ART 4 2-DAY 22 December v.9.b0
2000: SENSATIONAL ART THEFT !
2000 One Rembrandt and 2 Renoirs stolen.
Three raiders entered Stockholm’s National Museum, on the waterfront, at about 17:15. local time, while it was still open, and seized pictures worth some $39 million.
The stolen works are a self-portrait by the Dutch master Rembrandt [< the one shown here is safe at the Mauritshuis in The Hague] and two works by the French impressionist Pierre-Auguste Renoir — A Young Parisian Woman and Conversation [not those shown here: Young Women talking 1878 >, and < Young Girl Seated 1909].
While one of the robbers, armed with a submachine gun, threatened people in the museum lobby, the other two, one or both also armed, ran upstairs to grab the paintings from different rooms. An unarmed museum guard alerted the police, but the raiders were able to escape in a small boat. The boat was later found near one of Stockholm’s ports..
Died on 22 December 1867: Pierre
Etienne-Théodore Rousseau, in Barbizon,
French painter, specialized in landscapes,
born in Paris on 15 April 1812.
— He was a leader of the Romantic-Naturalist landscape painters of the Barbizon School, but he also had the unhappy distinction of being known as ‘le grand refusé’, because of his systematic exclusion from the Paris Salon between 1836 and 1841 and his abstention between 1842 and 1849. His direct observation of nature made him an important figure in the development of landscape painting.
— Rousseau, the son of a tailor, began to paint at age 14. In the 1820s he began to paint out-of-doors directly from nature, a novel procedure at that time. Although his teachers were in the Neoclassical tradition, Rousseau based his style on extensive study of the 17th-century Dutch landscape painters and the work of such English contemporaries as Richard Parkes Bonington [25 Oct 1801 – 23 Sep 1824] and John Constable [11 Jun 1776 – 31 Mar 1837]. His early landscapes portray nature as a wild and undisciplined force and gained the admiration of many of France's leading Romantic painters and writers.
In 1831 Rousseau began to exhibit regularly at the French Salon. But in 1836 his Descent of the Cattle (1834) was rejected by the jury, as were all his entries during the next seven years. Despite the Salon's censure, his reputation continued to grow.
Rousseau first visited the Fontainebleau area in 1833 and, in the followingdecade, finally settled in the village of Barbizon, where he worked with a group of landscape painters, including Jean-François Millet [04 Oct 1814 – 20 Jan 1875], Jules Dupré [05 Apr 1811 – 06 Oct 1889], Narcisse-Virgile Diaz de La Peña [1808 – 18 Nov 1876], and Charles-François Daubigny [15 Feb 1817 — 19 Feb 1878]. Their artistic goals were similar, and they became known collectively as the Barbizon school. During this period Rousseau produced such tranquil pastorals as Under the Birches, Evening (1844), reflecting the influence of Constable.
After the Revolution of 1848, the Salon briefly relaxed its standards, and Rousseau finally received official recognition as a major figure in French landscape painting. His works were well represented in the Universal Exposition of 1855, and he became president of the fine-arts jury for the Universal Exposition of 1867. Rousseau's paintings represent in part a reaction against the calmly idealized landscapes of Neoclassicism. His small, highly textured brushstrokes presaged those of the Impressionists.
— Automne à Saint-Jean-de-Paris, Forêt de Fontainebleau (1846, 65x55cm; 953x800pix, _ ZOOM to 2182x1832pix; 2583kb)
–- La Forêt (1842, 91x73cm; 1222x966pix, 72kb _ .ZOOM to 2445x1933pix, 538kb)
–- Landscape (boat in foreground) (100x81cm; 980x1256, 131kb _ .ZOOM to 1961x2513pix, 1199kb)
–- Paysage (33x41cm; 1044x1282pix, 134kb) partially restored picture (sky color).
— La Ville de Thiers (600x768pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1792pix)
— Bosquet dans une éclaircie de la forêt de Compiègne (600x889pix _ ZOOM to 1400x2075pix)
— Paris vu de la Terrasse de Bellevue (600x1224pix, 330kb)
— Le Mont Saint-Michel (740x1292pix, 226kb) _ compare recent photo du Mont Saint-Michel (864x1152pix, 534kb) or this other photo du Mont Saint-Michel (1600x2928pix, 263kb) and also Mont-Saint-Michel (919x1251pix, 241kb) in an ancient miniature of the Très Riches Heures illuminated from 1413 to 1416, for Jean duc de Berry [30 Nov 1340 – 15 Jun 1416], by the Flemish brothers Pol, Herman, and Jehanequin de Limburg (the most famous of all late Gothic illuminators) actually the bottom part of a picture (1244x921pix, 255kb), of which the top shows the battle of Saint Michael against the dragon (917x1248pix, 205kb) as the two leaders of “a great battle in heaven, Michael and his angels fought with the dragon, and the dragon fought and his angels: And they prevailed not, neither was their place found any more in heaven.” (Apocalypse XII: 7-8).
_ Mont Saint-Michel is an almost circular rocky islet (300 m diameter, 78 m high at its peak) and famous sanctuary off the coast of Normandy. Most of the time it is surrounded by vast sandbanks and becomes an island only when the tides are very high. Before the 1875 construction of the 1 km causeway that connects the island to land, it was dangerous to reach because of quicksand and very fast-rising tides. The island was named Mont-Saint-Michel in the 8th century, when St. Aubert, bishop of Avranches, built an oratory there after having a vision of the archangel Saint Michael. It rapidly became a pilgrimage center, and in 966 a Benedictine abbey was built there. In 1203 it was partly burned when King Philip II of France tried to capture the mount. He compensated the monks by paying for the construction of the La Merveille monastery, completed in 1228. Its exterior walls combine the powerful characteristics of a military fortress and the simplicity of a religious building. Above the abbey church, the tower and spire, crowned by a statue of Saint Michael, were added in the 19th century.
The island, which was fortified in 1256, resisted sieges during the Hundred Years' War between England and France (1337–1453) and the French Wars of Religion (1562–1598). The monastery declined in the 18th century, and only seven monks were living there when it was dissolved during the French Revolution (1789–1799). It became a state prison under Napoleon I [16 Aug 1769 – 05 May 1821] and remained a prison until 1863; in 1874 it was classified as a historic monument and restored.
— 33 images at the Athenaeum.
Died on 22 December 1918: Charles
British genre and portrait painter, born in 1839.
Born in Naples, Italy, he was encouraged by Leighton to come to England in 1863. Under his influence Perugini painted one or two very fine classical pictures, such as The Loom. He exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1863. His pictures are mostly of elegant ladies in interiors, sometimes with a romantic or humorous theme. He married Kate Dickens, daughter of Charles Dickens and widow of the Pre-Raphaelite painter Charles Allston Collins.
— Perugini was born in Naples to parents long resident in England. The family returned to England when he was six, and he remained there until age 17, when Horace Vernet saw some of his drawings and urged that the youth be sent to study in Italy. There, Perugini followed a severe course of drawing, perspective, anatomy and architecture under the religious painter and teacher Guiseppe Bonolis. He was then placed under Guiseppe Mancinelli, an academic painter who was Professor of the Naples Academy, and then in 1854 he was a student of Ary Scheffer [10 Feb 1795 – 15 Jun 1858] in France. While there, Charles Dickens [07 Feb 1812 – 09 Jun 1870] visited several times to have his portrait painted by Scheffer, bringing with him his daughter Kate [1839-1929], whom Perugini was to marry after she was widowed in 1873 (she then took up painting).
Perugini returned to England after two years with Scheffer, and settled in London in 1863. His first picture exhibited at the Royal Academy was Playing at Work. The themes of his pictures are mainly nice girls doing peaceful things like reading (several versions of Girl Reading), or just dressed in rich costume and looking contemplatively, often with a romantic tone. He also painted some girls in classical surroundings, much more polished looking but colder in spirit than those of Alma Tadema [08 Jan 1836 – 25 Jun 1912]. Perugini also painted portraits, and, rarely, subject pictures such as Between School Hours, showing children on stilts. He was a friend of Leighton [03 Dec 1830 – 25 Jan 1896], who helped him with both advice and finances, and like Leighton's, his oil paintings usually have a high degree of finish. Some other of his paintings are and A Summer Shower (a three-graces like picture of girls around a tree) and Peonies.
–- Portia (1800x1258pix, 189kb) _ a character from Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice.
–- Hero (Iseult) (1388x928pix, 82kb)
–- Girl Reading (1878, 50x36cm; 667x462pix _ .ZOOM to 1000x693kb, 168kb) aka In the Orangerie _ Although High-Renaissance in style this work may be thought of as medieval in content. The orange has often been used as symbol of the Fall. It was a woman who plucked this fruit from the tree of knowledge, causing the expulsion from the Garden of Eden. In the medieval period her only path to redemption was thought to be the development of a mystical relationship with God through the reading of illuminated books such as the one featured in this painting. A view of a young woman seated on a marble garden bench reading from a book in her lap. She is wearing a white silken dress, medieval in style, and holds a sprig of blossom up to her neck as she reads. An orange is placed beside her on the bench to the left, plucked from the fruit and blossom laden tree behind. _ Another version of Girl Reading aka A Fair Student (1878, 98x73cm; 658x493kb, 29kb) identical except for size, duller color, wider cropping, and slightly less elongation.
–- “I know a maiden fair to see, take care!” (semicircular top 55x54cm, 722x788pix, 60kb _ .ZOOM to 1653x1811pix, 225kb) _ This picture illustrates a passage from a German ballad translated by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1843:
I know a maiden fair to see,
She can both false and friendly be,
Trust her not
She is fooling thee.
— A Different Girl Reading (310x417pix, 34kb)
The Lizard Charmer (1902; 623x900pix, 178kb) aka The Green Lizard.
— Miss Helen Lindsay (800x551pix, 62kb)
Died on 22 December 1915: Arthur Hughes,
painter and illustrator born on 27 January 1832.
He studied under Alfred Stevens. About 1850 he converted to Pre-Raphaelitism. He met Whole Manhunt ... no: Holman Hunt [02 Apr 1827 – 07 Sep 1910], Rossetti [12 May 1828 – 09 Apr 1882], Mad Brown Ox ... er ... make that Madox Brown [16 Apr 1821 – 06 Oct 1893], and later Millais [08 Jun 1829 – 13 Aug 1896]. In 1852 he exhibited his first major Pre-Raphaelite picture Ophelia. Throughout the 1850s and 1860s Hughes continued to produce a series of delicately poetic pictures, which hover on the knife-edge between sentiment and sentimentality but are always redeemed by their brilliant color and microscopic detail. Some of the best known are Home from the Sea, The Long Engagement, Aurora Leigh's Dismissal of Romney and April Love which Ruskin thought "exquisite in every way". In 1857 he worked with other Pre-Raphaelites on the frescoes in the Oxford Union. About 1858, Hughes retired to live with his family in the suburbs of London. He lived at 284 London Rd, Wallington, Sutton, and at Eastside House, 22 Kew Green, Richmond. Hughes being of a quiet and retiring nature, very little is known of his later career. After about 1870 his work lost its impetus. Hughes was the original illustrator of Tom Brown's Schooldays, andAt the Back of the North Wind and The Princess and the Goblin of George MacDonald [10 Dec 1824 – 18 Sep 1905]. He also illustrated Music Master by Allingham [20 May 1904 – 30 Jun 1966], and many other novels, children's books, and periodicals. He worked with writer Christina Rossetti [05 Dec 1830 – 29 Dec 1894] on Sing Song: a Nursery Rhyme Book in 1871. A sale of his works took place at Christie's after his death on 21 November 1921.
— Hughes showed early artistic promise and enrolled in the Royal Academy Antique School in 1847. He was encouraged by Millais, who was always an affable individual. Hughes was inspired directly by The Germ, the short-lived Pre-Raphaelite magazine. He attended PRB meetings, in rather a junior hero-worshipping manner. Hughes was liked by the PRB, in fact he was throughout his long life, a well liked individual. He was also encouraged by Rossetti.
Hughes main traits as an individual were his modesty and self-effacement. He suffered somewhat at the hands of the Royal Academy, having a number of ill-merited rejections, and very badly hung pictures. He was never even elected an Associate. Hughes married, in 1855 Tryphena Foord, the union was lasting, and happy. As well as the limits imposed by his diffidence and modesty, Hughes was motivated by the desire for a stable, happy family life. Ultimately he was prepared to compromise artistic ambitions for this.
Many of his pictures were of ordinary scenes of life. They were painted with great delicacy, and feeling, and were often in greens and mauves. Like the great orchestral composers, the warm sympathetic character of the man shines through in his work. William Michael Rossetti, writing about Hughes said “If I had to pick out, from my once numerous acquaintances of the male sex, the sweetest and most ingenuous nature of all, the least carking and querulous, and the freest from envy hatred and malice, and all uncharitableness, I should probably find myself bound to select Mr. Hughes.” Should any human being have a better character reference, or epitaph than this I have yet to see it.
Following the death of Tryphena Hughes in 1921, their daughter Emily had to move to a smaller house. There was, therefore, a shortage of space. As a result she had her father’s remaining preparatory sketches, and all his private papers and correspondence destroyed.
Drawing portrait by the artist's son, Arthur Foord Hughes.
–- The Annunciation (1858, 61x36cm; 891x529pix, 91kb _ .ZOOM to 1337x794pix, 131kb. _ .ZOOM+ to 2005x1192, 295kb)
–- The Nativity (1858, 61x37cm; 895x530pix, 95kb _ .ZOOM to 1342x795pix, 134kb _ .ZOOM+ to 2013x1193, 316kb)
–- The Long Engagement (1859, 105x52cm; 1000x489pix, 217kb _ .ZOOM to 2539x1245pix, 507kb _ .ZOOM+ to 2539x1245pix, 507kb)
–- Asleep in the Woods (689x1000pix, 89kb _ .ZOOM to 1033x1500pix, 154kb)
–- Old Neighbour Gone Bye (840x1000pix, 89kb _ .ZOOM to 1260x1500pix, 147kb)
–- The Brave Geraint (1860, 23x36cm; 610x965pix, 79kb)
–- The Eve of Saint Agnes (1856 triptych, 64x57cm; 634x1000pix, 161kb _ .ZOOM to 1268x2000pix, 268kb) _ From the poem The Eve of Saint Agnes by Keats [31 Oct 1795 – 23 Feb 1821]:
They told her how, upon Saint Agnes' Eve,
Young virgins might have visions of delight,
And soft adorings from their loves receive
Upon the honey'd middle of the night,
If ceremonies due they did aright;
As, supperless to bed they must retire,
And couch supine their beauties, lily white;
Nor look behind, nor sideways, but require
Of Heaven with upward eyes for all that they desire.
— The Rendez-Vous (1845, 30x40cm; 599x455pix, 76kb _ ZOOM to 1654x1256pix, 255kb)
The Mower (1865)
— The Property Room (1879, 115x83cm; 1147x834pix, 454kb)
— Overthrowing of the Rusty Knight (53x43cm; 700x562pix, 149kb)
— The Knight Of The Sun (1861, 28x39cm; 759x1000pix, 351kb) _ An aged warrior mortally wounded, being carried by his men-at-arms to the shelter of a religious house.
Ophelia (1853; 68x124cm; framed 590x1000pix, 166kb) _ The writing outside the side arcs of this semicircular painting reads:
There is a willow grows ascaunt the brook, That shows his hoar leaves in the glassy stream; There with fantastic garlands did she come. Of crow-flowers, nettles, daisies, and
long purples. There on the pendant boughs her coronet weeds Clambering to hang an envious sliver broke. When down the weedy trophies and herself Fell in the weeping brook.
Home From the Sea (1857, 51x65cm; 723x950pix, 231kb) _ A young sailor boy has come back from the sea to find that his mother has died. With his sister he is mourning at her grave. Hughes began the picture in 1856, in the old churchyard at Chingford in Essex. At first the picture contained only the figure of the boy, and was entitled A Mother's Grave; later the sister was added, and the title was changed. The model for the boy may have been Hughes' nephew, Edward Robert Hughes.
Knight of the Sun (1861, 22x32cm) _ An aged warrior mortally wounded, being carried by his men-at-arms to the shelter of a religious house.
La Belle Dame Sans Merci (1863, 152x122cm) _ This painting is based on the poem La Belle Dame Sans Merci by John Keats [31 Oct 1795 – 23 Feb 1821]
_ See other paintings on the same subject:
_ La Belle Dame Sans Merci (1926; 604x594pix, 56kb) by Cowper
_ La Belle Dame Sans Merci (1865, 46x56cm; 1249x1500pix, 141kb) by Crane [15 Aug 1845 – 15 Mar 1915]
_ La Belle Dame Sans Merci (1926; 422x596pix, 71kb) by Dicksee
_ La Belle Dame Sans Merci (1893; 800x580pix, 107kb) by Waterhouse
A Music Party (1864) _ When exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1864, the accompanying lines from John Keats' Ode on a Grecian Urn were included in the catalogue: 'Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard are sweeter Not to the sensual ear, but more endear'd Pipe to the spirit ditties of no tone.'
Good Night (1866, 99x65cm) _ 'Day's turn is over: now arrives the Night's.' from Robert Browning, Pippa Passes.
Sir Galahad (1869, 113x168cm) _ Inscribed on the back: 'The clouds are broken in the sky, And thro' the mountain-walls, A rolling organ-harmony Swells up, and shakes and falls, Then move the trees, the copses nod, Wings flutter, voices hover clear: Oh just and faithful knight of God! Ride on: the prize is near. So pass I hostel, hall, and grange; By bridge and ford, by park and pale, All-arm'd I ride, whate'er betide, Until I find the holy Grail'. .... A gentle sound, an awful sight! Three angels bear the holy grail: With folded feet, in stoles of white, On sleeping wings they sail.'
Music Party (1864) _ When exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1864, the
accompanying lines from John Keats' Ode on a Grecian Urn were included
in the catalogue: 'Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard are sweeter
Not to the sensual ear, but more endear'd Pipe to the spirit ditties of
The Eve of St. Agnes, Lamia, The Poetical Works of John Keats, Selected Poetry
ODE ON A GRECIAN URN.
Thou still unravish'd bride of quietness,
Thou foster-child of silence and slow time,
Sylvan historian, who canst thus express
A flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme:
What leaf-fring'd legend haunts about thy shape
Of deities or mortals, or of both,
In Tempe or the dales of Arcady?
What men or gods are these? What maidens loth?
What mad pursuit? What struggle to escape?
What pipes and timbrels? What wild ecstasy?
Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard
Are sweeter; therefore, ye soft pipes, play on;
Not to the sensual ear, but, more endear'd,
Pipe to the spirit ditties of no tone:
Fair youth, beneath the trees, thou canst not leave
Thy song, nor ever can those trees be bare;
Bold Lover, never, never canst thou kiss,
Though winning near the goal yet, do not grieve;
She cannot fade, though thou hast not thy bliss,
For ever wilt thou love, and she be fair!
| Ah, happy, happy boughs! that
Your leaves, nor ever bid the Spring adieu;
And, happy melodist, unwearied,
For ever piping songs for ever new;
More happy love! more happy, happy love!
For ever warm and still to be enjoy'd,
For ever panting, and for ever young;
All breathing human passion far above,
That leaves a heart high-sorrowful and cloy'd,
A burning forehead, and a parching tongue.
Who are these coming to the sacrifice?
To what green altar, O mysterious priest,
Lead'st thou that heifer lowing at the skies,
And all her silken flanks with garlands drest?
What little town by river or sea shore,
Or mountain-built with peaceful citadel,
Is emptied of this folk, this pious morn?
And, little town, thy streets for evermore
Will silent be; and not a soul to tell
Why thou art desolate, can e'er return.
O Attic shape! Fair attitude! with brede
Of marble men and maidens overwrought,
With forest branches and the trodden weed;
Thou, silent form, dost tease us out of thought
As doth eternity: Cold Pastoral!
When old age shall this generation waste,
Thou shalt remain, in midst of other woe
Than ours, a friend to man, to whom thou say'st,
"Beauty is truth, truth beauty,that is all
Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know."
Love (1856, 89x50cm _ ZOOM
to 2846x1576pix, 311kb) _ The painting was exhibited at the Royal Academy
in 1856 with lines from Tennyson's The
Miller's Daughter Love is hurt with jar and fret. Love is
made a vague regret; Eyes with idle tears are wet, Idle habit links us yet.
What is love? for we forget: Ah, no! no! Exquisite in every
way; lovely in color; most subtle in the quivering expression of the lips,
and sweetness of the tender face, shaken, like a leaf by winds upon its
dew, and hesitating back into peace. Hughes used several young women
as models, but his favorite was Tryphena Foord whom he married. The model
for the lover in the background was Hughes' friend, Alexander Munro, in
whose Pimlico studio Hughes completed the painting. April Love was
Morris' favorite Pre-Raphaelite painting and he purchased it soon after
seeing it for the first time.
— 33 images at ARC
— 29 images at the Athenaeum