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DEATHS: 1615 SCHEDONI — 1912 DÉTAILLE — 1940 MALYAVIN
BIRTH: 1870 MARIN
^ Died on 23 December 1615: Bartolomeo Schedoni (or Schidone), Italian painter and draftsman born on 23 January 1578.
— Schedoni's untimely death (perhaps suicide owing to gambling debts) brought an abrupt end to the career of one of the most attractive painters of the seventeenth century and an eccentric exponent of the Emilian school. He was connected to the Farnese courts in Parma and Modena where he both assimilated and reworked a variety of different influences. Among them we can see both a direct line to Correggio, the finely detailed way of working used by the Carracci cousins, and all of the latest trends from Rome. Ranuccio Farnese sent Schedoni to Rome at the close of the sixteenth century, but he soon returned to Emilia and settled in Parma. It was there that he painted a small but fascinating group of masterpieces in a severe and noble style. At the same time his works were warmed by a light that softened fabrics and added delicacy to expressions. Although the dates and places were different, Schedoni's personal story ran along similar lines to Caravaggio's. His violence and trouble-making got him into endless scrapes with the law, while his passion for tennis was so great that he almost lost the use of his right hand.
— He was the son of Giulio Schedoni, a mask-maker, who served the Este court in Modena and the Farnese in Parma; in 1598 Schedoni and his father are recorded as residing in Parma, both serving the court. In 1595 Ranuccio I, Duke of Parma, sent Bartolomeo to Rome, to be trained in the studio of Federico Zuccaro. Schedoni fell ill shortly after, however, and returned to Parma. His earliest surviving works show no evidence of Roman influence. He is said to have been a student of Annibale Carracci in Bologna, but there are reasons to doubt this. First, this would have been prior to Annibale’s departure for Rome in 1595, a period when Schedoni was still apparently under his father’s care. Secondly, the early pictures indicate that initially his style was formed primarily by studying the work of Correggio in Parma. To a lesser degree he was influenced by the Parmesan culture of Parmigianino, Girolamo Mazzola Bedoli, and Michelangelo Anselmi. As a boy in Parma he was also known to have frequented the studio of the Fleming Giovanni Sons [1548–1611]. His painting was also enriched by his knowledge of the work of Nicolò dell’Abate in Modena, and Dosso Dossi and Scarsellino in Ferrara. Once these initial influences were assimilated, however, Schedoni’s stylistic development was guided primarily by the innovations of the Carracci.
— Schedoni fu nel 1595 a Roma nella bottega di Federico Zuccari, ma la sua cifra espressiva appare influenzata piuttosto dalla cultura bolognese rinnovata dai Carracci. Fra il 1602 e il 1606 lavora per la corte estense di Modena; nel 1607 partecipa con Ercole dell'Abate alla decorazione con tele riportate del soffitto della Sala del Consiglio nel Palazzo Comunale. La sua gamma cromatica, squillante di colori, si rannuvola via via, attraverso un piu' serrato confronto con Ludovico Carracci. In opere come l'Annunciazione di Formigine o la Madonna e Santi, eseguita per la parrocchiale di Fanano, ma subito pretesa per se' da Ranuccio Farnese (1608), il ricupero di Correggio, che resta una delle costanti del percorso di Schedoni, si attua attraverso l'intenso chiaroscuro di Ludovico. Dal 1608 diviene pittore di corte di Ranuccio Farnese a Parma; numerosi dipinti di committenza farnesiana si trovano ora nella Pinacoteca di Capodimonte a Napoli. La sua opera godette di una straordinaria fortuna, al punto da dar luogo a una serie enorme di derivazioni e di copie, che rendono oltremodo difficile la ricomposizione del suo catalogo.

LINKS
The Charity (1611, 1123x760pix, 107kb) _ This painting is also one of Schedoni's best-known works. The rather generic title is not really sufficient as the canvas appears to be describing a real episode.blind boy Schedoni gave his characters an amazing degree of consistency and peremptoriness. The blind boy staring out at us with empty eyes is one of the strongest images ever produced in the seventeenth century.little boy As always, Schedoni also drew on Correggio's legacy for touches of moving lyricism, such as the little boy on the right. But the real magic of the painting lies yet again in the highly personal way that Schedoni used light, both penetrating and delicate at the same time. His light brings out the colored fabrics while casting long shadows over parts of the faces.
The Deposition (1613, 821x1030pix, 115kb)
The Two Marys at the Tomb (1613, 770x1095pix 98kb) _ These two memorable masterpieces, The Two Marys and The Deposition, give us cause to regret the brevity of Bartolomeo Schedoni's tormented artistic life. They show that he really would have been able to point Baroque painting in an original and intense direction. The way he blocked out gestures, used violent light and dazzling whites, combined with perfect clarity of detail to produce an almost metaphysical effect.
Mary Teaches Reading to the Child Jesus (34x45cm; 366x497pix, 57kb) _ Con affettuosa inclinazione narrativa l'immagine mostra la Vergine intenta ad insegnare a leggere al Bambino. Un'atmosfera di domestica serenità si diffonde nel paesaggio rapidamente abbozzato, dove il cagnolino dorme acciambellato accanto al cestino da lavoro abbandonato.
detail     La dolcezza dell'ispirazione e' propria di Bartolomeo Schedoni, del quale si puo' richiamare a confronto la bella Annnciazione di Formigine analogamente ripensata in chiave di accostante naturalezza. E' evidente come allo Schedoni, al quale si deve l'avvio del moderno corso della pittura modenese, la dimensione affabile del racconto e la scioltezza della conduzione esibite dei modelli carraceschi furono determinanti per liberarsi dagli schemi ormai intellettualizzati e cifrati del tardo manierismo vigente ancora a Modena.
      Se nel dipinto alcuni dettagli rivelano un garbo non comune, talune incertezze dell'esecuzione potrebbero metterne in dubbio l'autografia. Ma i "difetti" del garbatissimo quadretto in realta' sono imputabili alla tecnica molto rapida; il supporto ligneo e' stranamente usato anche in altri casi da Schedoni per fermare una prima idea in vista di dipinti piu' impegnativi e si accompagna a una fattura di getto, quasi corsiva, ma di accattivante immediatezza.
     _ Schedoni painted also a The Holy Family with the Virgin teaching the Child to Read (1615, 34x28cm; 420x320pix, 35kb) where Jesus is much younger, still a baby certainly less than 2 years old. In it the close-knit composition, the golden light, and the natural gestures of the figures create a powerful sense of human intimacy and show the influence of Correggio
Deposition (1613; 588x750pix, 53kb)
The Penitent Magdalene (1600; 545x351pix, 59kb)
The Rest of the Flight into Egypt in a Moonlit Landscape (1610, 30x39cm; 365x500pix, 33kb) _ This painting is typical of Schedoni's extraordinary ability to imbue an oft-depicted subject with a sense of the human and the real which rises above such paintings even in the work of Carracci or Caravaggio. The intimacy of the scene is further heightened by its scale, the massing of all the figures on the left, the diagonal of faces and hands and especially by both the supernatural light which illuminates the figures from the left as well as the enveloping moonlight reflected off the lake on which a small boat with figures sails. The moonlight, both natural and reflected, suffuses the whole of the landscape which dominates over half the panel. The reliance on the landscape to somehow heighten the emotional meaning of the subject comes out of the paintings and prints of Federico Barocci and anticipates Guercino's small-scale paintings on panel and copper at the end of the 1610s.
–- S*>#The Holy Family with Saint Francis Adoring the Christ Child (88x72cm; 400x322pix, 27kb)
—(051222)
^ Born on 23 December 1870: John Marin, US painter and printmaker who died on 02 (01?) October 1953.
— He attended Stevens Institute in Hoboken NJ, and worked briefly as an architect before studying at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia from 1899 to 1901 under Thomas Pollock Anshutz and Hugh Breckenridge [1870–1937]. His education was supplemented by five years of travel in Europe where he was exposed to avant-garde trends. While abroad, he made etchings of notable and picturesque sites, for example Campanile, San Pietro, Venice (1907), which were the first works he sold.
— John Marin was born in Rutherford, New Jersey. His father was a public accountant; his mother died only nine days after his birth. He was taken to his maternal grandparents with whom he lived in Weehawken, NJ, directly across the Hudson River from New York. His grandparents, along with their son and two daughters, were the only real parents Marin was to know. His father seems to have ignored him.
      As a child of seven or eight Marin began to sketch, and when he was a teenager he had completed his earliest watercolors, using a technique of transparent washes, rather than delineating form. Thus, his work resembled American Impressionism, though he was never labeled an Impressionist. Marin's education in the schools of New Jersey was interspersed with summers of hunting, fishing and sketching. He made careful sketches of the landscape in the Catskills, as had an earlier school of artists. He also worked around White Lake in New York, and made sketching trips as far afield as Wisconsin and Minnesota.
      His careerlong dedication to intimate qualities in nature has its source in these earlier works. In much later paintings, can be identified these elements and Marin's concern with the phenomena of weather, the fortuitous and poetic aspects of an ever-changing nature. Throughout the nineteenth century US artists who were most self-reliant in terms of training tended to produce the strongest and most enduring work. John Marin brings this national characteristic into the twentieth century. Formal training was almost incidental to his development as an artist
      In 1893, Marin established himself as a practicing architect, a career he pursued for the next eleven years, until, at the age of twenty-eight, he decided to become a professional artist. He studied briefly at both the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia and the Art Students League in New York. By the time he was thirty-five, Marin had developed a small, intimate type of watercolor sketching done from nature, Impressionistic in general atmospheric effects and comparable with the aesthetic of late Impressionism.
      Following the practice of most US artists at that time, Marin sailed for Paris with the intention of continuing his education and making himself known as an artist. He drifted about Europe for the next five years, developing his strength as an artist slowly but steadily. Later he described that period as a time when he “. . . played some billiards, incidentally knocked out some batches of etchings.” Marin admired James McNeill Whistler, who, at the end of the 19th century personally symbolized to US art students the international-cosmopolitan aspirations of the day. (Whistler died in 1903, but his influence was an important factor in the development of Marin's painting and etching skills.)
      An important event in Marin's life while in Paris was his meeting with American photographer Alfred Stieglitz. This meeting led to his association with The Photo Secession Gallery at 291 Fifth Avenue, known as “291,” where Marin was granted his first important exhibition in the U.S. in February 1910. This unique artist-dealer relationship lasted until Stieglitz's death in 1946. By placing all financial affairs in the hands of his friend, Marin enjoyed absolute freedom to pursue his work. In the next several years Marin painted some of the most important works of his career, inspired by New York City. His subjects were the architectural monuments of the city and the basic structural forces seemingly pent up within them. However, by 1914 he had moved in a new direction, away from the city and toward nature, the inspiration of his youth. This was also the year he "discovered Maine." Almost without exception throughout the rest of his life, Marin made numerous paintings of the state of Maine on annual summer visits Though he made a few nonobjective watercolors, Marin could never accept the basic concept of abstraction; but in the 1920s, his style embraced some Cubist elements. His work in this period was classical, involving a sweep and thrust which brings in the total force of the land, sea, and sky, giving it a firmly structured spatial order..Marin had reached the full capacity of the medium of watercolor. He had proved beyond any doubt that it need not be a second rate means of expression.
      Throughout most of his career, Marin worked in both oil and watercolor, fully emerging in the 1930s as a marine painter. He intended to create ". . . paint wave a breaking on paint shore." He had no patience with any kind of art that had its origin in the mind without reference to the outside world. Marin's recognition as an eminent American artist was evident in New York and beyond. In 1947 he was honored by a second traveling retrospective outside the confines of the Stieglitz galleries, as well as three publications devoted exclusively to his work. In 1948, Look Magazine announced that Marin had been the choice of artists and musuem directors as the pre-eminent artist now working in the United States; and in 1949, Marin was given a retrospective exhibition of oils, watercolors and etchings at the de Young Museum in San Francisco. John Marin died on 02 October 1953, one month and twenty-one days short of his eighty-third birthday.

LINKS
Landscape, Mountains (1918, 42x49cm) ._ Following several years in Europe, Marin returned to this country in 1911 to paint his modernist vision of the architectural monuments of New York, the woodlands of New England and eventually the rugged coast of Maine where he spent the rest of his life. Landscape, Mountains, depicted in pale washes of yellow, green, and blue activated by open, negative spaces, reflects the artist's respect for the essential forces of nature that shape and form the world.
Cathedral (600x736pix, 181kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1717pix, 421kb)
–- New York Abstraction (800x623pix, 70kb)
–- The White Mountains, N.H. (100kb, 650x800pix, 60kb) the landscape (very crudely painted, with mountains that are more blue than white) looks like it is spilling out of a picture frame that fell off the wall to the floor and broke.
–- Weehawken Sequence (631x800pix, 54kb)
–- Sea Piece (623x760pix, 72kb)
–- Two Boats and Sea, Maine (1941, 56x71cm; 725x933pix, 67kb)
–- Grand Island, Maine (1914, 42x49cm; 683x799pix, 54kb)
–- Woman in Blue Meets Man in Gray (1928, 56x69cm; 657x799pix, 49kb) predominantly dull and gray.
–- Cape Split, Maine aka Boat and Sea (1936, 39x53cm; 637x800pix, 133kb _ .ZOOM to 1115x1400pix, 251kb)
–- Head of Cape Split Looking Toward Nash Island (1933, 56x71cm; 636x799pix, 51kb _ .ZOOM to 954x1198pix, 90kb)
–- Fantasy, Stonington Harbor, Deer Isle, Maine (1921, 67x54cm; 799x653pix, 131kb _ .ZOOM to 1298x1060pix, 225kb).
–- Taos Canyon No.2 (1930, 40x55cm; 581x799pix, 160kb _ .ZOOM to 970x1198pix, 253kb)
–- City Skyline (1935, 20x25cm; 436x656pix, 62kb _ .ZOOM to 763x1148pix, 131kb)
–- Two Sloops on a Squally Sea (1939, 36x46cm; 613x800pix, 88kb _ .ZOOM to full screen, 219kb)
–- Near Spring Valley, New York (1931, 55x68cm; 476x663pix, 64kb _ .ZOOM to full screen, 135kb)
–- Off Cape Split, Maine I (1934, 56x71cm; 637x800pix, 133kb _ .ZOOM to full screen, 251kb) John Marin was among the most highly acclaimed artists of his time; his work was praised by fellow avant-garde artists, critics and collectors alike. Marin's close friendship and successful working relationship with Alfred Stieglitz, who held annual exhibitions of the artist's work between 1909 and 1950, considerably heightened his exposure. In 1933, Marin rented the house on Cape Split in Addison, Maine, that he would buy the following year and paint in, during the warmer months, for the rest of his life. Here his new power in oil reached its apogee. In Off Cape Split, No. 1, the daring diversity and boldness that mark the boulders in the foreground play against the greater regularity of the glistening green and blue of the ocean. The monumental simplicity of the boulder shapes grants vastness to the painted sea that covers but a tiny piece of canvas.
Brooklyn Bridge (1912, 173kb)
Old Church at Ranchos, New Mexico (1930, 174kb)
Region of the Brooklyn Bridge Fantasy (1932, 154kb)
—(061222)
^ Died on 23 December 1912: Jean-Baptiste-Édouard Détaille, Parisian Academic painter born on 05 October 1848. — {Did he pay much attention to detail?}{Pas tous les tableaux de Détail étaient de détails.}{Qui donc a dit: “Est doux art de taille d'Édouard Détaille.”?} — He studied under Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier.
— He was born into a prosperous family from Picardy with a military background, his grandfather having served as an arms supplier to Napoleon. Détaille’s early interest in art was encouraged by his father, an amateur artist and friend of collectors and painters, including the battle-painter Horace Vernet. At 17 he approached Ernest Meissonier for an introduction to Alexandre Cabanel, but Meissonier preferred to take on Détaille as a student himself and was an enormously important influence on his artistic development. From Meissonier he learnt finesse of execution and an appreciation for precise observation. He was soon encouraged to set up on his own and at the Salon of 1869 won approval for his canvas A Rest During the Manoeuvre, Camp Saint-Maur . In the spring of 1870 he and three other young artists, E. P. Berne-Bellecour [1838–1910], L. Leloir [1843–1884] and J. G. Vibert [1840–1902], undertook a sketching trip to Algeria. At the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War (1870), Détaille obtained a staff position with General Appert, which enabled him to observe the hostilities first hand; this experience provided the mainstay of his subsequent artistic output.
— As a child, Détaille was surrounded by military figures from his grandfather, who had worked as a sutler responsible for organising Napoléon's transports, to a great aunt, who had married Admiral Villeneuve. Nonetheless, his only ambition was to be an artist and he let it be known that he wished to study with Cabanel. Through various circumstances, however, he ended up in the great Meissonier's studio. It was in 1867 that the young artist first exhibited a picture, showing a view of Meissonier's studio. In the following year, he showed his first military piece. While it was based solely on imagination, The Drummer's Halt represented a scene from the French Revolution. This was to be the beginning of a glorious career painting many military scenes from French history.
      The Franco-Prussian War had a profound effect on the artist, particularly as it forced him to see war in person. On the outbreak of war, he enlisted in the 8th Mobile Batallion and by November 1870 was attached to General Ducrot's staff seeing action in the fighting around Paris. On the Marne, he saw regiments under fire, groups of skirmishers dispatched to the front and senseless retreats. These experiences of war enabled him to produce many striking portrayals of the actions. Indeed, in 1872, he was forced to withdraw two paintings of the war from an exhibition so as not to offend Germany. Over the next few years, Détaille exhibited some of his finest paintings of the conflict, such as Salut aux Blessés (1877), La Défense de Champigny (1879), and Le Soir de Rezonville. With de Neuville, he produced two large panoramas of the battles at Champigny and Rezonville.
      Now a celebrity, he traveled extensively through Europe between 1879 and 1884, taking time only to visit Tunisia with a French expeditionary force where he was witness to some fighting. In Britain, he painted a review of British troops by the Prince of Wales and a scene showing Scots Guards in Hyde Park. It was at this time that Détaille was developing a deep interest in the French army and he produced all the drawings and plates for Jules Richard's Types et Uniformes de l'Armée Française, 390 images in all. With all his work, Détaille painted in a slow and methodical way so as to produce his subjects naturally, realistically, and, most important of all, truthfully.
      By the 1890s, Détaille was turning more and more to the campaigns of Napoléon. He produced many striking battle scenes, including dashing cavalry charges. He used many original items of uniform and weapons to give authenticity to his pictures, and many of these artifacts were used in the creation of the Musée de l'Armée in Paris, which Détaille helped found.

LINKS
Le Rêve (1888, 300x390cm; 600x819pix, 215kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1910pix, 626kb)
–- La Charge (94x64cm; 920x600pix, 89kb _ .ZOOM to 1533x1000pix, 209kb _ .ZOOM+ to 2300x1500pix, 251kb)
–- Un Soldat du 12e Dragon en vedette (1870, 150x105cm; 1000x672pix, 118kb)
–- Officers from a Cuirassier Regiment in front of a Country House (1897, 67x47cm; 1000x650pix, 136kb)
–- A French Cavalry Officer Guarding Captured Bavarian Soldiers (1875, 43x54cm; 553x732pix, 70kb)
Artilleur à Cheval (1870, 150x105cm) en grande tenue.
Cossacks Attacking a squad of the Gardes d'honneur from the Jeune Garde Imperiale (1870, 100x81cm) during the Campagne de France in 1814.
A Rank Soldier of the 12th Dragon Regiment en vedette (1870, 150x105cm)
A Rank Soldier of the 7th Hussar Regiment (66x35cm) in uniform of the 1814 regulation.
La Défense de Champigny (1879, 122x215cm; 283x500pix; 60kb) _ In this battle picture, shown in the Salon of 1879, Détaille depicts an incident that he had observed on 02 December 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War. General Faron's soldiers are shown fortifying their new position at the town of Champigny-sur-Marne, near Paris, and breaking openings in the wall for cannons. General Faron is at the left, talking to an old gardener. The artist painted a replica of the picture in 1879 and returned to the subject for a huge panorama of the battle (now destroyed) that he painted with de Neuville in 1882.
–- Un Uhlan (etching 32x24cm; 1026x816pix, 102kb)
–- Un Soldat à Cheval (etching 23x17cm; 885x530pix, 48kb _ .ZOOM to 1328x795pix, 94kb)
–- Sortie de la Garnison de Huningue (26 août 1815) (1892 etching, 32x26cm; 861x840pix, 85kb) by Eugène-André Champollion after Détaille. _ Even after Napoléon's Hundred Days were over and he had abdicated for the second time, the commander of Huningue, in Haute Alsace, General Joseph Barbanègre [22 Aug 1772 – 07 Nov 1830], was the last one to remain loyal to the Empire and resisted against the Austrian and Swiss troops, until most of his surviving soldiers were wounded and he had to capitulate on 26 August 1815 after a siege and bombardment by the 20'000 soldiers of Archduke Johann. This was the end of the Napoleonic wars.
Singer of the 4th Rifle Battalion at Tsarskoe Selo (1889, 79x119cm; 575x878pix, 206kb)
—(061217)
^ >Died on 23 December 1940: Filipp Andreyevich Malyavin, (or Philip Andreevich Maliavin), Russian painter and draftsman born on 22 (10 Julian) October 1869, specialized in laughing peasant women dressed in red, in green fields. One source give his death date as sometime in July 1940.
— He studied icon painting at the Saint Panteleimon monastery, Agios-Oros, Greece, from 1885 to 1891. He then enrolled at the Academy of Arts in Saint-Petersburg, where he stayed until 1899, taking lessons from Il’ya Repin, one of his principal influences, before embarking on his career as a painter. At the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris he was awarded a gold medal for his picture Laughter, a celebration of peasant women. Malyavin enjoyed a certain success for his many vivid, colorful portrayals of peasant women, such as Peasant Woman in Yellow (1903) and Whirlwind (1906). He was also noted for his fine portraits of contemporaries, such as Grabar (1895) and Somov (1895).
—     Philip Andreyevich Maliavin was born into a poor peasant family, in a large village of Kazanki (Samara Province, now the Totsk District, Orenburg Region) comprising 340 households. Hardly any of the peasants could read and write. Philip’s artistic nature manifested itself at an early age. He drew and fashioned clay figurines of birds or animals as early as at five years of age.
     Traveling monks used to bring with them icons from Mount Athos, seeing which had made a great impression on the boy. Philip dreamed of going to Athos to learn icon painting, but his parents were against this, claiming that learning was not for peasants. He insisted, and finally managed to get their unwilling consent. At the age of sixteen he set out for Greece in the company of a monk from Athos, who has been to Kazanki on a visit. The money for the road was collected for him by the villagers.
      The monasteries of Mount Athos were famous for their rich collections of Greek manuscripts and printed books. To Maliavin’s disappointment, icon painting as an art was not practiced there; only copies were made from models arriving from Russia. But Philip had no money for the journey back home. He entered the monastery as a novice and was charged with painting murals and icons, with nothing but his own efforts to teach him the secrets of the craft.
     Very little of this early work has survived. He showed great talent and aimed essentially at an accurate rendition of nature. Then he has met Vladimir Beklemishev, sculptor and professor at the Petersburg Academy of Arts, who visited Mount Athos in 1891 and was deeply impressed by the works of the young self-taught painter.
     In March 1892 Maliavin has gone to Saint-Petersburg for professional training. With the support of Beklemishev he was admitted to the Academy and enrolled as a private student, with no formal student status. Having had no education whatsoever, due only to his natural talent and great dedication, he has succeeded in completing the courses of the Academy curriculum. He would have begun working on his competition painting for the official status of Artist, but the reform in the Academy in 1894 has changed his plans. The rules changed, but it became possible to select one’s own teachers. The studios were headed by such great artists as Ilya Repin, Vladimir Makovsky and Arkhip Kuinji. Maliavin applied for a place in Repin’s studio, who was the teacher of painters of such an outstanding individuality as Igor Grabar, Konstantin Somov, Anna Ostroumova-Lebedeva, Boris Kustodiev, Isaac Brodsky, and Dmitry Kardovsky. It was while in Repin’s studio that Maliavin created the best of his early paintings. His “Peasant girl knitting a stocking” is a work of this period, a large-scale study created practically in one breath, with much air and sunlight. This work is the first of Maliavin’s canvases in which red, his favorite color, sounds its triumphant note. Three early works painted by Maliavin (the other two – also images of peasant women) were displayed at Moscow Art Lovers’ Society Salon, and were bought by Pavel Tretyakov for his Gallery.
     Another series of works created during Maliavin’s early period were portraits of his fellow students from Repin’s studio, most of which were painted very quickly. Among the best – that of Konstantin Somov, a future founder member of the World of Art group.
     Maliavin’s technical proficiency was amazing. Only four years had passed since the novice from Mount Athos has arrived to St. Petersburg. And here he was, participating in the Metropolitan exhibitions, his paintings bought by Pavel Tretyakov for his celebrated gallery, and his name all over the newspapers and magazines. This made Maliavin greatly sought after by rich patrons wishing to have their portraits painted, such as Mme. Popova and the Baroness Wolf.
     The years 1895 to 1899 were a period of especially intense productivity. Maliavin’s painting style was far off the beaten track. It had no plot, no drama, and its dazzling coloring was unconventional – too bright and riotous for contemporary taste. In 1897 Maliavin received the status of Artist, but it was granted him after much debate, and not for his competition painting but for some of his portraits, which were also on display. In 1900 he takes a trip to Paris, where the French newspapers call him “a credit to Russian painting” and he is awarded a gold medal. The Museo d’arte moderno in Venice acquires his “Laughter”: the painting was perceived as a symbol of the new art.
     On his return to Russia, Maliavin married Natalie Novaak-Sarich, a private student at the Higher Art School and a daughter of a rich Odessa industrialist, and the young couple settled in a village near Riazan. He was interested in nothing but art. His works appeared in the Salons of the World of Art group and the Union of Russian Artists (AKhR). His paintings with the generalized titles like “The peasant girl” or “The peasant woman” were more than portraits of specific individuals, a typical and romanticized vein. The painting’s charm lies in triumphant color and its epic scale. The joyous dance of the many colors fills the paintings and creates a dynamic effect of upward movement.
     Maliavin’s best period was 1905 to 1907, right during Russia’s revolution crisis, which reflected in the works of other artists. He was immersed in his “peasant” canvasses. In 1906 he created The Whirlwind, his greatest painting. The Assembly of the Academy of Arts granted him the rank of Academician “in consideration of his fame in the field of art”.
     From 1908 to 1910 no work of his appeared at exhibitions. Now Maliavin might have felt that his carrier has reached a point where it was necessary to sum up and evaluate former achievements. For some time now, the attacks of the official art critics on Maliavin’s work were becoming more and more frequent.
     Maliavin went abroad for a long stay in Paris. After his return to Russia, he paints a large family portrait, which is displayed in 1911 at the Union of Russian Artists (AKhR) Salon, but the canvas shocks and disappoints the viewers.
     In 1911 to 1915 Maliavin only displayed drawings and some canvases of the previous period. The Revolution of 1917 has brought change in every sphere of the economical, political, social and cultural life of the country.
     In 1918 he and his family moved to Riazan. The painter took an active part in the propaganda of art under the auspices of the Riazan Commissariat for Education. In 1920 Maliavin went to Moscow and plunged into the capital’s artistic life. He was admitted to Kremlin, where he made drawings for the portrait of Lenin, and painted a portrait of Anatoly Lunacharsky. Maliavin’s works were displayed at Moscow exhibitions. In the autumn of 1922 Maliavin went abroad with his family to organize a personal traveling exhibition of his work. His family settled in Paris. He painted portraits upon commission and his works were displayed at Parisian exhibitions (1924). In 1933 he toured Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, England and Sweden with exhibitions of his works. In 1935 and 1937 he held personal exhibitions in London, Stockholm and Nice.
     Philip Maliavin died in Nice. In most of his works he celebrated – after his own, highly individual manner, force and brilliance – the beauty of Russian women {which needs to be in the eye of the beholder, because it is not in the rough dabs of paint on the canvas}.

LINKS
–- Self-Portrait with Family (46x64cm; 631x900pix, 63kb)
The Artist Konstantin Somov (1895, 169x94cm; 140kb)
Elizaveta Martynova (1897; 99kb)
–- Baba (900x682pix, 60kb)
–- A Lady (1931; 773x577pix, 38kb)
–- Russian Baba With Red Headscarf (73x56cm; 900x678pix, 141kb) color pencil drawing
–- Two Russian Babas (900x662pix, 76kb) color pencil drawing
–- Russian Peasant Women in the Fields (678x900pix, 79kb) color pencil drawing. Three women, the two in the foreground are laughing.
–- Two Peasant Women (799x661pix, 58kb) very old women
–- Baba, Winter (799x644pix, 58kb)
–- Laughter (53x103cm; 560x799pix, 51kb) _ In 1947, at the very beginning of the Cold War, author John Steinbeck [27 Feb 1902 – 20 Dec 1968] and war photojournalist Robert Capa [1913 – May 25, 1954] went to the Soviet Union in order to discover, wrote Steinbeck, “the great other side…the private life of the Russian people”. This trip took them to Moscow, Stalingrad, through the Ukranian countryside and the Caucasus. It was John Steinbeck's second tour of the Soviet Union, he visited the country with his wife in 1937, the same year in which he published Of Mice and Men. A Russian Journal, published in 1948, was the result of Steinbeck's and Capa's forty-day journey, an extraordinary account of post-war Russia. Both writer and photographer sought to understand the meaning of this newly invented war. As Robert Capa proclaimed, “no one knew where the battlefields were…It seemed to us that behind phrases like "Iron Curtain,” “Cold War” and “preventative war” people and thought and humor had fully disappeared. We decided to make an old-fashioned Don Quixote and Sancho Panza quest, to ride behind the “Iron Curtain” and pit our lances and pens against the windmills of today” (Robert Capa).
     It is no wonder that this Laughter by the “painter of the people” entered the collection of the “novelist of the people.” Purchased directly from industrialist, philanthropist and seminal art collector Armand Hammer, this work is a version of Maliavin’s notorious Laughter of 1898. Perhaps it was the giddy, sanguine and resilient quality of the women, or the symbolic Don Quixotean windmills in the background which endeared the writer. It is possible that the work’s energy, albeit romanticized, evoked what John Steinbeck later observed first-hand, “it is the women who are the real heroes of the farm, front-women who did practically all of the farm work during the war, who are doing even now 80 percent of the work on the collective farms today” (ibid, p. 18).
      Maliavin’s 1898 Laughter caused a sensation when it was exhibited at the Academy in 1899, provoking many heated public debates. In a letter to I.S. Ostroukhov, Maliavin’s professor and champion Ilya Repin exclaimed, “we are experiencing an impassioned battle over the work of Maliavin. This great, brilliant talent has astounded our Academics, the old men lost the last remains of their sight, not to mention the last vestiges of authority in the eyes of the youth” (Ilya Repin). In his article “The Student Show at The Academy,” in Mir Iskustvo, Alexander Benois singled out Maliavin for his ostensible talent, “the most important appearance at the exhibit, and in a strictly artistic sense the only one, are the paintings, or rather the painting Laughter by Maliavin. Thank God, this work provides peace of mind; finally we see a talent not bound by a Chinese slipper, but boldly and joyfully prancing about. Repin and his entire system deserve tribute and honor for not extinguishing this flame”. Maliavin received a gold medal for Laughter when it was exhibited at the 1900 International Exposition in Paris, and further praise in the Venetian Exposition in 1901, at which time it was purchased by the Museum of Modern Art, Venice.
–- The Baby (71x57cm; 900x720pix, 96kb) held by a laughing woman and reaching toward a laughing young girl, in an orchard.
–- Maternity (799x573pix, 54kb) grotesque
–- The Ballerina Aleksandra Balashova (799x653pix, 67kb)
Whirlwind (1906, 223x410cm; 387x714pix, 57kb) two peasant women in red, dancing in a field.
The Artist Igor Grabar (1895, 132x63cm; 787x363pix, 38kb)
Elizaveta Martynova (1897; 637x800pix, 115kb)
17 images at Russian Avant Gard
—(061222)

Died on a 23 December:

2007 Osvaldo Reyes Herrera [26 May 1919–], Chilean painter.
–- Mujeres inmigrantes (700x509pix, 50kb)
–- Cristo Liberado (658x492pix, 29kb)
–- Frutera de Pomaire (604x460pix, 34kb) _ From this small image the pseudonymous Bonevalec Soberano Heredero has evolved a series of eight amazing interralated abstractions, which can be reached by clicks of the mouse from any one of them, for example the symmetrical
      _ Through Terror the Poor Mayor (2008; 464x656pix, 91kb _ ZOOM  I to 656x928pix, 192kb _ ZOOM J to928x1312pix, 396kb _ ZOOM K to 1312x1856pix, 910kb _ ZOOM L to 1856x2624pix, 1742kb _ ZOOM M to 2624x3712pix, 2903kb) or the asymmetrical:
      _ Area Mop Ed Are Turf (2008; 464x656pix, 86kb _ ZOOM  I to 656x928pix, 182kb _ ZOOM J to928x1312pix, 377kb _ ZOOM K to 1312x1856pix, 875kb _ ZOOM L to 1856x2624pix, 1962kb _ ZOOM M to 2624x3712pix, 3260kb) —(081226)

>1994 Enrique Segura Iglesias [1906–], Spanish painter. — wikibio — Brother of Agustín Segura Iglesias [1900 – 03 Jul 1988] — Related to Enrique Segura Armengot [17 Sep 1874 – 12 Dec 1951]?
Self-Portrait (1959; 1000x827pix, 713kb)
Antonio Iturmendi Bañales (1966; 2380x1800pix, 6673kb) _ Iturmendi [15 Dec 1903 – 04 Mar 1976] was a Spanish politician who was minister of (so-called) “justice” from 18 July 1951 until 7 July 1965, under the 1936-1975 dictatorship of Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde [04 Dec 1892 – 20 Nov 1975] _ The pseudonymous Enrico Sicuro-Chiese has transformed this portrait into a series of colorful and elaborate abstractions, which can be reached by clicks of the mouse from any one of them, for example the asymmetrical:
      _ Antoine l'Étourdi Banal (2008; 928x1312pix, 446kb _ zoom down G to 328x464pix, 53kb _ zoom down H to 464x656pix, 103kb _ zoom down I to 656x928pix, 214kb _ ZOOM UP K to 1312x1856pix, 891kb _ ZOOM UP L to 1856x2624pix, 2000kb _ ZOOM UP M to 2624x3712pix, 3351kb) or the symmetrical
      _ Baigne-les! (2008; 928x1312pix, 462kb _ zoom down G to 328x464pix, 56kb _ zoom down H to 464x656pix, 106kb _ zoom down I to 656x928pix, 222kb _ ZOOM UP K to 1312x1856pix, 1054kb _ ZOOM UP L to 1856x2624pix, 2042kb _ ZOOM UP M to 2624x3712pix, 3403kb)
Dominico en Éxtasis (1000x641pix, 430kb)
Niño con garrafa comiendo una manzana (80x65cm; 480x398pix, 44kb) —(091130)

^ 1932 Giuseppe Signorini, Italian artist born in 1857. — Relative? of Telemaco Signorini [1835-1901]?
–- Wedding Procession (1886, 88x63cm; 799x580pix, 65kb) medieval.
–- Cardinal Richelieu and His Council (76x117cm; 530x799pix, 66kb _ .ZOOM to 795x1198pix, 110kb) —(061222)

1855 Celestino Martínez Sánchez [19 May 1820–], Venezuelan painter, lithographer, draftsman, photograper, and writer. — biografía —(081222)

1840 Jean-Pierre-Henri Elouis, French portrait and miniature painter born on 20 January 1755 in Caen. He was a student of Robert Lefevre. In 1783, Elouis moved to London, entering the Royal Academy Schools and winning a silver medal. He exhibited 16 miniatures at the Royal Academy between 1785 and 1787, the year he is presumed to have emigrated to the United States, where he he called himself Henry Elouis. He worked first in Alexandria, Virginia, and Annapolis, Maryland, then settled in Baltimore, Maryland in 1791. He worked in Philadelphia from 1792 to 1794. There he opened a drawing school whose students included Martha Washington's granddaughter. His miniatures of the President and Mrs. Washington were painted during that time. By 1799, Elouis was traveling through Mexico and South America as draftsman on scientist Alexander von Humboldt's expedition. Elouis returned to France is 1807, exhibiting only portraits in oil at the Salon de Paris. He was appointed curator of the museum in Caen where he worked until his death..
— (self-portrait?) (265x244pix, 10kb)
Captain William Duer (1795, oval 5.7x5.0cm; 276x214pix, 35kb) —(051222)


Born on a 23 December:


^ 1867 Shlomo Zalman Dov “Boris Schatz”, Lithuanian sculptor and painter, active in Palestine, who died on 23 (22?) March 1932. Born into a poor, orthodox Jewish family, he attended rabbinical school in Vilna (now Vilnius; 1882–1887). During this period he studied art at the local academy and, affected by the anti-Semitism of the period, developed left-wing political interests and the connections to an emancipated Jewish art form. His personal history generated three distinct artistic periods: the early activities in Paris (until 1895), the Bulgarian period (until 1903) and the later Jewish period in Palestine. His first known oil painting, the Dying Will (1886), was typical of late 19th-century romanticism. In 1888 he moved to Warsaw, working intensely on sculptures, reliefs, and lithographs. His concept of art for a Jewish national agenda and propaganda was published that year as an article ‘Craftsmanship’ in the Hebrew newspaper Hazfira, forming the basis for his later works. After his marriage (1889) he went to Paris, working in odd-jobs, studying under the sculptor Mark Antokol’sky and later at the Atelier Cormon. Developing a theme on the life of Moses he sculpted Moses on Mount Nebo (1890) and Jochebed, Mother of Moses (1892; both lost). — Bezalel “Lilic” Schatz [1912-1978] was his son. — Yehezkel Streichman was a student of Schatz.
–- Evil Thoughts (23x22cm; 800x731pix, 53kb) monochrome aqua, shown in a brown etched brass Bezalel frame. _ The pseudonymous Slomoshun Zealman Pijun has transformed this into the impressive abstraction
     Live Gout (2007; 1100x778pix, 301kb _ ZOOM to 1710x1209pix, 732kb _ ZOOM+ to 2658x1880pix, 1734kb) and its equally but complementarily colorful variant
     Honni Soit Qui au Mali Pense (2007; 1100x778pix, 322kb _ ZOOM to 1710x1209pix, 797kb _ ZOOM+ to 2658x1880pix, 1961kb) —(071210)

^ 1858 Andrea Tavernier, Italian artist who died on 15 November 1932. — {Il aurait dû s'appeler Trattore, ou bien André et être français}
–- Paesaggio Montano (27x37cm; 648x900pix, 150kb)
–- Garden on the Adriatic (1890, 29x49cm; 370x650pix, 113kb)
Madonna del Rosario (423x283pix, 65kb) —(061222)

^ 1790 Alexandre-Jean Dubois-Drahonet, French painter who died on 30 August 1834, and whose birth year (with no month or day) is usually given as 1791 (perhaps because his birth was registered late, or is confused with his baptism). — LINKS
Les Trois Grâces (1815, round 96cm diameter; 2517x2565pix, 1074kb) _ Not to be confused with
     _ Les Trois Grasses (50x70cm; 717x472pix, 42kb) by Pec [28 Oct 1930 – 30 Nov 2000] —(061125)

^ 1727 Pieter Jan van Liender, Utrecht Dutch draftsman and painter who died on 26 November 1779, brother of Paulus van Liender [25 Sep 1731 – 26 May 1797].
–- Wooded Landscape with Travelers Resting (1766, 45x66cm; 803x1200pix, 202kb) they are near a tavern, with their wagon. —(061222)


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