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DEATHS: 1924 BAKST — 1933 VONNOH — 1656 DE LA HIRE — 1910 COLIN
BIRTHS:  1883 WARSHAWSKY — 1860 STEER
^ Died on 28 December 1924: Léon Nicolaevitch Bakst (Lev Samoylovich Rosenberg), Byelorussian Jewish theater costume and scenery designer born in 1886 (on 10 May, or on 08 Feb = 27 Jan Julian, depending on source).
— Born Lev Samoilovich Rosenberg. Student at the Academy of St. Petersburg. Began calling himself Léon Bakst (mother’s maiden name), in the late 1890s. Established himself in Moscow and adhered to the Russian academic tradition, taking his subjects from popular life. However, little by little he began to stray from the traditional, profoundly influenced by modern French art. A proponent of the new style in Russia, he founded the group "Mir Iskousstva" ("Artistic World"), but soon left Moscow and St. Petersburg for Paris (1893). Played a considerable role during the years preceding World War I as a costume decorator and designer for the famous Russian ballets directed by Serge de Diaghileff. A bold colorist, possessing a heightened sense of an art in service to rhythm and subject to variations in lighting, Bakst realized a bold and pleasing fusion of the elements of Russian popular art and the values of modern French art, influenced notably by Aubrey Beardsley, as well as by Greek vase painting and the Fauvism of Henri Matisse [31 Dec 1869 – 03 Nov 1954]. Bakst established legal residence in Paris in 1912.
— Bakst was born in a middle class Jewish family in Grodno, Belarus, and died in Paris on 27 December 1924. He was educated at the gymnasium in St. Petersburg and then at the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, from where he was expelled after painting a too realistic Pietà. He started his artistic career as an illustrator for magazines but changed his mind when he met the painter Aleksandr Benois [04 May 1870 – 09 Feb 1960]. He traveled through Europe and came in contact with European artists. After his return to Saint-Petersburg, he began to gain fame for his book designs and his portraits. In 1898, together with Benois and Serge Diaghilev [31 Mar 1872 – 19 Aug 1929], he founded the group Mir Iskusstva. In 1906 he became a teacher of drawing in Yelizaveta Zvantseva's private art school where, among other students, he taught Marc Chagall [07 Jul 1887 – 28 Mar 1985]. Bakst's greatest achievements are related to theater. He debuted with the stage design for the Hermitage and Aleksandrinskii theaters in Saint-Petersburg in 1902-1903. Afterwards, he received several commissions from the Marinskii theater (1903-1904). In 1909 he began his collaboration with Diaghilev, which resulted in founding of the Ballets Russes, where he became the artistic director. His stage designs quickly brought him international fame. Most notable are his costume designs for Diaghilev's Shéhérazade (1910) and L'Après-Midi d'un Faune. He settled in Paris in 1912, after being exiled because of his Jewish origin.

LINKS
–- Bacchante aka Odalisque 2, for Shéhérazade (1910; 716x524pix, 55kb).
–- Minister of State (199kb)
L’oiseau de feu (1910; 834x500pix, 52kb)
La sultane bleue, for Shéhérazade (1910; 869x525pix, 48kb)
Ida Rubinstein in Act IV of Hélène de Sparte (1912)
— A Nymph and another Nymph in L'après-midi d'un faune (1912)
The Bride in Le dieu bleu (1912)
— A Bacchante in Narcisse (1911)
17 theatrical designs at FAMSF
—(081202)
^ Born on 28 December 1883: Abraham Abel George “Buck” Warshawsky, US artist who died in 1962.
— Born in Sharon PA, Warshawsky grew up in Cleveland and studied art at the Cleveland School of Art with Louis Rorimer. In 1904, he was in New York studying at the National Academy of Design and the Art Students League. In 1908, Warshawsky went to Paris where he developed his straightforward Impressionist style and had great success. Active in the Parisian art community, Warshawsky kept a studio in Paris for thirty years. He maintained a routine of traveling through France and Italy punctuated by annual trips to the United States to exhibit and sell his paintings. Girl in GreenIn 1938, the impending outbreak of World War II compelled Warshawsky to return to the US. He settled in Monterey where he built a studio, did portrait work and taught classes. He specialized in figural compositions often combined with the rugged coastline of Northern California. He was active in the Carmel Art Association, serving as president for one term. — His brother Alexander L. Warshawsky [29 Mar 1887 – 28 May 1945] was also a painter.


LINKS
Girl in Green (81x71cm) [>>>], was painted in France and shows Warshawsky's fully mature Impressionist style. The girl is carefully observed (but the picture is inaccurately titled: there isn't much green in her clothing). Although the girl is posed in foreground shade, the soft light and incidental highlights reflected from her coat and blouse give her face a realistic sense of form. The background is handled in short and quick brushstrokes with abundant use of yellow highlight and purple shade. _ Compare these which have greener clothing:
      _ Girl in Green (968x694pix, 97kb) by Illegible Anonymous.
      _ Girl in Green (1100x800pix, 330kb) by Tamara de Lempicka [1898 – 18 Mar 1980].
      _ Girl in Green (2005, 122x91cm; 1711x1281pix, 402kb) by Andrei Acris [27 May 1983~], who also did
      _ Girl in Green With Orange Blanket (2004, 122x91cm; 1550x1229pix, 361kb).
–- The Artist's Wife in Eastern European Dress (800x603pix, 41kb _ .ZOOM to 1400x1055pix, 70kb)
The Estero, Monterey (46x56cm; 322x400pix, 30kb)
California Oaks (66x102cm; 401x550pix, 21kb)
Ocean and Rocks (392x475pix, 43kb)
Village near the Water (1920, 66x81cm; 352x432pix, 63kb)
David Warshawsky [1893-1989] (1944; 237x198pix, 20kb) brother of the artist.
5 small imageslinks to 3 small images
—(061226)
^ died on 28 December 1933: Robert William Vonnoh, US Impressionist painter born on 17 September 1858. Husband of Bessie Potter Vonnoh. Robert Vonnoh studied under Gustave Boulanger and Jules-Joseph Lefebvre. Vonnoh's students included Robert Henri.
— While the best known colony of US impressionist artists in France was established in Giverny, the home of Claude Monet, the aesthetic developed in other rural art centers as well, most notably in Grez-sur-Loing, near the Forest of Fontainebleau. There, the principal agent for the introduction of Impressionism was the Boston painter, Robert Vonnoh. Vonnoh attended the Académie Julian in Paris in 1881 and returned to Boston in 1883, teaching at the newly formed Cowles School in 1884 and at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts in 1885. After his marriage in 1886 to Grace D. Farrell, he and his bride may have honeymooned briefly in Grez; the following year, he returned to France for further study at Julian's, but beginning in the fall of 1887, he spent much of the next three or four years in Grez, before returning to Boston in the spring of 1891.
      Many of Vonnoh's figural canvases of the 1880s reflect his allegiance to strong, tonal Naturalism, but by 1888 he was beginning to work out-of-doors on bright, colorful landscapes and nature studies of flowers, which reflect his involvement in the Impressionist aesthetic. Indeed, Vonnoh's art of the late 1880s suggests an almost schizophrenic artistic persona; it is difficult to believe that the same painter created in the same year, 1888, both his dark, strongly modeled Companion of the Studio and his several depictions of flaming, brightly colored Poppies , shadowless and pushed up against the picture plane, and executed with slashing brush and palette knife work. But, like a good number of US painters of the period, Vonnoh was reluctant to surrender in his figure paintings the academic precepts he had labored so dearly to master, while in his landscape work, for which academic training had offered little preparation, he felt freer to investigate newer, more modern strategies.
      Vonnoh's "conversion' to Impressionism has been attributed to the influence of the Irish painter, Roderic O'Conor, who had adopted the bright, unmixed hues and thick impasto of Impressionism by 1886, and may have been in Grez as early as that year. Vonnoh may also have been led to Impressionism through the example of Alfred Sisley, working nearby in Moret-sur-Loing.
      The several renditions of Poppies (such as Poppies in France, 1888) were both finished nature studies in their own right, and preparatory for his 1890 masterwork, Coquelicots, the largest and most ambitious painting of his career. The subject of poppies was a common one in French and Impressionist painting. It had recently become especially associated with Claude Monet (Les Champs de CoquelicotsCoquelicots près de Vétheuil 1880 — Coquelicots Rouges à Argenteuil), two of whose Giverny poppy field paintings of 1885 had garnered tremendous attention when they were included in the first great American show of French Impressionist art held in New York City at the American Art Association in April of 1886.
      Poppies had been painted in Grez in 1885 also, by the Swedish painter, Karl Nordstrøm and the American, Theodore Robinson . And in 1886, a group of American painters, John Singer Sargent, Edwin Blashfield, Edwin Austin Abbey, and Frank Millet, were all painting poppy pictures in the art colony of Broadway in the West of England. At the same time that Vonnoh was completing Coquelicots, Childe Hassam was investigating the theme in the garden of the poet, Celia Thaxter, on the Island of Appledore off the coast of New Hampshire and Maine (Poppies, Isles of Shoals, 1891). None of these paintings, however, were as ambitious as Vonnoh's Coquelicots.
      Though Coquelicots is undoubtedly a studio composition, Vonnoh maintains the free, unoutlined and unstructured character of his earlier small poppy pictures throughout the landscape elements, while the figures of the young woman picking flowers, the two children behind her, the distant farm wagon and horses, and the buildings on the horizon are more firmly rendered, each defining a distinct spatial plane and providing organization to the spatial recession of the vast canvas.
      Of his involvement with Impressionism, Vonnoh wrote: "I gradually came to realize the value of first impression and the necessity of correct value, pure color and higher key, resulting in my soon becoming a devoted disciple of the new movement in painting." Vonnoh's wife posed for the principal figure, and for a small oil study of the principal figure, formerly entitled Study for Picking Tulips and now called Picking Poppies.
      With its vast scale, Coquelicots was designed as an exhibition piece, meant to appeal to its many viewers. Despite the small farm wagon, the agricultural field here is a source of pleasure, not backbreaking labor. The attractive young woman in the foreground is linked in beauty with the brightly colored flowers, a bunch of which one of the children waves jubilantly in the air.
      The painting was exhibited at the (Old) Salon annual exhibition in Paris in 1891, and then at the International Exposition held in Munich in 1892. It was in Munich that Coquelicots achieved tremendous renown, the great art historian, Richard Muther, writing of the "gleaming and flaming picture of a field of poppies . . . less like an oil-painting than a relief in oils. The unmixed red had been directly pressed on to the canvas from the tube in broad masses, and stood flickering against the blue air; and the bluish-green leaves were placed beside them by the same direct method, white lights being attained by judiciously managed fragments of blank canvas. Never yet was war so boldly declared against the conventional usage's of the studio; never yet were such barbaric means employed to attain an astounding effect of light."
      Coquelicots, now entitled A Poppy Field, was included in Vonnoh's one-artist show held in February, 1896, at the Durand-Ruel Gallery in New York City. On the one hand, the US critics admitted their astonishment at his advanced strategies: The New York Times noted that Vonnoh "has achieved capital results in the matter of vibrating color, light and astonishing brilliancy . and that "Broken color, touches of various pale tones of blues, yellows, reds, violets and other tints, never crude or spotty, rarely obtrusive, give a vibration, a realism quite remarkable." Yet, pictures such as Coquelicots were felt by that same critic to "utterly lack the sentiment and poetry with which the portraits are invested." Coquelicots did not sell. Vonnoh went on to create only one more large-scale figural work set out-of-doors, The Ring (1898).
      After many years, Coquelicots resurfaced as Poppies in the December, 1914, winter exhibition at the National Academy of Design in New York City, and then appeared in the Panama-Pacific International Exposition held in San Francisco in 1915, where Vonnoh won a gold medal. By then, the original signature and date had been removed, and the picture had been resigned with a copyright date of 1914. Poppies then was shown early in 1916, first at the City Art Museum, St. Louis, and then at the Memorial Art Gallery, Rochester, in a two-artist exhibition of Robert Vonnoh's paintings and Bessie Potter Vonnoh's small sculptures. By 1919, the work had been retitled again. The sculptor, J. Massey Rhind, had suggested to Joseph G. Butler, Jr., the title “Flanders- Where Soldiers Sleep and Poppies Grow”, a reference to the German invasion of Belgium during World War 1, and to the 1915 poem, "In Flanders Fields," by the Canadian surgeon, John McCrae, though the joyous sentiments projected by the painting are antithetical to the tragic expression of McCrae's poem.

LINKS
–- Apple Bloom (1903, 77x92cm; 821x1000pix, 91kb — ZOOM to 1643x2000pix, 397kb)
The Ring (1892, 153x184cm; 943x1114pix, 106kb)
Birch Trees (1889, 27x36cm)
The Bridge at Grez (1911; 357x500pix)
Saint-Mathurin, France (1928, 46x56cm; 439x526pix, 31kb)
Coquelicots (In Flanders Field—Where Soldiers Sleep and Poppies Grow, 1890, 147x264cm) _ Final title inspired by McCraes' poem first published in Punch on 08 December 1915: In Flanders Fields
In Flanders fields the poppies blow
Between the crosses, row on row,
That mark our place; and in the sky
The larks, still bravely singing, fly
Scarce heard amid the guns below.
We are the Dead. Short days ago
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,
Loved, and were loved, and now we lie
In Flanders fields.
Take up our quarrel with the foe:
To you from failing hands we throw
The torch; be yours to hold it high.
If ye break faith with us who die
We shall not sleep, though poppies grow
In Flanders fields
_ Compare: Mary Cassatt's Poppies in a Field (1878; 711x949pix, 132kb)
and Claude Monet's:
      _ 274 Coquelicots à Argenteuil (1873; 796x1062pix, 146kb)
      _ Coquelicots à Giverny (1887, 65x92cm; 725x1026pix, 188kb)
      _ Coquelicots près de Vétheuil (1880, 71x90cm; 650x839pix, 182kb)
—(060510)
^ Born on 28 December 1860: Philip Wilson Steer, British painter who died on 21 March 1942.
— Steer was born at Birkenhead, England. His ancestors were Devon yeoman farmers and shipbuilders. His father, an art teacher, had moved north in order to take up a post there. When Steer was four the family moved to Ross-on-Wye, Herefordshire, where his father died seven years later. As a child he had plenty of opportunity and encouragement to experiment with drawing and painting. He came across a book containing engravings of the old masters shown in the Manchester Exhibition of 1857. His careful scrutiny of these left him with a great admiration for Turner. He went to Hereford Cathedral School and Glouster Art School.
      In 1882 Steer went to Paris, where he entered the Académie Julian and a year later the École des Beaux-Arts. He had to leave the latter when it was made compulsory to pass an examination in French. So he returned to England, having seen a little of contemporary French art apart from the 1883 Édouard Manet memorial exhibition. Back in London he took a studio, working and teaching all the winter and spending the summers by the sea.
      In 1886, aged 26, Steer was a founding member of the New English Art Club, which brought him into contact with Whistler. The club stood firm against William Morris's condemnation of modern painting and made it its aim to use everyday things for subject-matter. Steer was greatly concerned with the visible world and made innumerable landscape studies. He loved the sea, and one of his favorite themes was young girls on the shore. The blurred, misty quality of his On the Pier-head (1887) aroused public antagonism.
      About 1888 his mature style established itself and for about five years he was the most advanced painter in England. The dominant influences on him of Whistler and Manet gave way to a clear awareness of Impressionism. An exhibition of Impressionist paintings held in the early 1880's at Dowdeswells was his first introduction to Monet and Renoir, and in 1889 there was another Impressionist exhibition, in Goupil's London gallery.
      After some years, however, Steer's style changed. He began to work up his pictures at home rather than paint entirely direct from nature. His color became heavier, his forms more substantial. The painters who then inspired him were Constable, Gainsborough, Rubens, and Tintoretto. For 31 years, from 1899 to 1930, he taught at the Slade School of Art, London, finding gentle phrases for his criticism and giving more attention to his students' sense of color than to anything else. He was influenced by his fellow teacher Henry Tonks and particularly by Turner.
      Steer held many exhibitions. His first one-man show was in 1894 and he had a retrospective exhibition at the Tate Gallery in 1929. But although his work was usually pleasing, he failed to live up to his earlier promise. By 1940 his eyesight, which had been deteriorating for some time, was almost totally gone.
— The son of painter Philip Steer [–1871], Philip Wilson Steer joined the Department of Coins and Medals at the British Museum in 1875 but found the demands of the Civil Service examination too rigorous and turned to painting in 1878. He studied first at the Gloucester School of Art under John Kemp and from 1880 to 1881 at the South Kensington Drawing Schools. He was rejected by the Royal Academy Schools and went to Paris in October 1882, where he enrolled first at the Académie Julian under William-Adolphe Bouguereau. In January 1883 he transferred to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and studied under Alexandre Cabanel.
      Steer exhibited at the Royal Academy between 1883 and 1885 and at the Paris Salon in 1884. These early paintings were constrained student works, but after his return to England in the summer of 1884 he assimilated contemporary French painting. The popular rural naturalism of Jules Bastien-Lepage was particularly influential and evident in At the Well, Walberswick (1884). As a figure painter, Steer was influenced by Whistler and Degas. In Young Girl in a White Dress (1892), his handling of the white dress, grey background and pink details recalls Whistler's manipulation of tone, while the unusual viewpoint and arbitrary truncation of form in Self-portrait with Model (1894) refer to Degas's compositional effects of spontaneity. Portraits of his favourite model, Rose Pettigrew, executed in the early 1890s, are the most relaxed and original in this genre.
      By the beginning of the 1890s Steer was the leading follower of French Impressionism in England. The beach scenes he painted between 1887 and 1894 on the English and French coasts are indebted to Monet and Sisley in the use of a flecked brushstroke to apply pure, unmixed color directly to the canvas. However, Steer's use of Impressionist techniques was idiosyncratic and determined by his response to the form and color of his chosen motifs. In some cases his technique emphasized the decorative quality of the painting. In Knucklebones, Walberswick (1888), for example, the shingle beach is rendered as a mosaic in a manner akin to Divisionism. In Girls Running, Walberswick Pier (1889) Steer extensively reworked the composition until the balance between naturalistic representation and the demands of the picture surface came close to Symbolism.
      In the late 1880s and early 1890s Steer was active in establishing alternative exhibiting bodies in London. In 1886 he became a founder-member of the New english art club, and in 1889 he participated in the first and only exhibition of the London Impressionists at the Goupil Gallery. He exhibited at the avant-garde exhibition of Les XX in Brussels in 1889 and 1891 and in 1893 joined the staff of the Slade School of Fine Art, London.
      Steer's style underwent radical change from about 1895, when he began consciously to reassess the works of the Old Masters. In landscape painting this led him to re-examine the work of Rubens, Constable and Turner and to select his subject-matter from the august countryside of inland Britain. Between 1893 and 1911 he visited many of the favoured sites of the 18th-century picturesque tour, in particular Yorkshire, north Wales and the West Country. He used the landscape conventions of previous periods to introduce an epic quality, or sense of grandeur, to the scene. The wide vista and high viewpoint of Rainbow Landscape, Bridgnorth (1901) specifically recalls Rubens's Rainbow Landscape, while the dramatic impact of Steer's Chepstow Castle (1905), in which the castle is situated high above the precipitous cliffs and silhouetted against a bright but unrestful cloudy sky, is dependent on Turner's mezzotint of the same subject (reproduced as River Wye in Turner's Liber Studiorum, 1812). Constable's influence on Steer is evident in the vigorous paint handling of his mature landscape style and in his fascination for the emotive effects of cloud formations. Both aspects can be seen in La Grande Place, Montreuil (1907).
      Steer's return to the Old Masters also had a marked effect on his figure painting in the 1890s. His enthusiasm for Gainsborough, Boucher and Watteau is reflected in a number of fancy pictures and nudes in which the spirit of Rococo sensuality prevails, for example the Toilet of Venus (1897) and The Embarkment (1900). These and paintings such as Hydrangeas (1901), as well as the freely painted landscape sketches of 1908 to 1909, were often no more than pretexts for indulging in exuberant paint handling.
      Steer began to paint in watercolor in the early 1890s, although he always regarded the medium as preliminary to his oil paintings. Apart from a brief period (c. 1906–7) when he experimented with gouache, the style of his watercolors is characterized by the controlled placing of pigment on white paper, using the transparency of thin color washes to ensure the maximum resonance of tonal relationships.
      In 1927 Steer began to lose his sight in one eye and proceeded to paint almost exclusively in watercolor. His style in both oil and watercolor became looser yet compositionally more refined with his deteriorating vision, verging occasionally on total abstraction, as in the watercolor Showery Weather, Mill Beach (1933). In 1929 he was the first artist to have a major retrospective exhibition in his own lifetime at the Tate. He continued to teach at the Slade until 1930 and was awarded the OM in 1931.

LINKS
Boulogne Sands - Children Shrimping (1891, 48x57cm; 2/5 size, 50kb _ ZOOM to main detail; full size, 330kb) _ With carelessly applied dots of light color, Steer pretends to create the impression of a shimmering sky, and with random strokes of paint, to convey the reflections of light on the watery sand. The tide is out, and people are scattered across the spacious beach: children in the foreground gather shrimps, while those in the background are simply strolling. All the figures are painted swiftly, the cursory brushstrokes allegedly evoke their movement, as well as the fall of light upon them. {A more likely explanation is the laziness of the painter and his contempt for the uncritical critics who dream up such excuses for shoddy work.}
Boulogne Sands (1891, 61x76cm) _ In the early 1880s Steer studied in Paris, where he encountered the work of the French Impressionists. After his return to England in 1884, he painted a series of luminous and brightly colored scenes, often based around the beach, a location which can be linked with Monet’s paintings of the same period. The loose brushwork and sparkling colors brilliantly capture the transience and exhilaration of childhood and summer vacations. His use of strongly contrasting colors draws on theories being promoted by the most avant-garde painters in France at this time.
Mrs. Cyprian Williams and her Two Little Girls (1891, 76x102cm; 379x512pix, 30kb) _ Steer painted this portrait of the family of an art collector for an exhibition. He had painted Impressionist views of girls at the seafront a little earlier, and here he used a similarly unusual composition and lighting for a modern portrait in an interior. Mrs. Williams was a friend of Sickert and Aubrey Beardsley in the 1890s, and was renowned for her distinctive features and volatile temperament, which Steer captures in the severity of her gaze. The unusual close-up viewpoint, looking down on the subject, is derived from Edgar Degas. The two girls, in black dresses, sit across the room from their mother, who is not looking at them. One girl, clutching a doll, looks wistfully at her mother. The other is engrossed in a picture book, her neglected doll fell on the floor beside her.
What of the War? (1881, 92x68cm) _ old bearded man reading a newspaper.
The Music Room (1906, 102x127cm)
Knucklebones, Walberswick (1888)
Girl and St. Bernard Dog (1899)
 
^ Died on 28 December 1656: Laurent de la Hire (or Hyre), French French Baroque classical painter born on 27 February 1606.
— La Hire's best work is marked by gravity, simplicity, and dignity. He was the son of the painter Étienne de La Hire [1583-1643] but was most influenced by the work of Georges Lallemont and Orazio Gentileschi. His picture of Pope Nicolas V at the Tomb of Saint Francis was done in 1630 for the Capuchins, for whom he executed several other works. For the goldsmiths' company he produced in 1635 St. Peter Healing the Sick and the Conversion of St Paul in 1637. In 1648, with 11 other artists, he helped found the French Royal Academy. Cardinal Richelieu called him to the Palais-Royal about 1640 to paint decorative mythological scenes, and he later designed a series of tapestries for the Gobelins.

LINKS
Cornelia refuses the crown of Ptolemy (1646, 138x123cm; 599x549pix, 89kb _ ZOOM to 2210x2024pix, 418kb) _ Cornelia Gracchus, the younger daughter of Publius Scipio Africanus, after being widowed in 154 BC from her husband Tiberius Sempronius, was offered the crown and marriage by a king of Egypt, either Ptolemy VI Philometor or Ptolemy VIII Euergetes. But she did not accept.
Theseus and Aethra (1640, 141x118cm; 599x503pix, 77kb _ ZOOM to 1878x1576pix, 277kb)
Abraham Sacrificing Isaac (1650)
Allegorical Figure of Grammar (1650, 103x113cm) _ Although the Parisian painter La Hyre seems never to have travelled to Italy, he was well aware - through study at Fontainebleau and through the work of contemporary artists like Vouet, Poussin and Claude - of the achievements of the Italian Renaissance. He became a major exponent of a restrained and refined classical manner fashionable in the French capital. The sculptural clarity and weight of the figure in this allegorical painting, the measured regularity of the composition with its emphasis on horizontal and vertical lines, the even lighting and discrete local color can all be contrasted with the sweeping movement, dramatic play of light, shade, textures and reflections in Baroque works by contemporaries like Rembrandt.
      This unlikely gardener represents Grammar and is one of a series of personifications of the Seven Liberal Arts painted to decorate a room in the Paris town house of Gédéon Tallemant, one of the counsellors of King Louis XIII. The Liberal Arts were the literary trio, Grammar, Rhetoric and Dialectic, and the mathematical quartet of Arithmetic, Music, Geometry and Astronomy. It had long been traditional to decorate private studios and libraries with their images. They were always shown as women, in keeping with the feminine gender of the Latin nouns grammatica, rhetorica etc., which retain their femininity in all the Romance languages. The other paintings of these high-minded ladies by La Hyre survive, dispersed in various collections. We do not know precisely how they were arranged in the room, but the pictures, of different sizes, were probably set into carved panelling and hung above head height.
      The Latin legend on Grammar's winding ribbon can be translated as 'A learned and articulate voice spoken in a correct manner'. The function of Grammar among the Liberal Arts was not to parse sentences or teach conjugations but to ensure that ideas could be communicated clearly and effectively. In Cesare Ripa's illustrated dictionary of personifications of concepts, the Iconologia, first published in 1593, a book much used by painters, the author comments, 'Like young plants, young brains need watering and it is the duty of Grammar to undertake this.' La Hyre shows Grammar, with a homely jug, watering primulas and anemones in terracotta pots as lovingly studied from the object as any kitchenware by Chardin. The overflow runs off through the drainage hole onto a fragment of antique Roman wall or pillar ornamented with an egg-and-dart frieze. Behind her, grand fluted Roman columns and a Roman urn close off our view into the garden beyond the wall, but the mood is as friendly and serene as if she were nursing her plants on a balcony in a quiet Paris backwater away from the traffic, airing the ravishing harmonies of her shot-silk gown and mild blue cloak.
The Children of Bethel Mourned by their Mothers (1653, 97x129cm) _ La Hire never went to Italy, and his style was formed in Paris under the Mannerist Georges Lallemant. All La Hire's leanings towards classical antiquity were therefore learned at second hand, particularly from the work of Nicolas Poussin. As early as 1630, however, a certain coldness was detectable in his art, probably derived from Vouet, who had recently returned from Rome. Almost all of La Hire's best pictures are of figures in classical landscapes. The Children of Bethel Mourned by their Mothers corresponds to a type already perfected by Poussin, namely a strong moral content with figures carefully arranged in an equally carefully balanced landscape or architectural setting. Even though La Hire's result was totally different from that of Poussin and it would never be possible to confuse the two, they fall into the same general category and would have appealed to the same type of patrons.
Cornelia Refusses the Crown of the Ptolomai (1646, 138x123cm) _ The painting depicts the scene when Cornelia - the daughter of Scipio Africanus, the widow of consul Tiberius Gracchus and mother of Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus - refuses the crown of the King of Egypt and his marriage proposal. The style of La Hire is the equivalent in painting that of Corneille and Racine in literature.
Laban Searching Jacob's Bagagge for the Stolen Idols (1647, 95x133cm) _ The biblical story represented in this painting is the following. Jacob, the son of Isaac and the twin brother of Esau, fled from his brother's wrath, taking refuge with his uncle Laban in Mesopotamia. Laban had two daughters, Leah and Rachel. Leah the elder, was rheumy eyed, but Rachel was graceful and beautiful. Jacob undertook to serve Laban as a herdsman for seven years in return for Rachel whom he wished to marry. At the wedding feast Laban substituted Leah by a trick, and then demanded another seven years labour from Jacob before he should obtain Rachel. At the end Jacob set off secretly to return to Canaan with both wives and his children and possessions. In parting, Rachel stole her father's teraphim, the small sacred figurines which were his 'household gods'. When he discovered the theft Laban set off in pursuit, overtook the party and searched their tents and belongings. Rachel promptly hid the teraphim in a camel's saddle and sat on it, saying to her father, 'do not take it amiss, sir, that I cannot rise in your presence, the common lot of women is upon me.' Jacob and Laban had a reconciliation before they parted.
Landscape with Peace and Justice Embracing (1654, 55x76cm) _ Inscribed in the center: Iustitia et Pax/osculatae sunt. It is unusual for the subject of a picture to be inscribed so clearly on the painting. Although most of La Hire's work is of many-figured compositions executed in bright, solid colors, he is best remembered for his contribution to the development of landscape painting. His few surviving landscapes seems to amalgamate the limpid light of Claude Lorrain with the antiquarian interests of Nicolas Poussin. As there was so little landscape painting in Paris in the middle years of the seventeenth century, the works of La Hire form an illuminating example of the way that taste was turning towards the dry and formal.
Theseus and Aethra (1640, 141x118cm) _ This is a representation of Plutarch's story in which, in the presence of his mother, the young Greek hero Theseus finds the swords and sandals his father Aegeus has buried under a heavy stone. Seventeenth century French masters often chose to depict some fairly recondite theme from the Graeco-Roman history or legend, and La Hire, a popular artist of the period, excelled in paintings of this kind. The painting was commissioned by Cardinal Richelieu. _ detail _ The detail shows the figure of Theseus. It is assumed that the face of Theseus is a selt-portrait of the artist.
—(051227)
^ Died on 28 December 1910: Gustave Colin, French painter and writer born on 11 July 1828.
— He served his apprenticeship in 1847 at Arras, in the studio of the landscape painter Constant Dutilleux [1807–1865]. Later, in Paris, he studied under Ary Scheffer and Thomas Couture. Like many artists from Arras, he was in close contact with Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot and absorbed his teaching. In 1857 he made his début at the Paris Salon with a Portrait of a Grandmother. He discovered the Pyrénées in 1858 and settled at Ciboure. Henceforth he painted landscapes, especially coastal views, and bullfighting scenes, in which he captured a colorful atmosphere, highlighting momentary events and changing light. His brushwork became increasingly transparent, his drawing simpler and his palette richer, as in Charge of the Bullocks in Pasagès Square (1869). The heightened effect of these original compositions invites comparisons with the work of Edgar Degas.
— Born in Arras, Colin died in Paris. In 1850 he began law studies, painting as a hobby until 1853 when he decided to give up the law and devote himself to painting. Briefly a student at the Academie Humbert and Gruvieux, he moved on to the atelier of Dutilleux and Corot. Colin even accompanied Corot on a trip to the Basque region in South western France in 1872, as a guide. Colin worked with Ary Scheffer and then with Couture and he painted in Barbizon as well as the Brittany coast. His Salon debut dates from 1857. In 1863, his painting of peyote players was one of the paintings favorably remarked at the Salon des Refusés. For years he divided his time between Arras, Paris and Ciboure where he finally married in 1860. Colin participated in the first Impressionist Exhibition in 1874 at Nadar’s with Degas, Manet, Sisley, and Berthe Morisot. He did not, however, join their subsequent exhibitions, preferring to return to the Salon where he exhibited regularly until the founding of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts to which he was an early subscriber. His work was appreciated by critics from Théophile Gautier to Zola. Castagnary, speaking of the Salon of 1876 declared ; “Colin est passé maître dans l’art de rendre les effets de soleil”. Most of his paintings are of landscapes and rural themes of the Spanish and French Basque country. His style is realist and always brightly colored. His remarkable paintings are beautifully composed.

–- Le port de San Juan à Pasajes, Espagne (1870, 32x55cm; 604x930pix, 37kb)
 –- Bateau Ancré au port de San Juan (1876, 73x92cm; 798x1100pix, 81kb) _ These two paintings are of the San Juan side of the harbor. A boat with its sails lowered is moored. Behind are the houses of Pasajes and the mountains overlooking the port. These are early Impressionist works, and in them can be detected influences of Corot (whom Colin knew well), Boudin, and Puvis de Chavannes.
Jeu de Pelote Basque (1863; 224x353pix, 16kb)
 

Died on a 28 December:

2005 Joan Hernández Pijuán [–1931], Barcelona Catalan minimalist painter and engraver.
Paisaje (1983, 160x270cm; 449x755pix, 88kb)
Planta en el jardín nº 3 (1985, 146x114cm; 800x613pix, 147kb).
Paisaje ocre nº 2 (1987, 195x195cm; 757x755pix, 139kb) .—(091227)

^ 1934 Eugene Lawrence Vail, in Paris, French-US painter born on 29 September 1857 in France. Son of a French mother and a US father, Eugene Vail maintained strong ties with both countries throughout his life. As a young man, he studied both in Paris and New York. Although he showed an early aptitude and enthusiasm for art, his father required that he receive a practical education; before he was twenty Vail graduated from the Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, New Jersey with a concentration in mechanical engineering. After college he joined the National Guard, during which time he participated in a Western expedition led by Captain George Wheeler. Vail sketched the terrain and painted portraits of his traveling companions and the Amerindians they met.
     At the end of his service, the young artist studied first under William Merritt Chase [1849-1916] and J. Carroll Beckwith [1852-1917] at the Art Students League in New York, then in Paris. After working under Alexandre Cabanel [1823-1889], Pascal Dagnan-Bouveret [1852-1929], and Raphael Collin [1850-1916] at the École des Beaux Arts, he left to pursue his art independently at Pont Aven and Concarneau, favorite locations of painters in Britanny. The first of his canvases to be included in the Paris Salon had as its subject a Breton peasant girl. Vail went on to paint images of peasants and fishermen in villages and towns throughout Europe. His seafaring subject, Ready About won him a gold medal at the Exposition Universelle in 1889.
     Vail's realistic, anecdotal works were exhibited throughout Europe and the United States. After many successful years of producing work in the academic, "Salon" tradition, Vail's style underwent a change, gradually becoming looser and more impressionistic. His palette, too, was lightened, perhaps in response to the light and color of Italy, particularly of Venice, where he began to spend his autumns. At other times of the year he visited St. Moritz, St. Tropez, and Lake Como. He became particularly known for his light-hearted scenes of people engaged in winter sports.
The Flags, Saint Mark's, Venice - Fête Day (1903, 82x93cm)

^ 1934 Pablo Gargallo, Spanish sculptor born in 1881.
The Prophet (St. John the Baptist) angle view _ front view _ different view (1933, bronze, 234x76x47cm)

1930 Antonio Mancini, Italian artist born on 14 November 1852.

1903 (29 Dec? 30 Dec?) Fortuné Armand Séguin, French painter and printmaker born in 1869. — {Pas assez fortuné pour que je trouve quoi que ce soit de lui dans l'Internet. Serait-ce que le loup lui a mangé ses tableaux en plus de la chèvre de Monsieur Seguin? Daudet [13 May 1840 – 16 Dec 1897] n'en dit rien dans La chèvre de Monsieur Seguin} — He attended the Académie Julian in Paris, and he learnt lithography in a commercial studio. In the 1890s he supported himself as an illustrator for the periodicals Le Rire and Le Chut. His drawings and engravings were more highly regarded than his paintings, although they show no unifying style: they range from works showing an Impressionist softness of fine contour lines to more striking compositions characterized by decorative simplification and interlocking arabesques. The latter are influenced by Japonisme and demonstrate Séguin’s affinities with artists such as Edvard Munch and Jan Toorop, who also revealed Art Nouveau tendencies. Séguin’s mature graphic style is seen in his critically acclaimed illustrations for Gaspard de la Nuit (1904) by Aloysius Bertrand and Byron’s Manfred (unfinished) for Ambroise Vollard.

^ 1870 Petrus van Schendel, Dutch Belgian painter born on 21 April 1806. — {Est-il vrai que personne n'a essayé de falsifier ses oeuvres, parce que le jeu n'en vaut pas le Schendel?} — Van Schendel was born in Belgium; his family was of Dutch origin. He studied at the Antwerp Academy and worked in Antwerp until 1828 when he left for Holland, living in Amsterdam, Rotterdam and The Hague before settling permanently in Brussels in 1845. It was from this date that he began his market scenes. This same year he won a gold medal at the Brussels exhibition for Market by Moonlight, and again at the landmark 1857 Art Treasures Exhibition in Manchester with A Fish Market. He exhibited at the Royal Academy, London in 1855-1856. He was also a successful portrait painter. — He was trained first in Antwerp, where he was apprenticed to Mathieu Ignace Van Brée, and lived there from 1822 to 1828 after finishing his training. Until 1832 he lived in Amsterdam, moving next to Rotterdam (1832–1838) and The Hague. In 1845 he settled permanently in Brussels. He was a member of the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam and of the Rotterdam society Arti Sacrum. Between 1827 and 1867 he submitted work to exhibitions in Amsterdam, The Hague, Brussels, Antwerp and Ghent, winning various prizes including a gold medal (Brussels) for Market by Moonlight (1845). Influenced by 17th-century Dutch painting, he specialized in genre scenes and interiors lit by moonlight or candlelight in the tradition of Gerrit Dou. In France van Schendel was nicknamed ‘Monsieur Chandelle’. Queen Victoria bought Market Scene by Candlelight. Similar works are Woman Streetseller by Moonlight and Evening Market in a Frisian Town by Moonlight. The combination of candle and moonlight is a striking feature of these small, smoothly finished paintings. The figures in van Schendel’s genre paintings seem rather stiff and posed; his portraits, however, were well thought of (Adriana Johanna van Wijk, 1829; A Man of the Bernet Family and A Woman of the Bernet Family). Van Schendel taught Sybrand Altman [1822–1890] and was also active as a graphic artist.
The Fruit Seller (75x62cm; 480x395pix, 23kb _ ZOOM to 1500x1235pix, 128kb)

^ 1825 John Thomas Serres, London English artist born in December 1759, son of Dominic Serres [1722 – 06 Nov 1793]. John Thomas Serres’s colorful career began with landscape painting. He later traveled extensively, spending periods in Paris (1789), Rome, and Naples (1790–91), before succeeding his father to the office of Marine Painter to George III in 1793. He worked promisingly as a painter (in both oils and watercolor) of sea-pieces in the European tradition, advanced in England by Phillipe Jacques de Loutherbourg. After becoming Marine Draughtsman to the Admiralty in 1800 he took on the less challenging employment of making drawings and elevations of the west coasts of France and Spain. This connection with the Navy was probably related to his appointment as drawing instructor at Chelsea Naval School, London. Perhaps with his students in mind, he published the Liber Nauticus, and Instructor in the Art of Marine Drawing (under the co-authorship of his father, 1805); it was in practice a layman’s guide to contemporary shipping and an ambitious attempt at self-publicity, deliberately reminiscent of Claude Lorrain’s Liber Veritatis.
Dutch Coast Scene (1795, 24x36cm)
Whitby
A Rock by the Sea
The Courtyard of an Inn at Tivoli

1702 Richard Brakenburg, Dutch painter born (main coverage) on 22 May 1650. —(051227)

^ 1598 Gillis (Aegidius Sinapius) Mostaert, Flemish painter born in 1534, twin of Frans Mostaert [1534-1560+] and descendant of Jan Mostaert [1472-1555]. Gillis Mostaert studied in Antwerp under Crispin van den Broeck and Jan Mandijn who influenced him to adhere to the tradition of Hieronymus Bosch . Mostaert was enlisted as a master in the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke in 1554–1555. On 28 October 1563 he married Margareta Baes in Saint Walburgakerk, and between 1564 and 1572 six children of theirs were christened in the same church. From 1575 onwards, and until 1588 (the registers are missing between 1579 and 1584), several more were christened in the Saint Joriskerk. A tax list of 1584 indicates that the painter was then living in a rented house near that church. No named students of Mostaert are recorded in the guild lists, but in 1572 Hendrik Pieters, a young artist who intended to travel to Italy, admitted that he had studied under Mostaert in the latter’s house for more than a year. Gillis van Coninxloo II was also a student of Mostaert. Several other artists can also be associated with Mostaert: Cornelis van Dalem, to whom he introduced Bartholomäus Spranger as a student and into whose landscapes he occasionally painted the staffage figures; Peeter Baltens and Crispin van den Broeck, who were godfathers to children of Mostaert in 1571 and 1588. — LINKS
Netherlandish Household (40x35cm; 798x713pix, 131kb)
Village Feast (79x107cm; 770x1094pix, 169kb)
Scene of War and Fire (1569, 178kb)
Crucifixion
The Burning of Troy (600x948pix)
Sodom and Gomorrha (600x912pix)
Landscape with Flight into Egypt (40x68cm; 538x912pix)
–- The Israelites' Flight From Egypt to the Promised Land (199x234cm; 765x890pix, 79kb) _ It shows Pharaoh's army engulfed by the Red Sea, Moses striking the rock, and Moses with the tablets of the Law.
–- The Arrival at Bethlehem (24x36cm; 612x971pix, 98kb) The three Magi have been added by a later hand.
–- Christ Before Annas (1578, 17x14cm; 558x465pix, 28kb) —(071212)

6 BC (possible year, date of yearly conmemoration) The Holy Innocents are massacred. After the birth of Jesus, King Herod heard that a new king of the Jews had been born in Bethlehem. Having no way to recognise the child, he ordered his soldiers to kill all the boys in Bethlehem younger than two. Meanwhile, Mary and Joseph (warned in a dream) had already fled with the baby Jesus to Egypt. They remained there until after the death of Herod. Many painters have pictured the scene as they imagined it, for example:
_ Testa: The allegory of the slaughter of the innocents (1640, 124x174cm; 431x900pix, 96kb) _ The beatific infants, the first martyrs in heaven, watch the dramatic tableau on the step of Herod’s palace. The lamb clutched to the angel’s breast symbolises innocence and sacrifice. The angled composition allows us to witness the escape of Mary and Joseph and the infant Jesus, and juxtaposes the dramatic foreground with the classical landscape.
_ Navez: Le Massacre des Innocents (1824, 46x53cm)
_ Fra Angelico: Massacre of the Innocents (1450; 874x862pix, 164kb)
_ Pieter Bruegel the Elder: The Slaughter of the Innocents (1566)
_ Pieter Bruegel the Younger: The Massacre of the Innocents (1638; 611x858pix, 119kb _ ZOOM to 1222x1716pix, 247kb)
_ Castello: The Massacre of the Innocents (1658, 200x257cm) _ In this painting, the events unfold against a background of classical architecture. We see only fragments of the architecture, creating the impression that the crowd of frightened women fleeing to save their children and the enraged soldiers rushing after them are hemmed in on all sides, caught in the narrow streets of a city. Running, falling, shielding their children with their bodies, lying prostrate, the figures are now caught in the light, now deep in shadow. Some figures seem to be cut off by the frame, as if this is just a small corner of some vast and awful event, which continues well beyond the borders of that frame.
_ Follower of Hugo van der Goes: Massacre of the Innocents
_ Giotto di Bondone: The Massacre of the Innocents (1315; 827x1030pix, 140kb)
_ Cornelis Corneliszoon van Haarlem [1562-1638]: Massacre of the Innocents (1590, 245x258cm; 821x1242pix 161kb _ ZOOM to 1058x1600pix) _ Before Cornelis van Haarlem the subject had never before been tackled on so large and ambitious a scale. This is a lifesize representation of the massacre. In the enormous picture the viewer is shown every gruesome detail. The scene takes place outside the city walls. The naked, muscular soldiers are everywhere, in bitter struggle with the desperate mothers. In the background women are trying to flee with their children, but they too are intercepted by soldiers. In the foreground, right, a group of mothers take revenge on a soldier: two women hold him down while a third pulls out his eyes. Another mother with her dead child in her arms, watches approvingly. The painter has signed the work on the stone in the foreground, left. The struggling figures are arranged in small groups to form a circle. The eye is drawn automatically along the fighting bodies towards the center. There is an open space there, like the heart of a whirlwind. Standing at the center in brilliant illumination is a soldier with a knife. He has just grabbed his next victim. In the background the scene is shut off by the high city walls and the mountains beyond. This increases the sense of fear and doom. Van Haarlem uses this composition to add power to his story. The artist has used this topic to show human bodies in every imaginable position and contortion. Clearly, he had a profound knowledge of human anatomy, showing the shapes of muscles and bones beneath the skin. In particular, the soldiers in the foreground are magnificently rendered. Van Haarlem also shows his great interest in perspective. The group in the center is greatly foreshortened as is the soldier on the left who is being lynched by the women. There are strikingly beautiful contrasts between the dark skin of the soldiers and the white bodies of the women. The bodies of the dead children are pale and colorless. The painting was commissioned by the States of Holland. It was displayed at Naaldwijk Castle, one of the country estates of stadholder Maurice. The enormous canvas with its excruciating subject is hardly a happy wall decoration for a country seat. But when it was made, this story had political significance. The biblical drama was seen as an example of cruel tyranny. At that time the Netherlands was involved in an uprising against Spain. Maurice was in command of the Dutch forces and involved on a daily basis in the struggle against the tyranny of Spain. The variety of body poses, the sharp contrasts and the violent emotions are all characteristics of Netherlandish art of this period. Because of the rather contrived manner of painting this style is known as Mannerism. Contemporaries held this painting in high esteem. Karel van Mander [1548-1606], a friend and fellow townsman of Cornelis van Haarlem, praised the 'bustle of the naked infanticides, and the efforts of the mothers to save their children: also the various incarnations of different ages, from men and women, and the delicate young skin of the children, and the physical change that death causes in a bleeding corpse.'
_ also by Cornelis: Massacre of the Innocents (1591; 1050x1004pix, 177kb) _ Shortly after the completion of the previous painting, Van Haarlem received another commission for a Massacre of the Innocents, this time from the city of Haarlem. This painting hung in the Prinsenhof, the stadholder's residence when in Haarlem. It closely resembles the first Massacre. The violent contortions and foreshortenings of the Herculean nudes, the exaggerated tension, and the forced perspective in Cornelis van Haarlem's life-size Massacre of the Innocents are all characteristic of late-sixteenth-century Dutch Mannerism.
_ Le Brun: The Massacre of the Innocents (1665, 133x187cm; 490x700pix, 77kb)
_ Mocetto: The Massacre of the Innocents (68x45cm; 420x320pix, 34kb) and The Massacre of the Innocents (68x45cm; 420x320pix, 35kb) probably two fragments from a single work. Details are taken from Mantegna's engravings of The Entombment and Bacchanal with a Wine-press.
_ Reni: Massacre of the Innocents (1611, 268x170cm; 971x614pix, 119kb) _ Though the historical significance of Caravaggio and his enormous influence on Baroque painting cannot be overlooked, we should not ignore the fact that there was considerable resistance against the more extreme tendencies in his art, such as the loss of the heroic sphere, or the presentation of the everyday and the ordinary. His greatest rival, whose influence was to extend far beyond that of Caravaggio well into the 18th and 19th centuries, was undoubtedly the Bolognese artist Guido Reni. An early work such as The Massacre of the Innocents bears clear traces of his initial links with Caravaggio and, at the same time, already reveals the most important arguments against him. Before a landscape bathed in light, but set with dark and heavy architecture, a group of eight adults and eight children (including the putti distributing the palm fronds of victory) has been skilfully arranged. The unusual vertical format, rarely used for this theme, and above all the symmetrical structure of figural counterparts indicate that Reni was particularly interested in a specific problem of composition: that of achieving a balance between centripetal and centrifugal movement while combining them in a static pictorial structure. Reni also seeks to achieve this equilibrium in his expression of effects and in the distribution of color accents.
_ Rubens:: .Massacre of the Innocents (1611, 142x182cm; 765x1097pix, 101kb) _ The swirling mixture of figures has antecedents in late 16th-Century Mannerist painting in Antwerp, and the picture is intended to be seen from left of center, an Antwerp convention. Nonetheless, the ambitious and complex composition of this group of interlocked figures, is something entirely new in Flemish art, and announces the Baroque. In the context of painting on either side of the Alps, it is highly precocious. The basic form is that of an inverted equilateral triangle, so that the base is formed by the male figure to the right. However, the heads of the central group form a flattened circle, which, reinforced by the twisting of their bodies underneath, imparts a sense of savage energy to the inherently static triangle, and holds the composition together visually. The figures are linked by tension and compression; by pushing and pulling: the arms of the soldier attempting to stab the old woman are compressed, pushing her face and the sword; the armored soldier behind her is pulling the hair of the woman before him in tension; the woman to the fore is pulling her child up towards her and pushing the face of the bearded man away; he is pulling the cloth of her child towards him. Although this is as dynamic a composition as one could imagine, in its carefully built-up and highly complex arrangement it is classical; in short it is an entirely baroque picture, not a mannerist one. This picture must have had an extraordinary impact on a Flemish public that would have been quite unprepared for it. The traditional depiction of this subject in Flanders, based on Pieter Bruegel’s prototype, known in innumerable repetitions by his son’s shop and others, shows expressionless latter-day soldiery slaughtering peasant children in the snow in a quotidian act of cruelty - sometimes adapted in later times to show soldiers heaving sacks about. This, by contrast, is a brutal, unrestrained and intensely physical depiction of an orgy of violence, and is at a vast remove from the Flemish forebears of Rubens [28 Jun 1577 – 30 May 1640]. As a deeply religious man, Rubens would have seen no reason to tone down the horror of one of the most the most appalling incidents related in the Bible.
_ also by Rubens: Massacre of the Innocents (1637, 199x302cm; 700x1078pix, 98kb)
_ Volterra: The Massacre of the Innocents
_ Duccio di Buoninsegna: Slaughter of the Innocents (1311; 850x840pix, 206kb)
_ Ghirlandaio: Slaughter of the Innocents (1490)
_ Tintoretto: The Slaughter of the Innocents (1587) —(061225)


Born on a 28 December:


1899 Edgar Neville Romrée, escritor, autor de teatro, director de cine, pintor, .y diplomático español, quien murió el 23 Apr 1967. —(061227).

1885 (16 Dec Julian) Vladimir Yevgrafovich Tatlin [–31 May 1953], Russian Constructivist painter and architect. — LINKS
Fishmonger (1911, 77x99cm; 809x1024pix, 465kb)
Study for Board No. 1 (1917, 44x30cm oval; 696x410pix image on 800x543pix background, 72kb)
Composition (Month of May) (1916; 600x455pix, 114kb) —(091215)

^ 1877 Alfred Aaron Wolmark, Polish British painter who died on 06 January 1961.
–- Self-Portrait with Van Gogh Self-Portrait (800x620pix, 110kb) both very blurry.
–- Cubist Self-Portrait (800x547pix, 48kb) poster-like, not really cubist. _ Compare with a selection of which many are more genuinely cubist self-portraits.
Self-Portrait with Cubist Self-Portrait (800x620pix, 133kb) the expert opinion is that this is not a genuine Wolmark painting but a spoof by the pseudonymous Nora Aderfla Wolfmark, who (under any other name) is certainly responsible for
      _ “Van Gogh's” Self-Portrait with Wolmark's Self-Portrait (1024x822pix, 105kb) and
      _ “Van Gogh's” Self-Portrait with Wolmark's Self-Portrait with Van Gogh's Self-Portrait (1012x826pix, 163kb). —(061225)

^ 1865 Félix-Émile-Jean Vallotton, in Lausanne, Swiss Nabi printmaker, painter, and critic, active in France, naturalized French citizen in 1900, who died in Paris on his 60th birthday. He attended school in Lausanne, then moved to Paris in 1882 and enrolled as an art student at the Académie Julian. Paris remained his main base for the rest of his life, although he returned regularly to Switzerland to see his family. He became a close friend of Charles Cottet and Charles Maurin, who was his teacher and mentor. As a student, copying in the Louvre, Vallotton was drawn to the minute realism of the earlier masters, in particular Holbein, whose work he sought to emulate. He succeeded in having portraits accepted by the Salon jury in 1885 and 1886. — The students of Vallotton included Yury Annenkov, Henri Catargi, Marcel Gromaire. — LINKS
Self-Portrait at age 20 (1885, 71x56cm; 600x498pix, 53kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1092pix _ ZOOM+ to 2438x2024pix, 424kb)
Self-Portrait (1891; 600x476pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1111pix)
Self-Portrait (1897; 1096x899pix, 86kb)
Self-Portrait (1914; 600x484pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1129pix)
The Red Room (1898; 600x804pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1876pix)
Composed Landscape (1923; 600x760pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1773pix)
Sunset (835x1129pix, 123kb)
96 images at the Athenaeum —(051227)

^ 1847 Cesare Augusto Detti, Italian painter, active in France, who died on 19 May 1914.
–- She picked her favorite (800x650pix, 53kb _ .ZOOM to 1400x1138pix, 109kb)
–- A Potential Buyer; the Artist at Work (900x639pix, 98kb _ .ZOOM to 1575x1118pix, 171kb)
–- The Duet (799x494pix, 37kb)
–- La Chasse (799xpix, 81kb)
–- Les Amants (800x555pix, 52kb _ to .ZOOM to 1400x971pix, 104kb)
To the Joust (1888, 127x71cm; 480x289pix, 39kb) —(061226)


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