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DEATHS: 1884 BASTIEN~LEPAGE — 1685 PLATZER — 1647 UCCELLO1928 MACKINTOSH
BIRTH: 1867 ROUSSEL — BAPTISM: 1610 VAN OSTADE
^ Died on 10 December 1884: Jules Bastien~Lepage, born on 18 (01?) November 1848, French painter of rustic outdoor genre scenes widely imitated in France and England.
— Bastien-Lepage studied under Alexandre Cabanel, first exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1870, and won a medal at the Salon of 1874 for Spring Song, which stylistically owes a little to Édouard Manet. Les Foins (1878) follows in the tradition of Jean-François Millet and reveals the sentimental element that characterizes Bastien-Lepage's work. Joan of Arc Listening to the Voices which represents Joan as a Lorraine peasant, typifies his subject pictures. He was also a portraitist of note.

LINKS
Autoportrait (55x46cm; 512x421pix, 40kb)
Les Foins (155x180cm; 600x656pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1530pix) _ Au XIXe siècle, les paysans sont tantôt décrits comme des brutes arriérées, tantôt comme des travailleurs purs et vertueux. Ce sont d’abord les physiocrates qui les critiquent pour l’archaïsme dans lequel ils végètent: leur passion pour la terre les détourne des investissements productifs, la routine leur fait ignorer les plantes nouvelles et les techniques modernes. Il est vrai que dans les années 1820, par exemple, les propriétés de 1 à 5 hectares représentent trois quarts des exploitations et seulement 17% de l’ensemble en valeur. Durant tout le Second Empire, les républicains fustigent ces masses ignorantes, politiquement immatures, capables seulement de jacqueries ou de votes en faveur du tyran. « Majorité rurale, honte de la France ! », s’écrie en 1871 le jeune député républicain Gaston Crémieux. En comparaison, les paysans au repos dans ce tableau apparaissent étrangement paisibles, enveloppés d’une sérénité qui se communique au spectateur.
     La paysanne de Bastien-Lepage reprend ses forces, hébétée, la «face rouge et suante; son regard fixe ne voit rien », comme dit le peintre lui-même.
     La paix de ce tableau ressortit à l’univers d’innocence et de bonté que peignent dans le sillage de Rousseau de nombreux écrivains, comme George Sand, marquée par le socialisme idéaliste de la révolution de 1848. A cet agrarisme de gauche répondra, à la fin du siècle, un agrarisme de droite inspiré par la crainte de l’industrialisation et du développement de la classe ouvrière. Dans les années 1880 et 1890, à l’heure où l’exode rural, la crise du phylloxéra, la croissance de l’industrie, la dépression économique, font peser sur le monde rural de lourdes menaces, les agrariens se mettent à défendre une paysannerie qu’ils parent de toutes les vertus. Pour les agrariens de tous bords, la ville et l’usine ne connaissent que fièvre, activité trépidante, anxiété malsaine, alors que les campagnes sont un havre de paix. La sérénité des champs et le repos sacré du paysan s’opposent à l’agitation perpétuelle qui fait de la ville un enfer moderne. Ce thème court jusqu’à La Terre qui meurt de René Bazin et au Retour à la terre de Jules Méline, ministre de la IIIe République, lequel recommandait de revenir vers «la terre nourricière de l’humanité féconde et éternelle».
 
^ Born on 10 December 1867: Ker~Xavier Roussel, French Nabi painter, printmaker, and decorative artist, who died on 06 June 1944 (D-Day). He was the brother-in-law of Edouard Vuillard [11 Nov 1868 – 21 Jun 1940]. — {Etait-il un descendant de Guillaume “Cadet” Roussel [30 Apr 1743 – 26 Jan 1807]? Ah ! Ah ! Ah oui, vraiment? - En tout cas ce n'est pas lui, mais Benoit A. Côté qui, en 1996, a peint les 3 maisons de Cadet Roussel.}
— While still at the Lycée Condorcet in Paris, he met Édouard Vuillard (whose sister Marie he married in 1893), Maurice Denis [25 Nov 1870 – 13 Nov 1943] and Paul Sérusier [09 Nov 1864 – 06 Oct 1927]; once they had finished their studies, they all went together to the Académie Julian, where Pierre Bonnard [03 Oct 1867 – 27 Jan 1947], Georges Lacombe [18 Jun 1868 – 29 Jun 1916], Paul Ranson [1864 – 20 Feb 1909], and Félix Valloton [28 Dec 1865 – 28 Dec 1925] were already enrolled. Dissatisfied with the teaching of William-Adolphe Bouguereau [30 Nov 1825 – 19 Aug 1905] and Jules Lefèbvre [14 Mar 1836 – 24 Feb 1911], they left the Académie in 1890, two years after they had begun to meet together as the Nabis. Roussel took part in the exhibitions at the Café Volpini in 1889 and the Le Barc de Boutteville gallery in 1891. At that time his pictures applied the rules of Synthetism outlined by Sérusier — flat planes of repeated color encircled by dark lines forming a harmonious rhythm; a typical example of his oil paintings of this period is Ma Grand-mère (1888). Like the other Nabis, he did not restrict himself to easel painting but also produced murals, stained glass and lithographs: the color lithograph L'éducation du chien, which he contributed to the anthology Amours (1892-1898) published by the dealer Ambroise Vollard, was the first of several such projects in which he developed the Symbolist character of his work. The 12 lithographs he contributed to another Vollard publication, Album de Paysages (Paris), vividly expressed the pantheist vision of nature that was to characterize his later work.

LINKS
Mythological Scene (1903, 47x62cm; 575x754pix, 192kb)
Rural Festival (1913; 575x408pix, 140kb)
–- L'éducation du chien (33x19cm color lithograph; 948x545pix, 39kb)
Paul Cézanne au Travail sur le Chemin des Lauves (1906 print, 600x559pix, 144kb) _ looks like a black-and-white photo.
—(061209)
^ Died on 10 December 1761: Johann Georg Platzer (or Plazer), Austrian painter and draftsman born on 25 (24?) June 1704.
— He came from a family of painters in South Tyrol, taught first by his stepfather Josef Anton Kessler [–1721] and then by his uncle Christoph Platzer, court painter in Passau. In 1724 he painted an altarpiece for the church of Saint Helena in Deutschnofen. Probably after 1726 he went to Vienna, where he enrolled at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste and became a friend of Franz Christoph Janneck. Perhaps because of a stroke that impeded his work, he returned to Saint Michael in Eppan by 1755.
     Platzer produced a great number of small paintings, mostly on copper. He was the most important master of the conversation piece in 18th-century Austria, and his cultivated embourgeoisé public was fascinated by the virtuoso manner, lively colors and innumerable details of his compositions. According to the principles of decorum, he chose his models and style to suit the subject-matter: for historical scenes and allegories he took his models from antiquity, the Renaissance and Italian, and Flemish Baroque art, as in Samson’s Revenge. In his genre scenes and especially his conversation pieces, influences of the French Rococo and the Netherlandish cabinet painters are evident, while in his scenes of artists’ studios, such as Sculptor’s Workshop, his academic knowledge is revealed. The repeated use of architectural motifs in his work is derived from northern Italian quadratura painting. Although his work is eclectic, it has a characteristic personal touch that distinguishes it from the comparable, though calmer and less detailed work of Janneck.

LINKS
–- The Pleasures of the Seasons: Autumn (main detail) (877x1188pix, 134kb)
 _ ZOOM to full picture (1730, 38x55cm; 1354x2000pix, 318kb)
–- The Pleasures of the Seasons: Winter (main detail) (865x1230pix, 128kb)
 _ ZOOM to full picture (1730, 38x55cm; 1363x2000pix, 276kb)
–- The Pleasures of the Seasons: Summer (main detail) (862x1218pix, 119kb)
 _ ZOOM to full picture (1730, 38x55cm; 1359x2000pix, 268kb)
–- Latona Turning the Lycian Peasants into Frogs(1730, 21x30cm; 842x1166pix, 115kb)
–- Masquerade (25x36cm; 450x676pix, 48kb _ ZOOM to 676x1014pix, 65kb) _ The Masquerade is of persons in elegant costumes feasting in an interior after having taken off their masks. _ Although he was also a painter of history and allegories, it was the brilliant jewel-like colors and meticulous finish of cabinet pictures such as this whcih established Platzer's reputation as the chief exponent of the Austrian rococo, whole only serious rival was his friend Franz Christoph Janneck, whom he had met upon his arrival at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna in 1726, and who painted a number of works in a very similar if somewhat less detailed vein. The sheer consistency of Platzer's work and the lack of dated examples makes it very difficult to establish a chronology for his oeuvre, but the high color key and the more impressionistic handling of the brush indicate that these are likely to be mature works.
–- A Music Party (25x36cm; 447x676pix, 52kb _ ZOOM to 670x1014pix, 68kb) _ The Music Party is on the grounds of an italianate villa.
–- Alexander the Great Receiving the Keys of Babylon from the High Priest (41x60cm; 720x1076pix, 91kb >_ .ZOOM to 1080x1614pix, 174kb) _ The subjects he chose were well suited to his clientèle which was both well-educated and part of the growing bourgeoisie, able to afford the display of its sophistication. It would have surely been familiar with stories from both Greek and Roman history and mythology. While the subject of the present painting is relatively obscure, the artist's patrons would have been able to discern the story from the addition (or subtraction) of the smallest detail. Alexander, for example is distinguishable by his plumed helmet and elaborate costume.
Merry Party on a Terrace (600x868pix)
—(061209)

^ >Baptized as an infant on 10 December 1610: Adriaen van Ostade, Dutch painter, draftsman, and engraver who died on 27 April 1685.
— Van Ostade may have studied under the Dutch artist Frans Hals [born 1583 – 01 Sep 1666] and later came under the influence of the great master Rembrandt [15 Jul 1606 – 04 Oct 1669]; Ostade was probably the teacher of the genre painter Jan Steen [1626 – 03 Feb 1679]. Ostade painted many small genre pictures, lively and vigorous and full of subtle effects of light and shade. His subject matter included tavern scenes, peasants drinking and smoking, itinerant musicians, village festivities, and quaint village characters. He also made 50 etchings depicting peasant life. While his early works are generally filled with rowdy, bawdy characters, his works after around 1650 show more refined and respectable scenes.
—     Van Ostade was born in Haarlem where he lived and worked his whole life. According to Arnold Houbraken [1660-1719], Adriaen van Ostade and Adriaen Brouwer were both students of Frans Hals. Whether this was the case is now no longer known. In Van Ostade's early paintings of peasant life the influence of Adriaen Brouwer is clearly evident. Throughout his life Van Ostade continued to paint peasants, usually smoking or drinking, in a tavern or a livingroom. He also painted biblical scenes, various portraits and numerous practitioners of professions - some respectable, others not: market vendors, schoolmasters, lawyers and quacks.
     In 1634 Van Ostade entered the Haarlem painters guild in which he was to fulfill various functions. Van Ostade was also a member of the Haarlem civic guard. Militiamen were generally drawn from the wealthier families, which suggests that Van Ostade was doing well. As a painter, he was highly productive: he made more than 800 paintings and about 200 drawings and watercolors. Adriaen van Ostade taught several students, among whom his younger brother Isaack van Ostade, Cornelis Bega and probably Jan Steen. Van Ostade achieved considerable popularity in his own day. Other artists copied his work or emulated his subjects and attempted to imitate his style.
— Adriaen van Ostade (Adriaen Hendricx) was born in Haarlem. His father, Jan Hendricx, came from Ostade near Eindhoven, and his sons, Adriaen and Isaac, adopted this name as painters. In 1627, Adriaen was a student of Frans Hals, and, in 1634 joined the Lukas Guild in Haarlem of which he was later the head, in 1647, 1661 and 1662.
     He was one of the most popular Dutch painters, specializing from the start in genre painting of peasant life. In his early period, A. van Ostade was under the influence of A. Brouwer [1605-1638]; in the 1640s of Rembrandt. From about 1650 his paintings turned more and more towards Delft genre painting, the interiors became more pleasant, and open-air scenes were added.
— Adriaen van Ostade and his brother Isack van Ostade [bap. 02 Jun 1621 – >16 Oct 1649 bur.] were among the eight children of Jan Hendricx van Eyndhoven, probably a linen-weaver, and Janneke Hendriksen, both of whom had moved to Haarlem from the Eindhoven area.
     A. van Ostade may have been, concurrently with Adriaen Brouwer, a student of Frans Hals in Haarlem. Hals influenced him very little, whereas Brouwer, who was described as ‘known far and wide’ as early as 1627, had a decisive influence on the evolution of Adriaen van Ostade’s always idiosyncratic portrayal of peasant life. The first documentary mention of Adriaen van Ostade as a painter is in 1632. Most of his paintings are signed and dated, the earliest firmly dated example being the Peasants Playing Cards (1633). He was a member of the Haarlem Guild of Saint Luke by 1634 at the latest.
      In an active career that spanned more than 50 years, Adriaen became one of the most prolific Dutch artists of the 17th century. In his principal speciality, peasant and low-life genre painting, he enjoyed a leading position and considerable influence. The subjects of his single- and multi-figured compositions include, alongside the village fair (kermis) and other festivals, scenes of play and diversion both inside and outside the village inn, scenes of family life, domestic and agricultural work, and schools and various trades (cobbling, weaving, baking, barbering, market trading, peddling, alchemy, etc.). He situated his own work as a painter within the same humble, artisanal context in his several versions of The Painter’s Workshop. He also produced several single and group portraits, as well as a few sumptuous still-lifes. He died in Haarlem.
—      A. van Ostade had many students and followers, the most important among them were his younger brother, Isack van Ostade,  Jan Steen, Cornelis Dusart, Michiel van Musscher, and Cornelis Pieterszoon Bega.

LINKS
Dancing Couple (38x52cm; 1153x1600pix, 138kb) _ In an old peasant's hut or cellar, a group of peasants are having fun with music, dance, drink and tobacco. The couple on the left are dancing, with legs and feet flying to the sound of the violin. On the right a man is drinking beer out of an enormous striped glass, a 'pass glass'. These were often used for drinking games. The person with the glass of beer in his hand had to drink from one stripe to the next in one go. The forfeit for failing was to drink to the next stripe, and so on until the drinker managed to hit a stripe.
Peasants in an Interior (The Skaters) (1650, 44x36cm) _ In a dimly-lit tavern, a group of peasants crowd round the hearth. They are talking, drinking and smoking. To judge from the skates on the floor, the temperature is probably below 0ºC outside. Which is why this painting by Adriaen van Ostade has traditionally been known as The Skaters.
     Van Ostade mainly painted and drew scenes of peasant life, although not as hardworking farm labourers. He preferred to depict country cottages or taverns with groups of peasants after their work, drinking, dancing or smoking. Only rarely did he paint individual portraits, as in The Merry Peasant. In these early works Van Ostade portrayed country life in a rather negative light: the figures appear ill-mannered, coarse and they squander their time.
     Many of Van Ostade's peasants are shown smoking. At that time it was not considered unhealthy, but as corruptive; a vice to which the common people were particularly prone. In his paintings, Van Ostade lambasted this lifestyle. He entertained the 'higher' social classes with scenes of desreputable peasant life. 'Decent' people should avoid that kind of behavior, was the message. It is a caricature of this section of the population which probably bore little relation to reality.
     Van Ostade placed a stool with a pipe and a jug in the foreground, but the spotlight is on the drinkers. It was Van Ostade's way of warning his audience against excessive use of drink and tobacco and against unproductive activity in general. The pewter jug reflects the light in a subtle way. These vessels were normally for beer or wine. In fact beer was the staple drink for ordinary people; wine was too expensive and water, especially in towns, was not clean enough to consume.
     Van Ostade was influenced by another painter of peasant life, the Fleming Adriaen Brouwer. During Brouwer's short stay in Holland he introduced peasant life as a new theme in painting. His work was particularly influential in Haarlem, especially with Adriaen van Ostade and his younger brother Isack van Ostade.
     Van Ostade painted this work in subdued colors: plenty of brown, earthy tints and discreet reds and greens. The use of sharply contrasting light and dark shades is known as chiaroscuro. Half of the room is dark. Here and there, the light shining inside is reflected, as on the face of the foremost peasant and the white shawls of the mother and child. The use of color and chiaroscuro are reminiscent of Rembrandt. Other paintings by Van Ostade, such as his Landscape with an Old Oak also reveal Rembrandt's influence.
Landscape with an Old Oak (1640, 34x46cm) _ A landscape with an old oak tree under a threatening sky. Van Ostade, chiefly known for his depictions of peasant scenes, also painted some landscapes. This landscape was presumably inspired by the dunes near Haarlem. It is painted in tints of brown, grey, beige and ochre. The work follows a frequently used compositional pattern: a dark foreground with a tree as repoussoir. The use of color and chiaroscuro show the influence of Rembrandt. _ See Rembrandt's The Stone Bridge
Peasants in an Interior (1661, 37x47cm) _ Gathered in a spacious but soberly furnished room is a company of peasants. In the centre by the hearth a man is talking as he clasps a pitcher of beer. The group in front of him is sitting in relaxed mood; one is filling a pipe while the other is already smoking. A little further off two peasants are talking while in the background is a group round a table. Everywhere Gouda clay pipes are lying around; there are some jugs and other household objects on the floor. In the foreground the eye catches a little girl eating something while a dog looks on. In this spontaneous scene Adriaen van Ostade has painted a good-natured world of countryfolk enjoying their leisure. In some of his other paintings they are treated with less respect.
     Gouda pipes are white and have a long, slender stem and a small bowl. They were mass produced from around 1617 in the Gouda area, where white pipe clay (terra alba) was readily available. Copper moulds were used to model the clay, which was subsequently fired in the kilns of local potters. Pipes manufactured in other cities usually had shorter stems, but long stems were popular because they cooled the smoke better. However, they were difficult to produce, and the pipe-makers of Gouda were the only manufacturers with the necessary expertise.
     Van Ostade mainly painted and drew scenes of peasant life, although not as hardworking farm laborers. He preferred to depict country cottages or taverns with groups of peasants after their work, drinking, dancing or smoking. Only rarely did he paint individual portraits, as in The Merry Peasant. In these early works Van Ostade portrayed country life in a rather negative light: the figures appear ill-mannered, coarse and they squander their time.
The Fishwife (1673, 36x39cm) _ A woman behind a fish stall is showing us wonderfully fresh fish. The light is falling directly on her face and hands. The woman looks out of the painting, directly at the viewer. The bond between the viewer and the fishwife is strengthened by the painting's composition: by cutting off part of the market stall, the viewer appears almost to be standing in the stall.
     The fishwife is not simply a fishwife: she is an example of virtuous behavior. She carries out her work with care and attention. Whereas fishwives, proverbially speaking (even in those days), are renowned for their loud and shrill shouting, this woman makes a quiet and friendly impression. The painter has based the construction of the fish stall, with its Doric column and pantile roof, on an existing example. The stalls on the fish market in his home town of Haarlem served as models. Van Ostade has signed the painting on one of the columns, immediately under the displayed fish.
     Van Ostade became famous above all for his depictions of peasant life and tavern scenes. His early work was usually staffed by drinking, smoking and fighting peasants. Later on he also often chose occupations as subjects for his paintings: from quack doctors and market folk to painters, school teachers and even lawyers. Van Ostade's use of color changed during his long painting career. In the beginning, his paintings were usually almost monochrome, with plenty of brown, beige, and ochre. Here the colors are lighter, with a few bright accents such as the blue sky and pink salmon.
     Market scenes occur in Dutch paintings as early as 1560. In the seventeenth century such tableaux were painted mainly by Hendrick Sorgh [1611-1670], Adriaen van Ostade and Cornelis Saftleven. These paintings provide a good impression of markets in the seventeenth century. In The Fishwife we see that the fish were simply laid out for the customers on wooden planks. As is still the case today, they were filleted on the spot. In the background we can see reed baskets and part of an old-fashioned set of scales: two planks on a rope with a weight.
_ See The Fishwife (1672, 29x26cm; 719x661pix, 121kb) by Cornelius Dusart (though sometimes attributed to van Ostade) _ Van Ostade's work was extremely popular in his own time. Other Haarlem painters chose the same subjects for their paintings in an attempt to immitate Van Ostade. Sometimes specific works were taken as examples or were copied. Van Ostade's student Dusart made a copy of The Fishwife. This panel is similar to Van Ostade's work; Dusart, however, has given the woman a different collar and has reduced the space beside the stall.
     The ugly face of this fat woman convinces one that she has spent all her life as a fishwife. She is framed by the outline of the market-stall with its board for a counter. Against this background of silver-scaled fish she herself looks like some frog-eyed creature, colorfully dressed for market. The picture is small but the artist has filled in a background depicting the teeming life of the market. Every detail, the display of fish, the figure behind the stall, the small building and the general view in the background together make up an animated scene which is captivating despite a complete absence of dramatic episodes, tension or humour. Van Ostade was in the habit of painting several versions of a favorite motif: there is a larger version of The Fishwife, listed above.
_ See also A Fish Stall by a Harbor (31x26cm; 512x430pix, 22kb) by Sorgh — A#>Fish Market on the Banks of the River (1611; 790x1144pix, 199kb) by Jan Bruegel the Elder.
The Merry Peasant (1640, 16x14cm; 3x overenlargement to blurry 1600x1364pix, 246kb, will then reduce itself to full size, 561x478pix) _ This jolly individual, judging by the beer mug in his hand, could be at an inn. Van Ostade has captured the facial expression well: the broad, smiling mouth, the round cheeks and the half-closed, laughing eyes. The use of color is limited, almost monochrome. These are indications that this is an early work by the artist. The striped relief in the paint clearly reveals the picture to be painted on wood.
The Painter's Studio (1640, 37x36cm) _ A painter is working in his studio, a simply-furnished attic room. On the easel is a panel on which the artist is painting a kind of town gate. He is steadying his hand with a maulstick, enabling him to work with greater precision. Much of the room is dark. The colors are also dark and almost monochrome: van Ostade used almost exclusively brown and beige tints. The only color accents are the red cap of the artist and the blue sky. Is this Van Ostade himself, in his own studio? Possibly. But it is not certain.
     This painting provides a good impression of the inside of a seventeenth-century studio. At that time, established artists rarely worked entirely alone. They would have had apprentices and advanced students or journeymen. These were the two phases a young painter would have to complete in order to become a master. This painter also has two assistants. The apprentice is busy grinding the pigments into powder on a stone. They would then be mixed with linseed oil. This was how oil paints were made in the artist's own studio. The other student is adding the various colors onto the palette in the correct order, so that the painter can use them right away.
     The artist is wearing Burgundian clothes: a jacket with puffed sleeves and splits. By that time this old-fashioned and rather eccentric. The artist does not appear to be particularly wealthy. His studio is a simple and rather untidy room, with very little furniture or other objects. Other artists also portrayed the way they worked in a similar manner. A Painter's Studio by Michael Sweerts, for example, is larger and appears well-organized.
     On the left, the light enters through an arched window with stained-glass. Van Ostade employed a similar window in several of his other works, generally also on the left of the painting, for example in the two versions of Peasants in an Interior listed above. Perhaps he had a window like this in his studio, or in his home. The patterns in the stained-glass window differ each time.
     In preparation for The Painter's Studio Van Ostade made an etching depicting the same subject. Many of the elements are the same in both works: the painter's pose, the position of the easel and the industrious apprentices in the background. The biggest difference is the window, which seems much larger in the etching and allows much more light in. This makes it possible to distinguish more details of the studio in the etching, such as the stairs to the floor above and a shelf with a statue.
The Pall-Mall Court (1677)

–- Drunkards in a Tavern (42x57cm; 877x1174pix, 70kb _ .ZOOM to 1757x2349pix, 716kb)
De Drinker: Three boors drinking and smoking in a spirit house (29x23cm) _ This painting and its former pendant, A man and a woman drinking at a table, were for long regarded as two of the finest of Adriaen van Ostade. The pendant is dated 1661, placing the pair during the zenith of Ostade's career, at a time when his work combines the mature development of style and subject matter with the vivacity and charm of which he was at his best possessed. In the present painting this is reflected in the sympathy of interpretation, subtlety of palette and fineness of detail for which Ostade is so admired.
      Ostade was one of the foremost genre painters of seventeenth-century Holland, recorded as having started his career as a student of Frans Hals in Haarlem, concurrently with Adriaen Brouwer. It was from these two artists, and from Brouwer in particular, that Van Ostade first developed his themes of parties of smoking, drinking and dancing peasants in their village surroundings. He initially adopted a satirical, almost caricatured, manner, but from the 1640s onwards began to endow his low-life protagonists with increasing degrees of restraint and dignity, his palette becoming richer and his chiaroscuro stronger.
      Although such works are more prevalent from the 1640s, from relatively early in his career Van Ostade had painted scenes of tranquil domestic comfort (for example the Village Alehouse with Four Figures of 1635). In them, the action is less important than the depiction of a psychological state, and the setting gains in significance. In the course of the 1640s, however, Ostade increasingly began to explore that approach to the theme, thereby moving further away from Brouwer's influence towards a fully mature, personal style. His interiors became more spacious, flat-ceilinged and better furnished, whilst the figures and their costumes, as well as the furnishings and utensils attendant on peasant life, are shown in more detail, for example the Three Peasants at an Inn of 1647.
      Through the 1650s and by the date of the present work, scenes of excessive drinking and gambling became the exception rather than the rule. Ostade's peasants are mostly shown relishing the small pleasures permitted by their modest existence. This shift is accompanied by a change in the implicit meaning of the pictures: thus in place of, or alongside, the traditional satire on human frailty, the simplicity of peasant life is held up as a model or even idealized. In addition, his interiors continue to show an increasing emphasis on detail, whilst, as in the present work, the strong local coloring of the figures stands out powerfully from the tonal twilight of the interior setting.
—(061209)

^ Died on 10 December 1475: Paolo “Uccello” di Dono, Italian painter born in 1397. — {uccel di bosco?}
— Florentine painter whose work attempted uniquely to reconcile two distinct artistic styles - the essentially decorative late Gothic and the new heroic style of the early Renaissance. Probably his most famous paintings are three panels representing The Rout of San Romano (1455). His careful and sophisticated perspective studies are clearly evident in The Flood (1448).
      By the time Paolo was 10 years old he was already an apprentice in the workshop of the sculptor Lorenzo Ghiberti, who was then at work on what became one of the supreme masterpieces of the history of art - the bronze doors for the Baptistery of the Florence cathedral, which consisted of 28 panels illustrating New Testament scenes of the life of Christ. In 1414 Uccello joined the confraternity of painters Compagnia di San Luca, and in the following year he became a member of the Arte dei Medici e degli Speziali, the official guild to which painters belonged. Though Uccello must by then have been established as an independent painter, nothing of his work from this time remains, and there is no definite indication of his early training as a painter, except that he was a member of the workshop of Ghiberti, where many of the outstanding artists of the time were trained.
      Uccello's earliest, and now badly damaged, frescoes are in the Chiostro Verde (so called because of the green cast of the frescoes) of Santa Maria Novella; they represent episodes from the creation. These frescoes, marked with a pervasive concern for elegant linear forms and insistent, stylized patterning of landscape features, are consistent with the late Gothic tradition that was still predominant at the beginning of the 15th century in Florentine studios and have given rise to the hope that Uccello's artistic origins may yet be found in some of these studios.
      From 1425 to 1431, Uccello worked in Venice as a master mosaicist. All his work in Venice has been lost, and plans to reconstruct it have been unsuccessful. Uccello may have been induced to return to Florence by the commission for a series of frescoes in the cloister of San Miniato al Monte depicting scenes from monastic legends. While the figural formulations of these ruinous frescoes still closely approximate the Santa Maria Novella cycle, there is also a fascination with the novel perspective schemes that had appeared in Florence during Uccello's Venetian sojourn and with a simplified and more monumental treatment of forms deriving from the recent sculpture of Donatello and Nanni di Banco.
      In 1436 in the Florence cathedral, Uccello completed a monochrome fresco of an equestrian monument to Sir John Hawkwood, an English mercenary who had commanded Florentine troops at the end of the 14th century. In the Hawkwood fresco, a single-point perspective scheme, a fully sculptural treatment of the horse and rider, and a sense of controlled potential energy within the figure all indicate Uccello's desire to assimilate the new style of the Renaissance that had blossomed in Florence since his birth. Following the Hawkwood monument, in 1443 Uccello completed four heads of prophets around a colossal clock on the interior of the west façade of the cathedral; between 1443 and 1445 he contributed the designs for two stained-glass windows in the cupola.
      After a brief trip to Padua in 1447, Uccello returned to the Chiostro Verde of Santa Maria Novella. In a fresco illustrating the Flood and its recession, Uccello presented two separate scenes united by a rapidly receding perspective scheme that reflected the influence of Donatello's contemporary reliefs in Padua. Human forms in The Flood, especially the nudes, were reminiscent of figures in Masaccio's frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel (c. 1425), perhaps the most influential of all paintings of the early Renaissance, but the explosion of details throughout the narrative again suggests Uccello's Gothic training. More than any other painting by Uccello, The Flood indicates the difficulties that he and his contemporaries faced in attempting to graft the rapidly developing heroic style of the Renaissance onto an older, more decorative mode of painting.
      Perhaps Uccello's most famous paintings are three panels representing the Battle of San Romano. These panels represent the victory in 1432 of Florentine forces under Niccolò da Tolentino over the troops of their arch rival, Siena. There are Renaissance elements, such as a sculpturesque treatment of forms and fragments of a broken perspective scheme in this work, but the bright handling of color and the elaborate decorative patterns of the figures and landscape are indebted to the Gothic style, which continued to be used through the 15th century in Florence to enrich the environments of the new princes of the day, such as the Medici, who acquired all three of the panels representing the rout of San Romano.
      Uccello is justly famous for his careful and sophisticated perspective studies, most clearly visible in The Flood, in the underdrawing (sinopia) for his last fresco, The Nativity, formerly in S. Martino della Scala in Florence, and in three drawings universally attributed to him that are now in the Uffizi. These drawings indicate a meticulous, analytic mind, keenly interested in the application of scientific laws to the reconstruction of objects in a three-dimensional space. In these studies he was probably assisted by a noted mathematician, Paolo Toscanelli. Uccello's perspective studies were to influence the Renaissance art treatises of artists such as Piero della Francesca, Leonardo da Vinci, and Albrecht Dürer. Uccello apparently led an increasingly reclusive existence during his last years.
      Uccello was long thought to be significant primarily for his role in establishing new means of rendering perspective that became a major component of the Renaissance style. The 16th-century biographer Giorgio Vasari said that Uccello was "intoxicated" by perspective. Later historians found the unique charm and decorative genius evinced by his compositions to be an even more important contribution. Though in ruinous condition, they indicate the immense difficulties faced by artists of his time in taking advantage of new developments without giving up the best in traditional art.

LINKS
Five Portraits (1450, 43x210cm) _ This painting, attributed to Paolo Uccello, portrays five famous men, Giotto (representing painting), Uccello (representing the principles of perspective and animal painting), Donatello (representing sculpture), Manetti (representing mathematics), and Brunelleschi (representing architecture). _ detail 1: Giotto _ detail 2: supposed to be a self-portrait of Uccello.
The Battle of San Romano [ Left _ Center _ Right _ Panel] _ The three paintings of the Battle of San Romano are universally attributed to Paolo Uccello. The three scenes are: Niccolò da Tolentino Leads the Florentine Troops — Bernardino della Ciarda Thrown Off His Horse — Micheletto da Cotignola Engages in Battle. Together with the stories from the life of Noah these are undoubtedly Uccello's most famous works.
      In all three panels the battle scene is interpreted in terms of a chaotic mêlée of horsemen, lances and horses in a desperate struggle, portrayed through an endless series of superimposed and intersecting perspective planes. As in the stories from the life of Noah in Santa Maria Novella, here too the movement which should animate the scenes appears to be frozen, as it were, by the isolation of the individual details, all realistically portrayed. See, for instance, the elaborate heavy armour, the leather saddles, the gilded studs, the horses' shiny coats, and of course the splendid "mazzocchi', the huge multifaceted headgear that Uccello often included in his pictures due to the specific difficulty of painting it in proper perspective.
      The three panels commemorate the celebrated Battle of San Romano in which the Florentines, under the leadership of Niccolò da Tolentino, defeated the Sienese led by Bernardino della Ciarda. They were intended as decoration for the large hall on the ground floor of the Medici Palace, called Lorenzo's room.
      The three incidents from the Battle of San Romano shown are:
      Left: Niccolò da Tolentino Leads the Florentine Troops _ detail
      Center: Bernardino della Ciarda Thrown Off His Horse _ This is the central panel of the three paintings representing the battle won by Florence against Siena allied with Visconti, the ruling family of Milan. It took place on June 1st 1432 in San Romano, half way between Florence and Pisa. The picture shows the conclusive combat between the captains of the two armies: Niccolò da Tolentino unseating Bernardino della Ciarda.
      Uccello's obsession with displaying his mastery of perspective (such as the long white and red lances or the exceptional horses that have rolled over on the ground) and the dramatic nature of the clash between the knights combine with his almost magical story telling. This is underpinned by the use of unreal colors and light as if describing some fabulous tale of chivalrous adventure. _ detail 1 _ detail 2 _ Particularly lovely are the background landscapes, especially in this panel, with scenes of grape harvesting and hunting. _ detail 3
      Right : Micheletto da Cotignola Engages in Battle _ In this panel there is a formal subtext created by strong decorative elements, such as the tights of contrasting colors worm by the soldiers on the left, or the arrangement of the lances, which form a series of patterns and movements that echo the horses and their riders. As could be expected, foreshortening and perspective are devices favored by the artist. The landscape has been sacrificed to the action of the figures. _ detail
Adoration by the Magi (1440, 20x82cm; 520x1939pix 173kb) _ detail (750x1039pix 172kb)
Saint George and the Dragon (1456, 57x73cm; 900x1171pix, 184kb)
— a different Saint George and the Dragon (1460, 52x90cm; 705x1250pix, 153kb)
== Miracle of the Desecrated Host (1469, each panel 43x58cm):
— (1) a woman sells the Host to a Jewish merchant (700x1227pix, 152kb)
— (2) when the merchant tries to burn the Host, It begins to bleed (650x1166pix, 121kb)
— (3) religious procession to reconsecrate the Host (650x1161pix, 117kb)
— (4) the woman is punished and an angel descends from heaven (680x1236pix, 146kb)
— (5) the Jewish merchant and his family are burnt at the stake (650x1158pix, 119kb)
— (6) two angels and two devils fight over the woman's body (647x1161pix, 119 Kb)

64 ZOOMable images at Wikimedia
—(051209)

Died on a 10 December:

^ 2004 Emilio Cruz, US painter, writer, and performance artist, born on 15 March 1938. He studied art at the Art Students League and the New School for Social Research in New York; the University of Louisville in Kentucky; and the Seong Moy School of Painting and Graphics in Provincetown, Massachusetts. When Cruz began his career in the 1960's, he was associated with artists such as Lester Johnson, Bob Thompson and Jan Muller, painters who absorbed the formal lessons of Abstract Expressionism but applied them to figurative representational painting. In his paintings, Cruz mixed human figures, animal and natural history imagery and archaeological references to create dreamlike pictures that often projected dark views of humanity's violent and destructive tendencies. A poet and a playwright, Cruz wrote two plays, Homeostasis: Once More the Scorpion and The Absence Held Fast to Its Presence, that were produced in 1981. In the 1970's Cruz taught at the school of the Art Institute of Chicago. He returned to New York in 1982. He became the founder and artistic director of Spectacle Inc., a multimedia theater production company incorporating paintings, films, poetry, movement and music. In the late 1980's he resumed teaching. At his death he held assistant professorships at both the Pratt Institute and New York University. — LINKS
Jurisprudence of Terror (1990,: 244x122cm; 817x400pix, 64kb) _ Emilio Cruz draws inspiration for his art from sources that reflect his diverse education and background. He incorporates ideas and beliefs from Eastern and Western philosophy, art history, paleontology, archeology, various myths, and even his own dreams. When creating his works, Cruz holds strong to his belief that art must nourish the spirit in order to be considered relevant. At times, his paintings touch upon darker issues, such as the human capacity for manipulation and destruction through war and violence. In the 1990s, Cruz started painting works inhabited by standing or crouching human figures with their skeletal structures exposed, particularly their spines. Critics have suggested that he uses the spine to symbolize mortality, the common factor that unites all humans despite differences like race, gender, religious background, and outward appearances. It has also been noted that by focusing on the spine, Cruz expresses the importance of measuring a person by their inner spirit, above all else.
Beethoven Machine (1966, 173x213cm; 307x374pix, 27kb)
Alitash (1991, 119x89cm; 500x375pix, 36kb)
Tree of Life (1992, 50x60cm; 373x500pix, 87kb)
Umbrella (1998, 38x50cm; 500x380pix, 51kb)
Origins (1985, 34x46cm; 366x500pix, 56kb)
Life on Earth painting #22 (464x560pix, 289kb)
Life on Earth drawing #07 (446x580pix, 342kb)
Untitled, I (Jan. 1963 scribble, 46x61cm; 301x400pix, 33kb)
Life on Earth: 34 images
Life on Earth: 40 drawings.

^ 1994 Friedel Dzubas, German-born (20 April 1915) US painter (he immigrated in 1939). — LINKS
–- S*>#Distant View (800x800pix, 82kb)
–- S*>#Maelstream (800x800pix, 53kb)
–- S*>#Madame X (800x790pix, 35kb) just half-a-dozen paint smears on an even more careless background. From such unpromising material the pseudonymous “Freedom” Giubasso has created the amazing abstract
      _ Dame Mad (2006; screen filling, 200kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1980pix, 909kb)
–- Untitled (exp-fd-5-7) (797x767pix, 48kb)
–- Dos Rios (799x799pix, 41kb)
–- S*>#Late Encounter (310x800pix, 36kb) part of the left half and most of the right half are of vomit-brown-and-yellow colors. —(061129)

1928 Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Scottish painter born (full coverage) on 07 June 1868. —(070606)

^ 1925 Georges Jeannin, French still life painter born in 1841.
–- F*>#Azalées (132x189cm; 754x1092pix, 136kb _ to xpix, 1031kb _ to xpix, 3603kb)
–- S*>#Nature morte avec pommes (712x949pix, 200kb) bruised, blemished, not very appetizing.
–- S*>#Nature morte avec roses (799xpix, 80kb)
–- S*>#Nature morte avec pêches et raisins (510x651pix, 84kb) —(061209)

^ 1910 Seymour Joseph Guy, English US genre and portrait painter and printmaker born on 16 January 1824, whose pictures appealed to post-Civil War genteel Victorian tastes. He was born and raised in England where he received his formal art training before emigrating to New York City in 1854. He worked in the Tenth Street Studio Building and was a studio neighbor of John George Brown [11 Nov 1831 – 08 Feb 1913] who influenced his work. Many of Guy's scenes were children in interiors and were expressions of his interest in the education of children. His paintings have smooth, lacquered finishes because of his careful glazing process that he learned in England. He was also skillful with hidden light sources on his figures. — LINKS
Unconscious of Danger (1865; 750x592pix, 115kb)
Dressing for the Rehearsal (1890)
Girl and Kitten (26x31cm)
At the Opera (1887, 50x38cm)
See-Saw, Margery Day (1884, 104x89cm)
A Woman's Work is Never Done (1882, 61x46m)
Fair Venice (1877, 92x62cm)
Gathering Flowers (1861, 53x43cm)
Summer Issue (1861, 44x35cm)
Dear Polly (55x42cm)
Equestrian portrait
The Haunted Cellar aka Who's Afraid (61x51cm; 980x810pix, 43kb)
The Little Orange Girl (41x31cm)
The Reading Lesson (30x20cm)
The Contest for the Bouquet: The Family of Robert Gordon in their New York Dining-Room (1866, 63x75cm; 415x500pix, 66kb _ ZOOM)
The Crossing Sweeper (1862, 31x22cm) —(051208)

1897 Benito Mercadé y Fábregas, Spanish painter.

^ 1883 Richard “Dicky” Doyle, London illustrator, printmaker, and painter, born in September 1824, son of Irish-born John Doyle [1797 – 02 Jan 1868]. When Dicky was only 16 years old, he published the first of his Comic Histories, the Eglinton Tournament: Or, the Days of Chivalry Revived, a burlesque of medievalism, selected from among his rather more grotesque pen-and-ink juvenilia. The public success of these images assured Doyle of a ready demand for work throughout his career. In 1843 he joined the staff of Punch, but his graphic skills found little immediate outlet. At first Doyle contributed only peripheral elaborations—inventive headings, borders, initials and tail-pieces—possibly inspired by the Gothic Revival interest in medieval tracery and grotesquerie. Following the success of his Punch cover design in 1849, which was retained for over a hundred years, Doyle began the series Manners and Customs of ye Englyshe, in which, with a pared-down line nearly unshaded, he represented large gatherings. In A Cydere Cellare and Ye Commons the members of these masses are just differentiated, and modern life is quietly medievalized; the middle classes glance discreetly at other classes, their institutions and themselves. Although he was notoriously shy and often portrayed himself as a small, thin figure, eyes hidden under tousled hair, Doyle did not shrink from resigning from Punch when it opposed the papacy’s plans to establish a regular diocesan hierarchy in England in 1850. — LINKS
Elf_in_search_of_a_fairy (352x455pix, 55kb)
Reward (364x422pix, 57kb)
Butterfly_dance (356x425pix, 47kb)

1880 Theodor Leopold Weller, German painter born (main coverage) on 28 May 1802. —(051209)

=1859 (or 11 Dec) Alexandre Louise Marie Richard, French artist born on 25 (or 24) November 1782. — Relative? of Fleury-François Richard [25 Feb 1777 – 14 Mar 1852]? of Théodore Richard [1782-1859], peintre paysagiste, élève d’Ingres père, d’Aubry, mais surtout de Bertin? Il a prolongé l’école Toulousaine, dans la lignée de Valenciennes. A mi-chemin entre le paysagisme néo-classique et le renouveau des années 1840, il fît une carrière internationnale. Impliqué dans la vie artistique de son époque, un temps directeur des Beaux-Arts, c’est lui qui découvre Brascassat, premier peintre animalier français. — (051209)

=1823 Jacques François José Schwebach Desfontaines, French artist born on 19 March 1769.

^ 1763 George van der Mijn (or Myn), Dutch artist born in London in 1726, whose date of burial (15 Dec 1763) is better documented than his date of death. Like his brother Frans van der Mijn (or Myn) [1719 – 20 Aug 1783], he studied under their father Herman van der Mijn [1684 – Nov 1741], after whose death he became a student of Frans. He moved from London to Amsterdam with Frans and remained there until his death. Little survives of George van der Mijn’s early work. His excellent portraits of Cornelis Ploos van Amstel and Elisabeth Troost may be early and may date from 1748, as was once thought, or could have been painted as late as 1758. The majority of his 15 or so remaining paintings date from 1757–1763. Besides individual portraits, he produced some of the best examples of the Dutch conversation piece of the 18th century, including two group portraits, both from 1763: The Hasselaer Family and The Van Sypesteyn Children. He also made a number of miniatures, pastels and drawings. In 1761, the year of his marriage, he painted the ceiling of an Amsterdam patrician’s house. George may be regarded as one of the best Dutch portrait painters of the 18th century. He excelled both his father and brother Frans in originality and even more so his other four painter siblings: Cornelia van der Mijn [1710–], Gerard van der Mijn [1706–], Andreas van der Mijn [1714–], and Robert van der Mijn [1724–].

>1630 Orazio Riminaldi, Italian painter born on 05 September 1593 (1586?). He studied first under the modest Pisan painter Ranieri Borghetti and then under Aurelio Lomi [1556–1622]; no works from this first period survive. He then moved to Rome, where his admiration for Orazio Gentileschi, Domenichino, and Bartolomeo Manfredi suggests that he probably arrived there between 1610 and 1620. He was certainly there by the beginning of 1620, for in March of that year he was commissioned by Curzio Ceuli, Master of Works of Pisa Cathedral, to paint Samson Killing the Philistines for the apse of the Cathedral.


Born on a 10 December:


^ 1859 Peder Mark Mønsted, Danish painter who died in 1941. He studied at the Academy in Copenhagen and became one of the most accomplished Danish landscape painters at the end of the nineteenth century. He traveled widely in Italy, Switzerland, and France and exhibited his landscapes regularly at Charlottenborg. — LINKS
–- Flodlandskab A River Landscape in Springtime (1914, 81x121cm; 477x667pix, 128kb _ .ZOOM to 906x1348pix, 180kb _ .ZOOM+ to 1360x2022pix, 294kb)
–- Feeding The Calf (1931, 70x101cm; 477x667pix, 62kb _ .ZOOM to 715x1000pix, 161kb _ .ZOOM+ to 1072x1500pix, 183kb)
Unloading Stone from a Barge at Ouchy (1887; 120kb)
Montagne Picota (1892, 16x22cm)
A New Spring Day (80x53cm)
A Glade in Spring (1903, 50x30cm)

^ 1847 Andrea Landini, Italian painter who died in 1912. He specialized in cardinals. No, not this kind: click for big picture
–- S*>#The Cardinal's Visit (50x61cm; 737x900pix, 151kb)
Too Hot! for the cardinal, the coffee (34x27cm; 1000x750pix, 66kb)
A Chacun Son Métier (1921, 78x64cm; 768x627pix, 39kb) _ a cardinal and a servant enjoy a hearty laugh at the expense of a guest who has just been hit it the face by the cork of a bottle of champagne that the cardinal has just opened.
click for a different big picture–- S*>#The Lunch Guest of a cardinal (74x61cm; 900x732pix, 118kb)
–- His Favorite Pet of a cardinal (47x39cm; 900x737pix, 68kb) it is a little dog, not, as one might expect, one of these birds >>>
–- a different His Favorite Pet of a cardinal (46x38cm; 933x765pix, 54kb) a tiny puppy this time.
–- The Favorite of a cardinal (47x39cm; 600x492pix, 47kb _ .ZOOM to 1000x820pix, 100kb) not a bird, but a playful gray cat.
–- His Eminence's Friend (47x38cm; 600x466pix, 40kb _ .ZOOM to 1000x777pix, 137kb) not a bird, but a playful brown cat. This is an almost identical version of the preceding. You can have fun trying to find how many minute differences you can find in .the side-by-side images, and even more easily .by flipping from one to the other of the zoomed images. —(061209)

=1815 Francesco Bergamini, Italian artist who died on 30 November 1883.

^ 1807 Niels Simonsen, Danish orientalist painter who died on 11 December 1885.
–- S*>#A Game of Checkers (1859, 28x36cm; 680x900pix, 135kb)
A Meeting of Generals (1870, 47x63cm)
The Last Stand (1867, 77x109cm)
Arab Pirate Attack (1853, 100x142cm; 686x1000pix, 217kb _ ZOOM to 1029x1500pix, 149kb)
Arabs in a Hilltop Fort (60x84cm) —(051209)

^ =1805 Carl Ferdinand Sohn, German painter who died on 25 November 1867. — {He was the Sohn of his Mutter and his Vater}— He studied at the Akademie der Künste, Berlin, and the Kunstakademie, Düsseldorf, at both under Wilhelm von Schadow. He then went (1830–1831) to Italy where he adopted the works of the Venetians Titian, Veronese, and Palma Vecchio as his lasting models. These studies preceded his assumption, in 1832, of lifelong teaching duties at the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf. With Rinaldo and Armida (1828), a scene showing the lovers from the verse epic Gerusalemme liberata of Torquato Tasso [11 Mar 1544 – 25 Apr 1595], Sohn impressed his contemporaries in Düsseldorf by introducing the idealistic and literary style established by Schadow and his followers. The brilliantly coloristic and realistically rendered work reveals Sohn’s talent for depicting dynamic life-sized figures, animated sensuality, and cogent gestures. — The students of Sohn included Wilhelm Busch, John W. Ehninger, Ludwig Knaus, Louis Kolitz, Wilhelm Trautschold, Benjamin Vautier, Richard Caton Woodville. — Tasso in the Insane Asylum (1839; 604x496pix, 66kb) by Delacroix.

1748 Michel Joseph Speckaert, Belgian artist who died on 17 September 1838.

^ 1613 Isaack van Oosten, Flemish landscape painter who died in 1661.
–- S*>#Noah Leading the Animals to the Ark (705x900pix, 120kb)
–- S*>#The Creation of Adam and Eve (715x900pix, 127kb) the far background shows the temptation and original sin.
–- S*>#The Creation of Birds and Fish (717x900pix, 116kb) also Leviathan, a griffon, and a civet on top of a turtle.
–- S*>#Pastoral Landscape with a farm (45x59cm; 689x900pix, 150kb)
— different S*>#Pastoral Landscape with a farm (32x44cm; 644x900pix, 140kb)
–- S*>#River Landscape with a stag hunt (oval 39x52cm; xpix, 251kb) _ The lead hunter is mounted bareback on a strange horned animal with a ruler-straight back.
–- Landscape with a wagon and people passing through a village (488x860pix, 81kb)
–- River Landscape with wagoners in the foreground (14x18cm; 510x671pix, 59kb)
–- The Fox and the Monkey (19x25cm; 525x688pix, 54kb) _ The subject of this panel is not certain. It might refer to a contemporary Flemish tale or moral now forgotten, Or it might be meant to illustrate one of the two Fables of The Fox and the Monkey, by Aesop, though the details that would make it obvious are missing.
The Fox and the Monkey I, by Aesop
A Monkey once danced in an assembly of the Beasts, and so pleased them all by his performance that they elected him their King. A Fox, envying him the honor, discovered a piece of meat lying in a trap, and leading the Monkey to the place where it was, said that she had found a store, but had not used it, she had kept it for him as treasure trove of his kingdom, and counseled him to lay hold of it. The Monkey approached carelessly and was caught in the trap; and on his accusing the Fox of purposely leading him into the snare, she replied, "O Monkey, and are you, with such a mind as yours, going to be King over the Beasts?"

The Fox and the Monkey II, by Aesop
A Fox and a Monkey were on the road together, and fell into a dispute as to which of the two was the better born. They kept it up for some time, till they came to a place where the road passed through a cemetery full of monuments, when the Monkey stopped and looked about him and gave a great sigh. "Why do you sigh?" said the Fox. The Monkey pointed to the tombs and replied, "All the monuments that you see here were put up in honour of my forefathers, who in their day were eminent citizens." The Fox was speechless for a moment, but quickly recovering he said, "Oh! don't stop at any lie, sir; you're quite safe: I'm sure none of your ancestors will rise up and expose you."
—(061209)


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