ART 4 2-DAY 18 August v.9.71
Born on 18 August 1859:
Anna Kirstine Brøndum
Ancher (< 1884 portrait by P.S. Krøyer [1851-1909]},
Danish painter who married painter Michael
Ancher [09 Jun 1849 19 Sep 1927] in 1880 and died on 15 April
1935. Their daughter Helga Ancher [1881–1964] was also a painter.
Anna was born in Skagen. Her parents were not rich, but her father was a grocer and owned the Hotel Brøndum, that is today a fashionable hotel, but at that time just was a small inn and grocery. Because of Anne and Michael Ancher the hotel is today a part of Skagen like the sea and the light.
Anne was born at the same time as the world renowned author H. C. Andersen was on a holiday in the village. The story tells that he came to the Hotel Brøndum to get dinner. He ordered fish, but Anna's mother who was preparing the dinner, did not have any fish. She ordered some, but because the boy had to go to the other side of village, this took some time. The author got mad and shouted at Anna's mother. When he got the fish, he later wrote about it in one of his stories, that it was a fish a king would call a magnificent dinner. Because of Andersen's shouting, the mother had to go to bed, and a few hours later Anna was born.
Anna was the first born of a total of five children. The village Skagen was not big. And Anna had never made a painting on the other side of the village from where she was born. As a child she did not move away from her mother's kitchen. Anna as an artist is very important. At that time it was not normally for a women to paint, and in Anna there was a a feeling for the art and for the people that she painted, that made her a great artist. She is considered to be more important, as a painter, than her husband. Michael pictured Anna (from the back) in A. Ancher and M. Krøyer
— Anna studied drawing at Vilhelm Kyhn’s drawing school, Copenhagen (1875–1878), and painting under Puvis de Chavannes in Paris (1889). Her genre paintings and portraits are more intimate than those of her husband. Many of her everyday interiors contain a characteristic image of the shadow of window bars on a sunlit wall, displaying her natural skill as a colorist. An exquisite example is the Blind Woman in her Room (1883), in which the dark, bent figure of an old woman with worn hands is silhouetted against a golden sunlit wall. Women at work, particularly sewing or plucking poultry, are among her favourite subjects, as in the Girl in the Kitchen (1886). The girl stands by the window, turning her back to the viewer and immersed in her daily duties. Her red skirt and black jacket stand out brilliantly against a yellow and orange curtain, enlivened by the sunlight shining on the floor through a half-open door. Like her husband, Anna Ancher was drawn to the work of Vermeer but generally her tastes were not eclectic. She painted several portraits of her mother, one of the last of which dates from 1913; it shows the 87-year-old woman wrapped in blankets and sitting in a chair. The picture may have been influenced by other artists’ depictions of the nobility of old age, such as the famous portrait that Whistler made of his mother (Arrangement in Grey and Black, No. 1), but has its own, particularly sensitive handling of the frailty of life.
— Anna Ancher was the only Skagen artist that was born and raised in Skagen. She was the daughter of Ane Hedvig and Erik Brøndum who managed the town inn and grocery store. She was very young when the artists began coming to Skagen. She showed a great interest in their activities and work and even began to draw and paint herself. One of the artists who came to Skagen was Michael Ancher. Anna and Michael took to each other immediately and became engaged in 1878 and married in 1880. They had a daughter, Helga, who was born in 1883, and they lived together in Skagen for the rest of their lives. From 1884 they lived in the house on Markvej, which is now the "Michael and Anna Ancher’s House" museum. Anna Ancher’s artistic career was exceptional, primarily due to the fact that she was a woman at a time when it was not usual that women received an artistic education – and they were certainly not accepted at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts.
She was, however, accepted at Wilhelm Kyhn’s Art School for Women in Copenhagen, where she attended classes for three winter semesters from 1875 to 1878. Wilhelm Kyhn was of the firm opinion that Anna Ancher should abandon her paint box when she married - i.e. give up painting and devote herself to household duties. Fortunately she did not. She exhibited for the first time at Charlottenborg in Copenhagen in 1880 and quickly achieved success as a painter. Her motives were mainly taken from the private sphere – the home and the world of women and children. It was the colors and the light rather than the epic content of the paintings that were important to Anna Ancher. In that way she was one of the most modern Skagen artists and her paintings point, therefore, forward to the more abstract art that emerged at the beginning of the 20th century.
— A Sewing Class in Skagen (1900, 48x63cm; 525x700pix, 38kb)
— Mor og Barn (40x32cm; 539x434pix, 217kb)
— Syende fiskerpige (1890; 494x402pix, 20kb) _ This skilled coloristic representation of a sewing fisherman´s wife in her living room, is especially remarkable by virtue of the intensive use of contrasting effects in the interplay between the warm colors which illuminate the subject and the cold colors which form the shadows.
— Lillebror (441x400pix, 12kb)
Born on 18 August 1869:
Carl Clemens Moritz Rungius, German~US
painter specialized in wildlife;
he died on 21 October 1959.
— Carl Rungius is recognized as one of North America's greatest wildlife painters. He first visited the Rockies in 1910, and was so impressed by them that he built a house and studio in Banff in 1921. From then until 1958, he returned to Banff every summer to sketch the mountains and wildlife he loved so much. In the fall he returned to his winter residence in New York and continued to paint, often drawing upon the wealth of material in his summer sketches.
— Carl Rungius studied at the Berlin Art Academy between 1888 and 1890. While in Berlin, he frequently sketched animals at the Berlin Zoo. His dedication to painting animals with anatomical accuracy coupled with his determination to learn and paint each animal’s mannerisms and habitat made Rungius a well-respected wildlife artist. Rungius first visited the United States in 1894, and traveled to Cora, Wyoming to hunt and sketch the following year. Rungius decided to remain in the United States spending the next decade of summers in Wyoming and the remainder of the year in his New York studio. During those years, he painted and hunted western big game animals, including moose, pronghorn and bighorn sheep in the Rocky Mountains and he completed these paintings during the long New York winters.
Rungius’ reputation as a premier wildlife artist was enhanced considerably by an expedition to the Yukon Territory in 1905. The artwork and social connections that resulted from that trip launched Rungius into the center of America’s conservation movement, promoted by such famous American sportsmen as President Theodore Roosevelt. In 1910 he accepted an offer to visit the Canadian Rockies. The opportunities to hunt, explore and paint the region were so appealing that in 1921 he built a summer studio called “The Paintbox” in Banff, where he worked from April to October of each year until his death in 1959. Rungius’ ability to capture the heart-stopping chance encounter between man and animal sets him apart from many of his talented colleagues. Equally accomplished as a painter of wildlife and landscapes, Rungius quickly developed an enthusiastic following among fellow artists and patrons.
— American Black Bear (1925)
— Caribou, North of Banff (1935)
— In His Prime (1940)
— Lake O'Hara (1935)
— Montague Island Bear
— Morning Mist (1934)
— Northern King (1927)
— Quantrell Moose (1930)
— Red Fox (1935)
— The Humpback
— Three Old Gentlemen (1935)
— When Bison Numbered Millions (1930)
— Wyoming Sage (1902)
— Moose Going Through Underbrush
— On the Range (1920; 339x400pix, 128kb)
–- S#*> Mighty Elk (77x107cm; 568x800pix, 84kb)
–- S#*> Moose in the Woods (61x81cm; 575x800pix, 117kb)
–- S#*> Call of the Elk (1905, 41x61cm; 521x800pix, 97kb)
Died on 18 August 1642: Guido Reni
Le Guide, Italian Baroque
era painter born on 04 November 1575. He studied under Denys
Calvaert and Lodovico
Carracci. Reni's students included Simone
Reni painted popular religious works and critically acclaimed mythological scenes. He was born in Bologna and began to study painting at the age of nine, and about 1595 he became a student of the Carracci family of Bolognese painters. His studies were rounded off by a trip to Rome in about 1600. From that moment on, antique and recent Roman art became his ideals. He admired Raphael unconditionally. He did, however, come to terms with Caravaggio's naturalism in a group of youthful works such as The Crucifixion of St Peter (1604), where the use of chiaroscuro provided enormous energy.
He alternated between living in his native Bologna and visits to Rome. After Annibale Carracci's death (1609) he became the leader of the classical school of Emilian painters. His adhesion to this school can be seen in the frescos he painted in Rome in about 1610 in the Quirinal Palace, the Vatican, and various churches (e.g. San Gregorio Magno al Cielo). They were inspired by the return to classical taste and culminated in his most renowned work, the ceiling fresco Phoebus and the Hours, Preceded by Aurora (1614) which has almost mimetic qualities. The large altarpieces he painted in Bologna The Massacre of the Innocents and Pietà dei Mendicanti mark the triumph of design, the ability to control and channel feelings, gestures, expressions, drawing, and color into a single, eloquent, and faultless form. Guido Reni's success was underlined by the important commissions he received. They included the cycle of The Labors of Hercules (1617-1621). He exalted the clarity of light, the perfection of the body, and lively color. Toward the end of his life, Reni modified his style. His paintings became so airy as to seem insubstantial and were almost completely monochrome. He also used long, flowing brushstrokes and conveyed an atmosphere laden with intense melancholy.
Guido Reni was a quintessentially classical academic but he was also one of the most elegant painters in the annals of art history. He was constantly seeking an absolute, rarefied perfection which he measured against classical Antiquity and Raphael. Because of this, over the years the Bolognese painter has been in and out of fashion, depending on the tastes of the times. The eighteenth century loved him, the nineteenth century, persuaded by the violent criticism of John Ruskin, hated him. But even his detractors cannot deny the exceptional technical quality of his work nor the clarity of his supremely assured and harmonious brushwork.
–- Hercules Beheads the Hydra (1621; 756x573pix, 46kb — .ZOOM to 1512x1142pix, 225kb — .ZOOM+ to 2268x1715pix, 245kb)
–- Bacchus and Ariadne (1630; 879x889pix, 75kb — .ZOOM to 1333x1180pix, 150kb — .ZOOM+ to 2012x1769pix, 339kb) [the story of Bacchus and his meeting Ariadne]
The Boy Bacchus (1618, 87x70cm) _ This graceful and serene painting was made after Reni between 1615 and 1620 after Reni had been several times to Rome.
Drinking Bacchus (1623, 72x56cm; 843x649pix, 116kb) as a urinating baby.
Baptism of Christ (1623, 263x186cm) _ Reni's Baptism of Christ, created in the mid 1620s as a major masterpiece of his mature style, is based on principles of composition similar to those applied in The Massacre of the Innocents. The painting is built up into three clearly distinct planes. At the very front, Christ bows beneath the baptismal cup, which John the Baptist pours over him with his raised right hand. The Baptist is standing or, rather, slightly kneeling over Christ on the banks of the Jordan. Below the arc formed by these two figures facing each other in humility, we see two angels who, together with a third figure at the outside left, are holding Christ's robes in readiness. Behind that, the trees, clouds and deep blue sky combine to create a sense of indefinable distance from which the Holy Spirit floats down in the form of a dove.
The entire scene, in its structure and coloration, is of overwhelming simplicity. The act of baptism itself is entirely void of bright colors. The matte and shimmering flesh tones of the two nude figures stand out clearly against the middle ground and background, where everything is dominated by the solemn purity of the three primary colors red, yellow and blue. On another level, however, all the figures are closely linked in that expression of complete spiritual devotion that Reni could convey like no other artist. Reni was able to create a balance of strictly disciplined compositional form and profound sentiment that his many imitators failed to achieve.
Massacre of the Innocents (1611, 268x170cm) _ Though the historical significance of Caravaggio and his enormous influence on Baroque painting cannot be overlooked, we should not ignore the fact that there was considerable resistance against the more extreme tendencies in his art, such as the loss of the heroic sphere, or the presentation of the everyday and the ordinary. His greatest rival, whose influence was to extend far beyond that of Caravaggio well into the 18th and 19th centuries, was undoubtedly the Bolognese artist Guido Reni. An early work such as The Massacre of the Innocents bears clear traces of his initial links with Caravaggio and, at the same time, already reveals the most important arguments against him. Before a landscape bathed in light, but set with dark and heavy architecture, a group of eight adults and eight children (including the putti distributing the palm fronds of victory) has been skillfully arranged. The unusual vertical format, rarely used for this theme, and above all the symmetrical structure of figural counterparts indicate that Reni was particularly interested in a specific problem of composition: that of achieving a balance between centripetal and centrifugal movement while combining them in a static pictorial structure. Reni also seeks to achieve this equilibrium in his expression of effects and in the distribution of color accents.
Saint Joseph with the Infant Jesus (1635, 126x101cm) _ The resting Mary in the background indicates that the scene is connected with the flight of the Holy Family to Egypt.
a slightly different (without Mary) Saint Joseph with the Infant Jesus, from Reni's workshop.
The Penitent Saint Mary Magdalene (1633, 234x151cm) [reclining, full-length, looking up to the right to a baby angel] _ The image of the penitent Mary Magdalene enjoyed great popularity between the late sixteenth century and the first decades of the seventeenth century. Cardinal Baronius, in his hard-hitting polemics against Protestantism, employed the subject (along with that of the penitent St Peter) to emphasize the necessity and validity of penance, a sacrament discarded by the reformers. The penitent Magdalene was something of a iconographic specialty for Reni, who painted various versions to please a public that prized them and continually requested them. A splendid example of the mature style of Reni, this painting is characterized by a profound classicism in the monumental and noble figure of the saint. The refined chromatic range, lit by a cold and silvery light, is also typical of Reni's art in the 1630's. The Penitent Magdalene is chronologically connected, though problematically, to a third Barberini Magdalene attributed to Vouet or one of his close followers: datable to 1626-1627, the composition of the latter painting is very close to that of the Reni.
a different The Penitent Saint Mary Magdalene (1635) [standing, half-length, left hand on a skull, looking up to the left towards outside the frame]
–- The Triumph of Samson (1612; 829x672pix, 41kb — .ZOOM to 1105x897pix, 72kb — .ZOOM+ to 1658x1345pix, 108kb) _ The unusual shape of the picture (each upper corner cut off by two arcs of circle and two straight segments) is a reminder of its original use as a fireplace cover. The well balanced figure of the hero quenching his thirst after his victory is set against a dramatic landscape littered as far as the eye can see with the corpses of his enemies.
David with the Head of Goliath (1605, 220x145cm) _ This painting can be compared directly with Caravaggio's David With the Head of Goliath (1610) _ See also:
_ Caravaggio's David with the Head of Goliath (1602)
_ Rembrandt's David Presenting the Head of Goliath to King Saul (detail) (1627)
_ Stanzione's David with Head of Goliath
_ Strozzi's David with the Head of Goliath (1635)
_ Aubin Vouet's David Holding the Head of Goliath
_ The Master of Tahull's David About to Cut Off Goliath's Head (1123)
Salome with the Head of Saint John the Baptist (1640)
Moses (1610) _ At the beginning of the 17th century the followers of Caravaggio and Carracci vied with each other for predominance. Some sought a classical approach and a serene harmony of forms and colors, others were intent on humbly capturing simple everyday life set in a powerful contrast of light and shadow. But there was no hard and fast dividing line between them and even classical painters like Guido Reni in his Moses is influenced by Caravaggio's heroic dramatic style. This new humble yet monumental language became an international phenomenon.
The Abduction of Dejanira (259x193cm) _ This painting belongs to the cycle of Hercules, intended for the Duke of Mantua. The artist applies successfully the study of the human body, blending a naturalistic touch with his passion for Greek statues. The joyful ardor which is expressed on the face of the young centaur carrying off Dejanira should be noted.
Atalanta and Hippomenes (1612, 206x297cm) _ an almost identical, later .Atalanta and Hippomenes (1625) _ In the Boeotian version of the legend, followed by Ovid (Metamorphoses 10:560-707), Atalanta was an athletic huntress. Her way with her suitors was to challenge them to a race in which the loser was punished with death. She remained unbeaten and a virgin until Hippomenes (elsewhere named Melanion) took her on. As they ran he dropped three golden apples, given to him by Venus, and since Atalanta could not resist stopping to pick them up she lost the race. They later made love in a temple of Cybele, which offended the goddess so much that she turned them both into lions. This composition is calculated and refined. It highlights the contradictory gestures of Atalanta bending down to pick up a golden apple and of Hippomenes passing her about to win the race. The idea of movement is rendered almost exclusively by the billowing cloaks. The ivory smooth bodies of the two contestants clearly stand out remarkably against the gray-brown background.
_ Compare .La course d'Hippomène et d'Atalante (1765, 321x712 cm; 873x2000pix, 200kb) by Hallé [02 Sep 1781 – 05 Jun 1781]
_ Atalanta and Hippomenes (1560; 654x1095pix, 79kb) by Schönfeld [1609-1683]
_ Hippomenes and Atalanta (1630; 274x343pix, 30kb) by Jordaens [1593-1678]
–- Phoebus and the Hours, Preceded by Aurora (1614; 482x1195pix, 83kb _ .ZOOM to 724x1792pix, 223kb — .ZOOM+ to 1086x2688pix, 261kb) _ During Guido Reni's second stay in Rome he directly tackled themes from classical Antiquity. While this composition was openly derived from classical art, it was meant in the spirit of purest love and has a genuine if rather insipid beauty. Though a ceiling decoration, it is composed in the form of a frieze as if painted on a wall. Here the artist was rebelling against the spatial researches which at that time were exciting such passionate interest in Lanfranco and Pietro da Cortona.
–- Cleopatra (1640, 122x96cm; 869x754pix, 52kb _ .ZOOM to 2409x2071pix, 441kb) _ The painting was sent as a present to Cardinal Leopoldo de' Medici with a letter of 04 January 1640 by Marchese Cospi of Bologna. This very beautiful painting belongs to the last period of Guido Reni, and in its very delicate, pale, refined color especially, it appears as one of the most striking testimonies of the surprising poetical evolution of Reni in the last years of his life. Being celebrated, it was carried off to Paris by the Napoleonic army from 1799 to 1815.
Susannah & the Elders
Deianeira Abducted by the Centaur Nessus (1621)
Baptism of Christ, (1623)
The Coronation of the Virgin (1626)
— Saint Joseph with the infant Jesus (1635, 126x101cm)
–- Angels in Glory, after Luca Cambiaso (1607 etching, 41x28cm; 659x458pix, 61kb _ .ZOOM to 1318x916pix, 267kb)
Portrait of an Old Woman (1612, 34x28cm)
Born on 18 August 1862:
Frederick Cayley Robinson, British
Neoclassical painter who died on 04 January 1927. Robinson was born in Middlesex
and studied in London and Paris. A pioneer of twentieth century tempera
painting, illustrator and theatre designer, he was elected to the NEAC in
1912 and appointed Professor of Figure Composition and Decoration at Glasgow
University in 1914. Elected ARA 1921. From 1914 he lived in the block of
studios at Lansdowne House, Holland Park, where Charles Ricketts and Charles
Shannon were also residents.
Cayley Robinson is one of the most intriguing and enigmantic British artists of the early 20th Century. Partly educated in France he later studied at the Academie Julian (1891-4) under Bougereau and Ferrier, and hs work became deeply influenced by that of Puvis de Chavannnes. For two years prior to going to the Academie Julian he lived on a boat and sailed round the Coast of England, whilst for the following decade he divided his time between Britain, France and Florence where he studied the technique of tempera painting and the work of Giotto, Mantegna and Michaelangelo. Cayley Robinson was a deeply spiritual man and illustrated such works as 'The Little Flowers of Saint Francis of Assisi' (1915) and 'A Book of Quaker Saints' (1922), however his most popular and haunting illustrations were done for Maeterlink's 'The Blue Bird' (1911) for which work he had also designed the costumes and stage sets when it had been produced at the Haymarket Theatre two years previously
–- A Winter Evening(1899, 61x76cm; 796x1009pix, 57kb — ZOOM to 1592x2017pix, 195kb)
–- A winter's evening (1918, 99x77cm; 474x640pix, 47kb)
— Pastoral (1924, 90x116cm)
— Lesson Time (1921, 25x34cm; 465x540pix, 56kb)
— Mother and Child - Threads of Life (1894, 61x76cm; 336x400pix, 20kb) _ A pensive woman sits at the left of the composition, facing right, with her right forearm resting on a dining table, in her hand she holds a needle and thread with which she has been embroidering a narrow hanging which lies flat on the table, steam rises from a blue and white bowl at the centre of the table. Behind her, against a lace-curtained window, sits a red-haired girl, facing right, eating from a white bowl which she holds in her right hand. At the back edge of the table wooden Noah's Ark figures stand in line. All is lit from above by a hanging oil lamp. An open triptych showing angels awaking a sleeping shepherd and the Virgin and Child hangs on the right wall.
Presumably painted immediately after Robinson's return from Paris, where he had been studying at the Academy Julian since 1891. During his stay in France Robinson admired the work of Puvis de Chavannes and the Nabis and their influences may be seen in both the technique and obscure symbolism of this work. Enigmatic groupings of two or more female figures around a table in a lamp-lit room, frequently occur in his work. The Depth of Winter (1900, 90x116cm) is a related painting which also features an incomplete embroidery, as does A Souvenir of a Past Age (1894)
>Born on 18 August 1932:
George Charles Deem Jr., US painter who
died of lung cancer on 11 August 2008.
If imitation is a sincere form of flattery, Deem’s admiration of his artistic forebears was carried out on his own canvases. Gifted at reproduction, he concentrated on making explicit references to other painters and other paintings, recreating the style, the light, the brushstrokes as well as the details of artists he loved.
But in addition to the explicit references, there were alterations. By leaving out familiar elements or adding elements to known works, or reconfiguring components within them, he made his work a visual commentary on the history of painting, dating to the Renaissance. His School of Mantegna, for example, placed desks and a blackboard within the architectural and religious elements of an Andrea Mantegna painting.
Other painters which he reworked were Caravaggio, Chardin, Ingres, Homer, Matisse, Picasso and, especially, Vermeer. He painted Vermeer’s studio without Vermeer in it. He reproduced The Concert, leaving out two human figures. He painted Seven Vermeer Corners, comprising similar parts of different Vermeer rooms set next to one another on a single canvas.
Deems was interested in the dimension of time. He wanted the viewer to experience not only the painting in front of him but also the referenced works that came before, sort of “temporal collage.”
“What he wanted was when you looked at a painting of his, you always saw something else as well,” Mr. Vance said. “You were always seeing two things at once.”
Deem's father was a cantaloupe farmer; George worked alongside him until he was 20. He wanted to be an artist, but the only thing he knew about art was that it was found in churches, so as a teenager he began visiting the monastery where a cousin was a monk. It was the cousin who told his parents, “He doesn’t belong here; he belongs in art school.”
Deem spent a year at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago before he was drafted into the Army in 1953; he spent his years in the service in the military police in Heidelberg, Germany, and completed his art degree when he returned.
His books include How to Paint a Vermeer: A Painter’s History of Art (2004), and Art School (1993, reissued in 2005).
His interest in reproduction and historical commentary dated to very early in his career. Deem’s days on the farm influenced his work only in that he did some still lifes of melons, but not cantaloupes.
–- George Washington Times Two (950x754pix, 41kb) _ Compare
_ GW, GW, gw (2008; 773x698pix, 45kb _ .ZOOM 1 to 1160x1048pix, 91kb _ .ZOOM 2 to 2320x2095pix, 442kb) by the pseudonymous Arcwir Dean.
–- How to Paint a Vermeer (2004; 1188x1010pix, 98kb) book cover
–- Two Vermeer Chairs (2004; 892x798pix, 54kb)
–- Art School (2005; 870x726pix, 78kb) book cover
–- School of Mantegna (2005; 745x1116pix, 88kb)
–- Del Sarto, Canaletto, Titian (1995; 976x774pix, 60kb)