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DEATHS: 1835 MALLET — 1963 EARDLEY — 1665 ZAENREDAM — 1837 DANIELL
BAPTISM: 1557 CARRACCI BIRTH: 1886 ZÁRRAGA
^ Died on 16 August 1835: Jean~Baptiste Mallet, French painter born in 1759.
— A student of Simon Julien in Toulon, he was then taught by Pierre-Paul Prud’hon in Paris. He exhibited at every Salon between 1793 and 1827, obtaining a second class medal in 1812 and a first class medal in 1817. He made very few portraits (Chénier is an exception), preferring to paint nymphs bathing and graceful classical nudes such as The Graces Playing with Cupid. He established his reputation with gouache genre scenes of fashionable and often libertine subjects, always elegant and refined, in the style of Louis-Philibert Debucourt and Louis-Léopold Boilly, and remarkable for the delicacy and brilliance of their brushwork: for example At the Laundry Maid’s and The Painful Letter. They reveal a knowledge of 17th-century Dutch painting in the treatment of details (transparent crystal, reflections on silk or satin) as well as the choice of themes: Military Gallant. Mallet’s meticulously precise paintings are one of the best records of fashionable French furnishings and interiors at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th. They were very popular and widely disseminated in prints.

LINKS
Gothic Bathroom (1810, 41x33cm)
A Young Woman Standing in an Archway (44x35cm)
Une Nymphe au Bain, Environnée d'Amours (38x46cm)
Bacchante dans un Paysage (24x19cm; 512x404pix, 59kb) _ une bacchante de gros calibre...
Jeune Marquise Française en Exil à Lausanne (1789, 22x30cm)
 
^ >Died on 16 August 1963: Joan Kathleen Harding Eardley, of breast cancer, Scottish painter born on 18 May 1921. — {It is not true that her real surname was O'Rejadlaw.}
      — She studied briefly at Goldsmiths' College, London (1938–1939), then at the Glasgow School of Art (1940–1943) under Hugh Adam Crawford. She was influenced by the Scottish Colourists, but also deeply affected by the life and atmosphere of the slums of the city. For her subject-matter she concentrated on street life, young children and the elderly, blending realism and compassion but without sentimentality. Typical is Street Kids (1951). In 1951 she moved to the west coast of Scotland where she often worked outdoors, painting marine and landscape scenes in many different moods, sometimes incorporating real pieces of grass in the paint. Among some of her finest and most powerful works are fierce and bold evocations of the wind and the weather. Notable is Catterline in Winter (1963). She was elected an Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1955 and a full Academician in 1963.

LINKS
–- Full Moon, Catalan Landscape (irregular 35x15cm; 1505x2975pix, 253kb) _ you have to take her word for it. It looks more like a rock she picked up somewhere and on which she spilled some paints.
–- The Blue Apron (60x48cm; 1500x736pix, 78kb)
–- S#*> Andrew Sampson (14x14cm; 900x900pix, 155kb) looks unfinished
–- S#*> The Oil Lamp (38x20cm; 900x457pix, 118kb)
Salmon Net Posts (1962; 118x217cm)
–- S#*> Fishing Nets (1963, 49x52cm; 510x553pix, 72kb)
The Old Plow (1961, 51x46cm, 450k400pix, 41kb) for sale at £18'500
Between Fields of Barley, Catterline (1960, 122x137cm; 240x275pix, 14kb) auctioned for £28'000 at Christie's on 01 Nov 2002
The Old Pram (14x22cm; 153x250pix, 11kb) auctioned for £4500 at McTear's on 31 May 2003
The Girl with Red Hair (61x51cm; 300x246pix, 24kb)

—(090815)
^ Died on 16 August 1665: Pieter Janszoon Saenredam (or Zaenredam), Dutch Baroque painter born on 09 June 1597 (Some sources state that he was buried on 31 May 1665. If that is true, and his death date is also true, it makes for an unmined horror story.). — {¿Se enredan con Saenredam?}
— Pieter Saenredam was born {don't ask which end first >>>} in Assendelft {Headendelft, or even just plain Delft, would have been preferable}, the son of the engraver Jan Pieterszoon Saenredam [1565-1607]. When Jan died in 1607 he left his wife and child a healthy legacy, having invested in the lucrative Dutch East India Company. Mother and son moved to Haarlem, where Pieter was apprenticed to Frans de Grebber for no less than eleven years. He was to live in Haarlem the rest of his life, although he regularly traveled around the country to paint in other Dutch cities. Saenredam focused almost from the start on architectural subjects. His depictions of church interiors formed the basis for an entirely new genre in Dutch art. Saenredam was extremely careful in his method: his paintings resulted from weeks of preparation. The sketches he made on site, as well as the technical drawings, were essential guides when he started the painting. Saenredam's use of perspective in his church interiors showed his perfect control. His work exudes a sense of peace and harmony, not least because of the use of color.
  — He was a painter of architectural subjects, particularly church interiors, active in Haarlem. Saenredam, the son of an engraver, was a hunchback and a recluse, but he was acquainted with the great architect Jacob van Campen, who may have played a part in determining his choice of subject. He was the first painter to concentrate on accurate depictions of real buildings rather than the fanciful inventions of the Mannerist tradition. His pictures were based on painstaking drawings and are scrupulously accurate and highly finished, but they never seem pedantic or niggling and are remarkable for their delicacy of color and airy grace. The Cathedral of Saint Bavo (where he is buried) and the Grote Kerk in Haarlem were favorite subjects, but he also traveled to other Dutch towns to make drawings, and Utrecht is represented in several of his paintings. He also made a few views of Rome based on drawings in a sketchbook by Marten van Heemskerck that he owned. His work had great influence on Dutch painting.
     Saenredam's working method generally consisted of three stages. First he made a preliminary freehand drawing at the site. The freehand study was then used for a more exact construction drawing made in the studio with the aid of measured ground plans and elevations; sometimes he subtly manipulated the dimensions of a building and its elements to heighten pictorial effects. Finished drawings were kept on file as part of the stock to which he turned when he was ready for the final stage: an oil painting on panel. The main outlines of his architectural paintings are frequently transferred by tracing from his construction drawings. A description of his working procedure makes it appear mechanical, one may think it suitable for the production of architectural renderings, not works of art. However, a look at Saenredam's paintings proves this is not the case. None of his paintings - about fifty are known - can be categorized as tinted perspective studies. The unmistakable clarity of his vision and the intensity of his scrupulous observation, as well as a sensitive tonality, mark every one.
— Pieter's father, Jan Pieterszoon Saenredam [1565-1607] is best known as a gifted engraver and draftsman in the circle of Hendrick Goltzius. Besides his artistic activities, he invested wisely in the Dutch East India Company and made sufficient profits to ensure that his only son, Pieter, need not ever depend on painting for his living. Pieter was nevertheless enormously successful as a painter; he is generally appreciated as the artist whose depictions of actual church interiors established a new genre in Dutch painting. While important precedents occur in the work of other artists (mainly Flemings, such as Hendrik van Steenwyck), no painter or draftsman before Saenredam had the interest, tenacity, or the art market to support a career largely devoted to this specialty.
     His paintings of churches and the old town halls in Haarlem, Utrecht and Amsterdam must have been appreciated by contemporary viewers principally as faithful representations of familiar and meaningful monuments. Yet they also reveal his exceptional sensitivity to aesthetic values; his paintings embody the most discriminating considerations of composition, coloring and craftsmanship. His oeuvre is comparatively small, the paintings numbering no more than 60, and each is obviously the product of careful calculation and many weeks of work. Their most striking features, unusual in the genre, are their light, closely valued tonalities and their restrained, restful and delicately balanced compositions. These pictures, always painted on smooth panels, are remarkable for their sense of harmony and, in some instances, serenity. Here, perhaps, lies a trace of filial fidelity to the Mannerist tradition of refinement and elegance, of lines never lacking in precision and grace. But Mannerist figures and the more comparable components of strap- and scrollwork embellishment lack the tension and clarity of Saenredam’s designs, which also have a completeness reminiscent of the fugues of Gerrit Sweelinck [1566–1628].

LINKS
–- Dutch Interior with Woman Sweeping (1636, 41x37cm ; 1000x939pix, 78kb _ .ZOOM to 2333x2191pix, 430kb)
Interior of the Church of Saint Bavo in Haarlem (1636, 95x57cm; _ ZOOM to 1600x933pix, 176kb) _ The eye is immediately drawn to the organ in this painting, through the high, white arch. The contrast between the gold, brown, black and blue of the organ and the cool blankness of the interior is striking. The church is still in Haarlem, the town in which he lived. Saenredam was the first in Holland to specialize in the painting of church interiors. He made several versions of the Grote or Saint Bavo church.
     In this church interior, Saenredam has given particular attention to the organs. The large organ is beautifully depicted with its open shutters and guilt inscriptions. He chose his position in the church so that he could also record the second organ. This organ is much simpler and considerably smaller. The large organ, built in the fifteenth century, is richly decorated with fine woodcarvings and guilt ornaments. Depicted on the open shutter is the Resurrection of Christ. To represent the gold in the painting, Saenredam mixed gold powder with his paint. Anything that was gold in reality had to shine like gold in the painting.
     At the time Saenredam painted the St Bavo church, leading music-lovers were campaigning for more organ music to be played in church services. Calvinist ministers objected to organ music. Little music was played in church and psalms were sung unaccompanied. The ministers would rather have had no organs at all in church because they felt the beautifully decorated organs were evidence of ostentation and excess. Haarlem's music-lovers handed a petition to the town council, in which they asked to be allowed to use the organ, 'the ornament of the church', everyday. It is possible that Saenredam gave the organs a prominent position in his painting in support of this campaign.
     The height of the church building has been emphasized through the presence of a few people. In the seventeenth century, churches were not only places of prayer and worship, they were also meeting places where people could walk in at any time. One particularly fascinating detail is easy to miss - the man and the woman standing up in the gallery. The man is half-hidden by a column. It is an intimate scene in this enormous, bright space.
     Saenredam made several drawings and paintings of the Grote or St Bavo church. These differ from each other in that he took a different angle each time. The painting with the organs is a view through the oldest part of the church: the choir, which dates from around 1400. The organ hangs above the northern ambulatory. This beautiful organ case no longer exists today. It was demolished in 1773. In 1738, an enormous organ was placed on the western wall, made by the organ-maker Christian Müller. This organ became famous. It led to Haarlem becoming known as the 'city of organs'.
Interior of the Church of Saint Odulphus at Assendelft, seen from the Choir to the West (1649, 50x76cm) _ In the distance, in a large, light church a congregation is listening to a sermon. The figures are tiny and the space immense. The extreme brightness of the airy space and the utter tranquility emanating from this picture, make it one of Saenredam's most beautiful works.
     The church floor is paved with dark tiles. The walls are white and unadorned. This is as it should be in a Protestant church. On the wall to the right hand are two funerary inscriptions. In some places on the high white walls Saenredam has given small accents of co lour, here and there a little pink or yellow. The predominant co lour is the soft brown of the church benches, the pulpit and the wooden vaulting of the ceiling. Prominent figures are seated on raised benches, while the common folk sit in the middle on low benches or on the floor.
     On the church bench at the left Saenredam has written: 'the church in Assendelft, a village in Holland, by Pieter Saenredam' and 'this was painted in the year 1649, on the 2nd of October'. Meaning that the picture was completed on 02 October 1649, not that Saenredam painted it in one day. Names are chiseled into one of the stones in the foreground. It is the grave of Saenredam's father, Jan Saenredam, and various members of the family. The family lived in the village of Assendelft. Jan Saenredam is buried at the foot of the large tomb. This was the last resting place of the lords of Assendelft, who had been his patrons.
     Pieter Saenredam had his own method of working. First he made a careful study of the building, drawing sketches and making notes on the spot. For example, he would measure certain items, such as the circumference of a pillar or the size of a tomb. Often he let his preliminary studies lie dormant for years. He made the sketch for St Odulphus' on 31 July 1634 and did not paint the picture until 1649. Indeed, he had already made sketches of the Assendelft church in August 1633.
     Only after many years did Saenredam decide to paint the church of St Odulphus. First he produced a 'construction drawing' based on his notes and sketch. He began by drawing guidelines. For a church floor of ten meters wide he would divide his paper into ten vertical segments. Then he introduced a horizontal line, always at eye level from the chosen viewpoint. All the vertical lines meet at one point on this horizontal line, the “vanishing point”. In this way Saenredam created a grid within which to draw the interior of a building with accurate measurements, balance, and perspective.
     The next stage was to transfer the construction drawing onto the panel. Saenredam would blacken the back of the drawing. Then, pasting or pinning the drawing onto the panel, he would draw over the lines with a sharp object. In this way, he could transfer the drawing onto the panel. Saenredam could then start painting. Pieter Saenredam was the first and one of the few who worked in this exacting way. And despite his fastidious accuracy, he was not always able to resist a little meddling. If it suited him or he considered it more attractive, he was not above making a pillar thicker, a vault higher or a space larger.
The Old Town Hall of Amsterdam (1657, 65x83cm) _ The houses and the tower were all part of Amsterdam's town hall on Dam Square until 1652. It looks rather decrepit, despite the attractive pink and yellow co lour In 1641 Saenredam made a sketch of the old town hall. Not until 1657 did he develop the drawing into this painting, which was then bought by the burgomasters of Amsterdam. Pieter Saenredam was a painter of architecture. He specialized in church interiors, but also portrayed other buildings with utmost care and precision.
     Pieter Saenredam was meticulous in his work. He spent six days sketching the old town hall. On the drawing he noted 'Pieter Saenredam drew this on 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 July 1641'. But he was not to paint the old town hall for another sixteen years - and by then it no longer existed. Across the window shutters he wrote 'Pieter Saenredam, first made a drawing from observation, with all its colors, in the Year 1641. And painted this in the year 1657'. And on the balcony at the left he wrote 'This is the Old Town Hall of the city of Amsterdam, which burnt down in the year 1651 on 07 July, in no more than 3 hours'. Meticulous perhaps, but not infallible: the old town hall burnt down in 1652.
     Amsterdam's town hall stood on Dam Square, the vibrant heart of the city and center of economic activity. But the burgomasters of Amsterdam Burgomasters of Amsterdam Until 1795, Amsterdam was governed by a regency of four burgomasters. They had far-reaching executive powers, setting policy for Amsterdam and often dictating that of the Republic itself. This was due to Amsterdam's pre-eminent position as the wealthiest city in the country. Amsterdam's regency was re-appointed annually. Each year, the burgomasters, together with the magistrates and the town council, or senate, elected three new regent burgomasters from among their number. Burgomasters and other high-ranking officials were drawn from Amsterdam's wealthy regent class. were ashamed of the old town hall. It hardly reflected the prosperity of their city, the center of world trade. In 1648 a start was made on a new building. This was to be a palatial town hall and is now in fact the Royal Palace in Amsterdam. Part of the old building was pulled down, for the new town hall was planned right behind it. In 1652 a fire broke out in the old building. Little survived of the dilapidated old town hall.
     Amsterdam's old town hall had not always appeared so shabby. In the sixteenth century it was a proud, impressive building. The house on the right had an imposing façade. Arches decorated the top of the tower, where the town bells hung. In fact, the complex was a random mixture of buildings. When the houses and tower were built is not known, but it must have been after 1452, since a major fire destroyed much of the city in that year. The row of houses at the left had originally been a hospital - St Elizabeth's. Here were the offices of officials such as the 'Commissioners for minor Affairs' Commissioners of Minor Cases (lower-court judges) and 'Treasurer Extraordinary' (collector of regional property taxes).
     The city council and various civil servants were not the only ones to use the town hall. It was also where the sheriff, the magistrates and their assistants worked. Their functions were similar to today's courts and police. In the house at the left behind the fencing between the pillars hearings were held. The tribunal Medieval court 'Schaar' is Old Dutch for a bench. In the Middle Ages the 'Vierschaar' was a group of four benches on which the sheriff, the magistrates, the prosecutor and the accused sat. was where legal cases were tried. When a trial was taking place people would throng the galleries outside, where they had a good view of the proceedings.
     On the left of the façade is the jaw of a whale; its significance is unknown. Several Dutch town halls had one hanging on the wall
     In 1609 the bank of Amsterdam moved to this house. It was called the Exchange Bank. Currency markets in 16th-century Europe were in chaos. Many cities minted their own coins, all of different quality. Taking its cue from the Venetian Banco di Rialto of 1587, in 1609 Amsterdam set up an official exchange bank (Wisselbank). The new bank established standard rates for the various currencies, it also settled bills and transferred sums, taking deposits of money with the city itself taking ultimate responsibility. Each new account holder had to pay ten guilders into the civic poor relief fund. The exchange bank enjoyed a solid reputation at home and abroad. It remained the world's premiere financial institution until well into the 18th century. Besides merchants, nobles, towns and governments also held accounts at the bank. There was an enormous turnover of money in Amsterdam. As a security measure the entrance was plastered into the façade. The space in front was leased out to craftsmen. On the left was a bookshop, beside it what appears to be a clerk. Various civic officials had their offices on the first floor.
     Saenredam completed the painting of the town hall five years after the fire that destroyed it. He was paid 400 guilders for it. The burgomasters hung it in their room in the new town hall, beside a painting by Jacob van der Ulft, showing the new building. Both pictures were framed with dark ebony. There they hung for several centuries, the painting by Saenredam receiving the most praise.
Le choeur de l'église Saint-Bavon à Haarlem, avec la tombe fictive d'un évêque (1630, 41x37m; 750x694pix, 100kb) _ Vue du nord vers le déambulatoire sud ; au fond, la chapelle Breewer. La tombe épiscopale, inventée, est sans doute là pour affirmer la permanence du catholicisme et de l'évêché de Haarlem malgré la Réforme calviniste (voir l'inscription latine célébrant la gloire post mortem d'un évêque assurée par la vérité de la doctrine et la sanctification plus encore que par les insignes de la fonction...). Tableau peut-être peint pour un client catholique et certes l'un des plus anciens de l'artiste (le premier connu est de 1628), lequel a souvent choisi pour motif l'église Saint-Bavon (30 dessins, une dizaine de peintures).
Haarlem, the Interior of the Nieuwe Kerk, Seen From the South West (1658, 30x31cm; 1000x957pix; 312kb) _ This is the fourth and latest of four known Saenredam paintings of the Nieuwe Kerk in Haarlem. The Nieuwe Kerk was the only modern building that Saenredam painted, and is thus the only church he painted built in Classical rather than Gothic or Romanesque style. The church was built to the designs of Saenredam's friend Jacob van Campen between 1646 and 1649 on the site of the demolished medieval chapel of Saint Anne, retaining the tower, which had been erected by Lieven de Key in 1613. Van Campen devised a square ground plan of an austere and simple enclosed Greek cross. The groin-vaulted crossing is carried on four square Ionic piers, the barrel-vaulted arms by beams supported by the piers, by Ionic columns and Ionic pilasters, which continue around the perimeter supporting the square, flat, coffered ceilings of the four corners.
      Saenredam made many drawings of the church; indeed, from 1650 onwards he drew this church exclusively, starting with a copy of Van Campen's ground plan. Saenredam's working method was to make sketches, sometimes many sketches of a subject which would result in so-called construction drawings, made in careful preparation for paintings. His drawings of the Nieuwe Kerk, culminating in a construction drawing dated 31 July 1651 yielded his first painting of the church, a prospect of the interior seen from west to east taken from just north of the center line, dated 23 May 1652. A second construction drawing dated 26 August 1651 yielded another prospect, dated 16 August 1653, showing the interior from the southwest corner of the transept looking north. Saenredam's third painting of the Nieuwe Kerk shows its interior looking west from the east side of the south aisle, and gives prominence to the pulpit designed by Van Campen. It is dated 1655 (without indication of month or day). The present work, dated 1658, is the last of the sequence (and one of only two paintings by Saenredam dating from the second half of the 1650s).
      In view of Saenredam's working method, one might reasonably expect him to have made preparatory drawings on which construction drawings for each painting would have been based. Saenredam's construction drawings did not always survive well the process of transfer to the panel, and it is understandable that neither one appears to have survived. Both paintings show the church seen from the same vantage point, (from a height of about 1.2 m - perhaps seated on a stool - against the base of the central pilaster on the eastern wall of the southeast corner), and both paintings share a common vanishing point, so that when placed side by side both paintings form a continuous panorama, with only small gap consisting of much of the width of the central pier between them, and are thus part of a common continuous scheme of perspective. The heights of the figures in both paintings is the same, and the vanishing point is approximately at their head-height. The paintings are of different dates, and were certainly not conceived as pendants, but as Liedtke has argued, they were almost certainly based on the same sketch, probably done when the other sketches were made, in June 1650, and possibly traced to provide construction drawings. While it is tempting to conclude that Saenredam used both halves of the same construction drawing for each picture, their different dimensions make this unlikely: for example, the base of the same pillar in the left and right foregrounds of each is of a different height. Given the rigid symmetry of the architecture of the church, Saenredam may have used for the architectural structure of both paintings a sketch of the interior of the Nieuwe Kerk seen from the same spot but looking in exactly the opposite direction, i.e, rotated 180º, and then reversed by tracing to provide construction drawings, or an intermediate drawing upon which the construction drawings were based. That sketch may be the one dated 23 June 1650, which shows indenting perhaps caused by tracing. An examination of the present work using infra-red reflectography revealed extensive geometric underdrawing, which is consistent with Saenredam's usual practice.
      Each of the stained glass windows in the Nieuwe Kerk bore the coat-of-arms of one of the twenty highest office-holders in Haarlem. Apart from documentary evidence for them, they are recorded in a drawing by Saenredam in which the status of each and the position in the church in 1647, the year the windows were installed. They may be seen in each of Saenredam's drawings of the church, and in his 1652 painting. In the present painting, however, all but two are absent, together with all other armorial devices, including the shields which hung in the vaults, leaving only the arms of the Burgomasters Cornelis Backer [–1655] and Johan van der Camer [1585-1657] in the right hand two windows.
     This may have resulted from the elimination of the other armorials following the marriage of the grandchildren of the two Burgomasters, Adriaen Backer and Anna Catharina van der Camer in 1698, and of the present picture being then in the possession of the Backer family. Technical analysis has shown that there were originally armorials in the other windows, that they were painted out, and that the lead-white overpaint has a mixture of natural ultramarine, which makes it most unlikely that the overpainting took place much after 1700, since ultramarine was supplanted rapidly after 1704 by Prussian Blue (Saenredam also used ultramarine for the original sky. Though favored by Vermeer, this pigment was not widely used in the Netherlands in the mid-17th Century, because of its cost). Furthermore, the inventory of Adriaen Backer's estate, taken at his death in 1739, lists two church interiors by Saenredam: one unidentified; the other “a view in the Nieuwe Kerk in Haarlem”. While it cannot be ruled out that the painting listed is one of the three other paintings of the church that survive, the theory is highly plausible. In the light of the close connections between Saenredam and the painter Cornelis Vroom, whose sister was married to the Burgomaster Cornelis Backer, this picture was probably in the Backer collection from the outset. Saenredam witnessed Vroom's deathbed testament appointing Adriaen Backer guardian to his son Jacob Vroom. Adriaen was son of Cornelis, and father of the Adriaen who married Anna Catherina van der Camer, and thus the possible first owner of this picture.
 
^ Baptized on 16 August 1557: Agostino Carracci, Italian Baroque printmaker and painter who died on 23 February 1602. Brother of Annibale Carracci [bap. 03 Nov 1560 – 15 Jul 1609] and cousin of Lodovico Carracci [bap. 21 Apr 1555 – 03 Nov 1619]
— Born in Bologna, he died in Parma. Originally a goldsmith, studied printmaking with Domenico Tibaldi, and was the first of the three Carracci to become a printmaker. Also worked with Passarotti and Prospero Fontana. Worked in Venice and Florence but mostly in Bologna. Went to Rome 1594 for Farnese, then to Parma 1600 where he died in 1602.
— The brothers Agostino and Annibale and their cousin Lodovico, who were prominent figures at the end of the 16th century in the movement against the prevailing Mannerist artificiality of Italian painting. They worked together early in their careers, and it is not easy to distinguish their shares in, for example, the cycle of frescos in the Palazzo Fava in Bologna (1583-1584). In the early 1580s they opened a private teaching academy, which soon became a center for progressive art. It was originally called the Accademia dei Desiderosi, but later changed its name to Academia degli Incamminati. In their teaching they laid special emphasis on drawing from life (all three were outstanding graphic artists) and clear draftsmanship became a quality particularly associated with artists of the Bolognese School, notably Domenichino and Reni, two of the leading members of the following generation who were trained by the Carracci.
      They continued working in close relationship until 1595, when Annibale, who was by far the greatest artist of the family, was called to Rome.
     Agostino was important mainly as a teacher and engraver. His systematic anatomical studies were engraved after his death and were used for nearly two centuries as teaching aids. He spent the last two years in Parma, where he did his own "Farnese Ceiling", decorating a ceiling in the Palazzo del Giardino with mythological scenes for Duke Ranuccio Farnese. It shows a meticulous but somewhat spiritless version of his brother's lively Classicism.
     The Caracci fell from grace in the 19th century along with all the other Bolognese painters, considered to have "no single virtue, no color, no drawing, no character, no history, no thought". They were saddled with the label "eclectic" and thought to be ponderous and lacking in originality. Their full rehabilitation had to wait until the second half of the 20th century (the great Carracci exhibition held in Bologna in 1956 was a notable event), but Annibale has now regained his place as one of the giants of Italian painting. Agostino's illegitimate son Antonio Carracci [1589-1618] was the only offspring of the three Carracci. He had a considerable reputation as an artist in his day, but after his early death was virtually forgotten, and it is only recently that his work has been reconsidered.
— Agostino Carracci's students included Francesco Albani, Giovanni Francesco Grimaldi, Giovanni Lanfranco, Remigio Cantagallina, Giacomo Cavedone and Pietro Faccini.

LINKS
Head of a Faun in a Concave (1595, 18x19 cm) not to be confused with Head of a Fawn in a Conclave.
The Annunciation (48x35cm)
Democrito (1598) _ Ascrivibile agli anni romani del pittore, il ritratto riprende, con un'interpretazione criptica, l'iconografia del filosofo che ride sulla stupidità del mondo - spesso in pendant con la raffigurazione di Eraclito che piange sulla stessa - risalente alle caratterizzazioni di età romana suggerite da Orazio, Cicerone e Giovenale e molto diffusa nella pittura rinascimentale italiana. Agostino, inoltre, vi aggiunse il particolare della pelliccia, forse erudita riflessione sulla dottrina dell'antico filosofo relativa alla falsa superiorità dell'uomo sull'animale.
Arrigo Peloso, Pietro Matto e Amon Nano (1598.) _ Probabilmente realizzato da Agostino su diretta richiesta del cardinal Odoardo Farnese al suo arrivo a Roma, verso il 1598, rappresenta tre personaggi della corte romana dello stesso Odoardo: il buffone Pietro, il nano Rodomonte ed il selvaggio delle Canarie, Arrigo Gonzalez, inviatogli nel 1595 da suo fratello il Duca di Parma. In esso, Agostino, pur con grande rigore filologico ad esempio nella descrizione delle vesti, riesce a rendere il rapporto fra gli uomini e i loro animali con una umanità ed una simpatia tali da trasformare il dipinto in una vivace scena "di genere".
Ritratto di suonatore di liuto - Orazio Bassani? (1586) [no es un soñador de luto] Probabilmente eseguito durante il soggiorno parmense di Agostino del 1585-86, potrebbe raffigurare il virtuoso, nativo di Cento, Orazio Bassani, detto Orazio "della viola", attivo fra Parma, Bruxelles e Roma presso vari membri della famiglia Farnese. Una tale datazione è confermata anche dalle caratteristiche formali del dipinto che, al rapporto con la pittura del Passarotti, dei Campi e di Ludovico, aggiunge una tenerezza pittorica di ascendenza correggesca.
— (last Communion??) (696x495pix, 164kb)
20 ZOOMable prints at Wikimedia
—(060815)
^ Died on 16 August 1837: William Daniell, British painter born in 1769. Orphaned, he was brought up by his uncle Thomas Daniell [1749 – 19 March 1840] who took him to India in 1784, where he stayed until 1794. William was the brother of Samuel Daniell [1775-Dec 1811]
— Daniell was born in Kingston-upon-Thames in Surrey. His father was a bricklayer and owner of a public house called The Swan in near-by Chertsey. Daniell’s future career was dramatically changed when he was sent to live with his uncle Thomas [1749–1840] after the premature death of his father in 1779. His uncle was an artist and later Royal Academician, and William became his student. Uncle and nephew left Britain in April 1785 to voyage throughout China and India. In Calcutta in 1791, they held a lottery of their combined paintings, using the proceeds to continue their traveling and sketching.
     On 1st December 1784, Thomas Daniell was granted permission by the East India Company to 'proceed to Bengal to follow his profession of an engraver'. He took with him as assistant, his young nephew, William, and they sailed from the Downs on 7th April 1785 in the East Indiaman, Atlas, commanded by Captain Allen Cooper. The Atlas was bound for China, and en route it called at Madeira, the Cape of Good Hope and Java Head and Anjere Point, Java. Off Java Head William Daniell watched sailors in a small boat spearing a shark and a sketch was made which was inscribed Shark caught July 25 1785. They also noted the Javanese methods of collecting edible bird's nests at Anjere Point, and when they went ashore they visited several Malay villages, noting the fine quality of the Malay huts. A further brief visit was made in 1794 when the Daniells were en route back to England and Thomas drew a view of the straits of Sunda taken from Anjere Point. From their sketches taken at the time, the Daniells included nine Javanese subjects in A Picturesque Voyage to India by Way of China, a folio of fifty colored aquatints published in 1810, and William Daniell exhibited several paintings of Java scenes at the Royal Academy, including in 1833 an unusual subject of 'a snake of vast size' which had seized and carried from his horse a Javanese messenger.
      They returned to Great Britain in 1794, where they put their experiences to use in exhibition-size oil paintings. Daniell’s View of the East India Fleet in the Sunda Strait reflects his travels, and in 1819 he published an illustrated book A Picturesque Voyage to India by way of China. He made sketching tours throughout the British countryside, publishing A Voyage Around Great Britain (1814–1825). About this time, in 1821, he was elected a Royal Academician. His shipping scenes, such A Bird’s-Eye View of the East India Dock at Blackwell, were supplemented by greatly admired battle pieces. In 1825, he won a prize of £100 for a pair of the Battle of Trafalgar, exhibited at the British Institution. He continued to work until his death.
     Although both Thomas and William Daniell explored southern India in 1792, leaving Madras on 9th April and reaching the island of Rameswaram close to Ceylon on 7th September, there is no evidence that they actually visited Ceylon. However, Samuel Daniell, William's brother, embarked for Ceylon at the end of 1805 and stayed there until his death in 1812. He sent back to his brother many sketches relating to Ceylon, some of which later appeared as aquatints in A Picturesque Illustration of the Scenery, Animals and Native Inhabitants of the Island of Ceylon (1807). William Daniell exhibited a number of Ceylon subjects at both the Royal Academy and the British Institution in the 1820s and 1830s. In 1832 he exhibited Birds of Ceylon at the Royal Academy and four animal subjects from Ceylon at the British Institution in the same year, including 'The Paradise Fly-Catcher of Ceylon'. These seem to have been based on Samuel Daniell's sketches.

LINKS
–- Camoes Grotto, Macau(colored engraving, 12x20cm) [with Thomas Daniell]
–- View of Caernarvon Castle from Anglesea (23x30cm; 650x952pix, 54kb)
The Watering Place at Anjer Point in the Island of Java (1794) The picture shows the activities taking place at Anjer Point, a well-known convoy rendezvous on the western tip of the island of Java. It shows the homeward bound China fleet of East Indiamen, at anchor in the Strait of Sunda in 1793, when it was in convoy under the command of Sir Erasmus Gower, in the 'Lion' man-of-war. This was a well known rendezvous and watering point on the route to the East. The painting was exhibited in the Royal Academy in 1836, some time after the event it records. The artist had worked as an engraver in the Far East, where he traveled and sketched in India. Coastal craft are shown sailing in the bay and, in the foreground to the left, one of them flies the Dutch flag. In the foreground, is a watering place, with evidence of trading amongst the visitors and local population. Two sailors, in the foreground to the right, are rolling a barrel watched by a group of visitors. In the background, the artist has placed a high-peaked, snow-capped mountain across the straits.
The Fire Pheasant of the Island of Java (1831, 23x30cm)
Musk Deer, and Birds of Paradise (23x30cm; 774x1000pix, 1303kb) _ Musk Deer is one of the smallest deer species. The white birds are a species of birds of paradise known to natives by the name of the 'cotton thief'. The tree above the animal is the Coconut with a cluster of its fruit. The tree on which the birds are perched is called the monkey tree: it produces an abundance of very sweet wafers on which the monkeys feed.
The Jama Masjid, Delhi (48x75cm)
View of Newcastle on the River Tyne from Saint Ann's (95x184cm)
The Mast House and Brunswick Dock at Blackwall (58x70cm; 371x700pix, 48kb) _ This is a bird's-eye-view of the Brunswick Dock (also known as the Brunswick Basin or Perry's Dock) and part of Perry's Blackwall shipyard, looking down the Thames towards Woolwich. The tip of Greenwich marshes (Blackwall Point) is on the right and the River Lea in the left distance. The Blackwall mast house in the foreground (removed 1859-1864) was a crane for masting ships, rather than using a floating sheer hulk - the usual naval practice. Two men can be seen working a hoist, with a mast suspended, on the top of the building. Horses are being used in the yard below it to move shipbuilding timber. There are East Indiamen moored up in lines to the left and centre of the picture and the river is depicted as the principal highway. It is busier than the tree-lined road, with many coastal and other craft. The Brunswick Dock was built by John Perry, adjacent to his shipyard at Blackwall, between March 1789 and November 1790, when it opened. It had two basins of above eight acres in all, one (the nearer in this picture) capable of holding thirty large East Indiamen and the other a similar number of smaller vessels. Each had separate entrances. In 1806 the dock was bought by the East India Dock Co., formed for the purpose, and became the East India Export Dock. By 1808 they had constructed an Import Dock where cows are shown grazing here, to the left of the road, with a separate entrance beyond Perry's basin. In the 1820s managing interest in the Blackwall shipyard transferred to Perry's son-in-law, George Green, whose son Richard made it famous as the home of 'Blackwall frigates', the last development of large Indiamen, and of Green's Blackwall line trading to both India and Australia, especially after gold was discovered in Port Phillip (Victoria) in 1852. This painting replicates, or may be the source of, a print engraved and published by Daniell in 1803 and dedicated to John Perry.
108 prints at FAMSF
—(060815)
^ Born on 16 August 1886: Angel Zárraga, Mexican painter who died on 23 September 1946 in Mexico City.
— He was born in the City of Durango. He was an urban and cordial man; as an artist he went through everything: he was eulogized, censored and finally recovered. His liking for art and writing started as a young man; he attended San Ildefonso high-school where important figures of Mexican culture studied. Around 1902 he wrote for the Revista Moderna, and joined the School of Fine Arts.
      He traveled to Europe in 1904, to continue his artistic education, like many other young artists did in his time. He returned to his mother-land to show his improvements at the Academy, but he soon went back to France, to stay for near 35 years. During his stay in that country he married the Russian sportswoman Jeanette Ivanof in 1919, who liked art, and possibly was his nude model for a while. In that time he experienced the disasters of the World War I.
      Later on, he married again to an European woman, and continued his painting métier. Several churches were damaged because of the war, and Zárraga worked for them as a fresco painter to reconstruct the decoration of the temples; like the temple of Notre Dame de la Salette at Surennes, Paris, among others.
      His reputation arrived to Mexico. He was invited in 1921 by José Vasconcelos to paint the walls of public buildings at the capital city, but it was only in 1942 that he returned to live in Mexico. He accomplished many portraits and murals, like the decoration of the walls at the Monterrey city cathedral. He also painted La miseria and La abundacia at the Mexico City Bankers Club ; for this work, he was criticized by some artists, under the argument that his work was opposite to nationalism and that he was at the service of the high classes, the private enterprises and the foreign art. Nevertheless Zárraga continued his fecund labor in Mexico.

Autorretrato (1930, 73x57cm; 369x283pix)
La Dádiva (1910; 526x600pix, 44kb)
Ex Voto: San Sebastián (1910)
Paisaje (1919, 42x33cm)
 

Died on a 16 August:


1727 Jakob van Waltskapelle (or Walscapelle), Dutch painter born in May 1644.

1708 Michel Corneille II “des Gobelins”, French painter and engraver born on 29 September (02 October?) 1642, son of Michel Corneille I [1602 – 13 Jan 1664]. Michel II became a prolific artist, the family’s most successful member. Like his brother Jean-Baptiste Corneille [02 Nov 1649 – 12 Apr 1695], he concentrated on religious pictures for both private and ecclesiastical patrons. Initially trained by his father, Michel II later studied under Charles Le Brun and Pierre Mignard. In 1659 he won a prize from the Académie Royale that enabled him to visit Italy. When he returned to France he was received (reçu) as a member of the Académie in 1663 with Christ Appearing to Saint Peter. He became an associate professor in 1673, a professor in 1690 and a counselor in 1691. He admired the Italian masters, especially the Carracci, and finished his training by copying their works. The rich collector Everard Jabach employed both Michel II and Jean-Baptiste to engrave the best Italian drawings in his collection.


Born on a 16 August:


^ 1892 Harold Rudolf “Hal” Foster, who died on 25 July 1982, Canadian-born cartoonist and creator of Prince Valiant, a comic strip notable for its fine drawing and authentic historical detail. Before becoming an artist Foster had been an office worker, a boxer, and a gold prospector. In 1921 he moved to Chicago, where he studied art. As a commercial artist, hewas asked to develop a comic strip based on the character created by Edgar Rice Burroughs [01 Sep 1875 – 19 Mar 1950] in his book Tarzan of the Apes (1914). Foster's strip, first printed on 07 January 1929, was one of the first adventure comic strips. It emphasized realism, composition, and drawing based on the techniques of commercial illustration. After an initial test sequence, the daily strip was drawn by Rex Maxon and the Sunday page by Foster, who drew it for some six years. In 1936 Foster resigned from Tarzan and created his own strip, Prince Valiant, which first appeared on 13 February 1937. The main character was a Viking prince taken as a child from his homeland to the medieval England of King Arthur. Beautifully drawn, the strip was an exciting re-creation of the period, rich with carefully researched details of armor, dwellings, and scenery. Foster continued to work on the Sunday comic strip until 1979, when he turned it over to his longtime associate, John Cullen Murphy [03 May 1919 – 02 Jul 2004]. Prince Valiant movies were released in 1954 and 1997, and in 1991 a TV series.
Hulta is a Girl! (1940; 916x1449pix, 334kb)
Victory! (1940; 865x1432pix, 354kb)
Ice Avalanche Prince Valiant #3330 (518x770pix, 173kb)
Charging (468x412pix, 47kb)

^ 1877 Augusto Giacometti, Swiss painter and decorative artist who died on 09 July 1947. — Cousin of Giovanni Giacometti [07 Mar 1868 – 25 Jun 1933], whose sons were Alberto Giacometti [10 Oct 1901 – 11 Jan 1966] and Diego Giacometti [15 Nov 1902 – 15 Jul 1985].
— Augusto Giacometti displayed an early talent for drawing while still in secondary school in Schiers, near Chur. In 1894–1897 he studied at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Zurich, followed by four years in Paris. There he studied at the Ecole Normale d’Enseignement de Dessin under Eugène-Samuel Grasset, whose Art Nouveau designs based on plants inspired Giacometti to create abstract line and color patterns, such as Mountain Stream (1900).
     Leaving Paris in 1901, he went to study early Renaissance painting in Florence, where he settled until 1915. While there he began painting large-scale color abstractions in a lyrical or painterly mode. Although May Morning was later dated by the artist to 1910, other paintings indicate that the transition to abstraction occurred in 1912: Midsummer and Stampa are recognizable images executed in a Fauvist mode, while Ascent of Piz Duan of the same year crosses over into abstraction, as does Coloristic Fantasy (1913).
     His paintings of 1914–1917 are purely non-objective; their overall patternings consist of ‘explosions’ of pure colors in free-form compositions, whose nebulous forms suggest the infinities of both micro- and macrocosmic space, as in Chromatic Fantasy (1914), Summer Night (1917) and Fantasy on a Potato Blossom (1917). These paintings, with their use of sophisticated, exuberant color to create evocative or emotive effects, suggest comparisons with the early abstractions of Kandinsky, but Giacometti eschewed reliance on line, preferring instead more miasmic and stippled forms. He continued to create works in this style during the following decades, for example Memory of an Italian Primitive II (1927). These paintings later earned him a place in history as one of the pioneers of abstraction, although during his lifetime he gained fame primarily through his decorative work.
     After settling in Zurich in 1915 he worked on many public commissions, particularly stained-glass windows and mosaics. His early abstractions were rediscovered through exhibitions in Switzerland in 1959, when they were perceived as having remarkable affinities with European Tachism and Art informel, as well as with US color field painting, for example that of Rothko, Sam Francis and Clyfford Still. However, Giacometti’s lyrical colorist compositions had spiritual and symbolist intentions significantly different from post-war Abstract Expressionist styles.

1658 Jan Frans van Zoon (or van Son), Flemish painter who died in 1718.

1592 Wybrand Simonszoon de Geest I “l'Aigle de Frise”, Dutch painter who died in 1659 (1662?). He was the son of Symon Juckes de Geest [–<1604], a painter of stained-glass windows. Wybrand de Geest studied with Abraham Bloemaert in Utrecht and then went to France and Italy. There he became a member of the colony of Dutch artists active in Rome that later developed into the Schildersbent, who gave him the nickname ‘the Frisian eagle’. He made a copy after Caravaggio’s Mary Magdalene (1597, 123x99cm) in Rome in 1620. He returned to Leeuwarden in 1621 and became the favorite portrait painter of the Frisian stadholders and the landed gentry. His marriage to Hendrickje Uylenborch, who was related to Rembrandt’s wife Saskia, strengthened his contacts with artistic centers outside Friesland.


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