ART 4 2-DAY 01 December v.9.a0
DEATH: 1563 SCHIAVONE
Born on 01 December 1884: Karl Schmidt~Rottluff,
painter and print-maker, who died on 10 August 1976.
— He was a painter in oils and watercolor of figures, landscapes and still life, wood-engraver, lithographer, etcher, and sculptor. Born Karl Schmidt at Rottluff near Chemnitz, Saxonia. Friendship with Heckel from 1901, and began to paint. Studied architecture at Dresden Polytechnic 1905-1906, and through Heckel met Kirchner and Bleyl; the four artists founded in June 1905 the group Die Brücke. Early paintings with strong colors and a profusion of brushstrokes, followed from about 1910-1911 by a more arbitrary, strongly-constructed style with block-like simplifications. First one-man exhibition at the Galerie Commeter, Hamburg, 1911. From 1907-1912 spent part of each year in or near Dangast. 1915-1918 in the army. Lived mainly in Berlin from 1911, with regular visits during the summers up to 1943 to the North Sea or Baltic coast and the spring months 1932-1943 in the Taunus. Large graphic output up to about 1927 of over 600 woodcuts, lithographs and etchings. He was one of the artists most persecuted by the Nazis, who in 1941 forbade him to paint and placed him under the supervision of the SS. In 1947 appointed professor at the School of Fine Arts in Berlin. Died in Berlin.
— One of the main exponents of Expressionism, Schmidt~Rottluff was a founder of Die Brücke and one of its leading members. As a boy he got to know Erich Heckel at grammar school, following in his footsteps in 1905 when he enrolled as an architectural student at the Sächsische Technische Hochschule in Dresden; there Heckel introduced him to another student, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, four years his senior, and to Kirchner’s friend, the painter Fritz Bleyl [1880–1966]. They all felt close in their artistic aspirations, perceiving their architectural studies as a front behind which they could train, largely by teaching themselves, as painters. Later that year, by which time Schmidt-Rottluff had annexed the name of his native town to his surname, they formed Die Brücke with the aim of creating an uncompromisingly vital art that renounced all traditions; the group’s name, derived from a quotation in Friedrich Nietzsche’s Also sprach Zarathustra (1883) was suggested by Schmidt-Rottluff, although as something of a loner he was less active in the group than Heckel or Kirchner. It was, however, at his invitation that Emil Nolde briefly became an active member of the group in 1906. Schmidt-Rottluff also introduced the group to lithography.
<<<— Selbstbildnis mit Einglass (1910; 952x640pix, 63kb: click image or .ZOOM to 1903x1280pix, 161kb)
— Selbstbildnis (1920; 572x475pix)
— Selbstbildnis (1950; 572x502pix)
— Head of Christ (1919 stained glass; 851x640pix, 51kb)
— Im Kiosk (1912; 483x529pix, 30kb) _ detail first head (951x640pix, 77kb)
— Dr. Rosa Schapire (1919, 101x87cm) _ Dr. Rosa Schapire was trained as an art historian at Zurich and Heidelberg Universities. She was one of the first supporters of Die Brücke group, of which Schmidt-Rottluff was a founder member. They were close friends from 1908 and in 1924 Schapire published a catalogue of the artist's graphic work. This portrait was painted during the summer of 1919 at Hohwacht on the Baltic coast and was given to Schapire as a Christmas present by the artist and his wife. The artist painted Schapire several times between 1911 and 1915, as well as making her the subject of woodcuts and a lithograph. Schapire lived in exile in England after 1919, bringing her collection, including this picture, with her.
— Frau mit Tasche (1915, 95x87cm) _ Schmidt-Rottluff used the forms of African masks to help him capture the reality around him. Here, the woman’s face is elongated with extended cheeks and nose in the manner of West African masks. This is set against her fashionable European accessories — the bag and pearls. The painting was completed shortly before Schmidt-Rottluff’s departure for the Russian Front during the First World War. Its first owner considered it to have captured a melancholic wartime mood.
— Zwei Frauen (1912, 77x85cm) _ Although this work was painted on the North Sea coast near Dangast in Germany, its vivid colors and the angular forms of the women’s bodies suggest an idealised vision of Africa or the South Pacific. For Schmidt-Rottluff and other artists of Die Brücke the appreciation of African carvings and the art of South East Asia was an integral part of their consciously bohemian lifestyle. They were inspired by artefacts in the Dresden Ethnographical Museum, which they saw as embodying an unspoilt, more authentic culture.
Died on 01 December 1563: Andrea Medulich
(or Meldolla, Medulla) Schiavone, Dalmatian painter,
draftsman and etcher, active in Italy, born in 1522.
Original name Andrija Meldulic. His nickname "Schiavone" means Slav, reflecting the fact that he came from Zara, Dalmatia (then under Venetian jurisdiction). He worked mainly in Venice, where he was on friendly terms with Titian who, along with Parmigianino, was one of the main influences on his style. His most characteristic works were small-scale religious or mythological scenes for private patrons in a vigorous, painterly style.
Born in Zara (Zadar) on Dalmatian coast, then under Venetian rule. In 1556 won a painting commission in the Biblioteca Marciana in Venice. Worked mostly in intaglio and at the end of his life made designs for block prints. Died in Venice.
Although the artist was born in Zadar, his ancestors came from the place called Meldola, Italy (Romagna). However, he expressed his deep and permanent association with the Croatian Adriatic coast by his nickname Schiavone (Slav).
— He belonged to a prominent family who had settled in Zara but were originally from Méldola in the Romagna. He may have been taught painting either in Zara or in Venice by Lorenzo Luzzo or Giovanni Pietro Luzzo, who were active in both cities. According to another theory, he was trained in the Venetian workshop of Bonifazio de’ Pitati, but this would not account for his later proficiency as a fresco painter. As an etcher, he seems to have been essentially self-taught, working initially from drawings by Parmigianino. By the late 1530s Schiavone seems to have been established in Venice. In 1540 Giorgio Vasari commissioned from him a large battle painting , ‘one of the best [works] that Andrea Schiavone ever did’ (Vasari, 1568). Schiavone’s first surviving paintings and etchings probably date from about 1538–1540; they show that he was strongly influenced by Parmigianino and central Italian Mannerists in figural and compositional modes, but was also a strikingly daring exponent of Venetian painterly techniques; he employed an equally free technique in etching. Several paintings, for example the large-scale Four Women in a Landscape and the small-scale Two Men, carry his ‘technique of spots, or sketches’ (Vasari) so far that the subjects have not been identified.
–- David's deathbed instructions to Solomon (1561; 640x986pix, 184kb _ .ZOOM to 1280x1972pix, 804kb) _ When the time of David's death drew near, he gave these instructions to his son Solomon: “I am going the way of all mankind. Take courage and be a man. Keep the mandate of I-AM, your God, following his ways and observing his statutes, commands, ordinances, and decrees as they are written in the law of Moses, that you may succeed in whatever you do, wherever you turn, and I-AM may fulfill the promise he made on my behalf when he said, ‘If your sons so conduct themselves that they remain faithful to me with their whole heart and with their whole soul, you shall always have someone of your line on the throne of Israel.’ You yourself know what Joab, son of Zeruiah, did to me when he slew the two generals of Israel's armies, Abner, son of Ner, and Amasa, son of Jether. He took revenge for the blood of war in a time of peace, and put bloodshed without provocation on the belt about my waist and the sandal on my foot. Act with the wisdom you possess; you must not allow him to go down to the grave in peaceful old age. But be kind to the sons of Barzillai the Gileadite, and have them eat at your table. For they received me kindly when I was fleeing your brother Absalom. You also have with you Shimei, son of Gera, the Benjaminite of Bahurim, who cursed me balefully when I was going to Mahanaim. Because he came down to meet me at the Jordan, I swore to him by I-AM that I would not put him to the sword. But you must not let him go unpunished. You are a prudent man and will know how to deal with him to send down his hoary head in blood to the grave.” (1 Kings 2:1-9) In the picture, the 18-year-old Solomon is seen accompanied by his mother Bathsheba, and the prophet Nathan is on the other side of the bed. Both Bathsheba and Nathan had successfully petitioned David [1035 BC – 965 BC] to have Solomon crowned as his successor, in preference to his older half-brothers.
Landscape with Jupiter and Io (205x275cm; 696x950pix, 121kb) _ The subject of the picture was taken from the Metamorphoses by Ovid [43 BC - 18 BC] the jealous Juno catches Jupiter with Io. To save his lover Jupiter transforms her into a white cow and entrust her to Argus. The landscape is the main subject of the painting, the human figures are only staffages. In Greek mythology, Io was the daughter of Inachus, the river god of Argos. Under the name of Callithyia, Io was regarded as the first priestess of Hera, the wife of Zeus. Zeus fell in love with her and, to protect her from the wrath of Hera, changed her into a white heifer. Hera persuaded Zeus to give herthe heifer and sent Argus Panoptes (“the All-Seeing”) to watch her. Zeus thereupon sent the god Hermes, who lulled Argus to sleep and killed him. Hera then sent a gadfly to bother Io, who therefore wandered all over the earth, crossed the Ionian Sea, swam the strait that was thereafter knownas the Bosporus (meaning Ox-Ford), and at last reached Egypt, where she was restored to her original form and became the mother of Epaphus, who became king of Egypt according to the legend.
Interea medios Iuno despexit in Argos
et noctis faciem nebulas fecisse volucres
sub nitido mirata die, non fluminis illas
esse, nec umenti sensit tellure remitti;
atque suus coniunx ubi sit circumspicit, ut quae
deprensi totiens iam nosset furta mariti.
quem postquam caelo non repperit, 'aut ego fallor
aut ego laedor' ait delapsaque ab aethere summo
constitit in terris nebulasque recedere iussit.
coniugis adventum praesenserat inque nitentem
Inachidos vultus mutaverat ille iuvencam;
bos quoque formosa est. (Metamorphoses 1:601-612)
La Conversione di San Paolo (205x265cm) _ Dopo una generica attribuzione alla scuola veneta l'opera è stata indicata come di Bonifacio de' Pitati (The Conversion of Saul, 1570) per poi essere riconosciuta come dello Schiavone. Grande, movimentata composizione in cui i cavalli, le bandiere e i soldati sembrano rapiti da un turbine, mentre sopra un cielo apocalittico, striato di verde, scoppia, fenomeno meteorico, la luce nella quale il Cristo tra gli angeli impone il suo volere. I colori squillano ovunque, e gli sbattimenti luministici si esaltano sulle profondità scure. Pare che lo Schiavone abbia tenuto presente nel volo del Cristo in iscorcio quello del San Marco dal Miracolo dello schiavo (1548) del Tintoretto e polemizzi nella sua mossa invenzione con l'immobilità del primo piano e la staticità della natura che sono in quello. Non mancano in quest'opera richiami a Raffaello e alla sua scuola filtrati anche attraverso i modi del Pordenone.
Now Saul, still breathing murderous threats against the disciples of the Lord, went to the high priest and asked him for letters to the synagogues in Damascus, that, if he should find any men or women who belonged to the Way, he might bring them back to Jerusalem in chains. On his journey, as he was nearing Damascus, a light from the sky suddenly flashed around him. He fell to the ground and heard a voice saying to him, “Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting me?” He said, “Who are you, sir?” The reply came, “I am Jesus, whom you are persecuting. Now get up and go into the city and you will be told what you must do.” The men who were traveling with him stood speechless, for they heard the voice but could see no one. Saul got up from the ground, but when he opened his eyes he could see nothing; so they led him by the hand and brought him to Damascus. For three days he was unable to see, and he neither ate nor drank. There was a disciple in Damascus named Ananias, and the Lord said to him in a vision, “Ananias.” He answered, “Here I am, Lord.” The Lord said to him, “Get up and go to the street called Straight and ask at the house of Judas for a man from Tarsus named Saul. He is there praying, and (in a vision) he has seen a man named Ananias come in and lay (his) hands on him, that he may regain his sight.” But Ananias replied, “Lord, I have heard from many sources about this man, what evil things he has done to your holy ones in Jerusalem. And here he has authority from the chief priests to imprison all who call upon your name.” But the Lord said to him, “Go, for this man is a chosen instrument of mine to carry my name before Gentiles, kings, and Israelites, and I will show him what he will have to suffer for my name.” So Ananias went and entered the house; laying his hands on him, he said, "Saul, my brother, the Lord has sent me, Jesus who appeared to you on the way by which you came, that you may regain your sight and be filled with the holy Spirit.” Immediately things like scales fell from his eyes and he regained his sight. He got up and was baptized. (Acts 9:1-18)
— Lot and his Daughters (1555 round; 575pix diameter, 139kb) _ I-AM (God) had decided to destroy the city of Sodom, because of its sinfulness. Abraham had bargained with I-AM to relent if as few as ten innocent persons could be found in Sodom, where Abraham's nephew lived. So I-AM sent two angels, under the appearance of men, to investigate. Lot invited the strangers to stay at his home overnight, and he resisted the perverted insistance of the men of Sodom, who surrounded his house, wanting to assault the guests.
Then the angels said to Lot: "Who else belongs to you here? Your sons sons-in-law and your daughters and all who belong to you in the city...take them away from it! We are about to destroy this place, for the outcry reaching I-AM against those in the city is so great that he has sent us to destroy it." So Lot went out and spoke to his sons-in-law ... . "Get up and leave this place," he told them; "I-AM is about to destroy the city." But his sons-in-law thought he was joking. As dawn was breaking, the angels urged Lot on, saying, "On your way! Take with you your wife and your two daughters who are here, or you will be swept away in the punishment of the city." When he hesitated, the angels, by I-AM's mercy, seized his hand and the hands of his wife and his two daughters and led them to safety outside the city. As soon as they had been brought outside, he was told: "Flee for your life! Don't look back or stop anywhere on the Plain. Get off to the hills at once, or you will be swept away." ... The sun was just rising over the earth as Lot arrived [to safety]; at the same time I-AM rained down sulphurous fire upon Sodom and Gomorrah ... But Lot's wife looked back, and she was turned into a pillar of salt. ... Lot ... and his two daughters ... settled in the hill country, where he lived with his two daughters in a cave. The older one said to the younger: “Our father is getting old, and there is not a man on earth to unite with us as was the custom everywhere. Come, let us ply our father with wine and then lie with him, that we may have offspring by our father." So that night they plied their father with wine, and the older one went in and lay with her father; but he was not aware of her lying down or her getting up. Next day the older one said to the younger: "Last night it was I who lay with my father. Let us ply him with wine again tonight, and then you go in and lie with him, that we may both have offspring by our father.” So that night, too, they plied their father with wine, and then the younger one went in and lay with him; but again he was not aware of her lying down or her getting up. Thus both of Lot's daughters became pregnant by their father. The older one gave birth to a son whom she named Moab, saying, "From my father." He is the ancestor of the Moabites of today. The younger one, too, gave birth to a son, and she named him Ammon, saying, "The son of my kin." He is the ancestor of the Ammonites of today. (Genesis 19:12-38)
The subject has been depicted by other artists too. See for example:
by Cavallino: Lot and His Daughters
by Dürer: Lot and His Daughters (1499) and Lot Fleeing with his Daughters from Sodom (1498)
by van Leyden: Lot and his Daughters (1520)
by Massys: Lot and His Daughters (1565)
by Franceschini: Lot and his Daughters
by Furini: Lot and his Daughters
by Wtewael: Lot and his Daughters (1608) and Lot and his Daughters (1600)
by Goltzius: Lot and his Daughters (1616)
by Orazio Gentileschi: Lot and his Daughters (1621)
by Artemisia Gentileschi: Lot and his daughters (1645)
by Reni: Lot and his Daughters leaving Sodom
Born on 01 December (30 Nov? Julian?) 1869:
Konstantin Andreyevitch Somov, Russian Symbolist
painter and graphic artist who died on 06 May 1939.
— He was the son of a curator at the Hermitage Museum, and he attended the Saint-Petersburg Academy of Art from 1888 to 1897, studying under the Realist painter Il’ya Repin from 1894. In 1897 and again in 1898–1899 he went to Paris and attended the studios of Filippo Colarossi and of Whistler. Neither the Realism of his Russian teachers nor the evanescent quality of Whistler’s art was reflected for long in Somov’s work. He turned instead for inspiration to the Old Masters in the Hermitage and to works of contemporary English and German artists, which he knew from visits abroad and from the art journals.
— He was a painter in oils and watercolor, and illustrator. Born in Saint-Petersburg, son of Andrei Somov, Curator of the Hermitage. Studied at the Academy of Arts in Saint-Petersburg 1888-1897, from 1894 under Repin, then lived 1897-1899 in Paris in the circle of Bakst, Alexander Benois and other Russian friends. Member of the World of Art (Mir Iskusstva) 1899. His early work was mainly landscape, but from about 1900 he began to paint romantic scenes of marquisses, harlequins, etc. set in the Rococo and early 19th century periods. Also painted portraits and modeled figures for the Imperial Porcelain Factory. First one-man exhibition in Saint-Petersburg 1903. Member of the Saint-Petersburg Academy of Fine Art 1913; professor at the Academy of Arts from 1918. Left Russia in 1924 and spent his last years in Paris. His works include illustrations for Manon Lescaut, Daphnis and Chloé and the poems of Pushkin. Died in Paris.
— Somov was born in Saint-Petersburg into the family of the senior curator at the Hermitage, artist and art historian, Andrei Ivanovich Somov and his wife, Nadezhda Constantinovna, an excellent musician. The family had a big collection of paintings, etchings, watercolors, big library; the artists were frequent guests in the house. Constantin started to learn to play piano, singing, and painting early.
From 1888 till 1897, he studied at the Academy of Arts, where from 1894 he took a course at Ilya Repin’s studio. Later he wrote that the first five years in the Academy were a lost and fruitless time. Nevertheless he took the studies very seriously and got a number of awards in the academy. The work with Repin can be felt in some of his paintings of those years, e.g. portraits of N. Ober, wife of the sculptor Ober (1896), Portrait of Father (1897), Self-Portrait (1898).
Since his childhood Somov was a friend of Alexander Benois; during their students’ years they often gathered together in the house of Benois, there Somov got acquainted with Sergei Dyagilev, future theater interprener, and Lev Bakst.
In 1896, the new subjects appeared in his works: ladies and gentlemen in the 18th century garments, e.g. Rest after a Walk, Lady by the Pool, Promenade after Rain, etc. Such works, full of intimite poetry, elegant and refined, were far from the ideals of realistic art. The “gallant” 18th century was admired in Benois’ circle. Somov more than others was fond of French Rococo - Watteau, Fragonard, light chamber music by Rameau and Grétry, Gluck and Mozart. The artist preferred to work with watercolors, but sometimes used mixed techniques: combined watercolor with gouache, whitewash and bronze. Somov’s works of 1896-1897 are not those of a student, he found already his own theme and his individual style.
In autumn of 1897 he left Academy and went to Paris, where his friends, Benois, Lanceray, Bakst, Ober, Ostroumova had already left for. In Paris they frequented various private studios and the Académie Colarossi. In 1898 after return to Saint-Petersburg, the friends founded the Mir Iskusstva society, with their own magazine. Sergei Diaghilev made much for founding of the society. The World of Art exhibitions attracted talented young artists of Saint-Petersburg and Moscow. The society played very important role in development of Russian art of the beginning of the 20th century.
From 1897 to 1900, Somov worked on a beautiful portrait of his childhood friend, and a peer in the Academy of Arts, the artist Yelizaveta Martynova [1868-1904]. She was often sick and he left abroad several times, and the work on the portrait took so long time. The portrait became known as Lady in Blue (103x103cm; 663x648pix). Martynova’s colleague-painters remembered her as highly emotional, proud and easily wounded. She was sure that one day she would be a great artist. Unfortunately, she got ill with tuberculosis and died early.
In 1901 Somov painted another woman-artist, Anna Ostroumova (1901). “My portrait has likeness with me and has not. The features are mine, and even the pose is mine. But at the same time there is a lot of from Somov, some characteristics do not belong to me. This dreaming melancholic figure… I, though sometimes was sad of course, on the whole was energetic, businesslike and liked to laugh too much…”
Portraits and landscapes form the most realistic part of Somov’s work; his individual style reveals in original subject paintings, love scenes in interior and in the open air, retrospective views, such as Echo du temps passé, Enchantment, The Laughed Kiss, In the Bosquet, etc.
Since 1910, Somov more and more often turns to the subject of Arlequine, e.g. Lady and Harlequin (1912), Italian Comedy (1914), etc., traditional masks of commedia dell’arte. From 1906 to 1910 the artists created a series of graphic portraits of Russian artists and poets for magazines and books: Alexander Blok (1907), Eugene Lanceray (1907), poet M.A. Kuzmin (1909), ballet-dancer N. Pozdnyakov (1910).
In 1900-1910, Somov’s works shown at exhibitions of “World of Art” society, Union of Russian painters, Munich and Berlin Sessecions, autumn Salon of 1906 in Paris and others became widely known in Europe. The artist was especially popular in Germany, where, in 1907, the first monograph about him was published by Oscar Bic.
In 1913 Somov became an Academician, and in 1918 a professor of the Art College.
At the end of 1923 Somov immigrated to the US. He stayed in the US for 1 year. “…my art is absolutely alien to America,” he wrote in one of his letters. In summer of 1925, he moved to France, where, near Paris, the last 14 years of his work would pass. In this period he painted mainly portraits, including that of Rachmaninov.
Somov died in Paris.
— Self-Portrait (1898; 741x516pix, 30kb) _ “The Artist as Couch Potato”
— 60 images at ABC Gallery