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DEATHS: 1660 FLINCK — 1929 REID
BIRTHS: 1891 DIX — 1859 SEURAT
^ Born on 02 December 1891: Wilhelm Heinrich Otto Dix, German painter, printmaker, and watercolorist who died on 25 July 1969. — {Did the Italians think that he was worth eight other painters? and the French that it would take ten like him to equal one French painter?}
— He was the son of an iron worker. After serving in World War I, Otto Dix studied at academies of Dresden and Düsseldorf. In the 1920s he was a prominent member of the Neue Sachlichkeit. A social realist, he depicted depravities of decadent society and the horrific nature of war with penetrating psychological truth.
— His initial training (1905–1914) in Gera and Dresden was as a painter of wall decorations, but he taught himself the techniques of easel painting from 1909 and began concentrating on portraits and landscapes in a veristic style derived from northern Renaissance prototypes. After seeing exhibitions of paintings by Vincent van Gogh (Dresden, 1912) and by the Futurists (1913), he quickly fused these influences into a randomly colored Expressionism.
      Volunteering as a machine-gunner during World War I, Dix served in the German army (1914–1918), making innumerable sketches of war scenes, using alternately a realistic and a Cubo-Futurist style. The experience of war, moreover, became a dominant motif of his work until the 1930s.
      He later commented:
“War is something so animal-like: hunger, lice, slime, these crazy sounds ... War was something horrible, but nonetheless something powerful ... Under no circumstances could I miss it! It is necessary to see people in this unchained condition in order to know something about man.”
— Hans Theo Richter was a student of Dix.

LINKS
Self-Portrait With Easel (1926)
Selbstbildnis als Schießscheibe (1915 framed; 600x444pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1036pix)
–- Selbstbildnis (mit Zigarette) (1922 drypoint, 34x27cm; 610x480pix, 41kb _ ZOOM to 1221x960pix, 173kb)
Selbstbildnis mit Marcella (600x464pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1083pix)
Selbstbildnis mit liegende Akt (600x820pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1913pix)
–- Kupplerin (1923 color lithograph, 48x36cm; 689x558pix, 52kb _ ZOOM to 1103x893pix, 147kb)
–- Dr. Otto Klemperer (1923 lithograph 45x43cm; 671x595pix, 39kb _ ZOOM to 949x842pix, 78kb)
Eremitage in Tinz (1909 framed; 600x896pix _ ZOOM to 1400x989pix)
Inside a Forest (600x424pix _ ZOOM to 1400x989pix)
Dreier Porträt (1923; 600x1052pix)
Mädchen mit Katze I, Kopf geradeaus (1956; 600x420pix _ ZOOM to 1400x980pix)
Hemmenhofen (1954; 600x744pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1736pix)
Herbstlandschaft (1965; 600x724pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1689pix)
Katze unde Hahn (1966; 600x808pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1885pix)
507 images at Bildindex
—(061127)
^ Died on 02 December 1660: Govaert (or Govert) Flinck, Dutch Baroque painter of portraits, genre, and narrative subjects, one of Rembrandt's most accomplished followers, born on 16 December (25 January?) 1615.
— Flinck first studied in Leeuwarden and later entered Rembrandt's studio. As a painter of biblical and allegorical subjects, he at first modeled his style closely on Rembrandt's, as, for example, in his Crucifixion (1643). Later he developed a more florid and oratorical manner, in which he appears to have been influenced by Rubens, as in the Allegory in Memory of Prince Frederick Henry (1654). Flinck's most successful works were portraits, and he was especially successful in his group portraits -- e.g., A Goldsmith and His Family, and Celebration of the Civic Guard at the Signing of the Peace of Münster (1648).
— At the age of 14 he was apprenticed in Leeuwarden to the painter and Mennonite preacher Lambert Jacobszoon. There Flinck met Jacob Backer, who had been in Jacobszoon’s studio since 1622. Many of Flinck’s early works, especially his drawings, resemble those of Backer. Later Flinck became a well-known student and follower of Rembrandt van Rijn. Flinck was a gifted painter, capable of producing work of considerable beauty, but his ambition and desire for success led him to paint superficially elegant works that lacked individual character and pandered to the tastes of the increasingly ostentatious and affluent Dutch merchant class of the 17th century. He also formed a small art collection.
— Govert Flinck originally painted in the style of Rembrandt. Later he tended towards his teacher's rival, Van der Helst: more smooth and elegant. And Flinck was to profit from the move. He received commissions, for example, from the Amsterdam Town Hall. However, Flinck died before the work was completed. Flinck's early paintings were so like those of his teacher they were actually sold as Rembrandts. Like Rembrandt he painted portraits and history paintings, such as 'Isaac Blessing Jacob', in 1638. In his later, more classicist style, Flinck painted an 'Allegory on the Memory of Frederick Henry' for Amalia van Solms (1656). His connections with Amsterdam's leading families led to commissions from the Amsterdam Arquebusiers, including the civic guard painting of Captain Bas. The series featuring the 'Revolt of the Batavians against the Romans' for the Town Hall on Dam Square was never completed. Vondel composed numerous poems to accompany the works of this native of Cleves. He called him the “Clevan Apelles”. Apelles, a native of Kolophon, lived in the second half of the 4th century BC. He was the only artist at the court of Alexander the Great permitted to paint portraits of the Macedonian emperor. Although no works by Apelles have survived, his tremendous fame has remained. He was known in the ancient world as the greatest artist of all time..

LINKS
Isaac Blessing Jacob (1638, 117x141cm) _ Flinck, a student of Rembrandt, was influenced by his master's style. However, like other students, he was unable to follow him, he took only the motives, types of composition or the arrangement of colors. In general, he borrowed these quite eclectically. The Isaac Blessing Jacob is a typical example of Flinck's works in this period. The subject of the painting comes from the Bible (from the Genesis): In his old age Isaac, son of Abraham, went blind, enabling Rebecca, his wife, to obtain fraudulently his blessing for their second son, Jacob, rather than for his rightful heir, Esau.
      An elderly blind man feels for the head of his son. He is old and wants to bless him before he dies. This is a biblical story. The young man is Jacob and the elderly couple on the right are his parents, Isaac and Rebecca. Govert Flinck was a student of Rembrandt until 1636. He painted this canvas shortly after leaving, in 1638. It clearly reveals the influence of his teacher, visible in the somewhat woolly style of painting. Moreover, Flinck dressed his models, like Rembrandt, in exotic fantasy costumes such as the mantle and turban that Isaac is wearing. In addition, the use of dark and light contrast is a forceful element in this picture. Flinck may also have borrowed the blind man reaching out from his teacher. A drawing by Rembrandt shows Tobit, old and blind, in a similar pose.
     Jacob's hands are covered with goat skin. He is trying to imitate his elder, hirsute brother Esau. In this way Jacob hoped to trick his father into giving him the blessing that was actually the birthright of the eldest son, Esau. His mother is looking on anxiously: she is her son's accomplice. To win Isaac's heart she has cooked a dish of goat's meat for him. The plate is behind Jacob. The story of Isaac and Jacob was popular in Rembrandt's circle. Govert Flinck painted the scene on more than one occasion.
The Company of Captain Albert Bas and Lieutenant Lucas Conijn (1645, 347x244cm) _ Twelve men are standing and sitting around some steps. They are carrying weapons and wear metal gorgets and belts with gunpowder cartridges. These are militiamen. Their elegant hats and flat collars are the latest fashion of the day and their prosperous-looking fat bellies are emphasised by their colored sashes. The seated man in black is the captain, Albert Bas. He holds out his hand in an expressive gesture. The other members of the civic guard enliven the painting by gesturing with their hands. In the upper right of the painting is a face in profile,. probably that of Govert Flinck.
     In the 1630s, the building of the Arquebusiers' civic guard, the Doelen, was renovated. There was now enough space in the new Great Hall for a number of large paintings. Six painters were commissioned to portray each company on a large format. Govert Flinck painted the company of Captain Albert Bas. The work, completed in 1640, was hung beside the chimney piece, which is why it is unusually small for a militia painting. Joachim von Sandrart painted a tall picture for the other side of the chimney. To the left of Flinck's painting hung the Night Watch (1642, 363x437cm) by Rembrandt.
     Govert Flinck began his painting career as a student of Rembrandt. Originally he worked in the same style, though this changed in around 1640. At this time Flinck adopted the more elegant, slicker style of Bartholomeus van der Helst. The Company of Captain Albert Bas demonstrates this transition. The painting is much more colorful and lighter than Rembrandt's Night Watch which was painted in the same period. Yet Rembrandt's influence can still be traced in Flinck's broad brushstrokes and occasional thick dabs of paint.
     Although Govert Flinck was still a relatively young and unknown painter, he recieved two commissions from the Arquebusiers. Apart from Captain Bas's company, he also painted the governors, the guild's board, together with a servant. This painting hung above the mantelpiece next to his militia painting. As a result of his work for the Arquebusiers, Flinck managed to obtain a number of other commissions. Apart from a large militia painting for the Longbowmen's guild, he also produced work for the new Amsterdam Town Hall and the House ten Bosch in The Hague.
Four Governors of the Arquebusiers Civic Guard (1642, 203x278cm) _ Four men are seated at a table. Their names are: Albert Coenraetszoon Burgh, Jan Claeszoon Vlooswijck, Pieter Reael, and Jacob Willekens. They are depicted in their function as governors of the Arquebusiers guild. The man standing is the servant, his name is now lost. The governors supervised the finances of the militia. They are portrayed by Flinck with the ceremonial drinking horn of the Arquebusiers. On the right is a coat of arms with a claw, an allusion to a corruption of the guild's name: 'Klauweniers' (Kloveniers = arquebusiers). This portrait hung over the fireplace in the Great Hall of the militia target range, a sort of club house for the guild. Elsewhere in the same room the Night Watch by Rembrandt was also hung.
Rembrandt (?) as Shepherd with Staff and Flute (1636, 75x64cm) _ This man is wearing an imaginary costume. He is dressed as a shepherd with a flute, shepherd's staff and a bag. It was previously thought that this painting depicted Rembrandt, although this is now doubted. Govert Flinck was one of Rembrandt's students. In this work he has used larger areas of color and brighter colors than his teacher would have done. Rembrandt's influence can be seen in the white sleeve and the gold decoration on the shepherd's tunic. Here Flinck has applied the paint very thickly, using almost clods of paint to suggest structure.
     There is a pendant to this painting, a shepherdess. The two paintings share the same format and subject. The shepherdess is known as Saskia Uylenburgh because she looks like Rembrandt's Saskia as Flora. The man was thought to be Rembrandt. Today, experts doubt whether these two portraits represent the Van Rijn couple.
Portrait of Rembrandt (1634, 57x46cm) _ Earlier this painting was catalogued as a self-portrait of Rembrandt.
Manoah's Sacrifice (78x105cm; 600x800pix, 73kb _ ZOOM to 1520x2024pix, 210kb) Judges 13:2-24:
There was a certain man from Zorah, of the clan of the Danites, whose name was Manoah. His wife was barren and had borne no children. An angel of YWH appeared to the woman and said to her, "Though you are barren and have had no children, yet you will conceive and bear a son. Now, then, be careful to take no wine or strong drink and to eat nothing unclean. As for the son you will conceive and bear, no razor shall touch his head, for this boy is to be consecrated to God from the womb. It is he who will begin the deliverance of Israel from the power of the Philistines." The woman went and told her husband, "A man of God came to me; he had the appearance of an angel of God, terrible indeed. I did not ask him where he came from, nor did he tell me his name. But he said to me, 'You will be with child and will bear a son. So take neither wine nor strong drink, and eat nothing unclean. For the boy shall be consecrated to God from the womb, until the day of his death.'" Manoah then prayed to YWH. "O YWH, I beseech you," he said, "may the man of God whom you sent, return to us to teach us what to do for the boy who will be born." God heard the prayer of Manoah, and the angel of God came again to the woman as she was sitting in the field. Since her husband Manoah was not with her, the woman ran in haste and told her husband. "The man who came to me the other day has appeared to me," she said to him; so Manoah got up and followed his wife. When he reached the man, he said to him, "Are you the one who spoke to my wife?" "Yes," he answered. Then Manoah asked, "Now, when that which you say comes true, what are we expected to do for the boy?" The angel of YWH answered Manoah, "Your wife is to abstain from all the things of which I spoke to her. She must not eat anything that comes from the vine, nor take wine or strong drink, nor eat anything unclean. Let her observe all that I have commanded her." Then Manoah said to the angel of YWH, "Can we persuade you to stay, while we prepare a kid for you?" But the angel of YWH answered Manoah, "Although you press me, I will not partake of your food. But if you will, you may offer a holocaust to YWH."Not knowing that it was the angel of YWH, Manoah said to him, "What is your name, that we may honor you when your words come true?" The angel of YWH answered him, "Why do you ask my name, which is mysterious?" Then Manoah took the kid with a cereal offering and offered it on the rock to YWH, whose works are mysteries. While Manoah and his wife were looking on, as the flame rose to the sky from the altar, the angel of YWH ascended in the flame of the altar. When Manoah and his wife saw this, they fell prostrate to the ground; but the angel of YWH was seen no more by Manoah and his wife. Then Manoah, realizing that it was the angel of YWH, said to his wife, "We will certainly die, for we have seen God." But his wife pointed out to him, "If YWH had meant to kill us, he would not have accepted a holocaust and cereal offering from our hands! Nor would he have let us see all this just now, or hear what we have heard." The woman bore a son and named him Samson. The boy grew up and YWH blessed him.
    _ by Rembrandt: The Sacrifice of Manoah (1641; 612x715pix, 11kb) _ detail (937x451pix, 24kb) which is all there is to see anyhow (much dimmer and more blurry) in the almost entirely black, worthless whole image.
    _ by another Dutch painter, possibly Pieter Pieterszoon Lastman [1583-1633]: Manoah's Sacrifice (1630, 71x55cm; 950x734pix, 158kb)
    _ from the Maciejowski Bible: Manoah and his wife offer a sacrifice (1250; 455x400pix, 74kb)
Curius Dentatus Preferring Turnips to Gold (1656, 480x370cm) _ Flinck received the lion's share of commissions to decorate Amsterdam's new town hall. In 1656 he completed Curius Dentatus Preferring Turnips to Gold for the burgomasters' council chamber in the building. In the same year Rembrandt's sometime follower Ferdinand Bol [bap. 24 Jun 1616 – 24 Jul 1680 bur.] painted Gaius Fabricius Luscinus in the Camp of King Pyrrhus (1656, 485x350cm; 400x295pix, 53kb) for the same room. The huge pictures show the incorruptibility of Dentatus (who was born with teeth, which made breast-feeding him heroic) and the intrepidity of Fabricius. The former is seen indicating that he would rather live on turnips and rule over those who possess gold than possess gold received as a bribe, and the latter is shown fearless even when an elephant, intended to frighten him out of his wits, was produced. The pair of paintings were done to remind the burgomasters of two virtues city officials should possess.
Landscape (1637, 49x75cm) _ This signed and dated painting was rediscovered in the 1980s. This painting is comparable in style and technique to the Landscape with Obelisk (stolen in 1990) which was almost universally accepted as an autograph Rembrandt until it was discovered that it too bore the remnants of Flinck's signature that had been faked into his master's. The rediscovery of the landscape now in the Louvre helped clinch the attribution of the Obelisk painting to Flinck.
—(051201)
^ Born on 02 December 1859: Georges Pierre Seurat, French Pointillist painter who died on 29 March 1891. — {Quand il était petit, à l'école les méchants disaient-ils: “Est-ce que Sara saurat ce que ce rat Seurat sera?”?}
     Georges Seurat was a French painter who with fellow artist Paul Signac [11 Nov 1863 – 15 Aug 1935] originated the influential theory and practice of neoimpressionism. Seurat was born in Paris and trained at the École des Beaux-Arts. He rejected the soft, irregular brushstrokes of impressionism in favor of pointillism, a technique he developed whereby solid forms are constructed by applying small, close-packed dots of unmixed color to a white background. Many artists imitated Seurat's method, but, except in the work of Signac, his technique remained unequaled in its perfect blending of colors. Seurat derived many of his theories about painting from his study of contemporary treatises on optics. His scientific bent was also evident in his work habits, which included fixed hours and the meticulous systematization of his technique.
      In 1884 Seurat completed Une Baignade (718x1087pix, 182kb) a scene of boys in the Seine River at Asnières and the first of six large canvases that would constitute the bulk of his life's work. In this and subsequent paintings, he continued the impressionist tradition of depicting holiday outings and entertainments. He departed from impressionist style, however, in his precise application of paint and in the suggestion of depth and volume in his scenes. His masterpiece, Un dimanche après-midi à l'Ile de la Grande Jatte (1885), achieves an atmosphere of monumental dignity through the balanced arrangement of its elements and the contours of its figures. Seurat's other large-scale works are Les Poseuses (1888; 600x748pix, 195kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1745pix, 1485kb _ ZOOM+ to 2017x2520pix, 5200kb), La Parade de Cirque (1889, 101x150cm; 525x800pix, 184kb), Le Chahut (1891), and Le Cirque (1890).
     Although Seurat shared the Impressionists' goal of translating nature's light and color, he also wished to make Impressionism more precise. He wanted to replace its spontaneous, improvisational qualities with a more systematic, objective approach that could reflect the essential structures of a landscape, not just its transitory effects. To this end, Seurat developed an unusual new technique, variously called pointillism, divisionism, or Neo-Impressionism. He juxtaposed small dots of pigment according to his interpretation of scientific theories of color and optics. His followers, like Paul Signac, continued the pointillist style after Seurat's early death from pneumonia.

LINKS
–- Un dimanche après-midi à l'Ile de la Grande Jatte (1885, 206x306cm; 668x1000pix, 192kb _ .ZOOM to 1002x1500pix, 262kb _ ZOOM+ to 1697x2950pix, 513kb)
–- Temps Gris à la Grande Jatte (894x1099pix, 204kb _ .ZOOM to 1342x1650pix, 279kb)
–- Le Chahut (1891; 1000x828pix, 237kb _ .ZOOM to 1500x1242pix, 323kb)
–- Le Cirque (1890; 800x646pix, 135kb _ .ZOOM to 1600x1292pix, 428kb)
Port-en-Bessin — (1888, 66x83cm; 794x1000pix _ ZOOM to 1818x2252pix; 4274kb) _ In the summer of 1888, Georges Seurat worked in Port-en-Bessin, a small fishing village in Normandy. He painted six views of the seaport and its surrounding countryside. His intention was "to translate as exactly as possible the luminosity of the open air, with all its nuances."
Le Pont de Courbevoie (1886; 600x716pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1671pix)
La Seine à la Grande Jatte au Printemps (1888; ZOOMable to 1114kb)
La Tour Eiffel (1889, 24x15cm; ZOOMable to 357kb)
Le Faucheur (1882; ZOOMable to 234kb)
66 ZOOMable images at Wikimedia
109 images at the Athenaeum
—(051201)
^ Died on 02 December 1929: Robert Lewis Reid, US Impressionist painter born on 29 July 1862.
— A founding member of the Ten American Painters and a native of Massachusetts, Robert Reid first studied in Boston at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, where draftsmanship, portraiture, and anatomy were stressed. He later attended the Art Students League in New York City before traveling to France for training at the Academie Julian in the late 1880s. In 1890 Reid quite suddenly adopted an impressionist style with a brighter palette, leaving behind many aspects of his academic background. Like his fellow impressionists in the US and abroad, he was fond of painting attractive young women in outdoor settings.

LINKS
–- Serenity (1913, 102x76cm; 667x498pix, 77kb _ .ZOOM to 1000x747pix, 118kb _ .ZOOM+ to 1500x1120pix, 173kb)
–- Two Girls Reading (84x76cm; 594x544pix, 71kb _ .ZOOM to 892x816pix, 158kb _ .ZOOM+ to 1338x1224pix, 199kb) _ Only one is reading, the other is staring at the painter.
–- The Garden Seat (91x76cm; 594x488pix, 45kb _ .ZOOM to 891x732pix, 113kb)
The White Parasol (1907, 91x76cm; 120kb)
The Violet Kimono (1910, 74x68cm; 95kb)
Boy with Red Peonies (1910, 94x85cm; 495x446pix, 216kb gif) _ Robert Reid's penchant for painting women among flowers has expanded here to include the depiction of childhood in such a setting. Perhaps Reid intended a psychological association in Boy with Red Peonies — that of a child representing humanity in its most natural state. Here the boy emerges from the flowering bush, a seeming outgrowth of the foliage. The boy's face and the peonies are treated similarly in brushstroke and color, which serves to unite the work pictorially and reinforces an alignment of childhood with nature. The overall decorative effect and lack of any real depth and perspective in the painting are not surprising given Reid's numerous major decorative commissions involving murals and stained glass windows, which he began contracting in the early 1890s. Many of these contain figurative allegories in which he painted, for example, personifications of the five senses and symbols of justice, peace, and prosperity. It is thus not unreasonable to suppose that Reid intended an allegorical connotation in this depiction of childhood.
Against the Sky (1911, 82x66cm; 438x357pix, 117kb gif) _ The woman in Against the Sky is less insipid than many of Reid's more decorative females displayed among an array of flowers. Fresh faced, fair skinned, sporty in dress, and all-American, this uncoiffured Gibson girl presents a decided contrast to her beflowered counterparts. Hers is not a wistful gaze but one of confidence facing the future. The figure has been painted with the care of a portraitist but nevertheless retains a sense of anonymity. Although her features are individualized, the young woman might be read as a type. Wholesome without being prudish, the young, virginal US woman had become idolized in art and literature at the turn of the century. Indeed, in Reid's painting, we literally look up to her.
      The people of the US have no goddesses or saints. But something of that goddess, saint, or heroine represented to other races they find in the idealization of their womankind. There is no room for the note of unrestrained passion, still less for sensuality. It is the grace of children, the tenderness of motherhood, the beauty and purity of young girls that they demand. The US girl is placed upon a pedestal.
      Enveloped in sky and clouds, the woman in Reid's painting is removed from the harsh realities of the industrialization that characterized the era. Whereas US national identity had been symbolized by native landscapes throughout much of the nineteenth century, by the end of the 1800s woman had replaced nature in this role. The US in the 1890s was female, young, pretty, Protestant, and northern European. Her features were regular and Caucasian. That her will was at times inconveniently strong, was, after all, to be expected of any physical or psychical type that represented the nation's own restlessness and independence of spirit.
      Against the Sky is not without its decorative side and is typical of Reid's works from that decade and the early twentieth century, in which carefully constructed form is balanced with impressionist light and color. The bright white of the dress silhouetted against the blue sky patterned with clouds is accented by the flash of red in the scarf and belt. With its low vantage point of a female form against a cloud-filled sky, the painting recalls Claude Monet's Woman with a Parasol--Madame Monet and Her Son (1875). Closer to home, Against the Sky relates in theme to many paintings by US Impressionists, most notably those by Frank Benson, who knew Reid as early as 1880 and painted similar imagery, exemplified by Sunlight (1909).
 

Died on a 02 December:


>2002 José Chávez Morado [04 Jan 1909–], Mexican painter. — LINKS
Carreta de Locos (2318x3000pix, 1054kb) it is a scene inspired by a book of Cervantes.
Río revuelto (1949, 106x135cm; 626x800pix, 168kb). —(091202)

^ >1964 Roger Bissière, French painter born on 22 September 1886 (1888?). Son of a lawyer, he attended the École des Beaux-Arts in Algiers in 1904 before enrolling at that of Bordeaux the following year. He moved to Paris in 1910 and passed briefly through the atelier of Gabriel Ferrier (1884–1916) at the École Nationale des Beaux-Arts. Bissière became a journalist in 1912 but by 1914 had exhibited a design for a fresco of Daphnis et Chloé at the Salon des Indépendants. From 1919 he exhibited regularly at the Paris salons, becoming an accepted figure among both the Salon Cubists and the adherents of the later ‘rappel à l'ordre' that advocated a return to Classical values. He wrote the first monograph on Georges Braque (1920) for Léonce Rosenberg's Galerie de l'Effort Moderne, where he was offered a contract and one-man show in 1921, and published articles on Seurat (Oct 1920), Ingres (Jan 1921) and Corot (June 1921) for the Purist periodical L'Esprit Nouveau.
     Bissière's work at this time ranged from landscapes inspired by Braque and André Lhote (e.g. Landscape, 1925) to interiors with monumental figures that bear similarities to Picasso's Ingres-influenced period. In 1923 he accepted a five-year contract with the Galerie Druet and succeeded Maurice Denis as professor of painting at the Académie Ranson, where his students included Maria Elena Vieira da Silva, Alfred Manessier, Jean-Louis Le Moal [1909~] and Jean Bertholle [1909–1970]. He remained there until 1938.
     Bissière's almost abstract landscape paintings of 1927–1928, despite their green and brown palette, clearly anticipate the works of the Jeunes Peintres de Tradition Française of the 1940s. By the mid-1930s, however, a humorous, ironical streak offset Bissière's debt to Braque with classical parody, as in Nude with Baby Angel (1936). A certain deliberate gaucheness and violent coloring appeared in his portraits. The influence of Matthias Grünewald's Isenheim altarpiece became explicit in Crucifixion (1937). From 1935 Bissière was involved with the Art Mural movement, which was working towards a renaissance of fresco painting in France, and, besides his own projects, he directed teams of his students in the execution of frescoes for the Air and Railway Pavilions at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne of 1937 in Paris in conjunction with Manessier and Robert Delaunay.
     Bissière left Paris in 1939 for the seclusion of his family property at Boïssiérettes, where his prolonged isolation brought about a complete renewal of his art. The growing interest in Romanesque art among the circle of Henri Foçillon was reflected in the cruder colors and more direct expression of Bissière's own contemporary work, for example the Crucifixion fresco at Boïssiérettes. In 1942 Manessier asked Bissière to participate in a group showing of the Jeunes Peintres de Tradition Française at the Galerie de France. Their use of reds, blues and oranges superimposed on a grid-like, post-Cubist framework encouraged Bissière to brighten his palette. After the exhibition of the Bayeux tapestry at the Louvre in 1944 and the opening of the Musée de la Fresque in June 1945 at the Palais de Chaillot, Bissière began his series of ‘tentures', wall hangings in the tradition of medieval tapestry, with themes ranging from Chartres (1947) to Hiroshima (1947). Employing the rectangular structures and simple images of frescoes, they were made up from scraps of cloth and wool, roughly stitched together by Bissière's wife Mousse, evoking the rural tradition of patchwork. Bissière's rustic sculptures, assemblages of iron machinery and pieces of wood, such as the Crucified Christ (1942), used abandoned materials in the same way, exemplifying the ‘bricolage' aesthetic of the deprived Occupation years, also demonstrated by Gaston Chaissac.
     In 1947, at Bissière's first major exhibition for over ten years, thirty paintings and seven tapestries were shown at the Galerie René Drouin, where the new wave of ‘informel' painters, Jean Fautrier, Wols and Jean Dubuffet, had been launched. Dubuffet quickly became a friend, and elements of both his graffiti-based work and Klee's pictographic art entered Bissière's work. After 1947 Bissière used smaller formats, initially because of a deteriorating eye condition, cured in 1950. From 1945 until 1954 he painted almost exclusively in egg tempera on cardboard, wood and paper. Homage to Angelico (1950), with its predella structure and simple red, blue and yellow touches, demonstrates this Quattrocento-inspired primitivism, which probably influenced Nicolas de Staël's last figurative phase. In 1954 Bissière created the series of eleven colored woodcuts, Hymn to our Brother Sun, St Francis of Assisi, hand-printed by the engraver Marcel Fiorini [1922~], a high point of post-war French illustrated books.
     In the late 1950s he returned to oil painting (e.g. Composition with Green Tonalities, 1955) and designed stained-glass windows for the transepts of Metz Cathedral in 1960–61. Mousse's death in 1962 led to the series of small paintings, each titled with a date, exhibited as Journal 1962–1964 at the Galerie Jeanne Bucher. Bissière won an honorable mention when he represented France at the Venice Biennale in 1964, but the award of the Grand Prix to Robert Rauschenberg signaled the definitive triumph of New York over the École de Paris. — LINKS
Composition avec mandoline (1925, 26x40cm; )
Silence de l'aube (1964, 92x73cm; 480x386pix, 57kb)
–- Composition 187 (1954; 340x800pix, 38kb _ .ZOOM to 659x1550pix, 108kb)
–- L'Ile de Ré (80x60cm; 875x656pix, 69kb)
Le chat et la maison (1951, 81x65cm; 480x385pix, 48kb) imitation kindergarten style.
–- Nature morte (1925, 27x46cm; 668x1120pix, 56kb) unrecognizable stuff, except for some greatly simplified plant leaves.
Les deux amies (32x24cm) thinly watercolored on quadriculated paper which shows through.
Femme nue assise (1024x504pix, 81kb) _ detail 1 (720x709pix, 67kb) half length _ detail 2 (512x1009pix, 54kb) head.
–- Nu Couché sur Linge Blanc (1925, 35x64cm; 596x1120pix, 50kb) _ In 1925 Bissière was preparing for his one-man show at the Galerie Druet, which included the present work. That year he painted a series of nudes on a white sheet with a straw hat at their feet. By then his researches had pushed him to Neo-Classicism, following in the footsteps of Picasso and Braque. Bissière’s nervous brushstroke makes for a vibrant effect, making the figure appear to move on the canvas. The construction of the nude can be compared to some of the similarly exaggerated features in Braque’s nude studies. The obviously reworked head (too small, greenish) displays the classical idealised features present in the figures of Souverbie —(071201)

^ 1733 Gerard Hoet I, Dutch painter, draftsman, and writer, born on 22 August 1648. He was trained by his father the glass painter Moses Hoet [–>1665] and by Warnard van Ryssen [1625–], a student of Cornelis van Poelenburch. In 1672 Hoet moved to The Hague, then to Paris; after a year he returned to the northern Netherlands via Brussels. He settled in Utrecht, where he founded a drawing academy in 1697 with Hendrick Schoock ( fl 1669–96). From 1714 Hoet resided in The Hague. He depicted mainly religous, mythological or Classical subjects set in landscapes, which were painted on a small scale in the Dutch Italianate style of van Poelenburch, but he also produced larger works, often with many figures, in an elegant, classicizing style. Examples of this decorative painting are his ceiling and wall paintings at the castle of De Slangenburg at Doetinchem. Hoet also painted portraits and some genre pieces. His book on drawing, with 103 prints by Pieter Bodart (fl early 18th century), was published in 1712. Hoet also designed many illustrations for bibles. He was the father and teacher of Gerard Hoet II (who painted in his father’s manner, before becoming an art dealer) and of Hendrick Jacob Hoet [1693–1733], a genre and still-life painter. — LINKS
–- S*>#The Sacrifice of Iphigenia (800xpix, 60kb)
–- S*>#Classical Scene With People Feasting — Achilles and the Daughters of Lycomedes (2 paintings, each 57x74cm; in one image; each 690x900pix, together 164kb)
–- Cephalus and Procris (36x27cm; 900x720pix, 52kb) and her dog.
The Banquet of Cleopatra (1703, 57x69cm; 530x640pix, 93kb) _ Seated under a canopy at the lavish banquet Cleopatra hosts for Marc Antony, she holds a glass of wine in which she is about to place a priceless pearl earring as an ostentatious sign of her indifference to wealth. The pearl dissolves in her wine, which she then drinks to Antony's health. In return, he presents her with Cyprus, Phoenicia, Coele-Syria {where the national drink is Cola-Seria?}, and parts of Arabia. When Jacques Amyot translated Plutarch’s Life of Marc Antony in 1559, Europeans rediscovered the legend of the beautiful, brilliant, and powerful Cleopatra; the story was soon reproduced in media such as drama and paintings. Gerard Hoet set this scene from the first century BC in a late Baroque interior that he might have seen when he visited Paris in the mid-1670s. Three versions of The Banquet of Cleopatra by Hoet survive, all of which show his emphasis on rich clothing and accessories. His works typify the classicizing style of Dutch academic art; as its foremost proponent, Gerard de Lairesse, wrote, "Away with fumbling, grubbing, and messing: attack your work with a manly hand. But not like Rembrandt ...so that the sap runs down the piece like dung”.
–- The Botanist Jan Commelin [23 Apr 1629 – 19 Jan 1692] (52x45cm; 525x452pix, 27kb) _ Jan Commelin was one of the most important Dutch botanists of the 17th century. Born in Leiden, he became a leading pharmaceutical merchant and supplier for Amsterdam medical establishments, and later an important figure in the Government of Amsterdam. His trade interests led to his becoming a highly accomplished botanist. His most important publications were the Catalogus plantarum indigenarum Hollandiae, the first flora of Holland, published in 1683, the Nederlantze hesperides of 1646, and the eleven volumes (he died whilst writing the twelfth) of the Hortus Malabaricus, completed between 1678 and 1692. He also founded the Botanical Gardens in Amsterdam. Portraits of Commelin are rare, but his likeness also appears in Karel Du Jardin's Portrait of the Trustees of the Spin- en Werkhuis (1669).
Venus and Adonis (467x372pix, 22kb). —(061128)

1654 Giacomo (or Jacopo) Apollonio di Giovanni, Italian painter born in 1582. (Not to be confused with Florentine painter and illuminator Apollonio di Giovanni di Tomaso [1416-1465]). He was a grandson of Jacopo da Ponte and a student of Girolamo and Giambatista Bassano.


Born on a 02 December:


^ 1873 Henri Achille Zo, French painter who died in September 1933. Born in Bayonne, he was a student of his father, Achille Jean-Baptiste Zo [30 Jul 1826 – 03 Mar 1901], then of Léon Bonnat and Albert Maignan. He exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Français since 1895 . He obtained a mention honorable in 1897 and became a member in 1898. He received a third class medal in 1899 and a silver medal in 1900, at the « Exposition Universelle », a second class medal in 1901 and the Rosa-Bonheur prize. He illustrated Ramuntcho by P.Loti, À la mer by P.Marguerite. He took part in the decoration of the Opéra Comique and of the memorial chapel the victims of the Bazar de la Charité. He was specialized in Spanish and Basque popular scenes.
Promenade aux environs de Guéthary (139x104cm semicircular top; 664x500pix, 59kb) a man and a woman riding horses.
A Man (1930, 55x45cm; 400x300pix, 24kb)
Paysage basque (25x38cm; 251x400pix, 22kb),,

^ 1819 Diodore Charles Rahoult, French painter who died on 23 March 1874.
Allegory Of Spring: The Goddess Pomona Surrounded By Putti aka Embarking On A Boat Ride (155x133cm)
Allegory Of Summer: The Goddess Ceres Surrounded By Putti aka A Picnic Near The Waterfall (155x133cm)
Allegory Of Autumn: The Goddess Cybele Surrounded By Putti aka Mountainous Repose (155x133cm)
Allegory Of Winter: The Goddess Diana Surrounded By Putti aka The Meal After Hunting (155x133cm)

1786 Albertus Brondgeest, Dutch artist who died on 30 June (July?) 1849.

1775 Joseph-Denis Odevaere, Flemish painter who died (main coverage) on 26 February 1830. (His date of birth is sometimes given as 02 October 1778). —(091206)


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