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DEATH: 1930 WOOD
BIRTHS: 1875 PUTHUFF — 1725 GREUZE

^ Born on 21 August 1875: Hanson Duvall Puthuff, US landscape painter, muralist, and portrait painter, who died on 12 May 1972.
— Born in Waverly, Missouri, Puthuff studied for one year at the Art Institute of Chicago before moving to Colorado in 1889 to study at University of Denver Art School, graduating in 1893. Puthuff established himself in Denver in 1894 as a commercial artist, producing signs and posters for an advertising firm. In 1903, he moved to Los Angeles, finding work as a billboard illustrator, a job he would keep for 23 years. Together with art writer Antony Anderson, Puthuff founded in 1906 the Art Students League of Los Angeles.
      During the next few years, Puthuff painted on his own time while continuing to work for commissions, including a set of dioramas for the Los Angeles Museum of Natural History. In 1926, he retired from commercial art to devote himself to fine art. He traveled widely in California, painting rolling hills and canyons, as well as the High Sierras.
      One of his first commissions after the decision to quit his commercial art career in 1926 was from the Santa Fe Railroad. Puthuff was hired to paint a series of views of the Grand Canyon which were to be used by the railroad for promotion and advertising. Grand Canyon (183x244cm) is a majestic painting of monumental proportions {to which this puny reproduction doesn't do justice, but it's all I found here to put, huff as I may.}
      Puthuff died in Corona Del Mar.

LINKS
Clouds of Spring (71x91cm; 661x849pix, 597kb)
San Gabriel Foothill (747x1012pix, 106kb)
Fall landscape with trees and mountains (329x475pix, 277kb)
Flame of Sunset (353x377pix, 42kb)
Southern California Hills (30x40cm; 406x552pix, 20kb)
Desert Rampart (1928, 66x76cm; 527x600pix, 310kb)
From my Terrace (61x76cm; 400x500pix, 34kb)
Summer Evening (61x76cm; 400x517pix, 45kb)
Sierra Morning (61x76cm; 500x644pix, 236kb)
Laguna Beach (480x640pix, 392kb)
Mountain Landscape with Stream (30x40cm; 400x547pix, 144kb)
Swinging Trails (30x40cm; 400x535pix, 230kb)
Carmel Valley (374x500pix, 229kb)
 

^ Died on 21 August 1930: John Christopher Wood, British painter born on 07 April 1901 commits suicide.
— He studied architecture at Liverpool University; there he met Augustus John, who encouraged him to take up painting seriously. On moving to London in 1920, he met Alphonse Kahn, a wealthy Jewish art collector who took him to Paris in 1921, where he enrolled at the Académie Julian and later at the Grande Chaumière. In Paris he met the Chilean diplomat, Antonio de Gandarillas, who introduced him to a number of painters, among them Picasso. In this period Wood’s contacts with artists in Paris were soon unrivalled among British artists.
— Wood was born in Knowsley, near Liverpool, son of Mrs. Clare Wood and Dr. Lucius Wood MD, a general practicioner. At fourteen, Wood began to draw during recuperation from septicemia, and went on to study architecture briefly at Liverpool University (1919-1920). In London in 1920, the French collector Alphonse Kahn invited him to Paris, where Wood studied drawing at the Académie Julian in 1921. He entered effortlessly into fashionable artistic circles, meeting Augustus John and the Chilean diplomat Antonio de Gandarillas, with whom he began to live. As well as providing financial support, Gandarillas introduced Wood to Picasso, Georges Auric, and Jean Cocteau, and to the use of opium. Although his painting was regarded as charmingly untutored, he learnt from these acquaintances, especially adopting the elegant line of Cocteau's drawings.
      By 1926 Wood was in a position to make designs for Romeo and Juliet for Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. When these designs were abandoned at the last moment, he concentrated on England, becoming a member of the London Group (1926) and the Seven and Five Society (1926-1930). He exhibited with Ben and Winifred Nicholson at the Beaux Arts Gallery (April-May 1927), becoming close to them personally and artistically. In particular, Winifred was supportive in the aftermath of his failed elopement with the painter and heiress Meraud Guinness (subsequently Meraud Guevara). He painted with the Nicholsons in Cumberland and Cornwall in 1928. On a trip to St Ives, he and Ben Nicholson encountered the fisherman painter Alfred Wallis, whose work answered a shared interest in 'primitive' expression and helped Wood to establish a personal style.
      A solo exhibition at Tooth's Gallery (April 1929) was followed by an exhibition with Nicholson at the Galerie Bernheim in Paris (May 1930), in which Wood showed paintings made in Brittany in 1929. The results of a second stay in Brittany (June-July 1930) were intended to open the Wertheim Gallery in London in October.
      Traveling with his paintings, Wood met his mother in Salisbury on 21 August 1930. Possibly believing himself pursued (an effect of withdrawal from opium), he threw himself under the London train. In deference to his mother, his death was often subsequently described as accidental.
      Posthumous exhibitions were held at the Wertheim Gallery (Feb 1931) and the Lefèvre Galleries (1932). In 1938 Wood's paintings were included in the British pavilion at the Venice Biennale. In the same year a major exhibition was organised by the Redfern Gallery at the New Burlington Galleries, which attempted to re-unite Wood's complete works, and gave impetus to Neo-Romanticism.

LINKS
Boat in Harbour, Brittany (1929, 79x108cm) _ Wood, a self-taught artist, spent much of his working life in Paris. However, towards the end of his short life he spent periods working in Cornwall and Brittany in pursuit of a 'naive' style of painting. In 1928 Wood visited Cornwall with his friends Ben and Winifred Nicholson. In St. Ives the two men came across Alfred Wallis, whose 'primitive', child-like paintings made a deep impression on their subsequent work. Wood made two trips to the Breton fishing port of Tréboul, in search of authentic, pre-industrial subjects for his art. This was painted during his first visit between July and September 1929. In all he produced at least forty paintings there.
     Boat in Harbour, Brittany was painted on a relatively large piece of poor quality millboard of the type favored by Wood when away from his studio. The white oil ground was applied in a single thick layer with a household brush, a practice common to the artist's other paintings on board, including Church at Tréboul and Douarnenez, Brittany. This is consistent with the commercial primer called Coverine, which Wood had recommended to the Nicholsons in the previous year for covering rejected compositions. The condition of Boat in Harbour suggests that the board was prepared by the artist himself, as the ground was applied over a label which remains visible where the rigging meets the main mast; its cursive inscription, '[?Leay]', remains partially legible though unintelligible. An attempt was made to strengthen the board after completion by tacking it to a pine stretcher; as a consequence of this arrangement, the layers of millboard have required consolidation at the edges and the tacks, which are visible along all sides, have had to be treated for rust. The brushstrokes of the ground provided a rough texture for the painting, which was washed and brushed in a thin layer over the preliminary pencil drawing. The white ground remains exposed in the sky, while in other areas, such as the gunwales, a little paint has been rubbed into the surface. The painter's casual technique is evident in the partially scratched-out figures on the quayside to the left. The use of scratching to lighten the surface and to reveal the layer below was one shared with Ben and Winifred Nicholson. Here it exposes pencil underdrawing; although the bonnets of the women have been repainted, the upper parts of their bodies have been left unresolved.
      Close observation of the surface indicates that the boat itself was painted first. The inky sea was painted into the textured ground around the boat, but before the drawing of the rigging for the furled sail to the right. The main burnt-red sail has been considerably adjusted. At first it billowed to the right in a curve that is still visible in the adjustments then made to the sea and the pier. The present position of the yardarm and the pushing sailor make the sail curve away more forcefully from the observer. This is associated with the ambiguous relationship of the boat and the port. The inward movement of the boat indicated by the sails appears to be contradicted by the tautness of the anchor chain and the slack rope to the dinghy. The port itself was first sketched in pencil but was only painted after the boat. This is especially noticeable in the thick working of the quay wall around the succinct handling of the foremast and sail. The evident speed of execution, facilitated by a reliance on familiar subject matter, suggests that Boat in Harbour may have been completed in one day, a practice of which Wood wrote later (letter to Mrs. Wood, 01 Jul 1930).
      Sailing boats were a passion for Wood, and he painted them throughout his short career. They were characteristically the central focus of the composition and seen in broadside, a view which favored the display of the activities of the crew and the detail of the rigging and equipment. Leaving Port (1927) helped to establish this format. The ship itself is painted in the smooth static style of the period, and Wood considered it one of his most successful (letter to Mrs Wood, 07 Sep 1927). Because of its greater size but compositional similarity Boat in Harbour may be considered the culmination of the ship paintings made during the spring of 1929, such as The Quay, Dieppe (1929). In 1930, he implied the frequency of the subject: 'I have painted a good deal of architecture and less boats for a change and this seems to make it easier to make a quieter composition'. (letter to Winifred Nicholson, July 1930)
      Boat in Harbour was probably painted during Wood's first trip to Brittany in the summer of 1929, when he visited Dinard, and then stayed at the twin ports of Douarnenez and Tréboul. By 30 July he was in Douarnenez but, by his own admission, it took him some time to get down to work. On 15 August, he wrote to his mother in England:
      It is the most charming place with a lovely port and beautiful bathing beach not far away on the right [to] which one walks through cornfields and pine woods, on the left is another little port with lovely boats that go to Spain and Ireland to fish, and then another beautiful beach with nice little hotels and hills and woods and the most lovely country behind. It is more like Devonshire than Cornwall, but much the same.
      His comparison to Cornwall implicitly referred to his mother's Cornish ancestry, and to his extended stay there with the Nicholsons in the previous year. Wood was not entirely isolated in Brittany. He maintained his correspondence with the Nicholsons and others. What is more, the poet Max Jacob (of whom he painted a portrait, now in the Musée de Quimper) and the painter Christian ('B?b?') Berard were staying at the same Douarnenez hotel, and Wood was joined by his mistress, Frosca Munster.
      Towards the end of August Wood rented a house across the river at Tréboul. It was there that he did most of his painting. His letters confirm boats as his favored subject, and indicate that his experience of them came on several different levels. Initially, he was an observer of the devout and apparently timeless life of the fishing communities. This picturesque aspect had been exploited since the end of the nineteenth century by academic painters, such as Jules Breton [01 May 1827 – 05 Jul 1906], and avant-garde painters, such as Paul Gauguin [07 Jun 1848 – 08 May 1903]. Just as they had shown peasants dressed in traditional costume, so Wood placed figures on the quayside in Boat in Harbour wearing Breton bonnets which signal the location. The casual handling and rich coloring of Wood's paintings may also be seen as lying within the tradition established by Gauguin.
      The view of a timeless ruralism found in Brittany was made more immediate for Wood by his sympathy for the work of Alfred Wallis [08 Aug 1855 – 29 Aug 1942], itself primarily of ships. Wood's extended period in St Ives in the previous autumn resulted in a genuine admiration. This had been succinctly expressed when he wrote to Frosca Munster (28 Oct. 1928): 'Winifred says that no one has taken the slightest interest in Wallis's things in London, how stupid people are, uncivilised brutes. How do you think I will sell my pictures which are far less good than his.' Wallis painted out of his own experience of the subject, creating a pictorial parallel for the original activity, whether fishing, putting into port or navigating by recognizable headlands. This immediacy had a particular resonance for Wood and he considered the fisherman painter one of his most important teachers. His example was reflected in the loosening of Wood's technique and the greater spontaneity in brushwork which took place between Leaving Port, 1927 and Boat in Harbour. Evidence is also found in the casual nailing of the board of Boat in Harbour to the stretcher, a practice used by Wallis, and in the detail of the boat itself. Indeed, the closely comparable image of a Penzance boat in harbor, confirmed that Wood recognised the fishing boats on both sides of the Channel as representations of the sort of international exchange of which he had written to his mother. In relation to the subject of Boat in Harbour, it is worth noting that Wood was also an experienced sailor. The delight he had in boats was a recurring theme. In an undated letter to his mother from Tréboul, he wrote: I have a little sailing boat which I adore, I sit in and glide along looking quietly at all the things I love most, I see the lovely fishing boats with their huge brown sails against the dark dark green fir trees and little white houses instead of always against the sea and an insipid sky. We go in our little boat in the evening to Douarnenez dine with some friends, she [Frosca] plays bridge and back we go. (Aug 1929) His use of this boat around Tréboul, Douarnenez and their inshore waters meant that he had to handle it amongst the large fishing vessels built for crossing Biscay. As with many other images of ships, Wood was careful to include in Boat in Harbour the registry number, Dz2134, of a boat registered at Douarnenez. The relevant records are no longer extant in the Archives du Service Historique de la Marine in Brest, that would show whether it was a real boat. The port entrance is that of Tréboul, with the church tower of Saint Joseph introduced at the left. However, as Barthelemy has observed, Wood took liberties with the view in including the church and the foreground quay, and excluding the Ile Tristan. Despite these modifications, the particularity is persuasive. The efforts of the sailors on board the boat are strenuous and set against the schematic zigzag division of land and sea created around the boat by the harbour wall. The extension of the masts out of the top and right side of the painting means that the structure of the boat determines and dominates the composition. It appears close-up and immediate. However, it is notable that in comparable images of ships Wood introduced mythological and symbolic references associated with Cocteau's 'rappel à l'ordre'. In the contemporary Le Phare (1929) a red-sailed ship is juxtaposed with playing cards and the newspaper of the title to evoke a sense of fatality. By early September 1929 Wood had exhausted both his creative and his financial resources in Brittany, but he was satisfied with his output. He wrote to his mother on 09 September: 'I have learnt so much and made huge progress in my work which I will take the opportunity of showing to certain people in Paris on my way to London'. The success of his summer's work secured Wood's solo exhibition in Paris in the following May at the Galerie Bernheim. Boat in Harbour was amongst those shown. The painter placed great importance on this Parisian début and was aware that it could make his reputation. However, he became worried about whether he had enough work to fill the gallery, and he generously suggested that it should be shared with Ben Nicholson. In his letter to Bernheim of 16 March, written in awkwardly formal French, he explained his thinking: “In relation to my exhibition at your gallery of 15-30 May 1930, to which I look forward with great impatience and for which I will have some beautiful canvases - I think that I will not have sufficient really to fill your two immense rooms, not having large canvases like Max Ernst, for instance, and I would much prefer to exhibit twenty-five or thirty select pieces. This is what I would like to propose to you. Ben Nicholson, a friend of mine and the painter whom I admire the most in England among the young and who has in his work the same character as in mine, will be ready to exhibit twenty-five canvases in your gallery. He is well known to your London friends the Lefevre Galleries, and Mr Macdonald, who has given Nicholson two exhibitions, will give you all the information about his painting. I propose that he has this exhibition at the same time as me, that he takes one room and I the other, in that way you would have more variety and a greater chance of selling well. He is well known in England, being the most inventive painter with great sensibility combined with an exquisite coloring. You could put on the catalogue 'Exhibition of Two English Painters' for example.” (16 March 1930) The dealer acquiesced in this plan. Wood's work was well received, interest being shown particularly by the English collector and prospective dealer Lucy Carrington Wertheim. According to Wood's letter to his mother of 13 May, Wertheim already had 'a lot of my pictures' and had come from London to see the exhibition. There she was responsible for the majority of the eleven sales made. She subsequently reported to the Tate Gallery that Boat in Harbour, 'was purchased by myself from the artist in the summer of 1930. It hung in the place of honour at the Georges Bernheim Exhibition in the spring of that year (May?)' (8 April 1962). Sales were restricted primarily as a result of the Wall Street Crash of October 1929 which, as Wood's letters indicate, had hit his fashionable friends, and shaken the confidence of those not directly affected. Wertheim's interest was, therefore, of significance not only because the painter was continually in need of such support but also because it came at a time when support was increasingly unlikely from any other quarter. It should be noted that after the painter's death that summer, Ben Nicholson drew up a list of 'some of Kit's good ptgs' many of which had featured in their joint exhibition; from its size Boat in Harbour is likely to be 'a large ptg (the largest in Paris show) not sold' (letter to H.S. Ede, Aug or Sep 1930). On the strength of her purchases and her continued interest in the artist and his work, Wertheim proposed to become Wood's London dealer and to open a new gallery with an exhibition of his work. It was for this show that he worked so feverishly during the following summer spent at Tréboul. By her own account, Wertheim found that there was a perceptible change in style between the two seasons of work in Tréboul: 'I had got so used to the sombre depth and colouring of the paintings I now owned by him - "The Yellow Man," "The Yellow Horse," "Purple Crocus," "Dieppe," "Boat in Harbour," etc., that this new mood in which he was painting came to me as something of a shock'. Although she warmed to subsequent works, it was the 1929 paintings that formed the basis of her enthusiasm. As a result of their close working relationship, Wertheim built a choice collection of Wood's late paintings which included also what she had always called pendants to Boat in Harbour: Evening, Brittany and The Crab Boat, Brittany. As the term suggests, these works are smaller but closely associated in subject and detail. The Crab Boat, Brittany (also known as Tréboul, French Crab Boat) shows a very similar boat with red sails setting to sea between bonneted women in the foreground and a port behind. In particular, the washy handling of the inky blue sea is very close to that in Boat in Harbour. Having said this, there is no indication that the relationship between the paintings suggested by the collector was one specified by the artist.
      The strength of the works from the last eighteen months of Wood's life secured his posthumous reputation. Without being too obviously incapable of being idealized, the seaside scenes had a certain uncompromising strangeness which Wood knew very well how to capture. In Boat in Harbour, a good mature painting, poetry is lasting, because it is not merely a poetry of subject. The poetry is in the paint, in the colors and the forms of the picture. Wood's gift as a colorist is very marked. The dark intensity of color in such paintings as Evening, Brittany and French Crab-boat, Tréboul, is equally personal and impressive. It is clear also that many of these paintings, so lyrical and immediate in their effect, have highly organized designs of great ability. When these gifts of noble design, subtle and unusual color harmony, and lyrical poetry are fused in works such as Boat in Harbour, Brittany, it does not seem an exaggeration to describe the result as a masterpiece.
A Fishing Boat in Dieppe Harbour (1929, 65x81cm) _ In 1929 Wood wrote to his mother that he had found 'a very good painting place'. He was writing from Dieppe where he had arrived a few days earlier with his friend Frosca Munster. The Normandy port, renowned for its scallops and herrings brought in by the fishing fleet, had attracted many artists, notably Walter Sickert [31 May 1860 – 22 Jan 1942] who had painted the buildings of the town, and Georges Braque [13 May 1882 – 31 Aug 1963]. Braque had visited Dieppe in 1928, and built a house and a small studio in nearby Varengeville the following year. He painted the foreshore and studies of small boats, which Wood may have seen. Furthermore Dieppe would have reminded Wood of St Ives, where he had stayed with his friends Ben Nicholson [10 Apr 1894 – 06 Feb 1982] and Winifred Nicholson [1893-1981] a few months earlier. There he had become fascinated with boats and the traditional life of fishing communities, a subject that was to become a recurring theme in his paintings during his last years. A Fishing Boat in Dieppe Harbour is characteristic of many of Wood's paintings from the late 1920s. Many art historians, including Charles Harrison, have made comparisons between these paintings and the work of Alfred Wallis [1855-1942]. Wood had met Wallis, a reclusive seventy year old Cornish fisherman, whilst staying in St Ives in 1928. Harrison suggests that, following frequent visits to Wallis's studio to see his naïve paintings of sailing boats on irregular shaped pieces of cardboard and wood, Wood's paintings became more robust in shape and color. Wood's interest in the design of Wallis's little pictures is evident from the manner in which he allows the boat to dominate the composition. In addition the boat is poised at an angle to the sea, like an object on a table top. This enabled Wood, who himself was an experienced sailor, to include details of the equipment and rigging. Behind the harbor wall he paints the tall cliffs, the homes of the fishermen in Le Pollet, and a weather vane, which appears to be out of scale to the rest of the scene. In contrast to many of the pictures Wood made at Dieppe, in which he used a neutral palette of black, white, grays, and creams, A Fishing Boat in Dieppe Harbour is richly colored. The turquoise sea and threatening grey sky contrasts with the brightly colored houses and yellow wooden boards in the boat. A preparatory drawing for this painting in the collection of Aberdeen Art Gallery and Museums reveals that, despite its childlike appearance, Wood thought carefully about the composition of the finished work. He integrated the boat fully into a complex interplay of lines, and color values, creating a composition that is at once densely structured and rigorously simplified.
      The painting was done in oil paint on stretched, primed canvas. It is framed in a deep molded wooden frame painted with off-white housepaint. The artist did not prepare his own support but acquired it ready-stretched, sized and primed on a French fixed wooden strainer. The priming is probably oil, it is well-bodied but thinly-applied to create a smooth surface. The artist drew out the design probably in pencil and then filled in the regions with oil paint, probably artist's tube paint. In each pre-defined area the paint appears to have been used directly from the tube in simple mixtures of a basic color and white. Linear detail is painted on top with a thin round brush. In the townscape these lines are added after the underlying paint was dry but in the nets and baskets the artist worked into wet paint, pushing and scoring through the pasty surface with his brush. In this way he carved colored ripples and waves into the paint. The sky and the cliffs are created from heavy applications of thick paint brushed in short staccato strokes. Similarly, the sea, which was the last part to be painted, is filled in methodically in green and various quantities of white and blue. The paint is distorted by a thin layer of loosely applied natural resin varnish, which has now yellowed and is covered by a layer of black surface dirt. There is a small amount of overpaint at one corner but otherwise the painting is in very good condition.
Church at Tréboul (1930, 73x92cm) _ Wood spent June and July 1930 painting in Brittany, basing himself in Tréboul, close to Douarnenez. This area was popular with both British and French painters and was close to Pont-Aven, which had been made famous by Gauguin whose work, together with that of Van Gogh, was important to Wood. In the space of forty days Wood painted some sixty canvases both from life and, at night, from postcards, mostly depicting scenes from the daily lives of the fishing community. Moving from the depiction of boats to architecture he claimed helped him to paint a 'quieter composition'.
     Church at Tréboul was painted on poor quality soft millboard, which has been scuffed and damaged at the edges. The thick ground of white commercial oil was applied with a decorator's brush. It is consistent with the artist's own preparations of similar boards which he used in the last years of his life, especially when away from his studio. The paint layer combines artist's and decorator's oil. The figures were painted quite thickly but, typically of Wood, the exposed ground and underdrawing are visible on the apse of the choir. A number of small abrasions and losses in the sky and the roof of the church have required restoration.
      Wood spent periods during the summers of 1929 and 1930 painting in Douarnenez and Tréboul in Brittany. During the second stay at Tréboul in June-July 1930, he was tremendously productive, making some three dozen paintings. At the beginning of this stay Wood wrote from the Hotel Ty-Mad describing his plans to his mother:
      I expect I shall be here at least 6 weeks as I want to do my very best work possible. It is extraordinary how I have to hurry hurry from one thing to another, but its just the one moment or chance I have to get one, and for everyone else it seems almost impossible, quite apart from making a possible living. (12 June 1930)
      This urgency was brought on by the prospective exhibition at Lucy Wertheim's Gallery in London in October.
      Church at Tréboul followed the preparatory drawing, Study for 'Church at Tréboul' and it is probable that they were both made during this period. Wood gave his mother a glimpse of his working arrangements: 'I have to have two rooms on account of the smell of the paint. They are charming simple rooms with a table, chair, nice clean bed with white cover, a wash basin with running water and white walls peints à la chaux and they are cheerful.' (11 July 1930) This and other comments suggest that he did not paint outside, but enlarged his paintings from drawings made on the spot or even from post cards on which he made color notes. This reduces the possibility that the painting was made from the drawing at some stage between the two stays in Brittany, as has previously been suggested. It is notable that Church at Tréboul is not recorded as having been in Wood's show at the Galerie Bernheim in May 1930, and this would indicate either that he did not consider it worthy of inclusion or that it had not yet been completed.
      The church is that of Saint-Joseph in Tréboul. Designed by the architect J.M. Abgrall in 1881 and bearing the dedication date 'XIX 8bre 1884' over the main portal, it was built as the parochial church to replace the Chapelle Saint-Jean which had become too small. Barthelemy has indicated that Wood must have made his study from the garden of the presbytery opposite. The painting differs from the drawing in a number of particulars. The details of the architecture are repeated, but the general viewpoint appears to be further back and from a slightly more elevated position. Although familiar to the painter, the adjusted view would probably have required other drawings in addition to Study for 'Church at Tréboul', as it includes the whole of the spire and a broader view of the houses to either side. The effect is of less concentration upon the church and a greater sense of its position within the village. This was primarily a physical presence, and Wood repeated the contrast found in the drawing between the detail of the village and the open sky above and wall below. That this juxtaposition interested Wood is confirmed by the slightly smaller Tréboul Church. It is seen from further to the left, with the tower diminished in relation to the bulk of the southern flank of the building, but with the white wall assuming its important compositional role.
      The expansion of the context of the church may also be seen as emphasising a spiritual centrality. Wood showed his concern with the places of devotion within the Breton communities in paintings such as Breton Women at Prayer (1930). While there is a sophisticated fascination with the religious fervency and superstition of the peasants, there is also a suggestion of admiration for the simplicity of belief. The introduction of the figures in pairs of contrasting ages in Church at Tréboul (which constitutes the most important change from the drawing) may be seen as part of this concern. Like the boats in the other painting (which have been introduced despite being some distance from the sea), they are sheltered by the wall below the church. They wear local costumes and are drawn in a deliberately faux naif style. It is in these details that the imaginative painting contrasts most tellingly with the drawing made on the spot. The simplicity of style and subject in Wood's Breton paintings made them easily acceptable to a broad audience.
Douarnenez, Brittany (1930, 33x46cm)
Landscape near Vence (1927, 54x65cm; 529x640pix, 71kb) _ Wood was in the south of France for a prolonged stay in 1927, when he painted this landscape, in which he captured both the topographical details and the idyllic mood of this Provençal town.
–- S#*> Street in Marseille (744x900pix, 189kb)
–- S#*> (2 scenes of the French Riviera) (2 pictures in 1 image, 1925, each 168x61cm; each 327x900pix, together 141kb) _ These two panels were almost certainly inspired by Wood's experiences in the South of France in April of 1925. Through Alphonse Kahn, Wood had, on his arrival in Paris in 1921, been introduced to the Chilean gentleman-diplomat Tony Gandarillas, and by this date their relationship had deepened to an inseparable bond. Despite his fluctuating levels of solvency, Gandarillas' cosmopolitan connections meant that Wood was soon mixing not only in the rarefied social world of the Parisian beau-monde, but holidaying in the most fashionable hang-outs with the leading exponents of the European avant-garde. Foremost amongst these were Picasso and Cocteau of whom Wood had recently proclaimed `Together they have created the modern art of this century'. Of major significance too was Serge Diaghilev, who as producer of the Ballets Russes in its 1920s heyday, commanded unprecedented influence as an arbiter of taste. His sell-out productions would see Nijinsky dancing to the music of Stravinsky against a back-drop designed by Picasso, and Cocteau lurking ever-present in the wings.
      In a letter to his mother dated 16th April 1925, Wood relays his enthusiasm for the Marseilles set: ‘All my friends the artists are here. Picasso is here and I see a lot of him which gives me more pleasure than anything... he is a great genius and the Leonardo of today. He bought me a drawing book yesterday... The Russian Ballet is here also... so with Diaghilev... and his artists... we are like one big happy family of Artists...’
      Wood's great excitement at being a part of this world is apparent not only in his letters but also in his paintings at this date. The influence of Picasso's monumental neo-classical figure style is particularly clear in these panels. The firmness and continuity of line is also something that Wood had learnt from Picasso, as well as from Cocteau with whom he had recently been sharing his studio in Paris. By the summer of 1925, Wood had begun to understand the concept of tackling complexity with simplicity. It was Cocteau's lesson, and Picasso's too to some extent, and in a year or so it became the key instinct that he shared with one of his closest artistic allies, Ben Nicholson.
       The glimpse of sea and the passing boat in the right hand panel clearly anticipate Wood's later work in St Ives and Brittany. The coast held an intrinsic fascination for Wood even at this early date. But as a setting, it was also a deeply fashionable choice. Diaghilev's ballets of 1924 (Le Train Bleu) and 1925 (Les Matelots) both had sea-side backdrops, the former designed by Picasso showing two amply-proportioned belles running along the beach hand-in-hand. Wood wished more than anything to be chosen himself to design for the ballet, and it must be no coincidence that 1925 was the year in which he first tried his hand at large scale, decorative pieces with a narrative theme. Once back in London, Wood painted his vast four-fold decorative screen (Beach Scene with Bathers, Pier and Ships) depicting bathers and sailors in a seascape: it was his most ambitious project to date and was met with great acclaim. Though less ambitious in scale, the two panels were undoubtedly done in the same vein. They are to be read as another example of the young artist's capabilities in the field of decorative design. Though they are experimental works influenced by the considerable example of his artistic mentors, Wood was never a mere pasticheur. The influences that he assimilated during the creation of these panels were to under-pin the progress of his entire remaining artistic career.
–- S#*> St. Ives (586x900pix, 120kb)
–- A Girl (1575x1005pix, 163kb)
–- S#*> Dahlias in a White Pot (735x900pix, 120kb)
–- S#*> Flowers in a White Pot (495x600pix, 63kb)
–- S#*> Girl With a Parrot (1115x900pix, 187kb)
–- S#*> Breton Peasant Family in a Pony Trap (900x1089pix, 157kb) In case you think that a pony trap must be somewhere in size between an elephant trap and a mouse trap, it is. But it was not designed to catch ponies, or even Breton peasant families: it was pulled by a pony and Breton peasant families, or even single bankers who were not from Britanny or even France, could ride in it:
      _ trap (noun) ... 5 : a light usually one-horse carriage with springs
–- S#*> Drying Nets, Treboul Harbour (1930, 79x110cm; 632x900pix, 163kb) During a period of just over a month, between the middle of June and the middle of July 1930, Christopher Wood produced a remarkable body of work, comprising around forty paintings, that can be regarded as his final swan song. Drying Nets, Tréboul is the second-largest work that he produced at this time (and, in fact - decorative work aside - during his entire career). This is important not simply because of the resulting grandeur of the finished painting but because the artist never allowed himself to paint on this scale until he felt that he was capable of doing so. As such, the present work is one that has been singled out as a highlight of Christopher Wood's career, not only by critics but also, apparently, by the artist himself.
      Christopher Wood had spent time in Brittany the previous summer as a means of removing himself from the overbearing opium-spoking environment that characterised his life in Paris. He returned in the middle of June 1930 to the tiny village of Tréboul in the company of Frosca Munster. There, in a burst of creative energy underpinned by a newly acquired vision, he produced a series of paintings that herald what was to be hisfinal stage of artistic maturity. After years of experimentation, Wood finally found in Brittany his own artistic identity.
      In a letter to Lucy Wertheim dated 10th July 1930, Wood explained, `This year's work is in the same spirit as last year's but much further on, much more composed and reflective, not so poetic, but sounder and more subtle... Max Jacob said that I paint `des arbres plein d'oiseaux' which is a very beautiful way of expressing fullness and feeling. (quoted in Richard Ingleby, op.cit., p.243).
      Wood's paintings of this period are distinguished by their calmness and simplicity of approach. Unlike so many of his paintings of the 1920s which openly divulge the influences that he had absorbed from the European avant-garde, these works are peculiarly English and independent in style and feeling. The subject matter certainly reminded Wood very strongly of the Cornish coast, where he had recently spent a good deal of time with Ben and Winifred Nicholson. But it is the cool, dark palette of this late period that accentuates the Englishness of the scenes: the watery blue of the skies, the earthy green of the fields and the glassy grey-green of these seas. Eric Newton described the change in palette as the sunshine of Fra Angelico giving way to the thunder of El Greco (op.cit., p.53).
      In his 1938 monograph, Newton discusses at length Wood's skill in imbuing the Breton scenes with a sense of mysticism. Writing of the `tricks' that he employs, Newton comments on `Those little trees and houses that break the skyline and seem to gesticulate (the windmill for instance, in `Drying Nets, Tréboul Harbour'...) - what other painter has used such motives.' (op.cit., p.49-50). He also draws comparison between Wood's great compositional facility, so clearly stated in the present work, and that of Poussin. `The interior organisation of ``Drying Nets'' is of the same order (on less ambitious scale) as that which underlies one of Poussin's elaborately contrived inventions. The stresses and strains, the rhythms and counter-rhythms are all there' (op.cit., p.57).
      Drying Nets, Tréboul Harbour summarizes all that has gone before and points to the direction along which his work would have developed had circumstances been different. As such, Drying Nets is one of the most important works upon which Christopher Wood's enduring reputation now rests. Augustus John summed up his impression of Wood's last works in a letter to the artist's mother in 1932. Having just visited the memorial exhibition at Reid and Lefevre, where he had seen Mrs Wood but not spoken to her, he wrote: `Words failed me yesterday to tell you how I loved Kit's last wonderful pictures. His last months seem to have been passed in a flame of creative energy and so he has burnt himself out gloriously.'
–- S#*> Still Life (696x900pix, 145kb) hastily painted teapots, cup, pipe, pouch (?), MATH (sic) box.
The Fisherman's Farewell (1928, 28x70cm) _ Traditionally, this has been seen as a portrait of Wood’s friends Ben and Winifred Nicholson with their first child. They are shown against the backdrop of the harbor of St. Ives, then a fishing village and an established artists colony. It was painted the year in which Wood and Ben first met Alfred Wallis, the untutored painter whose instinctive style endorsed their own consciously ‘naïve’ mode of painting.
Zebra and Parachute (1930, 46x56cm) The zebra is in the foreground of an industrial landscape. The parachute, with a person hanging from it, is in the sky far background.

—(090820)
^ Born on 21 August 1725: Jean-Baptiste Greuze, French Rococo Era painter and draftsman who died on 21 March 1805.
—      Born on in Tournus (Saône-et-Loire), he studied under C. Grandon at Lyon before moving c. 1750 to Paris. His studies at the Académie were desultory, but he was agréé in 1755 with La lecture de la Bible which attracted attention in the Salon that year.
      In 1557 his patron Louis Gougenot, abbé de Chezal-Benôit, took him to Italy where Marigny also favored him with two commissions from Mme. de Pompadour and where he painted La Paresseuse Italienne and Les Œufs Cassés, both of which were praised at the 1757 Salon.
      In 1759 Greuze married Anne-Gabrielle Babuti whose extravagance and infidelity were to cause him much hardship.
      Greuze's moral genre scenes, combining a topical sensibility with the domesticity of seventeenth-century Dutch masters, attracted Diderot's praise at successive Salons: 'c'est la peinture morale . . le pinceau n'a-t-il pas été assez et trop longtemps consacré à la débauche et au vice? Ne devons-nous pas être satisfait de le voir concourir enfin avec la poésie dramatique à nous toucher, à nous instruire, à nous corriger et à nous inviter à la vertu?'
      By 1769 Greuze had also shown some distinguished portraits and established a Russian clientèle, but in that year his exhibited morceau de réception (eight years overdue), the ambitious poussiniste history The Emperor Severus Reprimanding his Son Caracalla, was much criticized and he was reçu only as a peintre de genre. He consequently withdrew from the Salon for thirty years, exhibiting privately in his Louvre studio.
      In the 1770s Greuze achieved a marked commercial success with engravings of his subject pictures, and by the end of the decade he was turning increasingly to painting languid têtes d'expression (of which the 4th Marquess of Hertford became an uncritical admirer). In 1792 he painted Napoléon as an artillery Captain (whole-length), and in 1793 he joined the Commune des Arts, directed by Restout and David. He finally divorced his wife the same year.
      Greuze exhibited again at the Salon in 1800, 1801 and 1804 and died in Paris on 21 March 1805. His career had been hampered both by his wife and by his inordinate vanity; 'C'est un excellent artiste', wrote Diderot, 'mais une bien mauvaise tête'.
— Greuze had a great success at the 1755 Salon with his Father Reading the Bible to His Children and went on to win enormous popularity with similar sentimental and melodramatic genre scenes. His work was praised by Diderot as ‘morality in paint’, and as representing the highest ideal of painting in his day. He also wished to succeed as a history painter, but his Septimius Severus Reproaching Caracalla (1769) was rejected by the Salon, causing him acute embarrassment.
      Much of Greuze's later work consisted of titillating pictures of young girls, which contain thinly veiled sexual allusions under their surface appearance of mawkish innocence; The Broken Pitcher , for example, alludes to loss of virginity. With the swing of taste towards Neoclassicism his work went out of fashion and he sank into obscurity at the Revolution in 1789.
      At the very end of Greuze's career he received a commission to paint a portrait of Napoléon (1804), but he died in poverty. His huge output enriches many museums.
— Greuze was named an associate member of the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, Paris, in 1755 on the strength of a group of paintings that included genre scenes, portraits and studies of expressive heads (têtes d’expression). These remained the essential subjects of his art for the next 50 years, except for a brief, concentrated and unsuccessful experiment with history painting in the late 1760s, which was to affect his later genre painting deeply.
      Though his art has often been compared with that of Jean-Siméon Chardin in particular and interpreted within the context of Neo-Classicism in general, it stands so strikingly apart from the currents of its time that Greuze’s accomplishments are best described, as they often were by the artist’s contemporaries, as unique. He was greatly admired by connoisseurs, critics and the general public throughout most of his life.
      His reputation declined towards the end of his life and through the early part of the 19th century, to be revived after 1850, when 18th-century painting returned to favor, by such critics as Edmond and Jules de Goncourt in their book L’Art du dix-huitième siècle. By the end of the century Greuze’s work, especially his many variations on the Head of a Girl, fetched record prices, and his Broken Pitcher was one of the most popular paintings in the Louvre. The advent of modernism in the early decades of the 20th century totally obliterated Greuze’s reputation. It was only in the 1970s, with increased sale prices, important museum acquisitions and fresh analyses of his art by young historians, that Greuze began to regain the important place that he merits in the history of French art of the 18th century.
— Greuze's students included Claude Hoin, Joseph Ducreux, Constance Mayer, Pierre-Alexandre Wille.
^
LINKS
–- Self~Portrait (77kb _ .ZOOM to 338kb)
–- Portrait d'une Jeune Fille (1777, 57x48cm; 126kb)
–- Le Citoyen Bernard Dubard (1799, 67x54cm; 176 kb _ .ZOOM to 324kb)
–- Tête d'un Jeune Garçon (1223x969pix, 92kb _ ZOOM to 2448x1939pix, 726kb, and admire close-up the crackling of the aged paint) if not by Greuze, at least “in the manner of Greuze”. Crackled all over, badly in need of restoration.
–- Un Garçon et son Chien (708x600pix, 28kb)
–- Le Conte Stroganov enfant (1778; 942x808pix, 43kb _ .ZOOM to 1323x1115pix, 55kb)
–- Le Paralytique (1763; 973x919pix, 80kb _ .ZOOM to 1458x1378pix, 113kb)
–- La Malédiction Paternelle (1777; 803x1031pix, 157kb _ .ZOOM to 939x1545pix, 121kb)
–- Un écolier endormi sur son livre (1755; 822x879pix, 65kb; _ .ZOOM to 2036x2446pix, 475kb)
–- Le Geste Napolitain (1757; 812x1051pix, 114kb _ .ZOOM to 2031x2627pix, 881kb)
–- Le Cordonnier Ivre (1780; 878x1219pix, 163kb _ .ZOOM to 2029x2590pix, 1500kb)
–- Indolence aka La Paresseuse Italienne (1757; 812x1051pix, 114kb;_ .ZOOM to 2641x2000pix, 881kb)
–- Jeune Fille Pleurant son Oiseau Mort (1765; ovale 880x1016pix, 77kb _ .ZOOM to 2378x2032pix, 475kb)
–- Le Pot Cassé (1785, ovale 110x85cm; 985x799pix, 74kb;_ .ZOOM to 2479x1994pix, 425kb) _ The painting shows a young girl at a well. One sees immediately that Greuze was concerned to convey eroticism in the Rococo manner, the badly proportioned lion of the well [“bear”ly seen in the shadows at the right: you may need to set your screen to its brightest] in the antique style being only a fashionable attribute. — see a more innocent, or more subtle, .Le Vase Cassé  by Bouguereau [30 November 1825 – 19 August 1905]
–- The Broken Mirror (1763, 56x46cm; 728x600cm, 34kb) _ The Hogarthian morality shows the consequences of thoughtlessness; everything is in disorder, and both the mirror and the girl's reputation are shattered.
The Broken Eggs (1756, 73x94cm) _ This picture was painted in Rome, but despite the Italian costumes and setting, the source of the iconography is a seventeenth-century Dutch painting by Frans van Mieris the Elder, The Broken Eggs, which Greuze knew through an engraving. The broken eggs symbolize the loss of virginity. The little boy trying to repair one of the eggs represents the uncomprehending innocence of childhood. This picture was praised in Rome, and it attracted favorable comment when exhibited in Paris in the Salon of 1757. One critic noted that the young girl had a pose so noble that she could embellish a history painting. Exhibited with the present picture was a pendant, The Neapolitan Gesture of 1757. In it, the same four models appear, but the seducer is foiled by the old woman.
Complaining about the Watch (1775, 79x61cm) _ In contrast with Chardin Greuze increased his popularity by taking his scenes out into villages and emphasizing the humble rank of his actors. The rustic fallacy was only one chord of falseness played on by Greuze. Anything that might have been a hint in Chardin becomes in Greuze an over-stated illustration: we must now witness those countless anecdotes with doves and broken mirrors in all of which there is a confused appeal to sentimentality and a lack of confidence in art that is unsupported by narrative. Greuze made the naive mistake that a moving anecdote will make a moving work of art. He begot a fearful progeny of nineteenth-century academic work throughout Europe from which came nothing except the problem picture. That he was quite capable of apprehending and conveying reality is shown by his often excellent portraits, but he wished to make some more striking contribution to art. He did indeed succeed in expressing something of the spirit of his age; he spoke the new language, as foreign to Chardin as to Boucher, of the heart.
Votive Offering to Cupid (1767, 146x113cm) _ The girl's costume, her act of sacrifice, and the architectural details evoke antiquity, though such academism is not easisly accomodated by Greuze's easy sentimentality.
George Gougenot de Croissy (1758, 81x64cm; 934x739pix, 74kb) _ It is probably shortly after the 14 March 1757 marriage of George Gougenot de Croissy and Marie-Angélique de Varenne, the daughter of the King's equerry and counselor-secretary, that Greuze painted their portraits. He charged them a lot less than his usual exorbitant fees, according to a totally unfounded rumor, because he was admonished: “Gouge not Gougenot!”. Do not look for a reproduction of this painting in any book of Loretta Proctor, because “Loretta has numerous pictures in many of the books but none of this immense Gougenot far from her own home.”, according to what I hear that Timothy Printy wrote in A Conspiracy to Hide the Truth (1999).
      George Gougenot was the younger brother of Abbé Louis Gougenot, Greuze's friend and protector. He started his career in the navy, and followed his father as the King's counsellor-secretary. Gougenot was not only an art connoisseur, patron and an erudite man, but also showed interest in more general topics, publishing anonymously a study entitled Etat présent de la Pensylvanie (1756). In the portrait Gougenot wears a grey velvet costume, decorated with superbly reproduced cuffs and a jabot in "point d'argentan". His hand lies on The Spectator, an English journal, founded in London in 1711 to raise moral standards. The subtle grey gradations accentuate the penetrating look and the intelligent face, with the somewhat disdainful line around the mouth. The powdered wig, the refined representation of the fabric, and the vague, neutral background, produce an atmosphere of distinction and courtliness.
      In his anecdotal compositions, Greuze exhibits his preference for moralizing scenes. Unlike certain contemporaries, among them Hubert Robert, with their love of antiques, Greuze instead prefers to seek his inspiration from rustics and sentimental bourgeois life. Alongside his often grandiloquent representations, Greuze also executed a number of elegant but also psychological portraits, such as the canvas discussed here, a typical example from the Rococo period. Although Greuze is not a born colorist, as are his French contemporaries Jean Antoine Watteau or Jean-Honoré Fragonard, he succeeds in imparting a warmth to this portrait by means of harmonic light gradations. The particular sensitivity with which it is painted can perhaps be explained by the painter's friendship for his noble model.
Innocence (1790, 63x53cm)
Claude-Henri Watalet (1763, 292x223cm) The lower edge of the painting is just below the knee. However there is nothing to substantiate the story that the reason for this is that Greuze was afraid that, if he portrayed Watalet down to his feet, people might exclaim: “What a letdown!”.
The Village Betrothal (1761)
20 images at ARC
—(060820)

Died on a 21 August:

>2003 “John” Coplans, born St. John Rivers Coplans on 24 June 1920, English US painter, critic, curator, museum director, notorious for his fixation on making grotesque black-and-white photographs of his own aging body, part by part. Author of Andy Warhol (1970). —(060818)

>1988 Ray-Bernice Alexandra Kaiser Eames, [15 Dec 1912–], US designer, artist and architect, second wife of Charles Ormond Eames, Jr (see below). Both worked in many fields of design including industrial design, furniture design, art, graphic design, film and architecture. —(080820)

>1978 Charles Ormond Eames, Jr [17 Jun 1907–], husband of Ray Eames (see above). —(080820)

1957 Mario Chiattone, Italian architect born on 11 November 1891.
     _ L’architetto Mario Chiattone (1924, 103x103cm; 508x500pix, 41kb) portrait by Achille Funi [26 Feb 1890 – 26 Jul 1972] —(070815)

^ 1940 Carlos António Rodrigues dos Reis, Portuguese painter born on 21 February 1863. — Father and teacher of João Reis [15 Nov 1899 – 02 Mar 1982] and of Maria Luísa Reis [22 Nov 1902 – Dec 1965] — Nasceu em Torres Novas, e morreu em Coimbra. Seu pai, o Dr. José Rodrigues dos Reis, que foi médico-cirurgião naquela vila, não tendo surpreendido, logo de começo, a extraordinária aptidão artística de seu filho, pensou em dar-lhe rumo de vida que julgava prático, para o que depois da indispensável iniciação dos estudos primários. o colocou no colégio do padre Joaquim Correia da Silva, onde frequentou as disciplinas de Português, Francês, Latim; Matemática e Desenho. Mas, não era o caminho que o destino lhe traçara. Ainda longe da suspeita das tendências artísticas que, mais tarde, fariam dele um pintor notável, o pai iniciou-o na carreira comercial, colocando-o a praticar, na conhecida tabacaria Nunes, do Rossio, de que era proprietário um parente seu. Foi o seu próprio patrão que, com inteligência e acerto, promoveu o seu ingresso na Escola de Belas Artes, convencendo — não sem dificuldade — o pai do futuro paisagista a transigir com a proposta. Dessa diligência resultou a matrícula de Carlos Reis naquele estabelecimento de ensino, no ano de 1881, tendo, ali, como professores: Alberto Nunes e Simões de Almeida, em desenho preparatório; Miguel Lupi, em modelo vivo, e Silva Porto na cadeira de pintura. As invulgares qualidades reveladas por Carlos Reis na frequência da Escola chamaram a atenção de D. Carlos de Bragança, ao tempo ainda príncipe real, de maneira a tornar-se seu amigo e seu protector, estabelecendo-lhe uma pensão de cinco libras que lhe garantia a continuidade dos estudos, em risco de perder-se, por dificuldades materiais de então.
— Carlos Reis, frequentou a Escola de Belas Artes, graças ao apoio financeiro de El-Rei D. Carlos, onde foi aluno de Simões de Almeida, de Miguel Lúpi e de Silva Porto. Em 1889, partiu para Paris, como bolseiro do Estado sendo, um ano mais tarde, admitido na “L’école des Beaux-Arts” no atelier de J. Blanc de Dupain e de L. Bonnat. Foi fundador e chefe do «Grupo Ar Livre», depois do «Grupo Silva Porto». Académico de mérito, em 1896, ganhou o concurso para professor de Pintura de Paisagem da Escola de Belas Artes de Lisboa. Desempenhou as funções de director do Museu Nacional de Belas-Artes (Janelas Verdes) e depois do Museu Nacional de Arte Contemporânea. As suas obras podem ser contempladas em diversos museus nacionais, na Embaixada de Portugal no Vaticano, no Museu de Barcelona, em Buenos Aires e em várias colecções particulares.
Self-Portrait (1931 pencil drawing; 1066x767pix, 546kb)
— (cornfield landscape) (301x456pix, 39kb)
— (landscape) (314x479pix, 27kb)
— (guitarist beggar?) (320x433pix, 37kb)
Natureza morta - cebolas e vidros (76x105cm; 419x580pix, 46kb).
Lagares D'El-Rei - Lisboa (44x29cm)
Vista de rua com figuras (48x65cm).
Retrato de Ancião (81x65cm). —(060818)

1935 Viktor Andreyevich Simov, Moscow Russian artist born on 14 April 1858. —(060819)

1930 Selwyn Image, born on 17 February 1849, English Anglican clergyman until 1882, then graphic designer and poet. The Image image is not that of an image-maker, unfortunately. —(060820)

>1930 Aston Webb, Londoner architect born on 22 May 1849. —(080820)

1856 Fernando Ferrant Llausás [1810–], Spanish painter. — Brother of the painter Luis Ferrant Llausás [1806 – 1868] and uncle of the painter Alejandro Ferrant y Fischermans [09 Sep 1843 – 20 Jan 1917], who was the father of the Madrid sculptor Angel Ferrant Vázquez [01 Dec 1891 – 25 Jul 1961].— {Rien ne permet de croire que l'un de leur parents était un officier qui est monté en grade jusqu'à devenir le Maréchal Ferrant}—(080820)

^ >1629 Camillo Procaccini, Italian painter born in 1550 approximately. He was first mentioned in 1571 as a student in the Bolognese painters’ guild when his father, Ercole Procaccini il vecchio [bapt. 23 Feb 1520 – 13 Jan 1595], was its head. This, and the stylistic maturity of his earliest surviving documented works, the frescoes (1585–1587) in San Prospero, Reggio Emilia, suggest his date of birth. Trained by his father, he went to Rome about 1580 with Conte Pirro Visconti, an important Milanese collector. Camillo's studies in Rome, particularly of the art of Taddeo Zuccaro and of the Carracci, clearly affected his work after his return to Bologna. He also visited Parma, where he had the chance to study Correggio and Parmigianino. In 1582 he decorated the side walls of the apse of San Clemente, Collegio di Spagna, Bologna, and these frescoes (partially photographed before their destruction in 1914) seem to have been an energetic reflection of the exaggerated forms and contrasts of scale typical of mid-16th-century central Italian painting. — He was the brother of Giulio Cesare Procaccini [30 May 1574 – 14 Nov 1625] and of Carlantonio Procaccini [13 Jan 1571 – 1630], whose son was Ercole Procaccini il giovane [bapt. 06 Aug 1605 – 02 Mar 1680].
–- The Sacrifice of Isaac (182x119cm; 892x568pix, 42kb) —(080820)


Born on a 21 August:


1936 Radish Tordia, Georgian painter of figurative art. —(080820)

1929 Marie Severin, US comic book artist and colorist. —(080820)

1930 Eva Hollo, born in Vienna, Austria, in a Hungarian family. She wanted to design hollow Hollo objects, as big as possible, so she became an architect. She was called Eva Vecsei after marrying, in 1952, architect André Vecsei [25 Apr 1926 – 17 May 2006]. They fled, ultimately to Canada, after being more than vexed by the more than hollow threat constituted by the 04 November 1956 Soviet invasion of Hungary. —(060819)

^ 1894 Aleksandr Nikolayevich Samokhvalov, Russian painter who died on 20 August 1971 (1974?). He studied in the architectural faculty at the Higher Art School of the Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg under V. Beliaev and G. Zaleman (1914-1917), in the painting faculty at the Petrograd Svomas under Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin, Dmitry Kardovsky and Arkady Rylov (1920-1923). In the 1920s he took part in the restoration of the Cathedral of St. George in Staraya Ladoga.
–- S#*> A Boy (64x53cm; 900x732pix, 116kb)
Girl in a Football Jersey (1932; 864x525pix, 46kb)
Kirov Receives Sports Parade (1935; 598x718pix, 55kb)
In the Stadium (1931; 366x555pix, 92kb) —(060818)

1894 Christian Schad, German painter, collagist, printmaker, and photographer, who died on 25 Feb 1982. He studied briefly at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich (1913–1914) and in 1913 began to make Expressionist woodcuts, which were published in magazines such as Die Aktion (Berlin), Die Weissen Blätter (Leipzig) and Sirius (Zürich). From 1915 to 1920 he lived in Zürich and Geneva (thus avoiding to be drafted into the German WWI army), where he was associated with the DADA movement. He continued creating woodcuts but also made reliefs, paintings and collages from newspaper cuttings and other printed papers. At the same time he became interested in abstracting photography and using it in a more metaphoric way. In 1918, while living in Geneva, he created his first ‘schadographs’, such as Untitled (Fish) (1918), contact prints of collages and objects on photosensitive paper. Like Man Ray’s rayographs and Moholy-Nagy’s photograms, these cameraless photographs reproduced the negative image of the textures placed on them, creating a new form of representation.
     Schad left Switzerland in 1920 for Italy, where he spent five years. He subsequently went to Vienna and later, in 1928, settled in Berlin. In 1921 he began to paint in a sober, realistic style later referred to as Neue sachlichkeit, reflecting the disillusionment he felt after the defeat of the November Revolution (1918) and the failure of the new German government to implement democratic reforms. Disappointed by all-encompassing theories, he and fellow painters such as Otto Dix, George Grosz and Rudolf Schlichter took a critical look at bourgeois society, developing a harsh and sceptical approach to the representation of human beings and objects, shown in a disjointed and fragmentary manner. Schad's paintings display his interest in the relationship of the individual to society, conveying a sense of isolation and alienation, as in Sonia (Max Herrmann-Neise in the Background) (1928) and Self-portrait (1927).
      Unlike Dix or Grosz, Schad did not employ caricature. Instead he criticized the structures of society by coolly and uncompromisingly depicting every detail of his subjects and their surroundings, and by revealing the distance and emptiness between them. In Count St Genois d'Anneaucourt (1927) two prostitutes in transparent dresses vie for the count's attention, while he turns his back to them and stares rigidly out of the picture. Through the window of the almost airless space one can see the gray houses of a working-class district; the contrast between the group and the background hints at the class divisions and inequalities in society. The exposing, ugly portrait of Countess Triglion (1926) is another critical comment on the moral decay behind the bourgeois façade. Schad was also interested in the non-bourgeois milieu and painted music-hall and circus performers, such as Agosta the Pigeon-Chested Man and Rasha the Black Dove (1929). After the destruction of his studio in 1943 Schad moved to Aschaffenburg. The city commissioned him to copy Grünewald's Virgin, a project on which he worked until 1947. Schad continued to paint in the 1950s in Magic Realist style and returned in the 1960s to experiments with photograms. — LINKS
Selbstbildnis (1927, 76x62cm) _ This is a study of thinly veiled display. The artist's transparent shirt reveals his chest. He is positioned in front of a woman, but only partially conceals her nakedness. A diaphanous curtain separates them from the city. Schad's precise realism is loaded with symbolism. A narcissus, indicating vanity, leans towards the artist. The woman's face is scarred with a freggio, inflicted on Neapolitan women by their lovers to make them unattractive to others. It is a startling emblem of the potential violence underlying male possession of the female body.
Sonja (Max Hermann Neisse im Hintergrund) (1928; 600x400pix)
Operation (1929; 418x313pix, 42kb)
Agosta, der Flügelmensch, und Rasha, die schwarze Taube (1929, 120x80cm) _ Schad's models unerringly return our gaze. Their convincing presence reflects the artist's association with the New Objectivity, a German artistic movement that combined social criticism with near-photographic realism. The black woman and the pigeon-chested man were accustomed to scrutiny, earning their living as sideshow acts in Berlin funfairs through the display of their bodies. The work is an unsettling portrayal of the objectification of the body, of voyeurism and of social alienation through difference. Unusually for the time, these issues are concentrated in the unflinching depiction of the male as well as the female nude.
Halbakt (1929, 55x53cm; 350x330pix, 12kb) _ Compare:
      _ Half-Baked (movie poster, 1130x800pix, 233kb _ ZOOM to 2226x1800pix, 1210kb) —(060819)

1886 José Ortiz Echague, Spanish photographer who died on 07 September 1982. —(060818)

1884 Jean-Jules Eggericx, Brussels Belgian architect and urban planner who died on 21 April 1963. — Not to be confused (I would swear to it on a pile of golden goose eggs) with the pseudonymous Jean-Jure Eggrich, of which you can now admire the:
        _ Pseudo-Self-Portrait aka Ergot Ogre (2006; screen filling, 141kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1622kb) —(060818)

^ 1884 Bohumil Kubišta, Czech (Bohemian) sometimes Cubist {of course!} painter, printmaker, and draftsman, who died of the Spanish Flu on 27 November 1918. . He studied at the School of Applied Arts in Prague, but left in 1906 to study at the Reale Istituto di Belle Arti in Florence. In the same year, with Emil Filla, Antonin Procházka, Vaclav Spak, Rudolf Kremlicka, and the writer Otto Gutfreund, among others, he founded Osma (The Eight), a group of artists who felt the need of innovation in their art, as exemplified by Cubism and German Expressionism. In 1909 and 1910 he visited Paris. During the next two years he exhibited with the Neue Sezession in Berlin and in 1913 in Düsseldorf. His work evolved rapidly from Impressionism, Expressionism and a specific kind of Cubism to Italian Futurism.— LINKS
Cement Works in Braník (1911, 68x83cm; 117kb)
Istrian Landscape With Red-Roofed Houses (24x31cm; 464x496pix, 36kb) —(060818)

1873 Omar Ramsden, English silversmith who died on 09 Aug 1939. —(060818)

>1868 Jan Stuyt, Dutch architect who died on 10 July 1934. —(080820)

^ 1848 Egisto Lancerotto, Italian painter who died on 31 May 1916.
Bearded Italian Gentleman (1886, 125x73cm) the father of the artist?
Young Woman In A Vineyard (109x79cm)
Ballo Mazurka (178x260cm)
Picking Daisies (150x77cm) _ If you want to know what they did with the daisies, look at the next picture.
She Loves Me...She Loves Me Not... (117x85cm)
–- S#*> The Hand of Cards (150x75cm; 510x254pix, 31kb)

^ 1839 Otto Bache, Danish painter who died in 1927.
Crossing the Ford (1912, 146x227cm)
A Spaniel and a Pug (1885, 67x95cm)
Sondenvinden (60x60cm)
The King is Coming (67x98cm)
Le Billet-Doux (1862, 63x50cm; kb)

^ 1805 Nicolaas Johannes Roosenboom, Dutch painter who died in 1880, student and son-in-law of Andreas Schelfhout [16 Feb 1787 – 19 Apr 1870].
–- S#*> Skaters (32x42cm; _ /S#*>ZOOM to 998x1316pix; 212kb) They are skating on a frozen waterway, there are two ducks in the foreground, a windmill and an ice-sailboat in the distance. Most of the canvas is taken up by an uninteresting yellowish sky. It is improved in the pinkish version Skaters at Sunset (998x1316pix; 164kb) due to the pseudonymous Cola-Joe Tulipenbust.
–- S#*> Skaters Near a Bridge (37x47cm; 915x1200pix, 236kb)
–- S#*> Winter Landscape with Skaters (25x33cm; 893x1200pix, 163kb)
Vessels before a Harbor Town by Moonlight (50x62cm) The town is possibly Rotterdam.
–- S#*> Winter Landscape with Skaters on a Frozen River (40x49cm; 481x608pix, 34kb) a “koek en zopie” (tent with a stand selling food and drink) beyond. _ Compare
      _ Skaters on a Frozen Waterway, a “Koek en Zopie” in the Distance (oval 40x31cm; kb) by Carl Eduard Ahrendts [1822-1898] and
      _ Skaters Near a Village with Windmill, a “Koek en Zopie” in the Distance (970x1152pix, 117kb) by ? [?-?] and also many paintings by Jan Jacob Spohler [07 Nov 1811 – 1879 or 1866]
–- S#*> Boats Including a Vessel Firing a Salute (16x25cm; 317x508pix, 21kb)
— (River Valley Landscape) (451x592pix, 123kb) —(051106)

1793 August-Karl-Friedrich von Kloeber, German artist who died on 31 December 1864.


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updated Friday 21-Aug-2009 1:40 UT
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