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ART “4” “2”-DAY  21 December v.6.b0
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DEATH: 1929 LA THANGUE
BIRTHS: 1874 SERT — 1815 COUTURE
^ Born on 21 December 1874: Josep Maria Sert i Badia, click for 9 more stampsBarcelona Catalan painter who died on 27 November 1945.
— Sert i Badia, va desenvolupar, durant la primera meitat del segle XX, una obra pictòrica per la qual se'l va considerar el millor pintor muralista dels anys trenta. La dimensió internacional del pintor queda patent en el fet que les seves teles es troben tant a Europa com a Amèrica, des del Rockefeller Center de Nova York a l'edifici de la Societat de les Nacions de Ginebra. Vinculat al modernisme català, Sert va viure a Paris on va tenir contacte amb els corrents més avançats del moment. La relació amb Catalunya la va mantenir a través de les seves germanes i, sobretot, pel lligam que va establir amb la ciutat de Vic, on va decorar la Catedral per encàrrec del seu amic i protector Torras i Bages. Les diferents realitzacions d'aquesta obra van ocupar etapes decisives de la seva vida artística i, per això, no és gens agossarat dir que Sert es va fer com a pintor al voltant del projecte decoratiu de Vic.
— Sert i Badía nació en Barcelona en el seno de una acomodada familia dedicada a la industria textil. Se formó en contacto con los círculos modernistas y simbolistas de la capital catalana. En 1899 se trasladó a París, ciudad en la que pasaría largos años decorando los salones de la aristocracia. Por mediación de su amigo Torras i Bages, obispo de Vic, en 1990 recibe el encargo de decorar las paredes de esa catedral. En 1922, sus obras llegan por primera vez a América donde decora un salón palaciego de Buenos Aires. En 1924 hace una gran exposición en Nueva York y comienza a trabajar para clientes norteamericanos. En 1926, a excepción de las bóvedas y los lunetos, la catedral de Vic quedó recubierta con sus pinturas. En 1929 recibe el encargo de la decoración del madrileño Palacio de Liria y a fines de ese mismo año, el Ayuntamiento donostiarra le encomienda las pinturas de la iglesia de San Telmo. En 1930 se le encarga una decoración para el neoyorkino Rockefeller Center. A fines del verano de 1932, J.M. Sert colocó en San Telmo los lienzos que cubren las paredes de la antigua iglesia. En 1936 pinta la Sala del Consejo de la Sociedad de Naciones de Ginebra. Durante la Guerra Civil Española fue incendiada la catedral de Vic destruyéndose los lienzos existentes. Al terminar la contienda en 1939, volvió a pintar la catedral. Murió en su ciudad natal y fue enterrado en la catedral de Vic, a cuya inacabada decoración dedicó 45 años de su vida artística.
— José-Maria Sert débuta dans l'atelier de son père, en tant que dessinateur de cartons de tapisseries et de tissus. Après un séjour en Italie en 1900 où il étudia l'art de la fresque, il résida et travailla longtemps à Paris, où il fréquentait les milieux artistiques et littéraires. Décorateur de talent, il exécuta de grandes décorations murales pour des églises, des hôtels particuliers, des grands hôtels européens et américains etc... Il décora, notamment, l'hôtel Waldorf Astoria en 1930-31 et le Rockfeller Center en 1933 à New-York, la salle du Conseil de la S.D.N à Genève.

//— En agosto de 1813, durante la Guerra de la Independencia y como consecuencia de la toma de la ciudad por las tropas anglo-portuguesas, la iglesia del convento de San Telmo fue devastada y saqueada. Desaparecieron todos sus elementos decorativos: pinturas, tallas, retablos..., quedando sus paredes prácticamente vacías. En 1929, al restaurar la iglesia y pensar cómo adecuarla al nuevo destino que iba a tener el convento, como Museo, se acordó, siguiendo el consejo del pintor Ignacio Zuloaga, que las paredes quedaran recubiertas de pinturas en las que se plasmas en las efemérides del pueblo. Esta labor se encomendó a José María Sert, que la realizó en 17 paños - 11 lienzos - sobre una extensión de 784 m2.
     Las once escenas de San Telmo, realizadas a base de veladuras, es decir barniz con color, sobre un fondo de panes de oro, representan temas de la vida y de la historia gipuzkoana: sus hombres, sus actividades tradicionales, sus hazañas y sus creencias. La descripción de los lienzos comienza a la derecha de la bóveda que sustenta el coro.

Pueblo de Ferrones (600x700cm; 500x721pix, 87kb) _ Un grupo de ferrones, delante de un inmenso yunque y en medio de un gran resplandor, forja un ancla monumental que evoca los tiempos en que la ferrería Gilisasti enviaba anclas para la armada inglesa.
Pueblo de Santos (600x700cm; 500x701pix, 80kb) _ Ignacio de Loiola escribe las Constituciones de la Compañía de Jesús al dictado de Cristo que, con una mano desclavada, le aconseja desde la Cruz.
Pueblo de Comerciantes (1000x300cm; 500x167pix, 28kb) _ Este estrecho y alargado lienzo está dedicado a la Real Compañía Gipuzcoana de Caracas, entidad que dió a la provincia un auge económico inusitado a lo largo del siglo XVIII.
Pueblo de Navegantes (1000x1000cm; 500x500pix, 73kb) _ Este lienzo representa la epopeya de Juan Sebastián Elkano, marino gipuzkoano de Getaria que navegó por vez primera alrededor del mundo.
Pueblo de Pescadores (500x524pix, 68kb) _ El escenario que nos ofrece esta pintura es el de un puerto gipuzcoano. Vemos un gran número de pescadores que intenta, trabajosamente, subir una ballena por una rampa.
El Altar de la Raza (1000x2000cm; 499x891pix, 134kb) _ Este lienzo ocupa el antiguo ábside de la iglesia. En medio de un mar embravecido un bloque pétreo se yergue sobre el oleaje a modo de atalaya. De él nace un viejo árbol que resiste la embestida temporal. Agarrado al árbol está San Telmo, patrón de los hombres de mar, quien, bastón en mano, salva una barca a punto de naufragar. Sobre él, y enganchado en las ramas del árbol, cuelga San Sebastián, patrono de la ciudad.
Pueblo de Fueros (1000x600cm; 500x480pix, 67kb) _ El tema de este lienzo evoca la pasada vida foral. Así, representa el momento en que Alfonso VIII, rey de Castilla, jura los fueros de Gipuzkoa.
Pueblo de Armadores (1000x1000cm; 500x500pix, 67kb) _ En este lienzo, Sert representa la actividad constructora de los astilleros pasaitarras mediante una larga hilera de navíos. Se trata de la construcción de la Armada “Invencible” (que no lo era).
Pueblo de Libertad (1000x300cm; 500x250pix, 39kb) _ Este estrecho y alargado lienzo está dedicado al árbol de Gernika, símbolo de las libertades de Vasconia. Al pie del viejo roble, un gran libro abierto simboliza el Fuero de Bizkaia.
Pueblo de Sabios (700x600cm; 500x620pix, 72kb) _ Los "Caballeritos de Azkoitia", constituidos ya en la Sociedad Bascongada de Amigos del País, y reunidos bajo la cúpula de su observatorio, reciben la visita de un sabio químico extranjero.
Pueblo de Leyendas (600x700cm; 500x650pix, 72kb) _ Sert nos presenta una escena que hace referencia al tema del akelarre. El origen de este tipo de ritos es remotísimo, constituyendo un signo inequívoco de las viejas creencias del Pueblo Vasco. _ Sert-ek akelarrea gogora ekartzen digun mihisea pintatu du. Hauek bezalako erritoen jatorria aspaldi-aspaldikoa da, eta Euskal Herriko aintzinako sinismenak argi eta garbi agertzen zaigu bertan.
–- S*>#Les Masques (148x196cm; 510x687pix, 49kb)
—(051220)
^ Died on 21 December 1929: Henry Herbert La Thangue, English painter born on 19 January 1859.
— La Thangue studied painting in London and Paris. As an artist he was against the old ideas of salon painting supported by the Academy and encouraged the acceptance of French ‘plein air’ painting. He is best remembered for paintings of life in the countryside.
— He attended Dulwich College where he met fellow painters Stanhope Forbes and Frederick Goodall. He enrolled briefly at the Lambeth School of Art before entering the Royal Academy schools in 1874. In December 1879 he was awarded a gold medal and a traveling scholarship along with a letter of introduction from Frederic Leighton to Jean-Léon Gérôme, under whom he studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. While there he was influenced by the rustic naturalist painters of the Salon and by Whistler. Such early works as Study in a Boatbuilding Yard on the French Coast (1882) echo the work of Jean-Charles Cazin and Jules Bastien-Lepage. La Thangue spent the summers of 1881 and 1882 working on the Brittany coast with Forbes and a wide circle of plein-air painters, including Bastien-Lepage. In 1883 he and the sculptor James Havard Thomas went to Donzère in the Rhône Valley, where La Thangue painted Poverty, a work compositionally similar to Bastien-Lepage’s London Flower-seller (1882).

LINKS
–- Watering the Cows (88x61cm; 1000x682pix, 84kb)
–- Off To Work (1902, 91x71cm; 902x667pix, 62kb _ .ZOOM to 1353x1000pix, 172kb)
–- A Sussex Orchard (91x104cm; 857x1000pix, 219kb)
The Boat Builder's Yard, Cancale, Brittany (1881, 76x82cm; 654x700pix, 131kb) _ A scene in a boat builder's yard at Cancale, Brittany. Brittany had many beach boatyards of the kind portrayed. In the foreground to the right, a girl with strong facial features sits in profile gazing to the left on a carpenter's bench. She wears traditional local dress of a blue serge skirt, grey-and-white-striped chemise and white head-dress, with sabots on her feet. The knitting she holds has fallen to her knee and her gaze straight ahead and out of the picture space implies that this not her main interest. On the ground lie tools of the boat-builder's trade; a pit-saw part-visible to the left of the bench, a pitch-ladle leaning against the jaw of the bench-vice, and a side-axe and adze on the chippings below. The ground is covered by wood shavings and, to the left, randomly scattered timber off-cuts. Immediately behind the girl the wood has been ordered into a low fence, acting as a barrier, and beyond this a fishing boat stands partly constructed in frame, in port bow view, supported by light timber shores.
The Plough Boy (155x118cm) _ La Thangue spent the summers of the early 1880s with Stanhope Forbes in Brittany. Square brushes and a lighter palette were soon adopted on these sketching trips and the historical subject pictures in which he had previously specialised - were abandoned. Instead he began to paint ordinary working people but, by painting them on a huge scale, as here, he imbued them with a monumentality which suggested at their heroic demeanour, glorifying the noble peasant that was soon to be courted by the socialist movement.
Nightfall (The Gleaners) (130x108cm) _ Henri La Thangue studied in the studio of Gérôme at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. Like many of the artists of his day, he was drawn to the naturalism of Bastien-Lepage. Following his example, La Thangue worked in the countryside, painting gleaners working in the fields at the end of the day. The contrast with Breton's Gleaner, painted twenty years earlier, is striking. Whereas Breton's figure is heroic, in La Thangue's version the woman is care-worn. Her eyes are downcast; her back is stooped from the day's work and from the weight she is carrying.
An Andalucian (57x47cm) _ Attracted by the strong Mediterranean light, La Thangue visited Provence and Liguria regularly in the 1890s and gained a new freedom in the vigor of his brushwork and his vivid use of color. He abandoned all references to storytelling in his work and here only the title of the work gives any indication of the origins of his very beautiful subject.
At the Well (56x65cm)
A Ligurian Gulf (106x96cm)
The Aqueduct (74x67cm).
 
^ Born on 21 December 1815: Thomas Couture, French Academic history, portrait, and genre painter who died on 30 March 1879.
— Couture was an academic history and genre painter. He studied under Baron Antoine-Jean Gros [16 Mar 1771 – 26 Jun 1835] and Paul Delaroche. Won Prix de Rome in 1837. Was very popular as a teacher. His students included Edouard Manet [23 Jan 1832 – 30 Apr 1883], Jean-François Millet [04 Oct 1814 – 20 Jan 1875], Puvis de Chavannes [14 Dec 1824 – 24 Oct 1898], William Morris Hunt [21 Mar 1824 – 08 Sep 1879], John La Farge [1835-1910], Maria Oakey Dewing [1845-1927], George P.A. Healy [1813-1894], John Whetten Ehninger [1827-1889] and Elizabeth Lyman Boott Duveneck [1846-1888].
— Couture was a student of Gros and Delaroche [1797-1856]. He is chiefly remembered for his vast “orgy” picture Les Romains de la Décadence, which was the sensation of the Salon of 1847. Like other “one-picture painters”, his reputation has sunk with that of his big work, which now if often cited as the classic example of the worst type of bombastic academic painting, impeccable in every detail and totally false in overall effect. His more informal works, however, are often much livelier in conception and technique, for as a teacher he encouraged direct study from landscape.
— Couture followed the path of numerous talented artists born to modest, provincial backgrounds in the nineteenth century. He was born in Senlis in 1815, but his shoemaker father moved the family to Paris in 1826. At the age of fourteen, Couture studied for one year (1829) at the École des Arts et Métiers and then entered the studio of the academic history painter Gros the following year and then the state-sponsored École des Beaux-Arts (1831). Failing the prestigious Prix de Rome competition at the École six times, Couture turned to the official exhibitions, the Salons, to make his career.
      He made his name in 1847 with the monumental historical genre painting The Romans of the Decadence, which garnered great acclaim.
      Government commissions (The Enrollment of the Volunteers of 1792, The Baptism of the Prince Imperial, and religious mural paintings in the church of Saint-Eustache in Paris) followed from the late 1840s through the 1850s, spanning the political changes from the Second Republic to the Second Empire. But Couture never completed the first two commissions, while the third met with mixed criticism.
      Troubled by his own inability to finish projects as well as the unfavorable reception of his murals, Couture moved away from Paris in 1860, first to his hometown of Senlis, then to Villiers-le-Bel, where he increasingly distanced himself from the art scene in Paris but continued to teach and advise artists who came to him.
      Shortly after his 1847 success, Couture opened an independent atelier meant to challenge the École in producing the best new history painters. He published a book on his ideas and working methods, Méthode et entretiens d'atelier (1867), in which he encouraged the use of the ébauche and gave specific "recipes" for certain tonal effects. In making explicit his technique and process, Couture thumbed his nose at the academic establishment, which, until 1863, did not actually teach painting and sculpture in the École curriculum and had consistently mystified the process of artistic education in order to maintain control over it.
      Among Couture's students were Manet, Anselm Feuerbach [12 Aug 1829 – 04 Jan 1880], and many men and women from the US. For this reason, a number of small works, some of which served as teaching exercises, found their way into US collections. These students, in turn, directed fellow US collectors to Couture, who was able to sustain his later career through such private patronage.
      Couture died at Villiers-le-Bel. His fiery temperament and periods of self-doubt and sluggishness were significant factors in his rocky career. Perhaps he put it best, responding to an editor's request for an autobiography in 1856: “Biography is the exaltation of personality, and personality is the scourge of our time.”

LINKS
–- Self-Portrait (46x38cm; 456x374pix, 17kb _ .ZOOM to 912x748pix, 49kb) looking towards the left.
–- Self-Portrait (435x356pix, 20kb _ .ZOOM to 652x534pix, 25kb) _ a different one, looking towards the right.
–- Self-Portrait (1847 drawing, oval; 397x329pix, 12kb _ .ZOOM to 595x493pix, 15kb)
–- Les Romains de la Décadence (640x1073pix, 157kb _ .ZOOM to 960x1610pix, 264kb _ .ZOOM+ to 1920x3221pix, 1723kb)_ Conservative critics admired Couture for having revived the flagging genre of history painting through a harmonious composition of numerous figures in various natural poses set within a grandiose architectural setting; the depicted nudity and wanton behavior were acceptable because they served as indications of the physical and moral decline of ancient Rome. More progressive commentators admired the textural, luminous quality achieved through Couture's innovative technique, in which he retained aspects of the ébauche, or preliminary phase of working up a final canvas, and exploited the ground color, letting it flicker up through darker tones or pulling drier, brighter paint over it.
     L'Empire Romain d'Occident ne résistera pas aux invasions barbares du fait de la faiblesse des pouvoirs publics et de l'érosion du sentiment national. De nombreux citoyens refuseront d'accomplir leur service militaire, laissant ainsi l'armée aux mains des mercenaires. La dépravation des moeurs de cette période, plus préoccupée par les jeux du cirque et les orgies, entraînera une baisse de la natalité et l'accroissement de la pression fiscale sur les classes défavorisées. Les sénateurs empêcheront toute réforme qui puisse remettre en cause leurs avantages. Le poète latin Juvenal résumera ainsi la situation politique : "plus cruel que la guerre, le vice s'est abattu sur Rome et venge l'univers vaincu". Cette oeuvre, très inspirée par Véronèse et Tiepolo, est la seule de l'artiste qui passera à la postérité. Dès ses débuts chez Couture, Manet n'hésitera pas à critiquer son maître : “Je ne sais pas pourquoi je suis ici...Quand j'arrive dans l'atelier, il me semble que j'entre dans une tombe.”
Les Romains de la Décadence unrestaured (1181x2049pix, 912kb) _ ZOOM to 1400x2429pix)
–- Jules Michelet ( 933x661pix, 61kb _ .ZOOM to 1206x992pix, 91kb _ .ZOOM+ to 1729x1437pix, 120kb) _ Michelet [21 Aug 1798 — 09 Feb 1874] was a French nationalist historian best known for his monumental Histoire de France (1833–1867). Michelet's method, an attempt to resurrect the past by immersing his own personality in his narrative, resulted in a historical synthesis of great dramatic power.
–- Jeune Femme Cousant (1870, 93x74cm; 652x512pix, 38kb _ .ZOOM to 978x768pix, 47kb) _ { Did he think of titling it Couture, but then thought better of it because it might be taken as a self-portrait?}
Pierrot à la correctionnelle (1870, 32x39cm) http://www.artrenewal.org/pages/artwork.php?artworkid=11382 _ This painting belongs to a series illustrating the Pierrot and Harlequin story, a satirical tale of social behavior. The clown Pierrot, dressed in white, sits accused of stealing food from a restaurant. The chef and a cook sit at the left, witnesses for the prosecution, with food and wine nearby as evidence. As judges doze, the masked Harlequin speaks for the defense. Pierrot had great difficulty controlling his appetite, a personality trait that Couture apparently shared. The painter also despised lawyers and made several paintings mocking them. — In this painting, Couture used two famous masked characters, Pierrot and Harlequin, to satirize and critique the public and the judicial system of the 19th century. The pathetic Pierrot represents a lower-class fool on trial for stealing food from a restaurant. The stolen items are depicted lying on the courtroom floor as an indictment of his guilt. His accusers sit on the left, while Harlequin, his lawyer, argues theatrically for the defense. The artist's contempt for the legal profession and the court system is plain in the figures of the sleeping judges. A mid-19th-century observer may have sympathized with Pierrot, who for his own survival cunningly subverts authority in order to satisfy his needs.
–- Pierrot the Politician aka Arlequin et Pierrot (1857, 119x155cm; 729x947pix, 77kb)
–- A Judge Going to Court (610x753pix, 73kb _ .ZOOM to 915x1130pix, 97kb)
–- L'Engagement des Volontaires de 1792 (unfinished; 773x1395pix, 164kb _ ZOOM to blurry 1400x2517pix, 914kb, not recommended)
_ preliminary studies: A Soldier facing front (51x41cm; 719x603pix, 59kb), he is the guard at center left up on the platform, in the final picture _ A Soldier in Left Profile (46x36cm; 450x363pix, 27kb) _ Both Soldiers (82x65cm; 450x360pix, 33kb)
–- Head of a Boy (lithograph 36x 26cm; 83kb)
La Soif de l'Or aka L'Amour de l'Or (1844, 154x188cm; 600x756pix, 186kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1763pix, 320kb)
–- La Fille de l'Artiste (1878, 45x37cm; xpix, 53kb, 194kb)
–- A Lady (55x46cm; 1/3 size, 46kb, 156kb)
Fowling (1857, 42x61cm; 545x800pix, 99kb _ ZOOM to 1395x2048pix, 286kb)
Tzigane (102x82cm; 932x725pix, 47kb)
Mademoiselle Poinsot (1853; 600x492pix)
The Little Bather (1849, 117x90cm)
— La soif de l’or (1844, 154x188cm; 799x859pix, 161kb)
Horace and Lydia (1843, 38x46cm)
Bulles de Savon (1858, 131x98cm; 401x300pix, 41kb) _ There is an 1859 version. Soap bubbles are traditional symbols of ephemeral existence, and the wilting laurel wreath (which is fresh in the 1859 version) underscores the fleeting character of reward and fame.
The Thorny Path (1873, 131x191cm)
Le Joueur de Cornemuse aka Pifferaro (1877, 146x114cm) _ pifferaro: Italian word meaning fife or bagpipe player _ see also Pifferaro (1854, 18x13cm), Pifferari  I  (891x652pix, 271kb), Pifferari II (720x480pix, 153kb), and Pifferari in London (1870, 51cmx41cm; 930x787pix, 66kb) by Jean-Léon Gérôme [1824-1904], The Pifferari Playing Hymns to the Madonna color print after David Wilkie [1785-1841].
Pifferaro et son fils (81x100cm)
L'Avare (1876, 81x65cm) study for Timon of Athens
Le Réaliste (1865, 47x38.cm)
The Falconer (1855, 51x38cm)
Retour des Champs (1841, 66x54cm)
Head of an Epochal King
Le Baiser de Judas
Jeune Romain (65x55cm)
68 images at ARC
—(061219)

Died on a 21 December:

2002 Glen Seator, falling from the roof of his three-story house. Born on 05 June 1956, he was a so-called “sculptor” who became known for such works as his 1997 B.D.O., an office salvaged from the remodeling of a building, tilted 30 degrees; or his 1999 remodeling of an art gallery into a check-cashing store.

^ 1924 Jean André Rixens, French painter, specialized in Orientalism, born on 30 November 1846. Son premier envoi au Salon date de 1868. Il fut l'élève de Gérôme et de Yvon. Il s'est surtout illustré dans le portrait, les scènes d'histoire, et de la vie quotidienne. — LINKS
–- Mort de Cléopâtre (1874, 200x290cm; 621x418pix, 28kb _ .ZOOM to 628x932pix, 84kb _ .ZOOM+ to 628x932pix, 93kb)
–- Déjeuner du Salon, au Café La Cascade (1889, 72x102cm; 705x1000pix, 79kb)
–- Jules Delsart (1886, 204x141cm; 589x408pix, 28kb _ .ZOOM to 883x606pix, 38kb) _ Shown here playing his cello, cellist Delsart [1844–1900] had been a student of Auguste Franchomme [10 Apr 1808 – 21 Jan 1884] at the Conservatoire and had succeeded him upon his death. Delsart’s interest in the viola da gamba and its music led him to found the Societé des Instruments Anciens, which performed all over Europe. In 1891 in London, Delsart, David Popper [18 Jun 1846–], and Edward Howell premiered Popper’s Requiem for three cellos and orchestra, written in memory of Popper’s friend and publisher Daniel Rahter.

^ 1917 Wilhelm Heinrich Trübner, German painter born on 03 February 1851. The son of a goldsmith and jeweler, he began an apprenticeship as a goldsmith. The intervention of Anselm Feuerbach enabled him to overcome his father’s resistance and get trained as a painter. In 1867 he began to study at the Kunstschule in Karlsruhe, where his tutors included Karl Friedrich Schick [1826–1875]. Trübner also met artists outside the school, such as Hans Canon, who were very influential. Trübner moved to Munich in 1869 to study under Alexander von Wagner [1838–1919] at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, where he also met Wilhelm Leibl. He continued his studies under Wilhelm von Diez [1839–1907] and met Hans Thoma, with whom, for a while, he shared a studio and models. Trübner acknowledged his debt to Feuerbach, Canon, Leibl, and Thoma, whom he described as his ‘leaders and guiding stars’, throughout his life.
— Wilhelm Trübner hatte ursprünglich dem Beruf des Vaters nachgeeifert und eine Ausbildung als Goldschmied begonnen. 1867 lernte er Anselm Feuerbach kennen, der ihn ermutigte, einer Karriere als bildender Künstler nachzugehen. Seine erste Ausbildung als Maler erhielt er an der Kunstschule Karlsruhe in den Jahren 1867 bis 1868, wo er bei Fedor Dietz studierte. 1868 wechselte er an die Kunstadademie in München und setzte seine Studien bei Alexander Wagner fort. Auf der ersten Internationalen Kunstausstellung in München sah er die Gemälde von Gustave Courbet und Wilhelm Leibl und war von ihren Werken zutiefst beeindruckt.
      Trübner zog nach Stuttgart, um dort sein Studium bei Hans Canon fortzusetzen. Er kehrte jedoch bereits 1870 wieder nach München zurück und war dann Schüler von Wilhelm von Diez. Er lernte Albert Lang und Carl Schuch kennen, mit denen er gemeinsam die Landschaft rund um den Starnberger See malte. In dieser Zeit lernte er Leibl persönlich kennen, der ihm nahelegte, sich vom akademischen Lehrbetrieg unabhängiger zu machen. Er begann in München ein Malstudio mit Lang und Hans Thoma zu teilen und stand in enger Verbindung zum so genannten „Leibl-Kreis“.
      Im Jahre 1872 unternahm er auch die ersten längeren Auslandsreisen. Die erste Reise führte nach Italien, in den drei Jahren danach zählte zu seinen Reisezielen neben Italien auch Holland und Belgien. 1875 ließ er sich endgültig in München nieder. Nach 1877 begann er, mythologische und literarische Themen in naturalistischer Manier zu malen. Zu den Künstlerkollegen, mit denen er sich in den 1880er Jahren besoners eng austauschte, zählte neben Thoma vor allem Lovis Corinth, Max Slevogt und Max Liebermann. 1889 veranstaltete die Galerie Gurlitt in Berlin eine Ausstellung seiner Arbeiten.
      Nach der Ausstellung widmete er sich wieder der Landschaftsmalerei zu. Im Jahre 1895 zog er nach Frankfurt, um dort am Städelsche Kunstinstitut. Seine Schriften zur Kunsttheorie wurden 1892 und 1898 veröffentlicht. 1901 trat er der Berliner Sezession bei. Von 1903 bis 1917 war er Professor an der Kunstakademie Karlsruhe, wo er von 1904 bis 1910 auch die Funktion des Direktors wahrnahm. 1911 widmete der örtliche Kunstverein ihm eine große Ausstellung, der 1913 eine weitere Ausstellung der Berliner Sezession folgte.
      1917 erhielt er einen Ruf an die Berliner Kunstakademie. Aufgrund einer Erkrankung konnte er seine Berufung jedoch nicht mehr annahm. Wilhelm Trübner starb noch im selben Jahr in Karlsruhe. — Lovis Corinth [21 Aug 1858 – 1925] was a student of Trübner.
Reiterporträt (1880; 599x448pix, 75kb _ ZOOM to 1680x1256pix, 260kb)
Dame in Grau (1876; 600x519pix, 44kb _ ZOOM to 1821x1576pix, 224kb)
Bootssteg auf der Herreninsel im Chiemsee (1894; 570x800pix, 94kb _ ZOOM to 1443x2024pix, 331kb)
Schloßhof in Baden-Baden im September (1915, 62x80cm; 480x626pix, 32kb) —(051220)

1894 (22 Dec?) Ramón Martí y Alsina, Barcelona Catalan painter born on 10 August 1826. When he was 14 he enrolled in the Escuela de la Lonja, Barcelona, where he remained for 5 years. In 1848 he went to Paris, where the paintings of Eugène Delacroix and especially of Gustave Courbet influenced his work. Martí Alsina’s Siesta, with its realism that recalls Courbet, has often been called one of the most beautiful paintings of 19th-century Spain. Also significant are his paintings of the female nude, depicted without any romantic idealization and showing the effect of the passage of time on his models. His most important work, however, was as a landscape painter, and he has been seen as the creator of realistic Catalan landscapes. His studies from life of the countryside, woods and seascapes convey an optimistic view of nature. He also excelled in urban scenes, such as View of Boulevard Clichy, which clearly anticipates the Impressionist movement. — Joaquín Vayreda y Vila was a student of Martí Alsina.

^ 1879 William Jamps Shayer Sr., Southampton English painter born in 1788. Although based in Southampton and catering predominantly to a provincial market, he also exhibited in London. Between 1825 and 1870 he showed over 330 works at the Royal Society of British Artists and 80 at the British Institution. Shayer produced rural genre scenes in the manner of Francis Wheatley, Julius Caesar Ibbetson and, predominantly, George Morland. His rustic and coastal scenes changed little in manner and were always technically competent.
A Village Festival (1843, 90x109cm)

^ 1871 Paul-Camille Guigou, French painter born on 15 February 1834 into a family of landowners. He became a notary’s clerk at Apt, Vaucluse, in 1851 and then in 1854 at Marseille. He learnt to paint from Camp, a teacher at the school in Apt, and then at Marseille from Émile Loubon [1809–1863], director of the local École des Beaux-Arts, who urged him to paint directly from nature. Guigou settled in Marseille in 1854, where he participated regularly in the annual Salon of the Société Artistique des Bouches-du-Rhône. Guigou painted almost exclusively Provençal landscapes, which were influenced by the works of the Barbizon painters, who exhibited in Marseille, and by the brownish tones and picturesque figures of Loubon’s paintings. The Road to Gineste (1859) and The Washerwoman (1860) reflect the independent tradition of Provençal painting during the Second Empire, which was characterized by warm coloring and precise lighting used to separate and distinguish forms. His knowledge of the works of Gustave Courbet, acquired during a visit to Paris in 1859, doubtless increased his liking for broad technique and sincere vision, articulated in a strong and ordered construction of space: for example, The Gorges of the Lubéron (1861) — LINKS
Vue de Triel (1865, 29x46cm; 491x785pix, 87kb _ ZOOM to 1104x1764pix, 323kb)
Paysage de Provence (1860, 54x81cm; 534x800pix, 140kb)
La Route à La Gineste, près de Marseille (1859, 89x117cm; 607x800pix, 129kb)
–- En Provence (1867, 44x60cm; 765x1048pix, 74kb)
–- Coucher de Soleil en Provence (1866, 29x46cm; 740x1206pix, 51kb) long after sunset, no bright colors, not even in the mostly cloudy sky.
The Washerwoman (1860, 81x59cm; 800x553pix, 115kb) seen from the back
38 images at the Athenaeum —(061219)

^ 1838 Jan Christiaan Schotel, Dordrecht Dutch painter and draftsman born on 11 November 1787. — {As a schoolboy, what was the favorite activity of Schotel? “Show-and-tell”?} — Originally a yarn manufacturer, from 1805 he received lessons in drawing and painting from Adriaan Meulemans [1763–1835] and Martinus Schouman [1770–1848] in Dordrecht. His first paintings were done in collaboration with Schouman (Bombarding of Dordrecht by the French on 24 November 1813, 1815). His early work, for example the highly detailed drawing of The Battle of Kijkduin in 1673, shows great admiration for Ludolf Backhuysen and Willem van de Velde II. In 1822 he showed himself to be an accomplished and independent painter with The Wreck of the ‘Delphine’, in which the emphasis is no longer on the ships but on the stormy sea and massive clouds. By this time, Schotel was the most important Dutch painter of sea and river views; he generally set his scenes in the Netherlands, although a few deal with impressions from his trips to France in 1827–1828 and 1837. His palette became warmer and richer under the influence of his French contacts, a development that some Dutch critics regarded as improper; he also won a prize at the 1827 Paris Salon with Gaff-rigged Ship Sailing before the Wind in Tempestuous Weather. As is often the case with Schotel’s works, an excellent preparatory study has been preserved. In this and other drawings he shows a surprisingly free and confident style. From about 1830 he produced many paintings for foreign collectors, including splendid works such as Ships before the Coast (1830), and a large number of smaller pictures such as Stormy Sea at Katwijk (1837). He was the father and teacher of painter and lithographer Petrus Johannes Schotel [19 Aug 1808 – 23 Jul 1865] who, like him, specialized in sea and river views.
–- S*>#Voor de Rede van Vlissingen (595x841pix, 75kb)
–- S*>#Ships off the Coast (900x1193pix, 108kb)
–- S*>#Ship in Distress (x799pix, 70kb) —(061219)

^ 1693 Hendrik Mommers, Dutch painter born in 1623.
–- S*>#Italianate River Landscape with Vegetable Sellers Amongst Classical Ruins (900x1359pix, 147kb)
–- S*>#Two Italianate Landscapes (2 paintings in one image; together 523x900pix, 91kb) in both there are drovers and their animals carrying produce to market. —(061208)

^ 1579 Juan “de Juanes” Maçip (or Masip), Valencian artist born in 1510, son of Vicente Maçip [1475-1550]. The two were probably the most significant artists in Valencia in the 16th century and beyond, at a time when the city was becoming a bridge for the entry of Renaissance ideals into Spain. The work of Juanes is technically less precise than that of his father in the delineation of form; he preferred sfumato effects in modeling, very different from the sharper sculptural outlines of Vicente Maçip. In color, Juanes preferred clear, luminous tones with which he achieved a characteristic Mannerist iridescence. His landscapes, too, differ from those of his father, becoming yet another decorative element. They often include classical ruins such as the pyramid of Caius Sextus or Egyptian obelisks, all of which are treated with the same delicacy and grace as his human forms. The large panel of the Baptism (1535) has traditionally been attributed to Juanes, probably because for some years his fame eclipsed that of his father. In fact, it is a mature work by Vicente Maçip painted in collaboration with his son, the vigorous style of the father combining with the sweeter, softer approach of the son, who was then still deeply influenced by his father, although his hand is not difficult to determine. — LINKS
The Last Supper (1565, 116x191cm; 502x800pix, 101kb _ ZOOM to 1605x2560pix, 460kb) _ detail (599x438pix, 47kb _ ZOOM to 2768x2024pix, 528kb)
— different but very similar version of The Last Supper (1560, 600x1489pix, 128kb)
Christ and the Eucharist (101x63cm; 598x371pix, 50kb _ ZOOM to 900x570pix, 84kb _ ZOOM+ to 2026x1256pix, 205kb) This is a separate painting which repeats the central detail of The Last Supper.
The Visitation (round 60cm diameter; 600x601pix, 79kb _ ZOOM to 1573x1576pix, 234kb)
The Entombment of Saint Stephen Martyr (160x123cm) —(051220)


Born on a 21 December:


^ 1904 Jean René Bazaine, French painter, stained glass artist, and writer who died on 04 March 2001. He studied under the French sculptor Paul Maximilien Landowski [1875–] at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. At the same time he studied for a degree in literature at the Sorbonne. In 1924 he made two trips to Italy and there began to paint. He first exhibited in 1930 at a group show at the Galerie Jeanne Castel in Paris where the other artists included Jean Fautrier, Jean Pougny and Marcel Gromaire. Two years later he had his first one-man show at the Galerie Van Leer in Paris where he met Bonnard, who advised and encouraged him. Also in 1932 he began his work on the review Esprit and he later contributed art criticism to Temps Présent and Poésie 43. — LINKS
–- S*>#Soir à Veere (1957, 41x24cm; 900x543pix, 169kb)
–- Premier mars 1963 (01 Mar 1963,14x24cm; 510x869pix, 97kb _ .ZOOM to 892x1520pix, 215kb) abstraction made up of colorful dabs of paint.
Printemps Noir (1962, 27x22cm; 500x397pix, 105kb)
The Seven Sacraments (seven stained glass windows) —(061219)

^ 1893 Winifred Roberts Nicholson, British painter who died on 05 March 1981. She was taught painting privately by her grandfather, George James Howard, 9th Earl of Carlisle, a painter-friend of the Pre-Raphaelites, and then at the Byam Shaw School of Art, London (1912–1914, 1918–19). She first exhibited topographical watercolors at the Royal Academy, London, in 1914. In 1919 she visited India, Ceylon, and Burma with her father, Charles Roberts, Under-Secretary of State for India, and acknowledged that this experience liberated her painting style and her palette. In November 1920 she married, in London, Ben Nicholson [10 Apr 1894 – 06 Feb 1982], son of William Nicholson [05 Feb 1872 – 16 May 1949]. Having bought the Villa Capriccio, near Castagnola, Switzerland, in 1921, two years later she purchased Bankshead, a Cumbrian farmhouse built on Hadrian’s Wall, near to her ancestral home of Naworth Castle. Bankshead remained her base for the rest of her life. — LINKS
Window-Sill, Lugano (1923, 29x51cm; 286x512pix, 30kb) _ Winifred and Ben Nicholson spent each winter between 1920 and 1924 in Lugano, Switzerland. There they made many paintings, often outdoors in the snow, in a period of 'fast and furious experiment'. In this work Winifred Nicholson painted a theme which would recur with frequency throughout her life: flowers on a window-sill with a landscape beyond. The paint has been applied with the fingers quickly and vigorously with an emphasis on its physical, almost sculptural presence. Recession is suggested by alternating bands of blue and white. By her own adoption of a brighter palette, Winifred influenced Ben Nicholson to change to a lighter range of colors.

^ 1840 Manuel Domínguez Sánchez, Spanish painter who died on 15 April 1906. — Relative? of Oscar Domínguez [1906-1957]?
Allegory of the Arts (600x427pix, 27kb)
La muerte de Séneca (B&W image) —(051220)

^ 1772 François-Louis-Thomas Francia, French painter and who died (main coverage) on 06 February 1839. — (051220)

^ 1759 (21 Sep?) Pierre-François Delauney (or Delaunay), French painter who died on 26 August 1789. — Relative? of Jules-Élie Delaunay [13 Jun 1828 – 05 Sep 1891], Robert Delaunay [12 Apr 1885 – 25 Oct 1941], Sonia Delaunay [14 Nov 1885 – 05 Dec 1979]? — Pierre-François Delauney's recorded oeuvre includes landscapes, portraits and genre paintings, but examples of only the last two are known; these include two self-portraits (1781 and 1789) and a small painting entitled The Sulkers. His portraits are all half-length, unornamented and somewhat shaky in their facial modeling. His most notable surviving genre painting, the Offering to Saint Nicholas, exhibited in Paris in 1788 at the Exposition de la Jeunesse (in the Place Dauphine), was engraved by Jean Mathieu [1749–1815]. It illustrates a local custom subscribed to by spinsters invoking Saint Nicholas’s assistance in procuring dowries and so husbands. The engraving exists in a second state, transformed some time after 1792 into an Offering to Liberty. The painting was also altered to include a figure of Liberty in place of Saint Nicholas: given Delauney’s death in 1789 (when he was a member of the National Volunteers in Bayeux) and the development of revolutionary iconography, the alterations were probably made during the early 1790s. This work exemplifies a late, provincial but adept topographical form of fête champêtre ultimately inspired by Watteau, which constitutes the most distinctive aspect of Delauney’s oeuvre.

^ 1744 Anne Vallayer-Coster, French still-life painter who died on 27 (28?) February 1818. She spent her childhood at the Gobelins, where her father was a goldsmith. Though she thus belonged to artistic circles, when received (reçue) by the Académie Royale in 1770, on presentation of the still-lifes Attributes of Painting and Musical Instruments, she was known to have neither a teacher nor an official patron.
— One of the most celebrated painters of eighteenth-century France, Anne Vallayer was the daughter of a goldsmith who worked for the Gobelins tapestry factory. When she was ten, her father moved his family to Paris, where he set up his own shop. Little is known of her formal training {we don't know what it cost 'er}, but she must have been exposed to a wide range of artistic expertise. Gabriel de Saint-Aubin and JeanBaptiste-Marie Pierre, later First Painter to the King, were family friends. Her first recorded work is a portrait painted in 1762 (lost). In 1770 she was unanimously accepted for membership in the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture.Although she painted some portraits, genre subjects, and miniatures, it is as a productive and versatile still life painter that she is most admired. Throughout her life Vallayer-Coster attracted the support of powerful patrons and fellow artists, and Diderot was an enthusiastic admirer. She married a wealthy lawyer and member of parliament, Jean-Pierre-Silvestre Coster in 1781, the same year she was given an apartment at the Louvre. She last exhibited at the Salon of 1817. While her work is undeniably comparable in style and subject matter with that of Jean-Baptiste-Simeon Chardin, Vallayer-Coster was not merely an agile imitator. Her continuing influence may be seen in the work of such nineteenth-century still life painters as François Bonvin and Henri Fantin-Latour.— LINKS
Panaches de mer, lithophytes et coquilles (1769, 130x97cm; 1019x750pix, 110kb) _ Représentation de spondyle, murex, bénitier coquillage, pinne, nautile, strombe, turbo, moule, huître, coquille Saint-Jacques, corail, éponge, et lithophyte provenant de mers proches ou lointaines. Ces curiosités aquatiques constituaient un élément indispensable des cabinets d'amateur au XVIIIème siècle, notamment pour leur intérêt scientifique. On venait de découvrir que les gorgones étaient d'origine animale. Tableau peint avant que l'artiste ne soit admise à l'Académie royale en 1770. Cette oeuvre aurait pu faire partie des tableaux présentés en vue de l'agrément. Elle sera exposée au Salon de 1771 avec son pendant : Vase, des minéraux, des cristallisations et trois bocaux sur une table (disparu après 1777). La critique, notamment Diderot, acclama la jeune femme.
Vase, homard, fruits et gibier (1817, 115x178cm) _ Ce tableau perpétue la tradition de la nature morte de l'Ancien Régime à l'époque romantique. Le lys est peut-être une allusion à la restauration de la monarchie.
Instruments de musique (1770, 88x116cm)
Les attributs de la peinture, de la sculpture et de l'architecture (1769, 90x121cm)
Fleurs et Fruits (1787, 600x496pix, _ ZOOM to 1400xpix)
–- Flowers in a Blue Porcelain Vase (oval; 738x636pix, 28kb _ .ZOOM to 1476x1273pix, 120kb)
Nature Morte avec Jambon, Bouteilles, et Radis (1787, 600x696pix)
— this painting may not be a lemon, but it has one: Still Life with Plums and a Lemon (1778,41x47cm) —(061208)

1701 Guillaume-Thomas-Raphaël Taraval, French painter who died in 1750 in Stockholm. He was a student of Claude Audran III. In 1732 he went to Sweden to take part in the decoration of the new Royal Palace in Stockholm. His painting, even such religious work as his ceiling for the palace chapel (1740), has a light-hearted and celebratory Rococo air. He was the first principal of the Swedish Royal Academy of Drawing, founded in 1735. — He was the father and teacher of Hughes Taraval [27 Feb 1729 – 19 Oct 1785] and of Louis-Gustave Taraval [1739 or 1738 – 15 Oct 1794], who was the father of Jean-Gustave Taraval [11 Nov 1765 – 16 Jul 1784].

^ 1627 Jacob van der Ulft, Dutch artist who died on 18 November 1689.
Horse cart Entering a Walled City (1690, 42x55cm)
Antique Forum with a Triumphal Procession (1675, 39x61cm; 650x1041pix, 152kb)
Préparations for a Triumph in an Ancient City aka The Shield Feastday in Rome (31x50cm) —(051220)


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