genre, and it is comparable with conventional self-portraits by other miniaturists, both men and women. Compared to her last self-portrait, this version of her face seems less burdened, less dour. The color palette for the flesh tones is the same as her first self-portrait; they vibrate with healthful intensity, suggesting a blush. The costume and hair are much more harmoniously arranged around a face that is bright enough to support them. The figure’s off-the-shoulder dress illustrates a certain degree of wealth, as well as her skill at rendering lace and shimmering black silk folds. The hair, too, and an embroidered scarlet shawl reveal her skill at illustrating fabric realistically–as well as her consciousness of fashion, of style. The dynamic 3/4 pose alone aligns the image with all miniatures depicting middle-class women during this period. Nothing in this image betrays the spirit of her first self-image except the pinks and ivories of the skin.
      Look into Goodridge’s painted eyes. Peer closer at her face as it regards viewers. Can you see through the image to the artist who painted it? Is there a hint of the erotic spirit that went into painting her first self-portrait? Her willingness to face us implies an intensity, a soul-searching intimacy. The stippled backdrop is unornamented, increasing the tight focal emphasis on the figure. However something about the pose–the figure’s immobility, and the protective shawl–suggests distance, artifice, and coldness. While this figure begs a viewer’s idle gaze to turn into active inquiry, it yields relatively little in return: just an arch expression, a cool returning gaze, and skin tones that hint at warmth. Although almost nothing of the eroticism of Beauty Revealed (Self-Portrait), painted just two years prior, surfaces here, both images confront the viewer directly, appealing to the senses, insisting upon engagement, while yielding none of the intimacy they promise.
      Assessed as a group, Goodridge’s self-portraits demand a revision of the popular view that middle-class white women in the Jacksonian period conformed universally to the doctrine of sentimental domesticity, with its rigid prescriptions for a woman’s modesty, chastity, piety, and purity. The three miniature paintings fashion versions of a woman who deviates radically from a stereotype, but also conforms to it. Think of Goodridge, therefore, as that particularly American stereotype, the Jack of all Trades, whose opportunism was an essential component of the freewheeling Jacksonian Democracy that emerged among the second generations of U.S. citizens during the 1820s-1840s. Like Whitman’s autobiographical poem, Goodridge’s self-portraits reveal selves large enough to contain multitudes, but whose real power lies in the one-to-one intimacy with the reader or the viewer.

Mrs. Henry K. Newcomb (9.5x6.7cm)
Christopher Columbus Baldwin [1800-1835] (1835, 8.6x6.7cm; 263x200pix, 11kb)

Died on a 05 February:

1687 Jean-Baptiste de la Rose, French artist born in 1612.

Born on a 05 February:

1871 Birger Sven Sandzen, Swedish US artist who died (main coverage) on 19 June 1954. —(070618)

1802 Louis-Charles Verboeckhoven, Belgian marine painter who died on 25 September 1889). Eugène Verboeckhoven. He studied in Brussels under his father, the sculptor Barthélemy Verboeckhoven [1759–1840], and brother, the painter Eugène-Joseph Verboeckhoven [08 Jun 1798 – 19 Jan 1881]. Louis-Charles concentrated on marine painting, generally scenes from the North Sea, as in Dutch Coast (1840). Usually these scenes include a variety of boats, from humble fishing vessels to grand, two-masted brigs from foreign fleets, often shown in swelling or tempestuous seas, their sails billowing in the wind (e.g. Rough Sea, 1841). Verboeckhoven often collaborated with his brother, the latter filling in many of his paintings with figures and animals. His son, Louis Verboeckhoven [–1884], lived in Ghent and painted landscapes, flower-pieces and still-lifes.

^ 1607 Cornelis de Baellieur I, Flemish painter who died on 26 July 1671. He was apprenticed to Anton Lisaert in 1617. Nine years later he became a master in the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke, of which he was dean in 1644–1645. His son, of the same name, also became a painter, but there is nothing left of his work. Cornelis de Baellieur the elder was a painter of small figures and was closely associated with Frans Francken the younger; he may even have worked in his studio. The only known signed and dated work by de Baellieur is the Interior of a Collector’s Cabinet (1637). This picture, which depicts a sumptuously decorated interior with visitors admiring the oil paintings and objets d’art, confirms the skill of this little-known artist. The influence of Francken is evident in de Baellieur’s frequently signed biblical paintings, for example Christ and the Woman Taken in Adultery, the Idolatry of Solomon, and The Adoration by the Magi. Nevertheless, de Baellieur’s figures are striking for their meticulous quality. To the modern viewer, his compositions appear somewhat garish, since in his biblical paintings he favored juxtapositions of whitish-yellow, violet and pink tones. His style is easily recognizable: stereotypical figures with doll-like faces, slightly protruding eyes and steeply sloping shoulders. These characteristics do not appear in the Cabinet of Rubens formerly attributed to him (it is now thought to be by Willem van Herp).

Happened on a 05 February:

1969 Se aplica un nuevo sistema protector de las pinturas de la Cueva de Altamira, que estaban degradándose a causa de la luz artificial.

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