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ART “4” “2”-DAY  04 December v.9.b0
DEATHS: 1697 DE BRAY — 1603 DE VOS
^ Died on 04 December 1697: Jan de Bray, Dutch painter born in 1626 (1627?).
— Jan de Bray was the son of Salomon de Bray and brother of Joseph de Bray. Even before the death of Verspronck in 1662 and of the octogenarian Frans Hals in 1666, Jan de Bray became the leading portraitist in Haarlem. In the mid-sixties he received four commissions for life-size collective portraits of governors from the city's charitable institutions. Except for his first efforts in the early fifties, little in his oeuvre recalls the old master, Frans Hals. He often adopted the colorful palette and smooth, limpid manner of van der Helst, qualities evident in his historiated portraits. His contact with Haarlem's classicizing artists, particularly his father Salomon, who was his teacher, made assimilation of these aspects of van der Helst popular style an easy step. Jan de Bray made history paintings as well. The various subjects he treated make him difficult to categorize.
— The Haarlem artist, Jan de Bray may have been taught by his father, the painter and architect Salomon de Bray. Jan de Bray is mainly known for his stately portraits. He was also a master of informal portraits, as can be seen from his lively depiction of a Haarlem printer and his wife, Abraham Casteleyn and Margarieta van Bancken. n the early seventeenth century Frans Hals, with his 'rough and ready' painting style, was Haarlem's favorite portrait painter. But after 1650 tastes changed in favor of the young Jan de Bray. De Bray received by far the most commissions to paint portraits. His works, in contrast to those of Frans Hals, were smoothly painted, evenly lit and filled with bright colors. Jan de Bray died in Haarlem at the age of seventy.

Caring for Orphans (1675, 135x154cm; 600x711pix, 103kb _ ZOOM to 1061x1256pix, 161kb) _ {Despite all appearances, the one at the bottom right corner is not a reporter for WORF, he is not interviewing the one next to him, and what he is holding is not a microphone, but he is probably about to munch on a frankfurter, a hamburger, a berliner, or some such münchener.}.
The Councillors of the Haarlem Painters' Guild (1675, 130x184cm; 566x800pix, 129kb _ ZOOM to 1451x2048pix, 427kb)
The Haarlem printer Abraham Casteleyn and his wife Margarieta van Bancken (1663, 84x108cm) _ In this unusual portrait of the Haarlem printer Abraham Casteleyn and his wife Margarieta van Bancken Jan de Bray has portrayed the couple in an informal setting, relaxing on the terrace. The portrait was painted in 1663: the artist's signature and date are on the cupboard on the left. Casteleyn and his wife had by then been married for two years. The way they hold each other's hands symbolises their marital fidelity. The vine to the left of Margarieta represents the mutual commitment between husband and wife. An unusual feature is the friendly and relaxed expression of both Abraham and Margarieta. This informal pose and the cheerful faces are far from common in seventeenth-century portraiture. Abraham is sitting sideways in his chair and is holding his wife's hand. She is leaning towards him. From his gesture with his right he appears to be about to speak. His hat is on a pile of books; indoors he wore a simple skullcap. Casteleyn and his wife were Mennonites, a Christian sect that believed in the virtues of a sober life. This was the type of dress they wore: simple and unpretentious. Behind Abraham is a globe and various books: references to his profession. He was the official printer of the city of Haarlem and founder of the Weeckelijke Courante van Europa, one of the best news bulletins of the day, covering stories from all over Europe. Another feature is a bust of Laurens Janszoon Coster, a Haarlem printer who the town claimed as the original inventor of book printing. Like the books and the globe, the bust alludes to Haarlem's role as a publishing center, to Casteleyn's part in that tradition and to his international stature.
      With this informal portrait Jan de Bray followed in the footsteps of the famous Haarlem artist, Frans Hals [1583 – 01 Sep 1666]. Perhaps he was inspired by the latter's relaxed portrait of Isaac Massa and Beatrix van der Laen (1622, 140x166cm; 1355x1600pix, 314kb). Frans Hals was able to capture a subject with a few loose strokes of the brush. He added small touches and details to provide accents. Jan de Bray painted in quite a different way from Fans Hals's so-called 'rough' style. His paintings feature clear colors, even lighting and a smooth finish. Before starting this portrait, Jan de Bray began with a sketch. From the drawing for this work, he appears originally to have planned a larger painting. On the right two women can be seen walking onto the terrace from the garden. However, they are not on the actual painting. This is not because the canvas has been cut: the artist simply changed his mind. Perhaps the other figures detracted from the main subject of the painting.
— F*>#Portrait of A Gentleman
The de Bray Family (The Banquet of Antony and Cleopatra) (1669, 230x180cm) _ In seventeenth-century Dutch painting family portraits were less common than marriage portraits, perhaps because of their greater expense, as portrait prices were partly calculated per head. Their surviving number is considerable, though, and their variety somewhat greater than that of marriage portraits. The function of the family portrait is to preserve memory, as they sometimes include portraits of family members already deceased. This purpose is evident in the large portrait of the de Bray family.
      In this family portrait all members participate in the legendary banquet of Antony and Cleopatra. The painter is probably represented in profile at left. His parents impersonate the Roman general and the Egyptian Queen, at a feast she organized in a bet that she could spend the largest fortune on a meal. Although the fare was simple, Cleopatra defeated Antony by dissolving one outsized pearl earring in acid and swallowing the drink.
      Since several contemporaries commented on the humorous but reprehensible vanity of the story, de Bray's decision to make his family perform it may seem bizarre. In most family portraits, poses, gestures, costumes, and attributes speak of harmony, good education, and modesty; the wife and mother in particular would display exemplary virtue. The decadent Cleopatra seems the antithesis of a modest, reticent, and maternal woman. Although her banquet is indeed an unparalleled theme in portraiture, the genre of the portrait in historical guise to which it belongs makes explicit the theatricality of all portraiture, in which sitters pose before painters and viewers in carefully selected guises and settings.
–- Judith and Holofernes (867x702pix, 51kb _ .ZOOM to 1302x1053pix, 85kb) _ See the story and links to its representation by many artists besides de Bray, at Art “4” Oct 10
David Playing the Harp (1670, 142x154cm)
Portrait of a Young Woman (54x43cm) _ This portrait is related in style to Frans Hals.
^ Born on 04 December 1617: Evaristo Baschenis, Bergamo painter narrowly specialized almost exclusively in still-lives of stringed musical instruments. He died in 1677.
— Evaristo Baschenis was the most prominent of a family of artists recorded from 1400. He was ordained in 1647 and painted a few religious subjects, but his fame rests chiefly on his beautifully poised and polished still lifes of muscial instruments. His predilection for the subject may have been associated with the contemporary fame of the Amati family of violin-makers of Cremona, which is near to Baschenis's native town of Bergamo.

Musical Instruments (98x147cm) _ A number of musical instruments are placed in apparent disorder on a large table with carved legs, the top of which crosses the canvas horizontally. A dark green cloth placed loosely on it reveals to the left an open drawer from which a musical score hangs out. The falling fabric subtly breaks the strict symmetry of the table, producing the illusion of an attractive contour similar to the many found among the instruments. The diagonal light creates a mysterious chiaroscuro, completely effacing the extremely bare décor and highlighting the subject of the painting, in which a sensuously curved bass viol dominates. This instrument, back to us, is surrounded at both ends by two wood and ivory marquetry guitars. In the foreground we see, from left to right, a cittern, a mandola, and a small violin placed on its spine with its bow. In the background to the right are a lute and a flute. The scattered musical scores and a few soft-colored ribbons provide some light touches to a mostly dark-toned composition.
      The warm, velvety precious materials of the objects are displayed with a rare mastery by the precise drawing, the raking light and the refined nuances of the brown, bronze and light yellow colors. Sobriety, reserve, harmony, rhythm and austerity govern the composition of this very noble composition. No decorative draperies, no superfluous details, but an expertly constructed picture in which volumes and planes are geometrically placed and which prefigures the still-lifes of the analytic Cubists. The instruments left lying, mute, at the end of a concert, and the presence to the right of two small decomposing apples, and the silence haunting the picture all evoke the precariousness and brevity of life. Here we have all the symbols of a Vanitas or a Memento mori.
      When the picture arrived in the museum in 1908, the nearly invisible signature was exposed. This marked the beginning of the rediscovery and recognition of the work of Evaristo Baschenis, who had been nearly totally forgotten over time. This Bergamo artist also painted a number of kitchen interiors decorated with fruit, vegetables and dead animals, but owes his reputation to his still-lifes composed of musical instruments, of which the present one is probably the most perfect.
Still-Life with Musical Instruments (1650, 97x147cm) _ This painting is one of the most successful examples of Baschenis's lifetime pursuit: the painting of still-lifes of musical instruments. It shows the artist's unflagging attention to the forms of his subjects, which are geometrical and capricious at the same time. The instruments are studied under a light that reveals their inner poetry but leaves their age-old shape and substance intact. Lovingly selected, these mandolins and horns are seen in terms of a strict construction of shadowed tones, broken only occasionally by a lighter passage. Their arrangement suggests an illusory, unchanging fixity, as if a symphony had been transposed from sound into three-dimensional composition, after the music had stopped. The instruments represented are a clarinet, a mandolin, a double-bass bow and - on the crest - a recorder.
Still-life with Musical Instruments (1650, 115x160cm) _ Bergamo Baschenis, an artist from Bergamo, was a highly specialized painter who worked almost exclusively on the portrayal of stringed instruments. The nearby town of Cremona, a famous center of violin and lute making, provided him with his models. However, unlike the Netherlandish artists, who often used musical instruments as symbols of hearing, while the transience of the notes recalled the transience of life, Baschenis does not paint scenes of allegorical or moral significance. His emphasis lies on the aesthetic and decorative aspects, as reflected in his singular attention to painterly and ornamental detail in portraying these instruments.
      A theorbo, a tenor lute and a descant lute, as well as a violin with bow can be seen together with a writing box, a quill and a book of music set on a table against which a cello is leaning. A mysterious life develops between these objects. The mild sheen on the surface of the woods and the changing hues on the body of the lute create a visual autonomy that almost makes us forget the actual purpose of these instruments. Their curves present unusual viewpoints as though by chance. These musical objects are an almost tangible feast of tranquillity for the eyes.
Still-life with Instruments (1675, 108x153cm) _ The art of Baschenis represents a peculiar chapter in the development of Italian still-life painting: through it the Bergamot School suddenly became famous, and since he had many followers and students, the genre of still-life painting with instruments became widely practised. His large ceremonial compositions are his most characteristic and best works. The moderate and cheerful realism of his style was inspired by Caravaggio [cf. detail of musical instruments in Caravaggio's Amor Vincit Omnia], but it remained free of the soul-searching dilemma encountered by the painters of seventeenth-century Rome, Naples and Florence. In his choice of themes and objects he was probably influenced by the world-famous instrument-making shop at nearby Cremona, which, for example, produced the beautiful lutes and violins of the Amati family.
      In Baschenis's paintings the instruments are the mediums of the Vanitas idea, and they are seldom coupled with the more expressive images of skulls, candles or books. In themselves a violin with its strings broken or a dusty lute are symbols of mortality. In this painting a single flower accentuates the meaning, and the presence of the globe makes it universally valid. Even the jewel-inlaid ebony writingdesk is not merely decorative counterpoint in the red-gold-blue-green-brown harmony; rather it invokes the vanity of sciences as well. The two lutes laid down across each other and the violin rendered in side-view reveal the painter's excellent knowledge of the instruments' anatomy.
Musical Instruments (600x860pix, ZOOM to 1400x2007pix)
^ Died on 04 December 1603: Marten de Vos, Flemish Mannerist painter born in 1532.
— Marten de Vos was active mainly in his native Antwerp. In 1552 he went to Italy and studied in Rome, in Florence, and with Tintoretto in Venice. In 1558 he was back in Antwerp where after the death of Frans Floris in 1570 he became the leading Italianate artist in that city. The altarpieces that make up the bulk of his output are typically Mannerist in their strained, slender elegance.
— Together with the brothers Ambrosius Francken I and Frans Francken I, he ranks among the most important painters of altarpieces in Antwerp during the 1590s. Due, in part, to the Counter-Reformation, there was a renewed demand for altarpieces to replace those lost during iconoclastic riots in 1566 or the reformist movement of 1581. De Vos produced works for, among others, the Old Crossbowmen, the Brabant Coiners, the Antonites, the wine merchants and the Guild of Saint Luke. The importance of these works would seem to suggest that, after the deaths of Pieter Bruegel I in 1569 and Frans Floris in 1570, de Vos was considered, with some justification, the most important figure painter in Antwerp before Rubens. He was also a prolific draftsman, especially during the first half of the 1580s, when the Calvinists were in power in Antwerp. During this period he provided numerous designs for print publishers, such as Peeter Baltens, Frans van Beusecom, the widow of Hieronymus Cock, Adriaen Collaert, Phillip Galle, Willem van Haecht, Eduard van Hoeswinkel, Gerard de Jode, Hans van Luyck and Johannes Baptista Vrints. This increased activity is probably indicative of the economic recession and a dwindling market for paintings (especially of religious themes). A total of some 1600 prints were produced after designs by de Vos, an output three times that of Maarten van Heemskerck. De Vos’s drawings have been praised (see Mielke) for their lively, industrious and generally positive character, frequently with romantic Italianate landscapes in the background. His obvious proficiency is counterbalanced, however, by a degree of routine formularization.
— The students of De Vos included Hendrik van Balen I, Hendrik de Clerck, Wenceslas Cobergher, Pedro Perret, Lodewijk Toeput

— Portrait of Antonius Anselmus, His Wife and Their Children (1577, 103x166cm) _ Family harmony is a source of prosperity and happiness. The Latin inscription in the cartouche at the top of the picture (as best I can read the insufficient definition of the reproduction) is: CONCORDIA / ANTONII ANSELMI / IOANNA. HOOSTEMANS FELICIQUE PROPAGINORUM / MARTINO DE VOS PIXIT / NATVS EST ILLE ANNO MDXXXVI . IVLII IV (uncertain) / VXOR ANNO MDLV DIE XVI DECEMBRIS LIBERI / AEGYDIVS ANNO MDLXXV . XXI AVGVSTI / IOANNA ANNO MDLXXVI . XXVI SEPTEMBRIS.
      This is the message of this family portrait, which does much more than simply depict wealthy members of Antwerp high society. Antonius Anselmus, an alderman of the city from 1580 to 1582, and his wife Joanna Hooftmans, the daughter of a wealthy merchant, are placed in front of a neutral background, accompanied by their two children, both born in Antwerp, Gillis in 1575 and Joanna in 1576. A third child was to be born in Hamburg, where the family sought refuge for a time after the city of Antwerp was returned to the Catholics. The Anselmus family, like the Hooftmans, were Calvinists.
      The family's high social ranking is immediately visible in the various items of decor: the carved furniture, the silver inkwell on the table, and the fragile Venetian glass vase, as well as the costly lace on the parents' garments and the children's aprons. The little girl holds a sumptuous vermeil rattle, a prestigious object symbolising the wealth of the newly born child. This object was offered to very young children by a godfather or an important person. The one represented here has at one end a whistle and at the other a wolf's tooth, to which popular belief attributed the double power of protecting children against the evil eye and reducing teething pain. On the table between the couple are the marriage gloves and a rose, symbols of the love that unites them. The children express the prosperity of the couple as does the fruit being held by the elder. At the same time the tame bird on his shoulder is a metaphor for a successful education.
      Maerten de Vos, who excelled in the portrait genre, was also known for his religious paintings, producing, among other works, six paintings of episodes from the life of St Paul for the dining room of Gillis Hooftmans, Joanna's father. It is possibly following this commission that he painted the family portrait. By creating a unified and enveloping space around the figures, the artist succeeded in given a new dimension to the genre, intensifying both the psychological study and the allegorical significance.
The Emperor's Toll (1601) This was the central panel of the triptych of the Coin-Makers' Guild from St Andrew Church, Antwerp. It is a late work by De Vos who died in 1603.
Saint Luke Painting the Virgin Mary (1602, 270x217cm) _ Maarten De Vos, who founded the fraternity of Romanists in Antwerp, was Frans Floris' best student and successor. His works are clear precursors of the 17th century Baroque. The Saint Luke painting the Virgin Mary is a late work by De Vos who died in 1603. His rich and varied use of color might be attributable to the six years he spent in Florence, Rome and Venice (where he studied with Tintoretto); his paintings are clear, balanced and often symmetrical in composition, and despite his preference for shallow spaces, he succeeded in creating a strong sense of drama and plasticity. On the other hand, although a Lutheran for a long time, De Vos was also a figure-head of the Counter Reformation. The best evidence of this is to be found in the monumental scale of his works and his strict adherence to the iconographical precepts laid down by the Council of Trent.
The Marriage at Cana (1597, 268x235cm) _ The painting shows Christ's first recorded miracle. When the wine ran out at a wedding at which Jesus and his mother were guests, he changed the water into the finest wine - a perfect theme for the Tavern-Keepers' altar in the Antwerp Cathedral. The guild commissioned it from Marten de Vos, who was a very famous artist at the time. The time he spent in Venice had a noticeable effect on his work.
      The wedding reception is set in an attractive Renaissance interior with a table full of fine food and expensive crockery, and festively dressed guests. Three lute-players and a young singer play from a gallery. Most of the guests look like 16th-century Westerners. The three crowns above the bride and her immediate neighbours were a customary feature of weddings in de Vos's time. He tried, nevertheless, to evoke a somewhat Oriental, biblical atmosphere - several guests wear turbans, the bridegroom has a laurel crown and some of the servants' costumes are vaguely Roman. The large wine-jugs in the foreground have an especially classical appearance. Jesus and his mother stand out because of their simple, 'biblical' clothes. The guests are sure to include several senior members of the Tavern-Keepers' Guild.
Nativity (1577, 106x75cm) _ Three little angels kneel with Mary and Joseph in worship of the newborn Child. The ox and the ass stand behind them. Other angels in the distance announce the birth of Christ to a group of shepherds. The ruin behind Joseph symbolises the defeat of paganism by the coming of the Saviour. The artist has made the symbolism even plainer by including a relief in the classical ruin - a recumbent female nude, possibly Venus, and several playful little naked figures. These represent the pagan world and 'impure', earthly love, as opposed to the divine love in which Christ was conceived.
      Marten de Vos spent some time in Italy, where he familiarised himself with the new art of the Renaissance. This is apparent in details like the lively poses, the realistic approach to the anatomy and the references to classical antiquity. The divided upper zone, one half containing an architectural setting and the other a deep landscape, was also typical of 16th-century Venetian art.
The Temptation of Saint Anthony (1594, 280x212cm) _ This characteristic creation of Flemish mannerist painting was the center panel of a triptych and originally decorated the Saint Anthony altar of the cathedral in Antwerp. In the background we can see several episodes from the lives of Saint Anthony the Hermit and Saint Paul, such as their miraculous feeding by the raven, their conversation with an architect concerning the building of a monastery (which is also visible in the center of a forest), the burial of Saint Paul, and the kidnapping of Saint Anthony by demons.
      In the fifteenth century they often used the episode of Saint Anthony's temptation as the illustration for one of the four human temperaments, and in this they utilized their astrological theory. The pensiveness of the monk who withdrew from human society and dedicated himself to God is similar to the immersion into a state of melancholy. "Thinking about matters which are not to be thought about and understanding things which do not exist", so goes an eleventh-century Arab doctor's definition of melancholy (Constantinus Africanus Opera I, 287, Basel, 1536). At the same time, however, melancholy is a demonic state ("In Saturni parte sunt diabolici"), and this provides direct contact with the temptation scene.
      In this context, music appears on Satan's side as an instrument of temptation. The beautiful female figure wearing antlers and carrying a gold-filled box is escorted by fantastic figures. Among them we can see a couple dancing and two musicians dressed in a peculiar manner. Music, however, appears in the same picture in a positive role as well. The ceremony of Saint Paul's burial is accompanied by singing and music-making animals who pay him their last respects in this way.
      This, however, is not the only example of the twofold interpretation of the symbols in the painting. It is a well-known fact that one of the attributes of Saint Anthony the Hermit is the swine, as - among others - he was the patron saint of domestic animals. The malady called Saint Anthony's fire (herpes zoster) that ravaged Europe from the ninth to the thirteenth centuries, was cured with lard and the sick were cared for by Antonites in their own hospitals. In Martin de Vos's painting the swine-headed figure holding a book, who accompanies the Hermit, also plays a positive part. At the same time, however, the demonic female figure is also escorted by a swine, this time symbolizing temptation.
The Family of Saint Anne (1585, 155x170cm) _ The painting is a classic example of the Italian influence on Antwerp painting in the 16th century and illustrates the secularisation of religious painting on the eve of the Baroque. What makes this particular work so interesting is not so much its overall impact as the refined treatment of the individual figures and the realistic rendering of the various objects. The painting is signed and dated upper center on the frieze of the portico: FECIT MERTINO DE VOS 1585. _ detail What makes this particular work so interesting is not so much its overall impact as the refined treatment of the individual figures and the realistic rendering of the various objects.
The Tribunal of the Brabant Mint in Antwerp (1594, 157x215cm) _ With Pieter Bruegel, the great era of the Flemish Primitives reached a new zenith, and at the same time the beginning of the end. With the death of this master whose art was firmly rooted in the fatherland, the coast was clear for the invasion of foreign ideas from Italy. There were successive influxes of imported art from Rome, Venice and Florence, and much work produced by Flemish artists in the Italianate style, some of it without a clear understanding of the principles involved. But in all this, there was nothing which could spark off a new creative development of specifically Flemish art.
      In the second half of the 16th century, many Italianate painters looked to the work of Frans Floris, which was based on the formal language of Michelangelo, and Titian and Tintoretto's use of color, as their ideal. One of his followers in Antwerp was Maarten de Vos, who was strongly influenced by Venetian art, but did not adopt Michelangelo's muscular figures. He was the inspiration behind these late Mannerists and the most productive painter of his time; his death marked the end of a period in the history of art in Antwerp. Shortly after, Rubens was to return from Italy in 1608 and give a powerful new impetus to the School of Antwerp.
      The Tribunal of the Brabant Mint in Antwerp is a representative example of the work of de Vos, not just as a figure painter but also as a portraitist. The painting, which is a tableau representing justice, was painted in 1594 to hang in the Law Court of the 'Minters' of the Duchy of Brabant. Such paintings were intended to remind both Judges and those seeking justice of their duty and responsibilities.
      The members of the Brabant League of Minters commissioned the painting, and had themselves depicted (from the waist up) in the background, behind the symbolic figures from classical antiquity surrounding Justitia herself. Justitia, crowned with laurels and holding the scales of justice and a sword, triumphs over deceit and violence, symbolised by a masked woman caught in her own web and a violent miscreant who has been disarmed.
      In the foreground on the left, Moses is depicted with the Tables of the Law, and on his right the Emperor Justinian, the codifier of Roman Law. On the right there is the bearded Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome, who compiled sacred laws inspired by his wife, the nymph Egeria. On the far right, Pliny the Elder can be seen, with his left hand resting on the 37 scientific works he wrote. In a nutshell, the message of this scene is that justice triumphs over deceit and violence, and that judges should judge according to sacred and civil law, guided by knowledge and science.

Died on a 04 December:

>2005 Débora Arango Pérez [11 Nov 1907–], Colombian Expressionist painter. — Comenzó su formación artística con Eladio Vélez en el Instituto de Bellas Artes, desde 1933 hasta 1935. Posteriormente estudió con Pedro Nel Gómez, en su taller particular.
De este maestro Débora Arango aprendió el concepto de los artistas comprometidos con las tendencias americanistas de la primera mitad del siglo XX: asumir el arte como un medio de denuncia y de revolución social, rechazando la actitud esteticista y decorativa de algunos artistas de la generación anterior.
      Su que hacer se basó en la interpretación del mundo con un lenguaje propio, y en la renuncia a la mera reproducción formal de la realidad. De hecho, hizo parte del grupo de vanguardia de la época, que integraba varias mujeres alumnas de Gómez, y que en 1937 expusieron una serie de acuarelas dedicadas a la naturaleza del trópico.
Participó en la Exposición Artistas Profesionales de Medellín, en 1939, organizada por la Sociedad de Amigos del Arte, donde recibió el Primer Premio. Algunas de las obras presentadas por Débora Arango en esta muestra, correspondieron a desnudos femeninos, que desataron una fuerte polémica y tendencias tanto de apoyo como de reprobación, que se manifestaron en la prensa y en el púlpito.
      Los prejuicios de estos críticos impedían ver la propuesta estética y plástica de Débora, la cual asumía el cuerpo femenino “… ya no en el símbolo de la belleza clásica pura, lleno de sugerencias y veladas alusiones, sino en desnudez sin tapujos puesta a la vista”, como lo ha afirmado el investigador Santiago Londoño. En algunos de sus desnudos la artista hizo una analogía entre el cuerpo femenino y la geografía de la región, plenos de “montes y valles, volúmenes y ritmos”.
      La censura volvió a condenar la obra de Débora Arango en la exposición que en 1940 el entonces ministro de educación, Jorge Eliécer Gaitán, le solicitó presentara en el Teatro Colón, en Bogotá. La obra de la artista antioqueña enfrentó a los periodistas de la capital, y dejó ver las mentalidades encontradas de la época: como parte del problema político y social del país, detrás del apoyo o la reprobación estaban las ideologías liberal y conservadora, que politizaron las artes y las manifestaciones estéticas.
      Años después, participó, al lado de Jesusita Vallejo de Mora Vásquez, Maruja Restrepo de Botero, Gabriel Posada, Maruja Uribe, Octavio Mora y Graciela Sierra, en el grupo Los Independientes, constituido en 1944. Esta agrupación basó su Manifiesto en los principios estéticos del muralismo mexicano, para promover una pintura americana independiente de Europa, que tuviera en la pintura mural al fresco el medio para llegar al pueblo.
      Posteriormente viajó a México a estudiar en la Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes; allí aprendió la técnica de pintura mural al fresco al lado de Federico Cantú Garza. Durante esta época continuó siendo duramente criticada y censurada por miembros del gobierno y ciudadanos de orientación conservadora; por eso, a su regreso de México decidió permanecer activa pero sin exponer su obra.
      Su único mural conocido fue el que realizó en 1948 para la Compañía de Empaques; representa a unos cortadores de fique, materia prima del costal y la cabuya, elementos tradicionales en Latinoamérica en los procesos de empaque. Hoy en día está en las oficinas de Almacenes Éxito, en Envigado, después de que en 1995 fuera recuperado y restaurado por expertos extranjeros.
      Entre las décadas del 40 y el 50 la artista produjo numerosas obras dentro de la temática de la denuncia social, a partir de su atenta observación de los protagonistas anónimos de la vida de la ciudad: prostitutas, mendigos, niños y madres abandonadas, presos, empleados de bodegas y espacios de mataderos. Débora Arango apenas lograba ver las actitudes y los ambientes de esos seres, pero la mirada fugaz desde su carro, o al rápido paso por las calles le permitieron recrear la cruda realidad de la población menos favorecida.
Otro de sus temas preferidos fueron los miembros del clero y ciertos personajes religiosos; a los curas y monjas los pintó pues desde pequeña tuvo cercanía con estas personalidades, tan importantes en el medio social de la época. Al abordar estos asuntos la pintora no se burla de los preceptos morales que aprendió en su hogar; en algunas ocasiones puede ser sarcástica.
      Consecuente con su idea de retratar la realidad del país, Débora también pintó escenas alusivas a la situación de violencia que vivía el país en la década del cincuenta, donde usó la sátira política para señalar acontecimientos como las masacres del 9 de Abril, la salida de Laureano Gómez del poder y los participantes del golpe al dictador Gustavo Rojas Pinilla.
Estas temáticas contrastan con la tarea decorativa que emprendió en Casablanca, su casa paterna, ubicada en el municipio de Envigado, la cual ornamentó con zócalos de cerámica pintada, técnica que compartió con su colega Gabriel Posada Zuloaga.
Luego de la muerte de su padre, ocurrida en 1951, Débora Arango viajó a Europa; se radicó en España, en cuya capital se inscribió en la famosa Academia de San Fernando. En Madrid pintó acuarelas, algunas de las cuales se expusieron en el Instituto de Cultura Hispánica (1955), muestra que fue cerrada al día siguiente de la inauguración por orden del gobierno español.
      Antes de un nuevo viaje al exterior, hacia Inglaterra, en 1959, la artista expuso una serie de cerámicas decoradas, en el Centro Colombo Americano de Medellín; en Londres la artista pudo profundizar en esta técnica, hasta producir un conjunto consistente, parte del cual se expuso en la muestra Cerámica Contemporánea (1960), en el Museo de Zea, hoy Museo de Antioquia, en la que participaron artistas como Alejandro Obregón, Lucy Tejada y Fernando Botero.
      En 1975 la artista, después de varios años de retiro de las salas de exposición, presentó varias de sus obras en la Biblioteca Pública de Medellín; a partir de esta muestra, algunos críticos comenzaron una tarea de revaloración, que aunque tardía, recupera para el arte antioqueño una de sus más importantes representantes.
En 1984 el Museo de Arte Moderno de Medellín realizó la primera gran retrospectiva de Débora Arango; la artista cedió gran parte de su obra a esta institución, la cual ha exhibido la donación tanto en Medellín y otras ciudades del país, así como del extranjero.
En 1992 cinco obras de la artista antioqueña fueron seleccionadas para representar a Colombia en la exposición América y Flandes 1492-1992, Los Países Bajos y la América Latina: 500 años de intercambio cultura, realizada en Amberes, Bélgica.
En 1994 y 1995, algunos de sus retratos hicieron parte de la exposición: 300 años del Retrato en Antioquia, realizada por el Museo de Antioquia.
      Entre diciembre de 2000 y marzo de 2001, Débora participó con cuatro obras en la exposición Versiones del Sur-Heteropias Medio Siglo sin Lugar, en el Museo Reina Sofía de Madrid, España.
      Su obra también fue llevada al Museo Sofía Imber, en Caracas, Venezuela, en abril de 2001. Este mismo año se organizó la muestra “Débora Arango, desde el corazón”, en el Museo de Antioquia, Medellín, y en 2004, parte de la colección del MAMM se vio en el Museo de América, Madrid, España, en la exposición Débora Arango, una revolución inédita del arte colombiano.
      Pasadas varias décadas Arango recibió numerosos homenajes en Medellín y Bogotá: el Premio a las Letras y las Artes otorgada por la Secretaría de Educación y Cultura de Antioquia en 1984, la medalla al Ciudadano Ejemplar de Medellín Categoría Oro, recibida de manos del alcalde Juan Gómez Martínez en 2000 y la Orden Nacional al Mérito, conocida como la Cruz de Boyacá, otorgada por el gobierno nacional en 1994.
      En 1987, el XXXI Salón de Artistas Nacionales se celebró en Medellín, en honor a Débora, de quien se editó un libro con textos de conocedores de su obra. En 1995, la Universidad de Antioquia la nombró Doctora en Artes, en la modalidad Honoris Causa, en reconocimiento a su larga trayectoria y a la calidad de su producción. Al año siguiente, el municipio de Envigado abrió la Escuela de Arte Débora Arango y, en 1997, recibió la condecoración de la Orden de la Restrepía, altamente valorada en la tierra de sus padres.
      Entre las técnicas que más ha trabajado esta artista se destaca la acuarela, a la que da un tratamiento particular, utilizando hábilmente el blanco del papel y mezclando los colores de manera arriesgada. Por estas virtudes es considerada una de las más importantes figuras de la Escuela de Acuarelistas Antioqueños.
      En su producción se destacan recursos creativos como la distorsión de la forma y la violencia del color, medios aptos para afrontar la dureza de los temas que aborda: la situación de la mujer maltratada, el abandono del Estado frente a poblaciones vulnerables, como niños y madres solteras, la prostitución y algunas versiones muy personales de clérigos y monjas.
Estas temáticas fueron comunes a los artistas que como Débora erigieron un arte moderno en el país; su interés consistió en interpretar los problemas del país y abandonar la estética del siglo XIX, rígidamente académica e idealista.
La Procesión (1941, 120x133cm, 914x1000pix, 637kb) —(081205)

^ 1956 (03 Dec?) Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Rodchenko, Russian painter, sculptor, designer, and photographer, born on 05 December (=23 Nov Julian) 1891, in Saint-Petersburg, the son of Mikhail Mikhailovich Rodchenko [1852-1907], a prop man in the theater, and Olga Evdokimovna Paltusova [–1865], a washerwoman. In 1905 the family moved to Kazan, where Aleksandr was a dental technician apprentice for two years (1908-1910). From September 1910 to receiving his certificate of completion on 07 June 1914, he studied in the department of figurative arts in the Kazan School of Fine Arts (Kazanskaya Khudozhestvennaya Shkola). He gave drawing lessons. He wrotes poems and tried to have them published in 1912, without much success. At the Kazan School of Fine Arts, he met in 1914 fellow student Varvara Fedorovna Stepanova [1894 – 20 May 1958], his future wife.
     In October 1915, Rodchenko moved to Moscow and enrolled in the Graphic Section of the Stroganov School of Applied Art (Stroganovskoe Khudozhestvenno-Promyshlennoe Uchilishche). In the spring of 1916 he was drafted into military service where he became operations manager of a hospital train. He was discharged from the military in December 1917, after the democratic “February” (Julian) 1917 Revolution (started 07 Mar 1917 Gregorian) and the Bolshevik “October” Revolution (of 07 Nov 1917 Gregorian).
     On 29 January 1918 is formed “Izo”, Otdel IZObrazitel'nykh iskusstv, the Section of Visual Arts of “Narkompros”, NARodnyi KOMissariat PROSveshcheniia, the People's Commissariat of Enlightenment, established, within less than a week of the 07 November 1917 coup, by the Bolshevik government to administer education and culture, with Anatoly Lunacharsky as commissar. Rodchenko is appointed to the Moscow section, headed by Tatlin, and which includes Malevich and Kandinsky, among others. Rodchenko will assist Olga Rozanova, head of the Art and Production Subsection (Khudozhestvenno-promyshlennyi podotdel) of Izo, in visiting workshops and studios and raising money to revive craft production. He will be named head of the Museum Bureau (Muzeinoe biuro) of Izo, and of its Moscow centerpiece, the Museum of Painterly Culture (Muzei zhivopisnoi kul'tury), and will be assisted in these positions by Stepanova. Over the next three years, the Museum Bureau would acquire {by Bolshevik means?} 1926 works of modern and contemporary art by 415 artists and would organize thirty provincial museums, to which it would distribute 1211 works.
     In the second half of 1918, Rodchenko made his first abstract sculptures, a series of spatial constructions which he called "white sculptures." He continued this in 1919, making them so that they could be folded flat for storage. Also in 1919, he make linocuts, and his first collages using printed materials, and he started a series of architectural drawings. With Aleksandr Drevin, Lyubov Popova, Stepanova, Aleksandr Vesnin, and Nadezhda Udal'tsova, Rodchenko formed Asskranov (Assotsiatsiia krainikh novatorov, Association of Radical Innovators), in opposition to the Suprematism of Kasimir Malevich. To contradict Malevich's White on White (Beloe na belom) paintings, Rodchenko exhibited his Black on Black (Chernoe na chernom) series, at the 10th State Exhibition: Non-Objective Creation and Suprematism (10aya gosudarstvennaia vystavka: Bespredmetnoe tvorchestvo i Suprematizm), which opened on 27 April 1919.
     With Stepanova, Rodchenko moved into Vasily Kandinsky's apartment at 8 Dolgii Lane (now Burdenko Street) on 15 September 1919.
—     Rodchenko was a central exponent of Russian Constructivism, owing much to the pre-Revolutionary work of Malevich and Tatlin, and he was closely involved in the cultural debates and experiments that followed the Revolution of 1917. In 1921 he denounced, on ideological grounds, easel painting and fine art, and he became an exponent of Productivism in many fields, including poster design, furniture, photography, and film. He resumed painting in his later years. His work was characterized by the systematic way in which from 1916 he sought to reject the conventional roles of self-expression, personal handling of the medium and tasteful or aesthetic predilections. His early nihilism and condemnation of the concept of art make it problematic even to refer to Rodchenko as an artist: in this respect his development was comparable to that of Dada, although it also had roots in the anarchic activities of Russian Futurist groups. — Berthold Lubetkin was a student of Rodchenko. — LINKS
Red and Yellow (1920; 460x313pix, 23kb)
–- Non-Objective Painting no. 80 (Black on Black) (1918, 82x79cm; 773x752pix, 29kb)
–- S*>#The Juggler (800xpix, 71kb).
–- Composition (798x633pix, 69kb) dull grayish monochrome, geometrical. —(071203)

^ 1907 Nathaniel Sichel, German artist born on 08 January 1843. — {Who is it of whom it is said: “She sells Sichel sea-shells by the sea shore”?}— Related? to Ernest Leopold Sichel [1862-1941]?
–- Mädchen (53x42cm; 660x530pix, 26kb). —(061203)

^ 1886 Johann Georg Meyer (von Bremen), German painter born on 28 October 1813.
The Letter (1873, 65x49cm)

1876 Michael Neher, German painter born on 31 March 1798.
Sorento vicino di Napoli (1831; 35x44cm; 301x380pix, 25kb)

^ 1867 Mme Sophie (Frémiet) Rude, French Neoclassical painter born in Dijon on 20 June 1797. — [She wasn't Rude as a child, and when she grew up she would not have become Rude if she hadn't married Realist sculptor François Rude [04 Jan 1784 – 03 Nov 1855), from whom there is Rude artwork pictured on the internet; whether hers is rude on not, is up to you to decide from the following samples.] — Daughter of Louis Frémiet, contrôleur des contributions directes, Sophie Frémiet studied initially under the founder of the Dijon School, François Devosge. Her father protected François Rude, and payed for his exemption from the military draft. As her republican and bonapartist father feared arrest at the restauration of the Bourbon monarchy in France, Sophie accompanied her family into exile in Brussels in 1815 and there established herself as one of the most prominent of the students of David, making under his supervision copies of two of his late masterpieces, Les Adieux de Télémaque et d'Eucharis (1818; 549x640pix, 78kb) and La Colère d'Achille (1819, 132x174cm; 340x475pix, 41kb). In 1821, she married François Rude, with whom she collaborated on the decoration of the castle of Tervueren, a former summer residence of the Dukes of Brabant. In 1827, Sophie and her husband settled in Paris, where she was a frequent exhibitor at the Salon.
Mort de Cenchrée, fils de Neptune, à l'instant ou Pirène soutenant son fils mourant, supplie la déese Diane de le sauver (206x254cm; 811x1000pix, 172kb _ .ZOOM to 1622x2000pix, 233kb) _ This painting illustrates the nymph Peirene lamenting the death of her son Cenchirias, who has been killed accidentally by an arrow from the quiver of the goddess Diana. Diana, clad in a panther-skin, is followed by her entourage and two dogs on the left of the composition; on the right stand two women presumed to be relatives of the slain boy and a servant-girl. The legend has it that a spring was formed by the tears of Peirine in Corinth, where a port was named after Cenchirias. This may be the "picture with a mythological scenery" which L'Oracle of 29 Dec 1823 described as having been exhibited in Brussels in December 1823; it may further have been the picture which won the artist a gold medal at an exhibition in Ghent in February 1824, and which was exhibited the following year in Haarlem. This painting was auctioned at Sothebys for $181'750 on 05 April 2001.
La duchesse de Bourgogne arrêtée aux portes de Bruges (184x150cm; 445x350pix, 32kb) _ Bien que son oeuvre soit restée dans l'ombre de son mari, le sculpteur François Rude, Sophie Rude, née Fremiet, est mieux connue pour ses portraits que pour ses peintures historiques. Tirée de L'Histoire des ducs de Bourgogne de Prosper de Barante, elle relate comment la duchesse Isabelle de Portugal, épouse de Philippe le Bon, quitte la ville de Bruges avec son fils Charles, alors que leur voiture est arrêtée par les émeutiers hostiles. Sophie Rude démontre dans cette composition lyrique et romanesque quel enseignement elle tira des oeuvres contemporaines de Delacroix.
Vase of Flowers
1856 Lodewyk (or Louis, Ludwig) Tielemans, Belgian painter born in 1826.
People in a courtyard (56x75cm; 764x1024pix, 113kb)

^ 1849 Johannes-Ludvig Camradt, Danish miniaturist and painter on porcelain, born on 20 September 1779.
Vase of Flowers >>>.

Born on a 04 December:

^ 1883 Felice Casorati, Italian painter, sculptor, and printmaker, who died on 01 March 1963. Casorati spent his formative years in Padua where he developed a passion for music and literature. He began to paint in 1902 but to please his mother he read law at the University of Padua, graduating in 1906. He continued to paint meanwhile and to frequent the studio of Giovanni Viannello [1873—1926]. In 1907 he exhibited at the Venice Biennale and his Portrait of a Woman, an elegant portrait of his sister Elvira, was praised by the jury. It is representative of his early works, which were marked by the influence of the Viennese Secession, Art Nouveau and Symbolism. From 1908 Casorati lived in Naples where he first saw works by Pieter Bruegel I at the Museo di Capodimonte. He was also in touch with contemporary northern European artistic circles. He continued to exhibit at the Venice Biennale where, in 1910, he met Gustav Klimt, whose work he had admired since 1905. — LINKS
–- S*>#Paesaggio (1929, 49x48cm; 863x851pix, 160kb)
–- S*>#Paesaggio Verde (1947, 50x60cm; 900x1072pix, 261kb) actually it is the preceding one that is frankly green. In this one aqua hues predominate. _ The pseudonymous Infelice Casomiso, who has more imagination about colors, has been inspired to produce his
      _ Paesaggio Rosso (2005; 650x920pix, 123kb _ ZOOM to 920x1300pix, 257kb) and his
      _ Paesaggio Variopinto (2005; 650x920pix, 224kb _ ZOOM to 920x1300pix, 511kb).
–- Porto di Livorno (1928, 39x45cm; 767x900pix, 78kb)
–- La Famlia Consolaro Girelli (1916, 99x90cm; 900x808pix, 74kb) _ Alla fine di aprile del 1915, Casorati viene chiamato in guerra. E' destinato in Trentino, in val Lagarina, dove passa tutto il tempo al fronte. E' possibile che la famiglia veronese dei Consolaro fosse stata ritratta durante una licenza, che il pittore ottenne nel febbraio di quell'anno. La pittura di Casorati di questo periodo si manifesta come fortemente influenzata dalle tendenze simboliste, dall'incontro con i quadri di Klint alla Biennale del 1910 e dall'interesse per una pittura contrapposta al dinamismo frenetico del futurismo, che fosse invece "pura arte pittura musica poesia". Ritratti in un momento quotidiano, il momento del the, i personaggi, inseriti in un ambiente familiare e realistico, tradotto in forme nitide e tecnicamente elaborate, sono contemporaneamente immersi in un'atmosfera velata e onirica, che anticipa il "realismo magico" delle tele successive. Casorati in questo dipinto fonde abilmente il concetto di classicismo con quello di modernita': realismo nella ricerca di aspetti quotidiani umili, simbolismo nell'anelito trascendente dei suoi personaggi.
     " avevo respirato l'aria di una nuova civilta' pittorica che, a me provinciale, risultava sconosciuta... Un'impressione enorme... per la prima volta fui morso dal dubbio, d'improvviso la mia curiosita' culturale si risveglio'. Se fin li' non avevo capito il mio lampo non avevo conseguito dunque il diritto di prendervi posto. Per la prima volta provai un bisogno struggente di liberta', un impulso di ribellione, di emancipazione... i musei relegati in un mondo meraviglioso ma inaccessibile perche' morto... Parigi? Chi ricordo? Uno stanco romanticismo fatto d'ambigui capricci musicali (Kandinski) o lineari (Klimt)...."
–- Fruttiera (con le arance) (1962, 34x30cm; 900x767pix, 64kb)
Due Figure (1921; 756x400pix, 63kb) —(061128)

1875 Johann Hendrik van Mastenbroek, Dutch impressionist painter who died in 1945, son of Johannes van Mastenbroek. Geboren in Rotterdam als zoon van een verfhandelaar en schilderijenverkoper kwam Van Mastenbroek op jonge leeftijd in aanraking met kunst en kunstenaars, zoals de Haagse School schilders, Jongkind en de Franse kunstenaars Corot en Daubigny. Rond zijn zeventiende had hij reeds honderden schetsen vervaardigd, die hem later van pas zouden komen bij het maken van schilderijen. Op zijn achttiende kreeg hij een jaarcontract aangeboden door een Engelse kunsthandelaar, met het gevolg dat zijn schilderijen werden getoond op grote internationale tentoonstellingen in Londen en New York. Bij de tentoonstelling zal een uitgebreide catalogus verschijnen, waarin aan alle aspecten van het werk van Van Mastenbroek aandacht zal worden besteed. In de in 1946 verschenen en tot op heden enige monografie over J.H. van Mastenbroek schrijft A. Glavimans: ‘(…) men zal het toch als een vaststaand feit dienen te erkennen dat hij zijn grootste belangrijkheid heeft bereikt zooals hij die zelf ook wenste, namelijk als de schilder van het Rotterdamsche stads- en havenbeeld.’
–- S*>#Winter Landscape (602x900pix, 65kb)
–- S*>#'Balkengat' (695x1081pix, 178kb)
–- S*>#A Canal in a Dutch Town (589x841pix, 94kb)
–- S*>#Barges on a Canal, Rotterdam (648x841pix, 121kb)
–- S*>#View of the Nieuwe Haven Near the Koestraat, Rotterdam (654x841pix, 153kb)
–- S*>#View of the Leuvenhaven, Rotterdam (961x643pix, 169kb)
–- different View of the Leuvehaven, Rotterdam (34x25cm; 900x649pix, 105kb)
–- S*>#Harbor in a Dutch Town (619x841pix, 132kb)
Op de Wieken (1934, 71x132cm)
A Canal Scene in Winter (1899, 42x34cm)
Kolen Lossen (1924, 70x130cm; 528x1000pix, 220kb _ S*>#ZOOM to 793x1500pix, 189kb) almost monochrome
–- S*>#Canal Scene (1910, 52x71cm; 872x1200pix, 208kb)
–- S*>#At the River (34x46cm; xpix, kb)
–- S*>#(a busy canal) (1907, 44x64cm; 1467x2160pix, 546kb)
–- S*>#Early Morning, Amsterdam (28x48cm; 698x1201pix, 131kb) sketch
Haven te Rotterdam (1897, 100x140cm; 1010x1530pix, 73kb) _ Van Mastenbroek is bekend om zijn sfeervolle schilderijen van de Rotterdamse haven. De ontwikkeling van de haven werd door hem uitgebreid gevolgd en neemt in zijn oeuvre een opvallende plaats in.
–- S*>#View of Rotterdam Harbor (18x46cm; 345x1010pix, 40kb)
–- Canal Scene in Winter (1899, 42x34cm; 875x702pix, 77kb _ .ZOOM to 1313x1054pix, 175kb)
–- S*>#View of the St. Jan, Gouda (24 x 18 cm. xcm; 986x720pix, 215kb)
–- S*>#Farmhouses in a Landscape (1903, 18x26cm; 661x961pix, 194kb)
–- S*>#View of Rotterdam (25 Jun 1898, 29x22cm; 961x759pix, 189kb)
–- Een Haven Vol Schepen (1928, 71x131cm; 645x1200pix, 149kb)
–- The Duck Hunt (23x44cm; 485x756pix, 31kb)
–- A Town on the Waterfront (1920, 20x17cm; 562x463pix, 25kb)
–- A Winter Day in Delfshaven (1920, 13x17cm; 840x1083pix, 195kb)
–- S*>#Moored Boats (1901, 585x945pix, 107kb)
–- Moored Boats in Rotterdam (1892, 21x27cm; 883x1200pix, 151kb)
–- S*>#View of Schiedam (1940, 40x60cm; 866x1321pix, 305kb)
Dorpje aan het water (20x17cm; 948x762pix, 78kb)
–- S*>#Barges on the River (1914, 29x36cm; x799pix, 65kb)
Entrance to a Village (444x600pix, 62kb) —(061128)

1866 (Julian date which is 16 December Gregorian (where, as usual on this site, this is reported) Vasiliy Vasilyevich Kandinskiy [16 Dec 1866 – 13 Dec 1944]

^ 1785 Ignatius Joseph-Pierre van Regemorter, Antwerp Flemish painter who suffered rigor mortis on 16 June 1873; son of Petrus Johannes van Regemorter [bap. 08 September 1755 – 17 Nov 1830]. He studied at the Académie in Antwerp under his father and Balthasar-Paul Ommeganck; and in 1805 attended life-drawing classes. He exhibited two landscapes at the Salon the same year. Like his father, he became a restorer and, later, a professor at the Académie. Until 1867 he continued to exhibit landscapes, as well as portraits, townscapes (e.g. Fish Market in Antwerp, 1827), interiors (e.g. Interior with Lovers) and scenes from the lives of Flemish and Dutch painters (e.g. Jan Steen Sending his Son out to Trade Paintings for Beer and Wine, 1828). He is generally considered to have had a lighter and more vigorous touch than his father, with particular skill in punctuating dark and sober tonalities with spots of light.
Die Versteigerung des Gasthauses Jan Steen (1827, 59x48cm; 480x387pix, 32kb) _ Der Maler Jan Steen war schon ab den frühen 1650er Jahren Teilhaber zweier Brauereien in Leiden. Seit 1672 ist er auch als Herbergswirt für sein Haus Op de Langebrügge verzeichnet. Dieses Haus, die Gastwirtschaft „Wijn en Bier by Jan Steen” mußte ein Jahr nach dem Tod des Maler am 22. Februar 1680 von seiner Witwe veräußert werden. Bei der vorliegenden Arbeit des Ignatius Regemorter wird der Malerhaushalt sehr schön genrehaft mit seinen Utensilien wie Palette und Pinsel als auch seiner Zeichenmappe mit Arbeiten und Vorlagen von Frans van Mieris dargestellt.upside up

Happened on a 04 December:

1961 At the Museum of Modern Art in New York it is discovered that Le Bateau of Henri Matisse [31 Dec 1869 – 03 Nov 1954] has been hanging turned upside down for 47 days. Towards the close of the 1961 exhibition "The Last Works of Henri Matisse," a French-born stockbroker and Matisse fan named Genevieve Habert questioned the hanging of the 1952 gouache Le Bateau The minimalist work is supposed to depict a sailboat and its reflection, so that it looks almost identical either side up. Habert felt that the artist "would never put the main, more complex motif on the bottom and the lesser motif on the top." Habert brought this to the attention of Museum staff on a Sunday 04 December. On Monday, Monroe Wheeler (Director, Exhibitions and Publications) agreed and the work was re-hung (as here >) within two hours. Habert had attended the show three times. The show opened 47 days prior, on October 18th. An estimated 116,000 people had attended by that point. Le Bateau hung in a corner of the Museum's ground floor, the next-to-the last work before entering the public cafeteria. The story was picked up by a news wire service and republished in scores of newspapers, one of which called the incident a "national giggle." At the time, Wheeler remembered two other times when works had been hung upside-down at the Museum, and once when a work had been hung upside down by its owner, prior its loan to MoMA. —(081202)

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