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ART “4” “2”-DAY  24 August v.9.70
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DEATHS: 1540 PARMIGIANINO — 1906 STEVENS
BIRTHS: 1903 SUTHERLAND — 1724 STUBBS — 1872 BEERBOHM
^ Born on 24 August 1903: Graham Vivian Sutherland, English etcher, lithographer, and painter, who died on 17 February 1980.
— He studied at Goldsmith’s College of Art in London (1921–1926) and began his career as a printmaker, producing small, poetic, densely worked etchings of rural England, thatched cottages and fields with stooks of corn (e.g. Pecken Wood), influenced by the early etchings of Samuel Palmer. Although he gave up etching soon after the collapse of the market for this work in 1930 and turned to painting, he did not begin to find his way as a painter until 1934, when he made his first visit to Pembrokeshire (now Dyfed), Wales. During the difficult transitional period he supported himself partly by designing posters, china, glass and other forms of applied art.

LINKS
Descent from the Cross (1946; 600x489pix _ ZOOM not recommended to blurry 1400x1098pix, 197kb)
Thorn Cross (1954)
Crucifixion (1946, 91x102cm) _ This is one of a series made by Sutherland in preparation for a larger version commissioned for a church in Northampton. The sources on which he drew indicate the way he saw the theme in terms of past paintings, the individual and recent historical events. His primary reference point was Matthies Grunewald’s famous Issenhiem altarpiece in which Christ is shown anguished and blistered; he drew himself slung from the ceiling; finally, he referred to recently released photographs of dead and starving Concentration Camp victims.
Insect (1963, color lithograph 66x50cm)
Somerset Maugham (1949, 137x63cm) _ This was the first of many portraits by Sutherland, mostly of either friends or distinguished elderly people. He met Maugham, the famous novelist and dramatist, at St Jean Cap Ferrat, and was invited to paint his portrait. Maugham was then aged seventy-five. The bamboo stool and background color, like that of the robes of Buddhist monks, were intended to refer to the setting of many of Maugham's novels and short stories in the Far East. The portrait was painted from drawings made by Sutherland during about ten one hour sittings with Maugham.
Lord Goodman (1974, 96x96cm) _ At his death, Arnold Goodman was described as ‘for many years... Britain’s most distinguished citizen outside government’. As a lawyer, his work on high-profile libel cases drew him into the affairs of state. In 1965 he was appointed chairman of the Arts Council and made a life peer. This portrait was painted over at least two series of sittings, at Sutherland’s house in the South of France. At this late stage in his career, Sutherland was applying paint with great fluency, but extremely thinly, over his characteristic grid of pencil lines.
Devastation: East End Factory Ventilation Shaft (1941, 67x48cm) _ Born in London, Sutherland originally apprenticed as an engineer, before studying art at Goldsmiths College, London. From 1940 to 1945 he was employed as an official war artist. One of his first tasks was to depict bombing damage in the east end of London. Sutherland described his experiences in his journal: “At the beginning I was a bit shy as to where I went. Later I grew bolder and went inside some of the ruins. I remember a factory for making women’s coats. All the floors had gone but the staircase remained, as very often happened. And there were machines, their entrails hanging through the floors, but looking extraordinarily beautiful at the same time. And always there was the terrible smell of sour burning.” This picture, like many of Sutherland’s works of this time, makes a powerful visual record of the horror of The Blitz (07 Sep 1940 – 11 May 1941).
Entrance to a Lane (1939, 61x51cm) _ Though apparently abstract, this painting represents a lane at Sandy Haven, Pembrokeshire. By ‘paraphrasing’ what he observed, Sutherland felt he captured the essence of the landscape. This innovative technique fused the observational powers of John Constable with the daring of Pablo Picasso. The prominent black forms also reflect Sutherland’s debt to the landscape drawings of Samuel Palmer, whose work enjoyed a revival in the 1930s. This painting belongs to a tradition of images of wooded landscapes which seem to enfold the viewer. In 1939, with war looming, such a natural refuge may have had special significance.
Form over River (1972, 180x174cm) _ This was based on studies made on the banks of Eastern Cleddau, Picton Park, in Pembrokeshire, in the summer of 1971. Sutherland described the making of this picture: 'As with all my other organic forms - especially those deriving from the country here, it was the result of a chance encounter. Always one in a thousand such encounters are meaningful to me or productive, but those which are, have in their structure a movement and an equilibrium which straight away finds a response in my own make up. The color was used to emphasise the mood of the ambience but only in certain aspects was it the actual color of the object'.
The Scales (1962, 145x123cm)
 
^ >Died on 24 August 1540: Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola “Parmigianino” “Le Parmesan”, not Mazzola Italian Mannerist painter, draftsman, and printmaker, born on 11 January 1503, son of Filippo Mazzola [1460 – <30 Jun 1505], and nephew of Pier'Ilario II Mazzola [1476 – >30 May 1545] and of Michele Mazzola [1469->1529]. not Parmigianino— He did paint in oils, but there is no substance to the corny story that one of his descendants, after immigrating to the US and simplifying his last name by removing one z, founded the Corn Products Refining Company which, in his honor, introduced in June 1911 a new cooking and salad oil made from corn and named it Mazola. Actually this brand name was concocted from the words “maize” and “oil”. — As for Parmesan cheese, its only relationship to Parmigianino is that they both are from the Parma region, so that he must have been used to eating it.
— Beginning a career that was to last only two decades, Girolamo Francesco Mazzola moved from precocious success in the shadow of Correggio in Parma to be hailed in the Rome of Clement VII as Raphael reborn. There he executed few large-scale works but was introduced to printmaking. After the Sack of Rome in 1527, he returned to northern Italy, where in his final decade he created some of his most markedly Mannerist works. Equally gifted as a painter of small panels and large-scale frescoes both sacred and profane, he was also one of the most penetrating portrait painters of his age. Throughout his career he was a compulsive draughtsman, not only of preparatory studies for paintings and prints, but also of scenes from everyday life and of erotica.
— Girolamo Francesco Mazzola was born in Parma and studied there with Correggio. One of the chief disciples of Correggio's sensuous style, he blended it with the classical style of the Roman painter Raphael.
      About 1523 Parmigianino went to Rome, from which he fled to Bologna in 1527, after the sack of Rome by the armies of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. In Bologna he painted some of his finest works, including the Madonna and Child with St. Margaret and Other Saints..
      He returned to Parma in 1531 and began the frescoes of the Church of Santa Maria della Steccata, which he left unfinished at his death. The Madonna with the Long Neck (1535) and Cupid Carving his Bow are among his principal works.
      Also a distinguished portrait painter, and one of the first Italian etchers, Parmigianino painted studies of the Italian navigators Christopher Columbus and Amerigo Vespucci and a Self~Portrait in a convex mirror (1523)
— Girolamo Bedoli was a student of Parmigianino and added the Mazzola surname to his own, becoming known as Girolamo Mazzola Bedoli. Other students of Parmigianino included Andrea Schiavone.

LINKS
Cupid Carving his Bow (1533, 135x65cm)
The Conversion of Saint Paul (1552, 177x128cm)
Rest on the Flight to Egypt (1524, 110x89cm)
—(070110)
^ Born on 24 August 1724: George Stubbs, British painter specialized in horses, who died on 10 July 1806, in poor financial circumstances.
— Stubbs was an outstanding animal painter and anatomical draftsman. The son of a prosperous tanner, Stubbs was briefly apprenticed to a painter but was basically self-taught. His interest in anatomy, revealed at an early age, became one of the driving passions of his life. His earliest surviving works are 18 plates etched for Dr. John Burton's Essay Towards a Complete New System of Midwifery (1751). In the 1750s Stubbs made an exhaustive analysis of the anatomy of the horse. He rented a farmhouse in a remote Lincolnshire village, where, over a period of 18 months, he undertook the painstaking dissection of innumerable specimens. After moving permanently to London in 1760, Stubbs etched the plates for Anatomy of the Horse (1766), which became a major work of reference for naturalists and artists alike. Stubbs soon established a reputation as the leading painter of portraits of the horse. His masterly depictions of hunters and racehorses brought him innumerable commissions. Perhaps more impressive than the single portraits are his pictures of informal groups of horses, such as Mares and Foals in a Landscape (1765).
—     Among his contemporaries George Stubbs was known only to a narrow circle of aristocratic sportsmen and horse lovers, as a mere horse-painter.
      George Stubbs was born in Liverpool, son of a currier and one of five children. He had a minimum of formal instruction: in 1739 he was briefly a student of the minor painter Hamlet Winstanley (Meeting of the Waters) . This was apparently enough to launch Stubbs off as a provincial portrait painter. As such he worked (1743-53) in Wigan, Leeds, York and at Hull. When at York he already knew enough anatomy to give private lessons to medical students at York Hospital and this led to his commissions in 1751 to illustrate a book on midwifery by Dr. John Burton. He learnt enough of etching from a local engraver to etch the plates himself.
      His interest in anatomy and its studies continued all his life and proved to be important not only to his art but also a new contribution to science. In 1766 his The Anatomy of the Horse was published, which added to his prestige; he worked on a comparative anatomy of a man, a tiger and common fowl until his death, it was left incomplete.
     At the age of 30, in 1754 he went to Italy by boat. He is said to have gone with no enthusiasm for Italian art, but with a desire to confirm his view that nature, not art, was the only source of inspiration and improvement. On the return journey he made a stop in Marocco. It is believed that a scene he saw there inspired his later picture Horse Attacked by a Lion (1763). In 1756, his son, George Townley Stubbs (d.1815), was born by Mary Spencer who had become his common~law wife. In 1759, the family moved to London.
     In the 1760s-1770s, Stubbs lived in London. The nature of his commissions required him to travel almost as much as a topographical watercolorist of his day. A series of masterpieces mostly belonging to this decade was that depicting horses and foals. Some of the horses named and were painted for their owners, but others may have been prompted by Stubbs’s own liking for variations on the theme Mares and Foals in a Wooded Landscape (1761), Racehorses Belonging to the Duke of Richmond Exercising at Goodwood (1760), Mares and Foals Disturbed by an Approaching Storm (1765). As portraits his horses were satisfying to his patrons: Whistlejacket (1761).
      His powers, however, expanded in other directions. There was an easy transition from the portraiture of mounted sportsmen to the open-air conversation picture without reference to hunting or racing. From the end of the 1760s he produced magnificent examples of the genre The Melbourne and Milbanke Families (1769), John and Sophia Musters Out Riding at Colwick Hall (1777).
     A separate development beginning in the 1760s was Stubbs’s portrayal of wild animals. A unique product of an imaginative kind was the horse and lion series: Horse Attacked by a Lion (1770). He was commissioned to paint the first kangaroo brought to England, for another client he painted a moose The Moose (1770); there were commissions for an Indian rhinoceros, a baboon with a macaque monkey, a yak, and other animals. An exceptional commission was that commemorating the gift of a cheetah to George III by the Governor of Madras, Sir George Pigot (later Lord Pigot) Cheetah with Two Indian Attendants and a Stag (1764-1765).
      In the 1770s, Stubbs embarked on new enterprises: he experimented with enamel painting. He consulted Josiah Wedgwood about the possibility of making large pottery plaques on which the enamel process could be used. Josiah Wedgwood invited Stubbs to stay at his Etruria headquarters and experiment. Stubbs lived with the famous potter in 1780, using the process on pottery plaques in portraits of Wedgwood and his family, creating experimental paintings on ceramics. In the great paintings that were still to come, he reverted to oils, mostly on smooth panels rather than canvas.
       An Associate of the Royal Academy in 1780, Stubbs was elected to full membership in 1781. The self~portrait of that year, executed in enamel on an oval Wedgwood plaque, Self~Portrait (1781), shows him at fifty-seven. The Academy did not look kindly to experiments of the kind, most of its members holding to the conviction that painting in oils was the proper exercise of professional skill, even watercolor being grudgingly admitted to its exhibitions. A great development of this decade was his rendering of rural life and work, especially in the two oil paintings on panel, The Reapers (1784) and The Haymakers (1785).
      In 1790s the Prince of Wales commissioned a painting of members of his favored regiment, which exercised Stubbs’s powers afresh. Soldiers of the 10th Light Dragoons (1793). Other works to royal commission included the portrait presumed to be of Laetitia, Lady Lade (1793). The Prince’s commissions was further extended by the herd of red deer he had acquired. Red Deer Stag and Hind (1792). In all, the 18 paintings by Stubbs show his powers undiminished and indeed in some ways strengthened as he neared the age of 70. Stubbs died in poor financial circumstances.

LINKS
–- The Milbanke and Melbourne Families (1770; 758x1136pix, 104kb — .ZOOM to 1895x2842pix, 662kb)
–- Captain Samuel Sharpe Pocklington with his Wife and Sister(1769; 822x1055pix, 114kb — .ZOOM to 2637x2057pix, 673kb)
William Anderson with Two Saddle-horses (1793, 102x128cm; 858x1089pix, 116kb) _ There are eighteen paintings by Stubbs, including this one, in the Royal Collection, all of which were almost certainly commissioned by George IV, or else acquired by him. Seventeen of these date from the early 1790s when Stubbs seems to have been particularly busy on behalf of his royal patron, to the extent that many of his pictures are recorded as being in store at Carlton House. A bill dated 14 February 1793 for frames made by Thomas Allwood reads: 'To Carving & Gilding eight Picture frames of half length size for sundry Pictures painted by Mr Stubbs. all of one pattern.' This is endorsed by Stubbs and the amount charged was ^110 l6s. 0d. The frame around the present picture is one of those made by Allwood.
      William Anderson began as helper and hack-groom to George IV, when Prince of Wales, from 1788 to 1800, but he was appointed head groom in 1804 and finally Groom of the Stables in 1812. He wears royal livery - a scarlet coat with blue hat, collar and cuffs. The real subject of the painting, however, is not so much Anderson as the two chestnut horses of which George IV was particularly fond. A letter of 15 April 1790 from the Prince of Wales to his sporting companion, Sir John Lade, states: 'I have driven every day of late the chestnut horses wh. go better than any horses I have belonging to me.' The prince himself is shown riding a chestnut horse in a portrait by Stubbs, painted two years before the present painting (Royal Collection).
      William Anderson with two Saddle-horses is a painting of outstanding quality. The composition is deceptively simple with the overlapping flanks of the two horses, silhouetted against the sky, fused in a memorable pattern. The emphasis throughout is on the horizontal and the only firm vertical is Anderson himself, rigid in the saddle of the leading horse. The languorous rhythm of the horses in the foreground of the picture is offset by the large expanse of sky, which takes up as much as three-quarters of the canvas, and by the flat rolling landscape contained within the remaining quarter. Stubbs achieves a moving, almost poetic, balance within the picture which should not be seen simply as an exercise in design. The artist uses his knowledge of anatomy in the depiction of the horses and there is a surprising variety of observation in the treatment of the clouds, the glimpse of the sea on the left, the copse and the burdock plants in the right foreground. The sea suggests that Anderson is shown riding near Brighton, a resort which the Prince of Wales first visited in 1783 and where he leased property in 1780 that was by degrees enlarged, originally by Henry Holland and then John Nash, to become the Royal Pavilion. The town became highly fashionable and had the added advantage of having a racecourse. In 1807-8 a stable block was added to the Pavilion with room for fifty-four horses. Domestic accounts record that Anderson was billetted in Brighton for twelve days in 1793 in addition to his work at Windsor. The second horse in the painting has presumably been saddled for the Prince of Wales.
The Milbanke and Melbourne Families (1769, 97x149cm; 743x1130pix, 114kb) four humans, three horses, and one dog. Stubbs was born in Liverpool, the son of a leatherseller, and it is tempting to imagine that it was among the tack and harness in his father's shop that he first came into contact with that English world of hunting, racing and horse breeding of which he became the quintessential interpreter. It was a world in which dukes metaphorically rubbed shoulders with stable lads, great landowners with Smithfield meat salesmen, society ladies with Newmarket jockeys, and men and women of all degrees with horses and dogs. 'Master of the art of class distinction', as the art historian Judy Egerton has remarked, he neither flattered nor mocked, but painted with profound 'acceptance of things more or less as they are'. In the words of Mary Spencer, his common-law wife for some fifty years, 'every object in the picture was a Portrait'.
     In his effort to paint people truthfully Stubbs studied anatomy at a medical school. The better to portray horses he dissected them, teaching himself engraving to publish The Anatomy of the Horse. Although he may have wished to establish himself as a 'history painter' in the academic mould, he seems to have retained from his trip to Rome in 1754-6 only the memory of an antique marble of a lion attacking a horse. This subject preoccupied him for over thirty years and is the one theme in his work that comes nearest to evoking the 'pity and terror' of epic narrative. Stubbs's gifts of invention had to do not with story-telling but with abstract design.
      The poetic effect of Stubbs's combination of dispassionate observation with pattern-making is beautifully demonstrated in this small full-length group portrait of - from left to right - the seventeen-year-old Elizabeth Milbanke, her father Sir Ralph Milbanke, her brother John Milbanke, and her husband Sir Peniston Lamb, the future Viscount Melbourne. Although this kind of picture, popular in England in the eighteenth century, was called a 'conversation piece', the human sitters here converse no more than do the light tim-whisky carriage, the horses or Sir Peniston's spaniel. This failing must be the result of Stubbs having studied each figure-group separately from the others, and from a different angle. We may be meant to imagine that the grander Milbankes are welcoming the ineffectual parvenu Sir Peniston. (His promotion to a viscountcy in 1784 was a result of his wife's affair with the Prince of Wales.)
      Complete in itself, each vignette - as precise in its delineation of character as it is accurate about costume, complexion, coat, harness, or curvature of wheels seen in perspective - is carefully placed alongside the others to suggest a gracefully meandering yet uninflected line across the painting, along which each person and animal is given equal stress. The frieze is contained within the canvas, turning inwards at the edges. Stubbs often added an imaginary landscape backdrop only after he had satisfactorily deployed his figures, and certainly this is what he must have done here, arranging masses of foliage and cliff, voids of sky, contrapuntally to the figural melody. And that 'vital but endlessly silent' communication among them (in David Piper's beautiful phrase) is forged in the shapes and tones of the spaces around them, the rhythms created by the curving necks and croups of horses, the legs of men and beasts, the sharp accents of tricorn hats, of rose, blue, buff, bay, grey.
Haymaking (1785, 90x133cm; 850x1250pix, 147kb)
Lion Devouring a Horse (1763, 69x104cm; 750x1156pix, 104kb) _ The young George Stubbs made a journey to Rome in 1754. He was already known as a painter of animals, and his earliest biographer recorded his failure to make the usual studies of classical monuments. But the suggestive power of one antiquity in particular, a pre-Hellenistic sculpture of a horse attacked by a lion in the Palazzo dei Conservatori, moved him to his own depiction of fear. For thirty years Stubbs meditated on this theme of conflict, producing at least seventeen works in oil or enamel, clay or mixed-method engraving, adopting an episodic, four-part sequence beginning with the horse's first terrified sight of the lion emerging from its cave and ending - closest to the Antique source - with its exhausted collapse beneath its attacker. This picture shows the last episode.
      The opposite would be more noteworthy, and here is a picture of it:
mule bites lion
O.K., so it's not a painting, but a photo; not a horse, but a mule; not an African lion, but a New Mexico mountain lion; and the mule killed it but did not like the taste and so did not eat it.

–- S#*> A Grey Stallion in a Landscape (63x72cm; 682x800pix, 85kb _ ZOOM to 846x1000pix, 221kb) monochrome
–- S#*> Lord Westmoreland's Grey Hunter in a Landscape (1786, 52x74cm; 648x799pix, 69kb) In this image at least, the hunter (a horse) looks yellow with patches of white. The landscape is mostly invisible in a murky shadow.
A Bay Hunter With Two Spaniels (1777, 59x69cm)
Captain Pockington, Horse, and Family
–- S#*> Two Bay Mares and a Grey Pony (1793, 62x75cm; 648x800pix, 115kb _ ZOOM to 794x1000pix, 249kb) The pony looks white.
— Mares and Foals (1760)_ detail
The Grosvenor Hunt
 
^ Died on 24 August 1906: Alfred Stevens, Belgian painter born on 11 May 1823. — Not to be confused with English painterAlfred George Stevens [31 Dec 1817 – 01 May 1875]
— Alfred Stevens was one of the hundreds of traditional artists cast into shadow by the blinding light of the sunrise of Impressionism. In 1900, Stevens was accorded the unprecedented honor of a one man retrospective at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris, during his lifetime. Within fifty years, the mention of his name in England simply led to confusion with his namesake and near contemporary, Alfred George Stevens, a sculptor from Dorset! The market, of course, follows in step. At an auction in 1902, Pieter Bruegel the Elder’s The Numbering at Bethlehem sold for 9200 francs whereas Tous les Bonheurs by Alfred Stevens brought 25'000 francs. Up until 1967, no painting by Stevens had brought more than £4000 since the Second World War and most examples sold for a few hundred pounds, if that.
     Stevens, born at Brussels, underwent a traditional artist’s training in the late 1830’s and 1840’s. His close friend, Florent Willems, went to Paris and before long (1844) Stevens followed. He was not a prodigy and his early efforts are unrecognizable to us as the work of the artist who was to paint Tous les Bonheurs in 1861. By that date, Stevens, nearing forty, had found his niche as the painter of the contemporary Parisienne. The jury of the 1861 Salon where Tous les Bonheurs was exhibited told Stevens that whereas they admired his skills no medal could be awarded unless he changed his subject matter (genre) to something more conventional. His much quoted reply was ‘keep your medal and I’ll keep my genre.' Unlike some artists who feel the need to ‘evolve’, Stevens had the good sense to play to his strengths, perfect his speciality, be content with his role and his happy domestic and social life. He was not averse to the money that he started to make either.
     The Second Empire, under Napoleon III, was a time of dynamism and prosperity. The young Empress raised the profile of women, set fashions, and entertained Stevens to a ball at the Tuileries in 1867. Among his fellow guests was Bismarck, destined to return to Paris in a different guise three years later! 1867 saw Stevens triumph at the Paris Exposition Universelle with eighteen paintings on display and promotion in the Légion d’Honneur. The pattern was set for the successful career of Alfred Stevens. Together with Whistler, Stevens responded early on to the Japanese craze which opened new possibilities to an artist finely tuned to the subtleties of every fabric and the nuances of every color. The paravent japonais was successfully added to the studio props. Another seated model, Victorine Meurent, became Le sphinx parisien (42x32cm) painted during the siege of Paris in November, 1870, a tour de force display of the artist’s sureness of touch and unfailing eye for color.
     Although it is the large scale canvases that have caught the public’s attention by selling at auction for hundreds of thousands of dollars in recent times, (none more eye catching than the famous Vanderbilt painting sold for $1.6 million in 1998), Stevens was equally at home on a small panel only 22 cm high.
     In 1880, Stevens's doctor advised him to get some sea air into his lungs, congested by long, turpentine-fumed hours in the studio. He went to the Channel coast and thus started a long romance with sea and shore. In winter, he went to the Riviera and painted surprisingly modern views of the Mediterranean as in the Cap Martin of 1894. Sometimes, he combined his two subjects in compositions like the Evening Rendez-vous
     Europeans tend to be unaware of the popularity of Alfred Stevens in the United States and how far back that goes. Several of the major examples today in museums in Baltimore, Boston and Philadelphia, entered the collections of their American future donors during the artist’s lifetime. Stevens enjoyed the friendship of Whistler and Sargent and influenced the Boston School, notably Paxton, Tarbell, De Camp and Philip Hale. The latter was the author of the first account of Stevens in English, published in 1910. However, there is no doubt that the keenest US fan of Stevens was William Merrit Chase. He met the artist on his visit to Paris in 1881 and eventually came to own a dozen of his paintings. Chase lent a number of his Stevens’ to the exhibition in New York in 1911 at the Berlin Photographic Company Galleries. Prints after the work of Stevens circulated in the United States and the list of museum acquisitions continued to grow. Today he is represented in over twenty public collections, including a magnificent recent acquisition by Dallas.
     In 1886, Stevens wrote a little book about painting called Impressions sur la peinture. It was so good that separate English and US editions followed, the latter in 1891. Stevens’ remarks are full of common sense and unpretentious insights into painting. He writes of his pleasure in the act of painting itself, the wielding of the brush and stresses the vital importance of technical mastery – not a popular theme today! ‘One cannot be a good painter without being a good craftsman’ were his words.

LINKS
–- Le Bain (1867)
Femme à la poupée japonaise (1894, 81x65cm _ ZOOMable)
La Fillette au Canard (1893, 100x75cm _ ZOOMable)
A Woman Seated in Oriental Dress (35x26cm _ ZOOMable)
La Femme à la Harpe (60x45cm _ ZOOMable)
Idylle (1875; 600x927pix, 221kb _ ZOOM not recommended to blurry and patterned 1400x2163pix, 508kb)
The Desperate Woman
La Tricoteuse (52x40cm)
A Woman
A Woman in White (82x60cm)
A Woman in Blue (33x24cm)
The Farewell Note
La Douloureuse Certitude (80x60cm)
What is Called Vagrancy
La Tricoteuse (52x40cm)
Quai Aux Fleurs (61x50cm)
Afternoon in the Park (1885; 1128x780pix, 233kb)

 
^ Beerbohm caricaturesBorn on 24 August 1872 Sir (Henry) Max(imilian) Beerbohm
     He was an English caricaturist, writer, dandy, and wit whose sophisticated drawings and parodies were unique in capturing, usually without malice, whatever was pretentious, affected, or absurd in his famous and fashionable contemporaries. He was accustomed to fashionable society from his boyhood.
      While still an undergraduate at Merton College, Oxford, he published witty essays in the famous Yellow Book. In 1895 he toured the United States as press agent for Beerbohm Tree's theatrical company. His first literary collection, The Works of Max Beerbohm, and his first book of drawings, Caricatures of Twenty-five Gentlemen, appeared in 1896. In 1898 he succeeded Shaw as drama critic of the Saturday Review. His charming fable The Happy Hypocrite appeared in 1897 and his only novel, Zuleika Dobson, a burlesque of Oxford life, in 1911. The Christmas Garland (1912) is a group of Christmas stories that mirror the stylistic faults of a number of well-known writers, notably Henry James. His collection of stories, Seven Men (1919), is a masterpiece.
      In 1910 Beerbohm married the US-born British actress Florence Kahn, and they settled in Rapallo, Italy, where, except for a return to England for the duration of World Wars I and II, they made their home for the rest of their lives. Though Beerbohm's caricatures hit home, they remained civilized criticism and seldom alienated their subjects. In spite of the fun he had caricaturing successive generations of the royal family, he was knighted in 1939.
      The only two targets he attacked with ferocity were British imperialism in the persona of a blustering John Bull, and Rudyard Kipling. As a parodist, he is frequently held to be unsurpassed. Beerbohm died on 20 May 1956.

LINKS
The Theft (1894) and The Restitution (1920) (599x411pix, 64kb _ ZOOM to 1326x910pix, 551kb)
–- Mr. Nettleship (1900, 27x16cm; 705x403pix, 34kb _ ZOOM to 1128x645pix, 89kb _ ZOOM+ to 1692x968pix, 126kb)
–- Lord Kitchener of Khartoum (1900, 27x6cm; 737x174pix, 10kb _ ZOOM to 1229x290pix, 29kb _ ZOOM+ to 1844x435pix, 36kb)
–- S#*> Mr. A.S.M. Hutchinson, Much Embarrassed (1923, 33x26cm; _ /S#*>ZOOM to 900x708pix, 39kb) pale and washed out _ A puny man stands looking up at a formidable 200-kg woman holding a pineapple in her right hand. Handwritten on the picture: “Success! So this was she! In his youth he had often dreamed of her, but he had not imagined her quite like this. This was she! Success!”
      _ Arthur Stuart-Menteth Hutchinson [1879-1971] was a British novelist. Among his novels, This Freedom is anti-feminist, If Winter Comes deals with an unhappy marriage, eventual divorce, and an unwed mother who commits suicide.
      _ This insipid picture has been incredibly transformed by the pseudonymous Maxibillions Winebum into the gloriously colored abstractions (clickable from one to the other):
      _ Mystery: A Swan Marvels, in a Hut, at the Chin of his Son, Much Bearded aka Pine Nip (2006; 659x932pix, 271kb _ ZOOM to 1618x2636pix, 2242kb) and:
      _ Algunos Superbios Mudos Chinos Son Muy Embarrados aka Nine Pin (2006; 659x932pix, 271kb _ ZOOM to 1618x2636pix, 2242kb)
34 images at Ciudad de la Pintura24 images at the Tate
Caricatures of Sargent: -1-   -2-   -3-   -4-
Images from Rossetti and His Circle
WRITINGS BY BEERBOHM ONLINE:
  • And Even Now
  • And Even Now
  • Seven Men
  • The Works of Max Beerbohm

  • Yet Again
  • Yet Again
  • Zuleika Dobson
  • Zuleika Dobson

  • Died on a 24 August:


    1995 Alfred Eisenstaedt [06 Dec 1898–], German photographer, who lived in New York City since 1935, to where he, a Jew, had fled the intensification of the persecution. by Hitler's Nazi dictatorship. — NYT obituary
    V-J Day, “The Kisser Sailor” (45x30cm; 1280x844pix, 134kb _ .ZOOM to full size 1608x1160pix, 100kb) _ As New York exulted on 14 August 1945, the day (in US time zones) on which the victory over Japan ended the fighting of World War II, this sailor was running along the street grabbing and kissing any and every woman in sight. Whether she was a grandmother, fat, thin, old, didn't make any difference. After the sailor got to Times Square, Eisenstaedt snapped this picture of the sailor kissing a nurse. It would become Eisenstaedt's most famous photo. Compare
          _ “The Kiss of a Sailor and his Bride” (3000x1995pix, 3984kb) inspired by Eisenstaed's grayscale photo, it is a full color photo of a couple, which about to marry, in the same pose; but the background is downtown Minneapolis on an ordinary business day. _ The pseudonymous Allfried Iceinstead has unrecognizably transformed this last photo into a series of colorful and elaborate abstractions, which can be reached by clicks of the mouse from any one of them, for example the asymmetrical:
          _ A Seller and his Bribe (2008; 928x1312pix, 494kb _ zoom down G to 328x464pix, 59kb _ zoom down H to 464x656pix, 114kb _ zoom down I to 656x928pix, 237kb _ ZOOM UP K to 1312x1856pix, 903kb _ ZOOM UP L to 1856x2624pix, 2216kb _ ZOOM UP M to 2624x3712pix, 3712kb) or the symmetrical
          _ The Cyst of an Assailer and his Pride (2008; 928x1312pix, 460kb _ zoom down G to 328x464pix, 55kb _ zoom down H to 464x656pix, 124kb _ zoom down I to 656x928pix, 234kb _ ZOOM UP K to 1312x1856pix, 850kb _ ZOOM UP L to 1856x2624pix, 1860kb _ ZOOM UP M to 2624x3712pix, 3383kb) —(090829)

    1911 Johan Tirén, Swedish painter born (main coverage) on 21 October 1853.

    1899 Josef Reznicek Gisela, Austrian artist born on 17 November 1854.

    ^ >1884 Giuseppe de Nittis [22 Feb 1846–], Italian painter. — LINKS
    The Place de Carrousel and the Ruins of the Tuileries Palace in 1882 (1882, 45x60cm; _ ZOOMable)
    Nudo con le Calze Rosse (1879, 81x99cm; _ ZOOMable)
    I Pioppi (1870, 41x33cm)
    Il Ritorno Dal Ballo (1870, 30x24cm)
    La Place des Pyramides (1875; 171kb)
    Horse Races in the Bois de Boulogne (1881, 79kb)
    Return from the Races (1875, 56x114cm)
    The Races at Longchamps from the Grandstand (1883, 99x122cm)
    The Victoria Embankment, London (1875)
    Amazzoni (20x16cm) unfinished
    Sarah Bernhardt as Pierrot (66x55cm)
    –- S#*> Nella Foresta (77x47cm)
    — /S#*>Volto (18x24cm) _ Muddy and indistinct _ È probabilmente il ritratto del volto di Léontine De Nittis, il viso è roseo e leggermente inclinato verso destra, l’abito blu è ravvivato dal bianco candido del fiocco del colletto. Il soggetto in primo piano è il fatto predominante di fronte all’attenzione del pittore. I colori sono teneri, freschi e chiari, l’ambiente è chiuso ed illuminato artificialmente. La luce graduata rende le tonalità vellutate, valorizza il passaggio dai colori chiari a quelli scuri ed armonizza le sfumature. Si tratta di una luce usata ancora decorativamente, non funzionalmente in quanto serve come mezzo per rendere più raffinato e appariscente ciò che sta dipingendo. L’opera appartiene al periodo in cui l’artista si recò a Parigi dove soggiornò a lungo e sposò Leontine, moglie, musa e modella, la quale contribuì decisamente alla fortuna del marito. Accostatosi all’impressionismo, ne colse la ricerca atmosferica del plein air e l’interesse per i temi tratti dalla vita moderna, ma la maggior parte della sua produzione artistica rimase sempre legata al realismo ottocentesco.
    –- S#*> The Light Through the Window (1870, 17x9cm)

    ^ 1758 Bartolomeo Nazari (or Nazzari), Italian artist born on 10 May 1699.
    –- S#*> A Young Man — A Young Lady two paintings (each 56x43cm) in one image. They are shown head and shoulders, wearing masquerade costumes. Nazari enjoyed a considerable reputation in Venice as a portrait painter, and seems to have numbered a good many British visitors among his patrons. However, this pair of paintings were more likely a decorative rather than a portrait commission.
    –- S#*> Il Maresciallo Conte Johann Matthias von der Schulemburg [1661-1747] (150x115cm) painted in partnership with Gaspare Diziani [1689 – 17 Aug 1767 or 1769].


    Born on a 24 August:

    ^ 1928 Joe Tilson, English painter.
    –- Colour Chart (1971, 156x207cm; 764x1012, 54kb) _ This has inspired the pseudonymous Joy Falowdad to save bandwidth while creating a larger, zoomable image,
          _ U R C O O L (2005; 487x649pix, 26kb _ ZOOM to 960x1280pix, 26kb)
    –- G.E.O.M.E.T.R.Y Puzzle 1 (901x1330pix, 61kb) just a different version of Colour Chart. It is quicker, and may be more satisfying to look at Falowdad's
          _ L O C O, R U ? (2005; 487x729pix, 26kb _ ZOOM to 960x1440pix, 26kb)
    –- Zikkurat 1, Spectrum 1967 (1151x1145pix, 50kb) _ Falowdad has improved on this by using more accurate colors, adding a background, making the image fill exactly your computer window (thus you can adjust the size and proportions by dragging the corner), and reducing drastically the bandwidth, in her Color Pyramid (2006; screen filling, 4kb).
    –- Earth Cube F (1095x1102pix, 81kb) Falowdad's expanded and much more colorful version is anagramly named
          _ Herat (Rectangle) F(antastic) aka He Rat (2006; screen filling, 74kb _ ZOOM to 990x1400pix, 138kb)
    –- Red Disc (892x717pix, 65kb) _ This boring monochrome where an oval (not a circular disc) is barely noticeble has been transformed by Falowdad into the colorful
          _ True Red Disc (2007; 892x998pix, 171kb) and, even more creatively, into the symmetrical
          _ Red-Hot Discussion aka Reed Deer (2006; screen filling, 220kb _ ZOOM to 990x1400pix, 554kb)
    –- Giant Steps (1178x1428pix, 100kb) —(070823)

    ^ 1896 Atanasio Soldati, [–27 August 1953], Italian artist of the Concrete Art Movement. After serving from 1915 to 1918 in World War I, he studied architecture in Parma (until 1920) at the Accademia di Belle Arte and practiced there; he also taught drawing at the Scuola Professionale at Langhirano (1923-1925) and began to paint. After moving to Milan in 1925, Soldati infused his reductive urban spaces with elements of Pittura Metafisica. Experiments with primitivism (e.g. Self-portrait, 1930) and ruralism reminiscent of Carlo Carrà’s works (e.g. Seascape at Grottammare, 1931) constituted his first show at the Galleria del Milione (1931), Milan, where he encountered the abstract art being developed by Mauro Reggiani and Gino Ghiringhelli [1898-1964]. Carlo Belli’s introduction to his second show (Boll. Milione, 1933) consequently defined Soldati’s position as ‘order against Babel’, although such works as Composition (1934) demonstrated his persistent interest in Cubism and Purism. Strict linear abstractions (e.g. Composition in Black, 1935) emerged in his third Milione exhibition (1935), reflecting exposure to the work of Piet Mondrian, Vortemberge-Gildewart and others, and in the following year he joined the Parisian group Abstraction-Création. The wartime destruction of his Milanese studio was devastating, and Soldati moved to Losana near Pavia, where he joined the Resistance. In post-war Milan, he founded the Movimento di arte concreto (1948) with Gillo Dorfles [1910~], Gianni Monnet [1912-1958] and Bruno Munari, opposing Socialist Realism with ‘concretism’. Despite illness, he achieved a final exemplary freedom in such works as Ambiguity (1950). — LINKS
    Composizione (1942; 600x436pix, 27kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1014pix, 249kb)
    –- Composizione (90x59pix, 2kb, size quite adequate to appreciate the picture in four flat colors devoid of detail, but if you must, go ahead to see for yourself, .ZOOM to 1200x782pix, 47kb) see the version by the pseudonymous Anastasio Civili, greatly enriched by an intricate quadriculation:
          _ Con Posizione (1200x782pix, 183kb) _ But Civili has immeasurably surpassed this with his 32 interrelated stupendous abstractions (16 of them are mirror images of the other 16):
          _ Composition (2007; 550x778pix, 158kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 262kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 517kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1307kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 3212kb)
          _ Contraposition (2007; 550x778pix, 158kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 262kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 517kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1307kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 3212kb)
          _ Comfortable Position (2007; 550x778pix, 158kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 262kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 517kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1307kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 3212kb)
          _ Positional Comfort (2007; 550x778pix, 158kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 262kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 517kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1307kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 3212kb)
          _ Consideration (2007; 550x778pix, 120kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 226kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 450kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1182kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 2996kb)
          _ Consider Ration (2007; 550x778pix, 120kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 226kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 450kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1182kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 2996kb)
          _ Rational Comparation (2007; 550x778pix, 196kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 298kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 584kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1432kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 3428kb)
          _ Comparable Ration (2007; 550x778pix, 196kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 298kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 584kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1432kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 3428kb)
          _ Constitution (2007; 550x778pix, 165kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 337kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 709kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1878kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 4896kb)
          _ Constipation (2007; 550x778pix, 165kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 337kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 709kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1878kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 4896kb)
          _ Construction (2007; 550x778pix, 165kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 337kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 709kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1878kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 4896kb)
          _ Constriction (2007; 550x778pix, 165kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 337kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 709kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1878kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 4896kb)
          _ Design (2007; 550x778pix, 152kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 312kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 668kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1766kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 4728kb)
          _ The Sign (2007; 550x778pix, 152kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 312kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 668kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1766kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 4728kb)
          _ Formation (2007; 550x778pix, 178kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 362kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 750kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1910kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 5064kb)
          _ Formulation (2007; 550x778pix, 178kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 362kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 750kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1910kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 5064kb)
          _ Compromise (2007; 550x778pix, 149kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 294kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 600kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1546kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 4030kb)
          _ Compro Mies (2007; 550x778pix, 174kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 305kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 687kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1671kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 4078kb)
          _ Essay (2007; 550x778pix, 149kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 294kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 600kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1546kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 4030kb)
          _ Assay (2007; 550x778pix, 174kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 305kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 687kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1671kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 4087kb)
          _ Article (2007; 550x778pix, 136kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 269kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 559kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1474kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 3862kb)
          _ Articulation (2007; 550x778pix, 136kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 269kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 559kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1474kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 3862kb)
          _ Paper (2007; 550x778pix, 187kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 330kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 667kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1671kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 4246kb)
          _ Pauper (2007; 550x778pix, 187kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 330kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 667kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1671kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 4246kb)
          _ Architecture (2007; 550x778pix, 174kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 305kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 687kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1671kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 4078kb)
          _ Arty Texture (2007; 550x778pix, 149kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 294kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 600kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1546kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 4030kb)
          _ Compote (2007; 550x778pix, 174kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 305kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 687kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1671kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 4078kb)
          _ Gars Idiot (2007; 550x778pix, 149kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 294kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 600kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1546kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 4030kb)
          _ Compris (2007; 550x778pix, 136kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 269kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 559kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1474kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 3862kb)
          _ Idiot Attrapé (2007; 550x778pix, 136kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 269kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 559kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1474kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 3862kb)
          _ Componimento (2007; 550x778pix, 187kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 330kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 667kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1671kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 4246kb)
          _ Con Ponentino (2007; 550x778pix, 187kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 330kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 667kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1671kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, kb)
    –- Composizione (50x60cm; 862x1050pix, 53kb)
    –- Sofonisba (1108x908pix, 90kb)
    –- untitled (17x22cm; 466x938pix, 40kb) from this Civili has produced “only” eight colorfully enhanced and transformed pictures:
          _ Uncle Tried (2007; 550x778pix, 174kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 305kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 687kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1671kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 4078kb)
          _ Untried (2007; 550x778pix, 149kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 294kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 600kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1546kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 4030kb)
          _ Tried Uncle (2007; 550x778pix, 174kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 305kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 687kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1671kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 4078kb)
          _ Untired (2007; 550x778pix, 149kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 294kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 600kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1546kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 4030kb)
          _ Under Tested (2007; 550x778pix, 136kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 269kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 559kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1474kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 3862kb)
          _ Tested Under (2007; 550x778pix, 136kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 269kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 559kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1474kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 3862kb)
          _ Uncle's Title (2007; 550x778pix, 187kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 330kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 667kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1671kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 4246kb)
          _ Titled Uncle (2007; 550x778pix, 187kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 330kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 667kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1671kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, kb)
    Composizione (1951) —(070827)

    ^ 1874 Ernest Rouart, French artist and collector who died on 27 February 1942. Ernest Rouart was one of the five children on Henri Rouart [1833-1912], an engineer, collector and artist. Ernest Rouart was married to Julie Manet [1879-1966], daughter of Berthe Morisot, and with his siblings (Hélène, Alexis, Eugène, and Louis) inherited his father's collection. The children retained some family portraits and dispersed the remainder of the Rouart collection at auction on 09 December 1912 in Paris.
    –- Jeune Homme assis #3 (lithograph 34x27cm; 911x788pix, 79kb) he seems to have dozed off. —(060823)

    ^ 1848 (1844?) José Villegas y Cordero, Spanish artist who died on 10 November 1922 (1921?) _ El pintor sevillano inicia su aprendizaje con José María Romero, pasando a la Escuela de Bellas Artes, donde fue discípulo de Eduardo Cano. En un viaje a Madrid, acude al estudio de Federico de Madrazo, trabando amistad con Rosales y Fortuny, por entonces en la capital. Allí estudia los grandes maestros del Prado y copia a Velázquez. Visita Marruecos con Peralta y de allí toma numerosos temas para sus cuadros. A partir de 1876 se convierte en el pintor más cotizado y admirado entre marchantes y coleccionistas. Desde 1877 Villegas reside frecuentemente en Venecia, marco inagotable para la ambientación de sus múltiples composiciones, donde plasma bien al óleo con la técnica de la acuarela los temas costumbristas, y de vistas venecianas, línea argumental que tiene su continuación en los trabajos de su discípulo Salvador Sánchez Barbudo. Participa en la ilustración, frente a Pradilla y otros afamados pintores europeos, de una magna Biblia, encargo de una editorial holandesa. A fines de 1898, Villegas es nombrado director de la Academia española de Bellas Artes en Roma. Más tarde, instalado nuevamente en Madrid, es nombrado director del Museo de la Real Academia de San Fernando en 1903.
    A Good Plan (1871, 41x32cm; _ ZOOMable)
    The Siesta (1874, 112x70cm)
    In the Garden (36x22cm)
    Noticias de él (61x90cm)
    El viejo y el año nuevo (1915, 60x36cm; 640x386pix, 43kb)
    Afternoon Break aka Ladies in a Garden (43x58cm; 719x1000pix, 247kb)
    — (Old Arab with a headache?) (29x22cm; 557x428pix, 109kb) _ main detail (531x888pix, 90kb)

    1766 Adriaan Meulemans, Dutch artist who died on 30 May 1835.

    ^ 1759 Etienne-Barthélémy Garnier, French artist who died on 16 November 1849. — Relative? of artist Michel Garnier [1753-1819]? of architect Charles Garnier [06 November 1825 – 03 August 1898]? — Although he was given a sound Classical education to prepare for the magistrature, he found a painter’s career more alluring. Despite his late start, he had an impeccable record of success in competition with the students of Jacques-Louis David [30 Aug 1748 – 29 Dec 1825], whose influence he mostly resisted. Trained by Louis-Jacques Durameau [05 Oct 1733 – 03 Sep 1796], Gabriel-François Doyen [ 20 May 1726 – 13 Mar 1806] and Joseph-Marie Vien [18 Jun 1716 – 27 Mar 1809], he won second place in the Prix de Rome competition in 1787 with Death of Sedecius and first place in 1788 with a strenuously rhetorical Death of Tatius. Although his stay in Italy was abruptly ended by the Roman crisis of 1793, he completed before his return to Paris the course work and other pictures, including an academic study of Saint Jerome and several Classical subjects.
    — Garnier began his artist training late in life studying under Louis-Jacques Durameau, Gabriel-François Doyen and Joseph-Marie Vien. Despite his late start, he was quite talented and won second place in the 1787 Prix de Rome and first place the following year with a Death of Tatius. From 1788 to 1793 Garnier was a pensionnaire at the Académie de France in Rome in Palazzo Mancini. Upon his return to France in 1793, Garnier exhibited regularly at the Salons until 1846. His historical and antique subjects earned him great success and the artist became one of the favorite painters of the Empire and Restauration governments. He was even given the prestigious commission to decorate the ceiling of the Salle de Diane in the Louvre together with Pierre-Paul Prud'hon and Léonor Mérimée. While Garnier had a thriving career in his lifetime, even becoming President of the Académie, his reputation declined after his death and appreciation for his works has only recently been revived.
    –- S#*> Diane et des nymphes se reposant (1804, 125x179cm)

    ^ 1670 Louis Galloche, Parisian painter who died on 21 July 1761. He was a student of Louis Boullogne. In 1695 Galloche won the Prix de Rome and subsequently lived in Rome for two years. Because of a lull in royal patronage, Galloche was obliged, on his return to Paris, to accept commissions from churches and monasteries. Between 1706 and 1713 he painted, in collaboration with Louis de Silvestre, Saint Scholastica Praying for a Storm and scenes from the life of Saint Benedict for the refectory of St Martin-des-Champs, Paris. In 1711 he was received (reçu) as a member of the Académie Royale, Paris, on presentation of Hercules Restoring Alcestis to her Husband. He became professor at the Académie in 1720, rector in 1746 and chancellor in 1754. Between 1737 and 1751 he exhibited regularly at the Salons. — Galloche became the last important upholder of the classicising traditions of Le Brun; by the time of his death Boucher was in the ascendent. His innovations included taking his students out in to the countryside to examine the effects of nature and this is reflected in his use of realistic figure types, fresh colors and harmonious lighting. He became Chancellor of the Academy in 1754. The importance of Galloche was both as a painter in his own right and a teacher and leading influence on a whole generation of French painters, including François Lemoyne and Charles-Joseph Natoire and possibly Boucher. — François Lemoyne [1688-1737] and Charles-Joseph Natoire were students of Galloche.
    Galoches (781x690pix, 59kb) NOT Galloche and not by Galloche.
    Diane et Actéon (1732, 98x127cm; 640x842pix, 67kb) _ detail 1 (281x361pix, 12kb) _ detail 2 (310x332pix, 17kb) _ Galloche made three versions of this composition, different in tone. It seems reasonable to assume that this, the largest version, is the final one, partly from the evidence of the date and partly internally from the composition. Looking at the two right hand figures, (Actaeon and the seated nymph) and accepting the Hermitage version (46x81cm; 383x503pix, 34kb) as the first one, exhibited in the Salon of 1725, then the artist clearly changed the seated or crouching girl to a more satisfactory figure, falling backward in surprise, in the version sold in Monte Carlo in 1984. In the present painting, dated 1732, this nymph is retained but Actaeon, instead of brushing aside the foliage, balances himself with an outstretched arm holding a bow. This satisfactorily completes the composition in front of the distant landscape, the bow forming an elegant curve with the raised hand of the falling girl, but a clear pentiment of four fingers is still visible in the foliage, indicating the exact first version of Actaeon's own left hand. Although many other pentimenti are visible, these changes and the greater refinement of the central figure of Diana seem to indicate the completion of a composition that had clearly occupied Galloche for several years.
    Sainte Scholastique obtenant du ciel une pluie accompagnée de tonnerre pour empêcher son frère saint Benoît de partir et de la quitter (1703, 21x45cm; 364x800pix, 58kb) painted sketch.

    ^ 1552 (infant baptism) Lavinia Fontana Zappi, Italian painter who died on 11 Aug 1614. She was the daughter and student of Prospero Fontana [1512-1597]. She began her career in Bologna. She painted portraits and religious pictures, her earliest recorded work being The Holy Family (1525). In 1577 she married a rich student of her father's, G. P. Zappi, who became her “househusband” and assistant (including painting minor elements of paintings such as draperies), while her painting supported the family. She gave birth to 11 children, 3 outlived her. Her style was close to that of Correggio and Parmigianino in her religious works (often of considerable size), and to the Florentine Mannerists in her portraits. She moved to Rome in 1603, at the invitation of Pope Clement VIII, and died there.
    — Lavinia Fontana was trained as a painter by her father Prospero Fontana, himself one of the leading mannerist painters in their native city of Bologna. Like her father, she produced religious compositions, both large altarpieces as well as small, highly finished paintings for private devotion (such as, for example, the small and sumptuous signed copper of the Mystic Marriage of Saint Catherine). It was her portraiture, however, that gained her broader appeal and for which she is most famous today. By the late 1570's she had begun to receive distinguished portrait commissions, and her output in this genre was highly varied and original.
    — Lavinia Fontana was the first of a number of women artists in Bologna who achieved renown both in Italy as well as internationally. She was sought after by patrons who admired her ability to depict their positions in society and to flatter their appearances. In addition, Lavinia's use of precious colours and her ability to render fabrics and jewelry must have made her extremely popular amongst women (who rarely commissioned their own portraits). — LINKS
    –- S#*> Mystic Marriage of Saint Catherine with Saints Francis, Joseph and the Infant Baptist (1576, 26x20cm; /S#*>ZOOM to 1500x1103pix, 213kb)
    –- S#*> Costanza Alidosi (1594, 158x121cm; /S#*>ZOOM to 1645x1272pix, 195kb) She is seated and holding a small dog, a vase of flowers and some jewelry are on a table beside her, forming a still life. _ The present picture is roughly contemporary with Lavinia's Portrait of a Noblewoman from the Ruini family (1593), and Judith and Holofernes. Costanza Alidosi was the wife of Rodolfo Isolani. She died on 02 April 1597, aged 40, and was buried at the church of San Giacomo Maggiore in Bologna.
    Jesus Appears to Mary Magdalene (1581, 80x65cm; 934x750pix, 128kb) almost monochrome
    The Madonna and Child with a Donor (23x17cm; 1000x725pix, 409kb) _ The omophorion worn by the donor might suggest that he belonged to a Greek order. The presence of the three golden balls, widely recognised as a symbol of St. Nicholas of Bari, and the stem of white lilies, themselves an emblem of St. Anthony of Padua, might also indicate figures particularly venerated by the donor. The painting has been attributed to Lavinia Fontana by Dottssa. Maria Teresa Cantaro, confirmed in a letter of authenticity accompanying this lot. Cantaro dates the copper to a mature phase in Fontana's career, that is to the last decade of her life (1604-14). During this period the painter was residing in Rome and it is more than likely that she came into contact with the Greek order in the Abbazia di Grottaferrata and with the Collegio Greco in via del Babuino, Rome. The latter had been founded by Pope Gregory XIII Boncompagni in 1580 and had encouraged a renewed interest in the order. Fontana knew Pope Gregory well and had painted him in 1580-1585, thus strengthening her ties with the order, and in 1594 he had also painted Gregory's son, Jacopo Boncompagni and his wife Costanza Sforza (the latter hangs today in the Casino Boncompagni-Ludovisi).
    Minerva Dressing (1613, 1038x750pix, 108kb) almost monochrome.
    –- S#*> A Gentleman, 3/4 length, seated by an open window (126x96cm)
    Bianca Cappello Playing the Clavichord (76x60cm; 512x404pix, 44kb)
    — /S#*>A Girl (1584, round 10cm diameter) _ Herself the mother of eleven, Fontana depicted children with great charm and ease; her portraits of them in fact are often much more naturalistic than her portraits of adults, posed and painted with the great gravitas that her fully grown sitters no doubt required and admired. Fontana's attention to minute detail, however, was unwavering throughout her oeuvre, as in the case of the present painting. The sitter here is shown in a beautiful rose colored dress which is embroidered, and she wears a coral necklace, an ancient talisman to protect children from evil influences. The artist has used a soft modulation of the fleshtones, and a neutral background with heavy shadowing to give an overall sense of depth to the portrait. —(080810)


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