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DEATHS: 1776 HAYMAN — 1491 SCHONGAUER — 1920 SZINYEI~MERSE — BURIAL: 1640 VROOM
BIRTHS: 1602 CERQUOZZI — 1616 BOURDON — 1848 YELLAND 1827 ACHENBACH  
THE PRESENTATION of the infant Jesus at the Temple
HOLOCAUST VAN GOGHS
^ Died on 02 (03?) February 1776: Francis Hayman, English painter and illustrator born in 1708.
— He was in London at the age of 10, and from 1718 until about 1725 he was apprenticed to Robert Brown [–1753], a decorative painter. From 1732 Hayman was employed as a scene painter at Goodman’s Fields Theatre, where he painted allegorical works such as The King Attended by Peace, with Liberty and Justice Trampling on Tyranny and Oppression on the pit ceiling (destr.). He moved to Drury Lane Theatre in 1736, shortly before the Licensing Act closed Goodman’s Fields. At Drury Lane he painted scenery for Thomas Arne’s masque The Fall of Phaeton (1736) and was praised for his naturalistic landscapes. From the late 1730s he began accepting commissions for portraits and conversation pieces. His success in the field of portraiture rested on the dearth of good portrait painters in England at the time and his exploitation of a growing middle-class clientele. Hayman painted portraits of doctors, literary men and actors. These range from distinguished single figures such as Dr Charles Chauncey (1747) to informal groups such as Samuel Richardson and his Family (1741), while David Garrick and Mrs Pritchard in ‘The Suspicious Husband’ (1747) is one of the earliest examples of the theatrical conversation piece in England. For all his success, Hayman’s portraits are often stolid and uninspired, relying on repetitious facial formulae and only occasionally exhibiting a refreshing informality.
— Thomas Gainsborough was an assistant of Hayman. Mason Chamberlin and Nathaniel Dance-Holland were students of Hayman.

LINKS
The Wrestling Scene from As You Like It (1742, 53x92cm;_ ZOOM to 1170x2048pix, 287kb) _ This picture illustrates, in As You Like It of Shakespeare, the moment towards the end of Act I, Scene II, when Orlando throws Charles, the Duke’s wrestler, to the ground, watched by Duke Frederick, Rosalind, and Celia. The horizontal format of the picture is similar to that of the large narrative scenes that Hayman painted around this time to decorate the supper boxes at Vauxhall Gardens. This picture, which is too small to have served such a purpose may, however, have been produced as a demonstration piece, quite probably made for Jonathan Tyers, the proprietor of Vauxhall Gardens.
The Round Dance of the Milkmaids aka The Declaration (1735, 137x234cm; 450x800pix, 81kb _ ZOOM to 1153x2048pix, 205kb)
See-Saw (1742, 139x241cm) _ This is one of the few surviving panels painted by Hayman and his assistants between 1738 and 1760 to decorate the supper boxes at Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens. The idea of using Vauxhall for the public display of contemporary paintings was Hogarth’s. To thank him, Vauxhall’s proprietor, Jonathan Tyers, gave to Hogarth a perpetual free entry ticket. The panels, which took their style from light-hearted decorative French engravings of the 1730s, were one of the great attractions of this fashionable venue and contributed greatly to the spread of French Rococo taste in England.
Thomas Nuthall and his Friend Hambleton Custance (1748, 71x91cm) _ Two wealthy Norfolk squires are resting in a country interior after a day's shooting. On the left is Hambleton Custance [1715-1757] of Weston, who was about to marry a local heiress; his festive garb and bird-in-hand pose may refer to this fact. On the right is Thomas Nuthall [1715-1775], solicitor to the East India Company. The suspicion that he might be shown here as the unsuccessful suitor comforted by his dog is reinforced by the fact that he remained single until he married his friend's widow in 1757. Nuthall amassed great wealth through many official posts and had himself painted frequently.
—(060201)
^ Born on 02 (or 18?) February 1602: Michelangelo Cerquozzi “delle Battaglie” , Italian painter who died on 06 April 1660 (or in 1679?).
— He was a painter of bambocciate (low-life subjects), battles, small religious and mythological works, and still-lifes. He was born of Roman parents, baptized in the parish of San Lorenzo in Lucina and spent his entire life in his native city. A member of the Accademia di S Luca since 1634, Cerquozzi attended meetings of the society as late as 1652. His friends included Domenico Viola, Pietro da Cortona and Giacinto Brandi. More significant were his associations with foreign residents in Rome. According to Baldinucci, Cerquozzi had special affection for the Spanish, owing to the patronage he received from the major-domo of the Spanish Embassy as a youth, and would often don Spanish attire as a sign of his sentiment. His Spanish connections may partly account for the many commissions he later received from patrons identified with Rome’s pro-Spanish political faction. Cerquozzi enjoyed equally good rapport with northern European residents of Rome, including the Dutchman Pieter van Laer. He is documented as having quartered with artists from beyond the Alps, including Paulus Bor and Cornelis Bloemaert, for the bulk of his career. His contacts with Dutch and Flemish painters living in his native city profoundly affected his artistic development.

LINKS
Dance in the Trattoria (1850; 600x813pix, 153kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1898pix, 358kb)
View in the Roman Forum (1657, 130x105cm; 960x777pix, 436kb _ ZOOM to 2250x1820pix, 2577kb) collaboration with Viviano Codazzio.
Rural Scene (1646, 130x97cm; 1047x750pix, 131kb) _ Collaboration with Giovanni Angelo “Angeluccio”, another bambocciante, who painted the landscape; Cerquozzi painted the figures.y of light and shadow. The majority of Angeluccio's collaborations were with Cerquozzi.
Figures in a Tree-lined Avenue (1646, 130x97cm; 1032x750pix, 144kb) _ Another collaboration with landscapist Angeluccio.
 
^ Died on 02 February 1491: Martin Schongauer (or Schöngauer), Alsatian painter and engraver born between 1435 and 1450; son of goldsmith Caspard Schongauer and brother of Ludwig Schongauer [1450-1494].
— A leading figure in the art of the late Middle Ages north of the Alps, Martin Schongauer acquired during his own lifetime an influence that went far beyond the limits of the Rhine Valley. He revitalized German painting through a clever assimilation of Netherlandish art and a sense of local tradition and succeeded in combining precision and assurance of line with a strong sense of volume. From his painting of the Virgin of the Rose Bower (1473), which unites refined draftsmanship and monumentality, to his engravings, which are delicate yet convey a sense of solid form, he represents the splendid flowering of the Late Gothic style in the Upper Rhine.
— Schongauer is best known for his 115 monogrammed copper engravings. He was born in Colmar, Alsace (now in France), where he spent most of his life. Most of his works are not authenticated or precisely datable. His late Gothic paintings show the strong influence of Flemish painters, especially Rogier van der Weyden. Although he painted prolifically, only a few of Schongauer's canvases have survived. Of these his masterpiece is Madonna of the Rose Arbor, also known as Virgin and Child in a Rose Garden, a monumental sensitive altarpiece, executed in 1473 for the Church of Saint Martin in Colmar. Schongauer's monogrammed copper engravings show a special richness and maturity because of his knowledge of painting. He was the first and foremost engraver of his time in northern Europe and his ornamental designs greatly influenced the development of German art, particularly the work of the later German master Albrecht Dürer. Schongauer's engravings, all of religious subjects, exhibit fine detail, economy of composition, and a greater range of light-and-shadow contrasts and textures than earlier printmakers had used. Among his best-known engravings are Death of the Virgin, one of his large, early works, and Passion of Christ, a set of 12 engravings executed later in life (circa 1477) when he had turned to work on smaller plates.
— The students of Schongauer included Albrecht Dürer, Matthias Grünewald [1480 – 31 Aug 1528], Hans Burgkmair.

LINKS
The Large 'Road to Calvary' (1480 engraving, 29x43cm) _ In the middle of a chaotic crowd, Christ is carrying his cross to Golgotha. Crawling on hands and knees, he seems about to collapse under the weight. Soldiers are dragging him along by his clothes, and someone is whipping him on with a piece of rope. Further away, on the left, two other prisoners are under escort. They are to be crucified together with Jesus. The Virgin Mary can be seen in the background, supported by those around her. In the distance, on the right, lies the city of Jerusalem. Schongauer portrayed this episode of the Passion with great attention for narrative detail: the people, animals, clothing, postures and facial expressions have all been depicted with great precision.
     This engraving reveals Schongauer to be a master black-and-white depiction: using only lines and various types of shading he succeeded in approximating a seemingly endless variety of forms and materials, without his work degenerating into a stew of grey tones. He managed to retain clarity, meticulously engraving every detail. The outlines of people and animals are clearly visible, because they stand out against the dark background, or the other way round. In the foreground the black-and-white contrast is stark, while in the background Schongauer depicted shapes with single, thin burin lines.
     Schongauer depicted the crowd as a motley procession of soldiers, eminent citizens on horseback and sensation seekers. There are even a number of dogs in the picture. The viewer sees the procession passing from a distance. The contrast between Jesus' dignity and the indifference of the those around him is remarkable. Jesus is quiet, his gaze directed towards the viewer.
     _ Compare the drypoint by Dürer Ecce Homo (1655, 38x45cm)
Maria im Rosenhag (1473, 200x115cm; 599x403pix, 96kb _ ZOOM to 2344x1576pix, 634kb)
The Adoration by the Shepherds (1480, 38x48cm; 599x460pix, 69kb _ ZOOM to 2053x1576pix, 290kb)
A Young Lady (1480, 52x34cm; 600x378pix, 45kb _ ZOOM to 2501x1576pix, 436kb)
The Holy Family (26x17cm; 1006x670pix, 117kb) _ Schongauer was the leading master of the South German late Gothic who became artist under the influence of Rogier van der Weyden. He produced a large number of engravings and drawings and through them he exerted great influence on the young Dürer. The Holy Family shows an independent artist in spite of the Flemish character of the painting.
— a different The Holy Family (26x17cm; 599x382pix, 56kb _ ZOOM to 1068x700pix, 92kb _ ZOOM+ to 2470x1576pix, 387kb) _ Schongauer painted several small paintings representing the Holy Family, the Madonna or the Nativity; these paintings were sent to various countries (to Spain, England, Italy, France). This Holy Family belongs to this group of paintings.
 
—(060201)
^ Born on 02 February 1616: Sébastien Bourdon, French Baroque painter, draftsman, and engraver, who died on 08 May 1671.
— Although he was one of the most successful painters of the mid-17th century in France and highly praised by the writer André Félibien, he was also widely criticized for never achieving a fixed style of his own. He began his career as an imitator of the Bamboccianti and of Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione. He later produced altarpieces in a vigorous Baroque style and portraits in the manner of Anthony van Dyck before coming under the classicizing influence of Nicolas Poussin. Towards the end of his career, in a lecture to the Académie Royale, he recommended that young artists reject uniformity of inspiration. Remarkably, he was able to give a personal flavor to his work in any style and genre.
— In 1634-1637 Bourdon worked in Rome, where he developed a talent for imitating the work of other painters — Claude, Dughet, van Laer — sometimes probably with intent to deceive. He continued in this vein when he returned to France and his oeuvre is still ill-defined. From 1652 to 1654 he was court painter to Queen Christina of Sweden, of whom he did two portraits, and after his return to France he worked mainly as a portraitist, developing a more personal style in which soft tonalities and skilful play with cascading draperies create a languorous, romantic effect.
— Nicolas-Pierre Loir and Pierre Mosnier were students of Bourdon.

LINKS
Self-Portrait (600x428pix, 131kb)
Moses Defending the Daughters of Jethro (107x137cm; 960x1219pix, 656kb _ ZOOM to 1796x2280pix, 2437kb)
Le Massacre des Saints Innocents (1651; 600x891pix _ ZOOM to 1400x2076pix, 714kb)
Bacchus and Ceres with Nymphs and Satyrs (1654, 51x77cm) _ Bourdon, a talented imitator of other painters, took several details from
      _ .Bacchanal of the Andrians (1525, 175x193cm; 700x787pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1528pix) of Titian [1490 – 27 Aug 1576].
The Beggars (1639, 49x65cm) _ Bourdon was the one French painter who came under the influence of Poussin [1594 – 19 Nov 1665] in Rome but who also retained his individuality. He is one of the few French painters of the 17th century who was equally adept at portrait, landscape, mythological, and genre painting. This versatility, noticed by his contemporaries, has meant that only in recent years have a number of his pictures been identified. His mythological pictures are confused with those of other Poussin followers, his landscapes with those of Dughet, and his genre pictures with those of the Netherlandish Bamboccianti.
Queen Christina of Sweden (72x58cm) _ Bourdon went to Sweden in 1652, where he entered the service of that redoubtable monarch Queen Christina, who eventually gave up politics for art. During his years in Sweden, Bourdon mostly executed portraits, characterized by their elegance and subtlety. They are usually bust-length with the face slightly turned, a type of portrait that was to be extremely influential on the next generation of painters, especially Le Brun and Mignard, and a whole host of more minor portraitists. In this portrait the informality of the treatment of the sitter is striking.
Queen Christina of Sweden on Horseback (1653, 383x291cm) _ The painting was presented by Queen Christina of Sweden to Philip IV of Spain.
Portrait of a Man (105x65cm) _ In Rome the young Bourdon was exposed to some of the greatest portraits of the Renaissance in the collections there, as well as to the constant experiments of artists as diverse as Bernini, Lanfranco and Domenichino, who all painted portraits. from all these influences Bourdon compounded his own style, which inevitably became a formula, but a successful one. He often painted his sitters three-quarters on, in a soft and even light, and preferred waist-length portraits and a feeling of relative informality. With his curious mixture of Italian influences, Bourdon set the style for middle-class French portraiture for almost the rest of the century. One of the best examples is this Portrait of a Man , which is a "tour de force" of subtle modeling and lighting. Indeed, almost all the surviving middle-class portraits of the time in France, that are not by Philippe de Champaigne and his followers, copy this type. The sitter of this portrait is unknown.
The Finding of Moses (1650, 120x173cm) _ In representing this Biblical tale of compassion for the helpless, the artist, concerned with providing a historically accurate setting, has included palm trees and ancient temples in the background landscape. Trained primarily in Rome, Bourdon spent most of his successful career in Paris and Stockholm, where he was court painter to the Queen of Sweden. An eclectic, he worked in a variety of contemporary styles and here the artist has adapted and elaborated a composition by Poussin. The translucent color is, however, unique to Bourdon and presages the lighter hues of the early 18th century.
A Scene from Roman History (1645, 145x197cm) _ It is assumed that the scene depicts Antony and Cleopatra.
The Selling of Joseph into Slavery (1637)
–- Potare Sitientes (engraving 43x58cm; half~size) _Second of the series: I. Esurientes pascere, II. Potare Sitientes, IIII. Vestire nudos V. Aegros curare. The legend reads:
    Cincta satellitio ingenti curruque superbo / Vecta furit Jezabel, centumque ad funera Vatis / Exposcit frustra: clam quippe silere monentur; / Dum pueri Abdiae praebent sitientibus undam.
  _See Is.55:1: Omnes sitientes, venite ad aquas, et qui non habetis argentum, properate, emite, et comedite : venite, emite absque argento et absque ulla commutatione vinum et lac. (Is. 55:1)
–- /F#*>Landscape with Shepherd Leading his Flock (1650, 49x62cm; 583x755pix, 52kb) the sky is bright yellow instead of blue.
124 images at Bildindex
—(070201)
^ Died on 02 February 1920: 1920 Pál Szinyei~Merse, Hungarian painter born on 04 July 1845.
— After studying under the portrait painter Lajos Mezey [1820–1880] in Nagyvárad, Szinyei Merse attended the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich from 1864 to 1869, studying under Karl Piloty from 1867. His first mature work, the portrait of his younger brother, Zigismond Smoking a Turkish Pipe (1866), reveals his mastery of realism. Oil sketches from this period, such as the Nun with a Knight (1867) and Faun (1867), show an unaffected vision and a poetic style that contrast sharply with the historical interests of his contemporaries. Szinyei Merse also turned to contemporary subjects, as in Bathing Hut with Boy (1868), in which the harmony between the human figure and the landscape is achieved by the use of grey nacreous tones. In Mother and her Children (1869) he managed to create a refined version of an everyday scene by exploiting effects of light and pure color. His discovery of complementary and contrasting color effects and of the importance of tonal values led him, before other artists in Central Europe, to plein-air painting, as can be seen in Drying Clothes (1869) and in The Swing (1869). His experiments were themselves complemented in French painting, which he first saw in Munich, and he was reassured by Courbet, whom he met there. He therefore realized that a study-trip to Paris would be useful, although he was unable to go there until 1908.

Mother and Child (1869, 137x94cm; 1000x678pix, 127kb)
Faun and Nymph (study) (1867, 33x22cm; 848x562pix, 132kb)
Lovers standing (1869, 33x22cm; 844x570pix, 108kb) _ painted on reverse of Faun and Nymph.
Lovers seated (1869, 53x63cm; 778x920pix, 166kb) _ Time after time, Szinyei returned to the theme of a party relaxing in the outdoors, proceeding systematically from the sketches made for his first plein-air painting in 1867 to the final version of Picnic in May.  Lovers also forms part of this process: a colorful group, in this case two people, is shown on a hillside. Instead of the previously preferred gardens at springtime, now the early summer meadows are chosen as scenery. In the evenly dispersed light the pale local colors are harmoniously adjusted to one another. This gentle coloration establishes the lyric, effect of the picture. The interlocking eyes, the masterly execution of the hands, the softly curling outlines within the closed composition and the dreamlike background all contribute to the intimate atmosphere of the painting. The fine Naturalism of the picture reminds the viewer of Le foins (1877) of Bastien-Lepage []. About 1890 the Nagybánya painters, who could be regarded as Szinyei's followers, were all enthusiastic about this particular French painter, yet at the time they still could not have seen the early works of Szinyei, which were held in America. Thus the contimuity of Hungarian painting suffered a setback.
The Swing aka Vacationers aka In the Garden (1869, 54,2x41cm; 902x736pix, 207kb)
István and Béla (1868, 56x55cm; 820x822pix, 78kb)
Mallows (1868-69, 20x16cm; 824x632pix, 145kb) _ Mallows constitute a family of flowering plants.
Clothes Drying aka Young Master (1869, 38x31cm; 904x722pix, 142kb) _ Like many of his other works, Szinyei painted this picture in Munich, but it has none of the spirit of the Academy there. It is a brilliant picture sketch inspired by a Hungarian scene. It shows the maids hanging out the washing in the garden in the summer sunlight, with the "young master" looking on. As in his picture sketch The Swing, Szinyei was primarily concerned with translating light into color. He disregarded the academic rules and painted his visual experience in carefree composition. He grasped the essence of Impressionism, although he had no knowledge of the similar endeavors by French artists, had never been to Paris, and had only seen the realist paintings of Gustave Courbet and some very early works by Edouard Manet at the International Exhibition at Munich (Claude Monet painted his first Impressionist painting in Grenoble in the same year.)
Study of a Horse by a Chestnut Tree (1869, 61x46cm; 946x688pix, 75kb)
Zsigmond Szinyei Merse (1868, 64x49cm; 745*988pix, 60kb) _ This is the first brilliant picture of Szinyei, which he painted in Jernye, where he spent his summer holiday. He portrays Zsigmond, his younger brother with a red cap and a chibouk. He appears to be musing on something. The picture painted with delicate realism is the work of a mature artist.
Ninon Szinyei Merse (1870, 61x48,3cm; 638*866pix, 45kb) _ Szinyei was working in Hungary during the Franco-Prussian war and painted several pictures of members of his family in a naturalist style, including this portrait of his elder sister.
Rózsi Szinyei Merse, the Artist's Daughter (1897, 48x38 cm; 822x644pix, 155kb)
The Artist's Wife Dressed in Yellow (1874, 98x76 cm; 846x640pix, 90kb) _ The artist never accepted commissions to paint portraits; all the portraits he painted featured members of his family. These representations, each of which is a pearl of intimate Realism, reach the soul of the model. Szinyei began to paint portraits of this wife on several occasions, but he was not always able to finish them, because his wife, in sharp contrast with Szinyei's contemplating character, was ever so busy that she had difficulty tolerating the sittings. She sat both for Woman in a Lilac Dress (1874) and for the Portrait in Shawl, which was not finished in 1880: the deep scarlet velvet dress his wife is shown wearing was completed only about 1890, long after the couple's divorce in 1887. (Szinyei's daughter was sitting as model). The painting is dominated by the delicate and sensitive beauty of the model's face, radiating from the background of warm colors. In Szinye's pictures, the women are often shown wearing in their hair or on their hats colorful flowers, or as in the case of Portrait in Shawl, laces and ribbons. We can almost be certain that he did not use them just to conform with the fashion of the age. These colorful patches were necessary to emphasize the beauty of the face and the fine rosiness of the skin, as well as to produce a definite separation from the dark background.
Woman in a Lilac Dress (1874, 102x77cm; 878x638pix, 100kb) _ The portrait shows the young wife of the artist. Significant as it may be in Szinyei's oevre, it means a step back in comparison with Picnic in May. The female figure with the landscape in the background is not in harmony with it. The picture was painted in the artist's studio. Szinyei's wife divorced him in 1887 and died at the age of 101.
Baby Felix (1874, 32x26 cm; 808x676pix, 154kb) _ the artist's son Felix at the age of four months.
Majális (Picnic on May Day) (1873, 128x163cm; 780x986pix, 146kb) _ detail 1 (876x756pix, 105kb) _ detail 2 (606x1028pix, 97kb) a self-portrait _ Szinyei made friends with Böcklin, who was also working in Munich. Szinyei asked for Böcklin's advice when he painted Majális, which can be considered as his most significant picture. The picture shows a group of people sitting on a slope. They are enyoying the cool shadow of a tree off picture. The picture gives the same impression as those of French impresssionists, only the technique is different. He painted the landscape from memory in his studio, leaving the place for the figures which he painted one by one after models at various times. The figure who is lying on a blanket and eating a leg of chicken is the painter himself. The picture was not well received: his fellow artists and even Böcklin did not appreciate it. Szinyei wanted to give it as a present to the Hungarian National Museum, but it did not accept it. The painter and his picture were not appreciated until the Millennium Exhibition in 1896. [magyarul]
The Artist's Studio (1873, 35,7x43cm; 996x844pix, 144kb)
On a Garden Bench (sketch) (1873, 20,4x33cm; 648x950pix, 69kb) _ Zsófia Probstner, Szinyei's bride, under trees in a greenish glimmer. This was his most beautiful picture after Picnic in May.
The Artist's Wife (1880, 62x47cm; 1000x740pix, 118kb)
Puszta with Stork (1870, 21x43 cm; 442x988pix, 127kb)
Awakening of Spring (1878, 21x17cm; 812x678pix, 207kb)
In the Green Grass (1873, 23x28cm; 732x906pix, 193kb)
Capri 1903, 31x39 cm; 720x898pix, 173kb)
Chestnut Tree 1907, 100x122cm; 766x880pix, 86kb)
Thawing Snow (1895, 48x61cm; 771x992pix, 115kb)
Balloon (1882, 42x39cm; 838x766pix, 100kb) _ The immediate inspiration for this painting, one of the artist's most original ideas for a picture, came from his brother in-law's balloon ride in 1878, as witnessed by Szinyei. This is recorded in the subtitle "Béla Probstner Bids Farewell to Sáros". Following this balloon ride, Szinyei's brother-in-law left for a long journey first in Western Europe and then in the Far East, in the course of which he even spent a few years in Japan. In the painting which conveys an optimistic mode, the striped balloon triumphantly reigns over the sky. The person high above is no longer interested in his fellowmen swarming below; his eyes rest on the line of the treetops. He floats, drunken of freedom, thus becoming the symbol drunken of freedom, thus becoming the symbol of the free flight of thoughts, the freedom of art which does not disappear into cosmic distances, but remain close to Earth, the living environment of people.
Field 1909, 60x70 cm; 714x820pix, 124kb)
Autumnal Landscape 1900, 70x91cm; 735x996pix, 123kb)
Lark (1882, 163x127cm; 976x726pix, 89kb) _ With this picture, Szinyei carried on with the subject matter of "Picnic in May" after a break of several years. He painted the landscape from memory, but he had a model to pose for the nude. Details of the compositions, i.e. the landscape, the nude and the sky, are not in closely connected, so the picture, no matter how beautiful it is, does not rival Picnic on May Day .
Brook (1884, 37x57 cm; 670x1002pix, 78kb)
Poppies in the Field (1902, 88x80cm; 908x1000pix, 251kb) _ The artist who had an unbiased and humble approach to landscape attempted to create a clear and simple composition. He soon found diagonal composition which best suited his character and gestures, which kept on returning in a lot of his works in a number of variations. The picture shows again a slope, as in Picnic in May, or Snowbreak. As another compositional bravura, the artist placed figures walking uphill in the focus of a semi-circle of flowers. However small those figures are, they dominate the picture. Szinyei Merse started painting landscapes with poppies in 1895 which continued the colors of his youth. Like Monet of the impressionists, Szinyei Merse also noticed the beauty of the contrast of red and green in the field full of poppies. The rising air around landscape and figures in the sunshine does not allow fine details to be perceived. Thus, all elements of the picture merge with the harmony of uniform vision in spite of its intense colors. This picture with poppies, painted in Jernye, is the subtlest of all versions and expresses best what the Hungarian landscape looked like on a bright summer day.
Poppies in the Field (1896, 39x63,2cm; 556x920pix, 136kb) _ Of the pictures showing poppies (1895, 1896, 1900, 1902), this 1896 version and the one from 1902 mentioned above are the most interesting. Although in a slightly different arrangement and format, this painting shows the artist's favorite components of landscapes in a similar composition. Due to the vertical format of this picture, the blue sky with the white clouds, as well as the peasant woman and her son walking along the yellow path, are given greater emphasis. Of all the versions, this one is the best thought-out, with the most balanced color composition and the best representation of the Hungarian countryside's character.
Winter (1904, 90x117cm; 736x967pix, 164kb)
Blooming Apple Trees (1902, 50x65 cm; 748x976pix, 205kb)
 
^ >Born on 02 February 1848: Raymond Dabb “Yelland”, in London, England, US painter who died on 27 July 1900. Yelland was three when his family moved to New Jersey, and he grew up in New York City. He was trained in art at the National Academy of Design, where he was the student of William Page, Lemuel Everett Wilmarth, and James R. Brevoort. He later studied in Paris with Luc Olivier Merson. After painting for a time in Gloucester Harbor, Yelland sailed to San Francisco in 1874 to take a teaching position in art at Mills College in Oakland. From 1877 to 1894, he taught at the California School of Design. He was appointed Director of the school in 1888. A beloved teacher, he was a decisive influence on a younger generation of California artists. Among the many who worked with him directly were Gottardo Piazzoni, Grace Carpenter Hudson, and James Everett Stuart. A master marine painter, Yelland produced luminist work that has been compared to that of Alfred Thompson Bricher. He is best known for his San Francisco area coastal scenes at sunset, but he produced Monterey views while visiting Jules Tavernier there in 1878, and he painted in Oregon in the summers of 1880 and 1881.
     Yelland attended public schools in New York City. By the age of twelve, he had settled on art as a career. He was born as Raymond Dabb, but due to the negative connotation of his name {in British English “a dab” = “a skilful person”}, his mother's maiden name, Yelland, was added {he could yell and dab at the same time?}. After serving under Sheridan in the Federal Army during the US Civil War, Yelland attended Pennington Seminary in New Jersey. He studied art at the National Academy of Design from 1869 to 1871 with Page and Brevoort, and then taught at the Academy for one year. With his new bride, he sailed around the Horn in 1874 to San Francisco where he would assume the position of an art instructor at Mills College in Oakland. In 1877, he traveled to England, and later continued his studies in Paris with Luc Oliver Merson. Upon his return to California, Yelland became assistant director of the San Francisco School of Design, and in 1888, assumed its directorship. While at that school, he also taught at the University of California, Berkeley, for many years. His many students included Homer Davenport, Alexander Harrison, Maynard Dixon, and other noted artists. At his summer home on the Monterey Peninsula, he painted many coastals; whereas, the marshes near his home in Oakland also provided ample subject matter. A master at depicting sunsets and other atmospheric glow, his painting technique was a fusion of American Luminism and the Hudson River School. Yelland maintained a studio in Carmel, California as well as in San Francisco at 430 Pine Street, until his death of pneumonia at his home at 1464, 7th Avenue, Oakland.
— Probably uncle and possibly adoptive father of California-born painter William Albert Dabb Yelland [1860–]

LINKS
Moonrise over Seacoast at Pacific Grove (1886; 539x800pix, 113kb)
Summer Morning Near Los Gatos (1880; 434x640pix framed)
Half Moon Bay (1881, 46x75cm; 587x951pix, 47kb)
Morning on the Shore (1872, 22x38cm)
Point Lobos from Fort Point (1883, 36x51cm)
 
^ Buried on 02 February 1640: Hendrick Corneliszoon Vroom, Haarlem painter and draftsman, born in 1563, who initiated the Dutch 17th-century tradition of marine painting. — {There is no basis for the story that, in the days when surnames were barely coming into use, one of his ancestors belonged to a wealthy but surnameless family in which each son had his own numbered room, resulting in the name Vroom for him, and Iroom, IIroom, IIIroom, IVroom, and VIroom for his brothers who, unlike him, did not have descendants noted in history.}
— Son of sculptor and ceramicist Cornelis Hendrickszoon Vroom I {not to be confused with Iroom V, who is not known to history}; and father of painters Cornelis Hendrikzoon Vroom II [1591 – 16 Sep 1661], Frederick Hendrikzoon Vroom II [1600 – 16 Sep 1667], and Jacob Vroom I.
— By his own account, Hendrick Corneliszoon received his early training in Delft, home of his mother’s family. Hendrick’s stepfather, like his father a ceramic artist, forced him to work as a decorator of ceramic vessels, which caused the young artist to leave home and embark on extensive travels in Spain and Italy. After working for ecclesiastical patrons in Florence and Rome, he was employed for at least two years (1585–1587) by Cardinal Ferdinando de’ Medici, who in October 1587 succeeded Francesco I as Grand Duke of Tuscany. Ferdinando’s keen interest in ships and the navy seems to have been a determining factor in Vroom’s choice of subject-matter. According to Lanzi, he was known in Rome as ‘Lo Spagnolo’ (since he had arrived there from Spain). Among his earliest works may be a group of marine paintings attributed to him. His friendship in Rome with Paul Bril, mentioned by van Mander, had no effect on Hendrick’s painting style, but Bril’s influence is discernible in a group of landscape drawings, apparently produced in the Rhône region of France, where the artist stopped on his return journey from Italy.
— The students of Vroom included Jan Porcellis and Cornelis Claeszoon van Wieringen.

LINKS
Battle of Haarlemmermeer, 26 May 1573 (1621, 190x268cm) _ On the inland lake of Haarlemmermeer the Dutch and Spanish navies meet in battle. It is in the middle of the Dutch Revolt against Spain. Much later, the battle is painted by Vroom. The Spanish ships, identified by the flags with a red cross, are sailing before the wind from the right. Meanwhile, the ships of the Sea Beggars are approaching from the left. They were badly equipped and were eventually forced to retreat. That battle occurs during the Eighty Years War (1568-1648) in which the Dutch fought off Spanish rule and which led to the foundation of the Dutch Republic, which comprised the seven northern United Provinces of the Netherlands (Friesland, Gelderland, Groningen, Holland, Overijssel, Utrecht, Zeeland), the Southern Netherlands remaining loyal to the Spanish king. The division of the Netherlands also led to a religious split. While the south remained Catholic, the northern provinces tolerated different denominations, with the Protestant Dutch Reformed Church as the official church of the Republic.
Dutch Ships Ramming Spanish Galleys off the Flemish Coast in October 1602 (118x146cm) _ In 1602 Spanish ships attempted to enter the Southern Netherlandish harbors, attacking the Dutch naval and mercantile fleet. In coastal waters their manoeuvrable galleys had the advantage, being powered by slaves and prisoners rather than the changeable wind. On 26 June of that year, a message reached the States General from England warning of the approach of another fleet of galleys. In combination with the English, who chased the Spanish ships, the Dutch managed to fend off the attack. The Lucera was rammed by Gerbrandt Jansz. Sael's vessel and Rear Admiral Johan Adriaensz. Cant's ship battered the Padilla. Four other ships were put out of action, although these made it to the Flemish coast. In a second encounter in 1603, the last of the galleys were taken out.
The Arrival at Vlissingen of the Elector Palatinate Frederick V (1632, 203x409cm; 1298x618pix, 127kb) _ Marine painting, stylistically a branch of landscape painting, had a significance for the Dutch public since Holland's wealth and power largely depended on its sea-borne trade.. Probably the first artist to establish himself as a specialist was Hendrick Cornelisz. Vroom. This is a characteristic painting by him. It was commissioned in 1632 by the City of Haarlem to commemorate the Elector's visit to the Republic in 1613 upon his return from England, where he married Elisabeth, the daughter of James I. It is a painting full of detail, mainly portraits of ships as they are about to anchor in the roads off Vlissingen (Flushing), which is shown on the horizon. Vroom has chosen a high viewpoint, to permit a broad and clear view; the little waves are painted with mechanical regularity. _ detail (950x869, 141kb) showing the Prince Royal, flying the white flag with the arms of the English royal standard, arriving with the the royal couple on board.
Battle of Gibraltar (770x1105pix, 150kb) _ Hendrick Vroom has been rightly called the founder of European marine painting. To be sure, artists before Vroom painted marine pictures but Vroom was the first to specialize in this branch of painting. His pictures, which are usually large and depict historical maritime events, were primarily portraits of ships. Subjects that were a stimulus to patriotism as well as historical naval battles were also portrayed. Vroom's most famous representations of the latter are not paintings but a set of ten tapestries he designed that offered vast bird's-eye panoramas of the Defeat of the Spanish Armada by the English Fleet. The set was completed in 1595, and later hung in the old House of Commons until 1834 when it was destroyed with the building by fire. The tapestries are known today from a fine set of eighteenth-century engravings.
The Harbor in Amsterdam (1630, 97x201cm; 517x1089pix, 78kb)
Arrival of a Dutch Three-master at Schloss Kronberg (1614, 101x180cm, 770x1336pix, 130kb)
Departure of the Ship to Ostende (1640, 104×199cm; 670x1280pix, 85kb)
—(060201)


Died on a 02 February:


^ 1997 Theodoros Stamos dies in Greece, US Abstract Expressionist painter and illustrator born in New York on 31 December 1922, son of Greek immigrant parents. He was awarded a scholarship to the American Artists’ School in New York, where he studied sculpture under Simon Kennedy and Joseph Konzal [1905–]. Abandoning sculpture, he began to devote himself to painting in 1939, a medium in which he was entirely self-taught. In 1941 he opened a framing shop in New York, which he ran until 1948. There he met Gorky and Léger and also framed several pictures by Klee for the Nierendorf Gallery. He had his first one-man show in 1943 at Betty Parsons’s Wakefield Gallery in New York. That year he also met Adolph Gottlieb and Barnett Newman and in 1947 Rothko, Kurt Seligmann and Mark Tobey. His paintings of the 1940s drew on a variety of sources including mythology, natural forms and Oriental calligraphy and were executed in a rough textural manner. Legend of Dwelling (1947), for example, was animated by mysterious organic forms set in a primordial background. — LINKS
–- Double Aegean Sun Box (407x907pix, 19kb) _ This simplistic picture has been tremendously enriched and thoroughly transformed into
      _ Triple Aeginetan Moon Bag aka Met Stem (2006; screen filling, 224kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2007kb) by the pseudonymous Adeodatus Stammeros, a leading Abstract Minimalism Suppressionist. But Stammeros also insisted on proving that he can outminimalize any minimalist, by creating this (full size): + ZOOM to fill screen + the otherwise utterly worthless spoof
      _ The Double of Aegistus Boxed In on a Moonless Night (2006; ZOOM to screen filling, 1kb _ ZOOMONGUS to 40'700x90'700pix, 1kb) whose three shades of “black” you probably can distinguish, if at all, only in the full screen magnification (do not mistake your computer screen's possible uneveness of color rendition, especially around the edges, for shading in the original). _ One year later Stammeros surpassed himself with the two related abstractions
      _ The Triple Crown of the Aging Son Boxer (2007; 724x1024pix, 294kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 616kb _ ZOOM+ to 1024x1448pix, 3874kb) and
      _ Triple Aging Moon Bugs (2007; 724x1024pix, 294kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 616kb _ ZOOM+ to 1024x1448pix, 3874kb)
The Sacrifice of Kronos, No. 2, (1948, 117x91cm; 700x524pix, 44kb) _ This depicts the theme of ancient ritual that is characteristic of Stamos's work of the 1940s, when he and his contemporaries were endeavoring to "create the myth of their own time" through their art. The Sacrifice of Kronos, No. 2 portrays the drama and terror of the story of the Titan, Cronus, (Kronos, in the Greek spelling preferred by Stamos), who devoured his children in fear of the prophesy that one of his offspring would usurp his power. When Cronus's son Zeus was born, his mother, Rhea, wrapped a stone in clothing, and Cronus swallowed it, believing it was their son. The prophecy took its course, because Zeus eventually overthrew Cronus.
      In the painting, the moment of the sacrifice is depicted. Two ghost-like eyes appear in the stone, alluding to Cronus's misguided belief that it was his son he had swallowed. Cronus, with gaping mouth and staring eye, appears to be crushed under the weight of the massive boulder. Thin, black lines illustrating natural and cosmic forces meander and streak throughout the composition. Such lines of energy reflect not only an awareness of surrealist motifs, but also the influence of Dove's lines of force in his late works.
      The gripping scene of Cronus devouring the rock occurs on a terracotta-colored field against a background of unnatural, intense blue highlighted with fluorescent greens. The garish, almost hallucinatory colors emphasize the supernatural qualities of the subject. The theme of this ancient myth may well have been a metaphor for the dark and frightening events that were revealed after World War II, as well as the ensuing struggles for dominance among the powerful nations.
–- Eternal Verity (800x631pix, 98kb)
–- Very Low Sun (800x463pix, 43kb)
–- Infinity Field, Lefkada Series (747x900pix, 26kb) monochrome red
–- Infinity Field, Lefkada Series (800x610pix, 19kb) monochrome dark red
–- Infinity Field, Lefkada Series (500x290pix, 12kb) monochrome blue _ this feature-poor boring picture has been amazingly transformed by Stammeros into the gloriously colored and finely detailed abstractions
      _ In Finicky Fiend, Left Cicada Serious (2007; 724x1024pix, 320kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 586kb _ ZOOM+ to 1024x1448pix, 2680kb) and
      _ In Finicky Fiend, Right Cicada Serious (2007; 724x1024pix, 320kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 586kb _ ZOOM+ to 1024x1448pix, 2680kb)
Infinity Field, Lefkada Series (56x76cm; 474x640pix, 27kb) this one in what, for Stamos, is an incredible variety of colors: brown, red, green, blue, violet, gray. —(070201)

1895 Willem Johannes Martens, Dutch artist born on 14 August 1838. — Relative? of Willem Martens [1856-1927]?

1874 Julius Adam I, German artist born on 26 January 1826; son of Albrecht Adam [16 Apr 1786 – 28 Aug 1862]; and nephew of Heinrich Adam [1787–1862]; and brother of Franz Adam [1815–1886], Eugen Adam [1817–1880], and Benno Adam [1812–1892] whose grandson was Richard Benno Adam [05 Mar 1873 – 20 Jan 1937].

1597 Lucas van Valkenborch, Flemish artist born sometime from 1530 to 1535.


Born on a 02 February:


1854 Paul Wilhelm Keller-Reutlingen, German artist who died on 10 January 1920.

1819 Friedrich Otto Georgi, German artist who died on 07 December 1874.

1627 Willem Schellinks (or Schellings), Dutch artist who died on 12 October 1678. (or Schellincks, Schellings), Dutch draftsman, painter, etcher, and poet, born on 02 February 1623 (1627?). He was the oldest surviving son of Laurens Schellinks, tailor and freeman of Amsterdam, and Catalijntje Kousenaer. Laurens originally came from Maasbree (Limburg) but established himself in Amsterdam in 1609. There were seven other children, of whom Daniel Schellinks [1627–1701] also became a painter.


Happened on a 02 February:

^ 2005 In Los Angeles, federal US District Judge Gary Klausner rules that state law gives plaintiffs only three years to sue after property is taken and therefore that Elizabeth Taylor [27 Feb 1932~] can keep the Van Gogh [30 Mar 1853 – 29 Jul 1890] painting Vue de l'Asile et de la Chapelle de Saint-Rémy (Oct 1889, 45x60cm; 463x610pix, 61kb), which London art dealer Francis Taylor bought on her behalf at a Sotheby's auction on 14 April 1963 for US$257'000 (it might now be worth US$15 million), without having conducted an investigation that would have shown that Nazi policies had forced German Jew Margarete Mauthner to leave it behind when she fled in 1939 to South Africa, where she died in 1947. Frau Mauthner was an intellectual and art collector in Berlin, an early champion of Van Gogh, who organized an exhibition of his work, to which hardly anyone came.
     Her great-grandchildren, Andrew Orkin (a Hamilton, Ontario, lawyer) and South Africans his siblings F. Mark Orkin and Sarah-Rose Josepha Adler, and their uncle A. Heinrich Zille, sued Taylor in October 2004 under the 1998 US Holocaust Victims Redress Act. Taylor's lawyer had claimed that, before Taylor bought the painting, it had passed through two galleries and former Munich art dealer Alfred Wolf, a Jew who fled the Nazis in 1933.
     The painting has sometimes been incorrectly called View of the Church of Saint-Paul-de-Mausole. Saint-Paul-de-Mausole is the name, not of a town, but of the asylum in Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, to which Van Gogh had voluntarily commited himself, and which is the subject of the painting.

     Margarete Mauthner owned these six other Van Goghs:
Title:
now held by:
Green Wheat Field (Jun 1889, 73x92cm; 502x633pix, 124kb) Künsthaus Zürich
Olive Trees with Yellow Sky and Sun (Nov 1889, 74x93cm; 779x959pix, 849kb _ ZOOM to 1756x2185pix, 4314kb) Minneapolis Institute of Art
Rocks with Oak Tree (Jul 1888, 54x65cm; 503x600pix, 50kb) Museum of Fine Arts, Houston
Wheat Field with Sheaves (Jun 1888, 55x67cm; 508x600pix, 38kb) Honolulu Academy of Arts
Garden with Flowers (Jul 1888 drawing; 488x600pix, 63kb) Collection Oskar Reinhart
View of Saintes~Maries with Church and Ramparts (Jun 1888 drawing; 494x713pix, 116kb)   Collection Oskar Reinhart


^ THE PRESENTATION of the infant Jesus at the Temple
painted by Bellini (1464, 80x105cm) , by Mantegna (1460, 67x86cm).
     In 1453 or 1454 Andrea Mantegna [1431-1506] married Nicolosia Bellini and in so doing allies himself professionally with her brother, Giovanni Bellini [1426-1516] , to whom he imparts ideas derived from Donatelli. The two paintings of The Agony in the Garden by Mantegna and Bellini respectively reveal the artistic interdependence of the two brothers-in-law: the technical innovations and organization of the Paduan painter and the pre-eminence of the Venetian in the field of light and color.
     This is confirmed by a comparison between the two Presentations at the Temple, painted by Bellini and Mantegna. The two paintings have an identical structure and the same characters: in the foreground, leaning against a marble ledge, the Virgin is holding the swaddled Child while the old priest stretches out to take it. At sides and in the center are several characters identified as Jacopo Bellini (the old man in the middle) and as Nicolosia and Andrea Mantegna, possibly recently married (the young couple standing at the sides facing left). In the painting by Bellini there are two more figures, identified by critics as the mother Anna and Giovanni [at the extreme right, looking at the viewer; beside him is Mantegna: detail who is alone in the Mantegna painting: detail] himself. The invention was probably Mantegna's, as can be assumed from the inflexibly austere framing of the scene, the Child of Donatellian inspiration which placed on the ledge becomes a unit of measure for the scene's spatial depth, and even the physical features of the priest, resembling Squarcione's prototypes which had been familiar to Mantegna.
      Mantegna's Presentation is enclosed ineluctably within a rectangular frame, a fatal screen separating the group from the spectator; the figures are absorbed in an incisiveness that renders them detached and eternal in an absolute vision. In contrast with its architectural solidity and marmoreal rigor, Bellini's scene has a quite different rhythm, with modifications that are apparently insignificant but in reality substantial: the addition of two characters gives the group more life, splits it up and reassembles it into a small human crowd. The elimination of the frame, or rather its reduction to a pale, marbled shelf, somewhat akin to a church altar-top, suddenly removes every barrier and draws one toward the scene with a sense of intimacy. To the solid as rock colors of Mantegna, who blends flesh-tones, stones and drapery, he responds with a pure and orchestrated play of whites and reds in clear alternation.
      It would be illuminating perhaps to discover the reasons that led to these two painting, which do not appear to be a matter of chance, but almost certainly linked to family events, which with this important family portrait were solemnized.
Charles de la Fosse: La Presentation au Temple (1682)
Giotto di Bondone: Presentation at the Temple (1306, 200x185cm) _ detail of an angel
Bartolomeo di Giovanni: Presentation at the Temple (1488)
Fra Angelico: Presentation in the Temple (1430, 158x136cm)
 


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