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ART “4” “2”-DAY  13 August v.9.70
International Day of Left-Handers (they include Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Pablo Picasso, Dürer , Escher, Holbein, Klee, Neiman, Raphael ...)
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DEATHS: 1638 UYTEWAEL —1863 DELACROIX —1896 MILLAIS 1997 WEIGHT  1961 SIRONI 
BIRTHS: 1867 LUKS — 1889 NEVINSON — 1576 VINCKBOONS
2001: A REMBRANDT ON SALE FOR $35'600'000
^ Born on 13 August 1867: George Benjamin Luks, US Ashcan School painter who died on 29 October 1933. — {Étant donné qu'il appartenait à “l'École Poubelle”, peut-on dire que les tableaux de Luks étaient vraiment de luxe?}
— Luks was born in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, and died in New York City. He studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia, and later in Germany, London, and Paris. Returning to the United States in 1894, he became an illustrator for the Philadelphia Press. He met the teacher and painter Robert Henri and the newspaper illustrators John Sloan and William Glackens. Luks served in Cuba in 1896 as a correspondent artist for the Philadelphia Bulletin during the Cuban struggle for independence from Spain. After returning to the United States, he worked as a cartoonist for the New York World. In 1908, with Henri, Sloan, Glackens, and other painters, Luks formed a group called The Eight, which others called the Ashcan School, whose exhibition in New York is considered a key event in the history of contemporary painting.
— Born in Williamsport, in a coal-mining region of north-central Pennsylvania, Luks studied first at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, and later in Germany, London, and Paris. Returning to the United States in 1894, he became an illustrator for the Philadelphia Press. During that period he met the painter and teacher Robert Henri [25 Jun 1865 – 12 Jul 1929] and the newspaper illustrators John Sloan [02 Aug 1871 – 07 Sep 1951] and William J. Glackens [13 Mar 1870 – 22 May 1938]. Luks went to Cuba in 1895 as a correspondent artist for the Philadelphia Bulletin during the Cuban struggle for independence from Spain. After returning to the United States, he worked as a cartoonist, drawing the popular Hogan's Alley for the New York World. Between 1902 and 1903 Luks lived in Paris, where he not only continued his art studies but also became increasingly preoccupied with the depiction of modern city life.
      When he returned to New York City, he settled in the bohemian enclave of Greenwich Village and began to paint realistic pictures of New Yorkers; notable examples from this period are The Spielers (1905), possibly his best-known work, and The Wrestlers (1905). In 1908, with Henri, Sloan, Glackens, and four other painters, Luks formed a group called The Eight, whose exhibition in New York that year marked a key event in the history of modern painting in the United States. After this event, Luks received the support of art dealers and patrons. He and the other members of The Eight were eventually absorbed into a larger group of artists known as the Ashcan school, which continued the exploration of modern, urban realities. Luks continued to pursue his realistic depictions of urban scenes even while new schools of abstraction began to dominate the New York art world. After teaching at the Art Students League from 1920 to 1924, Luks opened his own art school.

LINKS
Jack and Russell Burke (1923)
The Miner (1925)
Allen Street (548x780pix; 94kb)
Hester Street (526x780pix, 127kb)
–- The Wrestlers (1905, 123x169cm) _ A twisted, struggling and sweating duo brought to life with a modern splash of color. The picture looks like some gem from the Italian High Renaissance.
—(060511)
^ Died on 13 (01?) August 1638: Joachim Antoniszoon Uytewael (or Wtewael, Utenwael), Utrecht Dutch Mannerist figure painter and draftsman born in 1566.
      Until the age of eighteen, Wtewael made and engraved glass with his father. After traveling in Italy and France from 1588 to 1592, he settled in his native Utrecht, where he became one of the leading Dutch exponents of Mannerism. His highly distinctive. charmingly artificial style, which remained untouched by the naturalistic developments happening around him, was characterized by acidic colors and elegant figures in wilfully distorted poses.
     Wtewael belongs to the same generation as the Haarlem Mannerists. He was in Italy from about 1588 to 1590; he lived in Padua, close enough to Venice to become familiar with the Venetian masters. He also studied works by Correggio and the Tuscan Mannerist Jacopo Zucchi. He returned to the Netherlands and by 1592 he had settled in Utrecht. He painted portraits and kitchen scenes as well as subject pictures. His religious and allegorical pieces are frequently cabinet-size on copper supports and are characterized by masterly drawn, highly polished figures often set in capricious poses. He painted in metallic colors and had a predilection for vivid yellow, intense reds, deep greens, and browns. When well preserved his little pictures are gems, e.g. Mars and Venus Discovered by the Gods.
     He was one of the last exponents of Mannerism. From 1590 until 1628, the year of his latest known dated paintings, he employed such typical Mannerist formal devices as brilliant decorative color, contrived spatial design and contorted poses. He sometimes combined such artifice with naturalism, and this amalgam represents the two approaches Dutch 16th- and 17th-century theorists discussed as uyt den geest (‘from the imagination’) and naer ’t leven (‘after life’). Wtewael’s activity reflects the transition from Mannerism to a more naturalistic style in Dutch art. Slightly over 100 of his paintings and about 80 drawings are known. Subjects from the Bible and mythology predominate; he also painted several portraits, including a 1601 Self-portrait.

LINKS
— Adoration by the Shepherds _ detail (137kb)
Supper at Emmaus (86kb)
The Battle Between the Gods and the Titans (1600; 613x800pix, 102kb)
Danae (20x30 cm; 620x944pix, 162kb)
The Judgment of Paris (1615; 584x800pix, 169kb)
Perseus and Andromeda (1611, 180x150cm; 1030x832pix, 153kb)
Kitchen Scene (1605, 65x98cm; 750x1132pix, 140kb) _ The mess in the kitchen during a big banquet. Occasionally it is hard to distinguish market scenes from the genre of early kitchen scenes which also tended to display still-life features. Similar to the market stall, they often show tables and sideboards with clusters of baskets and bowls full of fruit and vegetables (here mostly fish, and on the floor). In this painting the real subject is supposed to be the Rich Man and Lazarus (Luke 16:19-31) {the Rich Man is in the banquet hall, unseen, and Lazarus is a minor figure in the background, much less noticeable than the guy making advances to the kitchen maid). This shows that in the 16th and 17th centuries the biblical motifs of feasts were used by painters as pretexts for reflection on consumer habits and attitudes towards the new wealth which resulted from improvements in agricultural production.
Mars and Venus Discovered by the Gods (1604, 20x15cm; 1100x826pix, 190kb) _ This painting has an Ovidian theme. The gods burst out in Homeric laughter as they witness Mars and Venus strapped stark naked by Vulcan, Venus's cuckolded husband (in the right foreground). His forge is glimpsed behind. Hovering in mid-air, Cupid and Apollo lift the bed curtain to afford the gods, and us, a peek at the adulterous couple. The Mannerist mode was not only about such stylish wit, however. The story of Mars and Venus, however hilariously rendered, offered an embarrassing example of the disastrous consequences of adultery.
     In the Metamorphoses, Ovid tells the story of how the lovers Venus and Mars were surprised by Venus’s husband, Vulcan. Vulcan, a blacksmith, forged an invisible bronze net, which he secretly attached to Mars’s bed. Here Vulcan stands upon Mars’s armor, discarded at the right, while Cupid and Apollo hover above, drawing back the green canopy to reveal the astonished lovers in an embrace. Other gods and goddesses also gather to witness and mock the adulterous couple. In a scene beyond the bed, Vulcan hammers his net at the forge. Exaggerated poses and brilliant, jewel-like color emphasize the dramatic intensity of the scene. The hard, metallic surface of the copper lends itself to highly finished and detailed pictures. Because of the erotic subject matter, the painting’s early owners may have concealed the painting behind a curtain or in a drawer, which preserved its lustrous appearance.
Hermes and Battus (1626; 600xpix) _ According to Ovid (Metamorphoses II), Battus was an old shepherd of Neleus who witnessed the theft of Apollo's cattle by Hermes, who bribed Battus to keep silent. Battus said he would be as silent as a stone. But then Hermes, in disguise, offered another bribe to Battus, who blabbed. So Hermes turned him into a stone:
Incustoditae Pylios memorantur in agros
processisse boves: videt has Atlantide Maia
natus et arte sua silvis occultat abactas.
senserat hoc furtum nemo nisi notus in illo
rure senex; Battum vicinia tota vocabat.
divitis hic saltus herbosaque pascua Nelei
nobiliumque greges custos servabat equarum.
hunc tenuit blandaque manu seduxit et illi
'quisquis es, hospes' ait, 'si forte armenta requiret
haec aliquis, vidisse nega neu gratia facto
nulla rependatur, nitidam cape praemia vaccam!'
et dedit. accepta voces has reddidit hospes:
'tutus eas! lapis iste prius tua furta loquetur,'
et lapidem ostendit. simulat Iove natus abire;
mox redit et versa pariter cum voce figura
'rustice, vidisti si quas hoc limite' dixit
'ire boves, fer opem furtoque silentia deme!
iuncta suo pretium dabitur tibi femina tauro.'
at senior, postquam est merces geminata, 'sub illis
montibus' inquit 'erunt,' et erant sub montibus illis.
risit Atlantiades et 'me mihi, perfide, prodis?
me mihi prodis?' ait periuraque pectora vertit
in durum silicem, qui nunc quoque dicitur index,
inque nihil merito vetus est infamia saxo.

Lot and his Daughters (600x929pix, 212kb)
— a different Lot and his Daughters (1608, 15x20cm; 575x756pix, 232kb)
— yet another different Lot and his Daughters (1600, 209x166cm; 575x747pix, 202kb) a favorite subject of many other painters, including:
   _ Cavallino Lot and His Daughters
   _ Dürer Lot and His Daughters (1499)
   _ Franceschini Lot and his Daughters
   _ Furini Lot and his Daughters
   _ Orazio Gentileschi Lot and his daughters (1621)
   _ Artemisia Gentileschi Lot and his daughters (1645)
   _ Goltzius Lot and his Daughters (1616)
   _ van Leyden Lot and his Daughters (1520)
   _ Massys Lot and his Daughters (1565)
   _ Schiavone Lot and his Daughters (1555)
 
^ Born on 13 August 1889: Christopher Richard Wynne Nevinson, English painter who died on 07 October 1946.
— Son of H. W. Nevinson, the war correspondent and author, he studied painting at St John's Wood, London, in 1908, although his formative years as a student were spent at the Slade School of Art (1909–1912) in London. He was influenced by Impressionism and Post-Impressionism, as well as Sandro Botticelli, as seen from an early Self-portrait (1911, 31x23cm; 512x366pix, 13kb). The Futurist Exhibition of March 1912, held at the Sackville Gallery, London, proved decisive for his development. He met Gino Severini and returned with him to Paris where he encountered Umberto Boccioni, Ardengo Soffici, Guillaume Apollinaire and Amedeo Modigliani. He continued his studies at the Académie Julian and the Cercle Russe in Paris, announcing his affiliation with Futurism by exhibiting a painting called Rising City (1912) in the Friday Club exhibition of January 1913. Its title was a homage to The City Rises (1910, 199x301cm; 600x902pix, 160kb) of Boccioni [19 Oct 1882 – 16 Aug 1916] which had been shown at the Futurist Exhibition.
      By autumn 1913 Nevinson's Futurist loyalties had become even more intense. He displayed a boisterous painting called Departure of the Train de Luxe at Frank Rutter's Post-Impressionist and Futurist Exhibition, held at the Doré Galleries in London, and the picture's debt to similar compositions by Severini was overt. Nevinson was also instrumental in organizing a dinner in honour of Filippo Tommaso Marinetti at the Florence Restaurant in November 1913, which prefigured later performance art developments. Nevinson subsequently found himself enlisted in these prodigious performances, banging a drum backstage in order to ‘enhance the dynamic qualities' of Marinetti's belligerent verse.
      Futurism had by now become a catchword in London for anything new and outrageous, and the British avant-garde grew resentful of its influence. Nevinson continued to make Futurist paintings of machine-age London, celebrating the dynamism of the underground Tube trains, the traffic in the Strand, and, in a huge, raucous painting called Tum-Tiddly-Um-Tum-Pom-Pom (1914), a Bank Holiday crowd on Hampstead Heath. Wyndham Lewis and other rebel artists felt the need to break away from Marinetti, however, and they were particularly enraged when he published with Nevinson a Futurist manifesto called Vital English Art. It implied that many British painters and sculptors had attached themselves to the Futurist cause. Lewis and the group associated with the Rebel Art Centre immediately repudiated the manifesto and within weeks announced the arrival of Vorticism.
      Nevertheless, Nevinson continued to espouse the Italian movement's beliefs, until the advent of World War I changed his mind. Having gone to France with the Red Cross and been invalided home soon afterwards, he announced that he would be using ‘Futurist technique' to express the reality of war in his new work. However, the paintings he produced bore little relation to the enthusiasm with which Marinetti had greeted the war. In Returning to the Trenches (1915) he depicts the column of marching men as oppressed figures, caught up in a wearying and relentless mechanism over which they have no control. Futurist ‘lines of force' and multiple motion are employed to convey a very un-Futurist sense of disillusion with the futility and waste of combat, and in subsequent paintings Nevinson confirmed that he saw the Great War essentially as a tragic event. Bleak, outspoken and often angry, his paintings of 1915–1916 are among the masterpieces of his career, bravely opposing the prevailing jingoistic tendency.
      Nevinson's view of the conflict only softened later when he executed bland paintings of aerial fighting as official commissions. By 1919 he declared that he had given up Futurism. Retreating instead to a more traditional vision, he painted some lively interpretations of New York, which fuse a lingering love of Futurist angularity with a new respect for naturalistic observation. Nevinson was at his best when dealing with the dynamism and vertiginous scale of big-city life. He saw the alarming aspects of urban dehumanization, and his most powerful canvases of the 1920s dramatize it with such titles as Soul of a Soulless City (1920). He also saw striking and more uniting images, such as that of the British national game of soccer, in Any Wintry Afternoon in England (1930). In later years he concentrated more on pastoral scenes and flower pieces, where a gentler mood prevailed.

LINKS
Dance Hall Scene (1914, 22x20cm)
A Studio in Montparnasse (1926, 127x76cm)
The Arrival (1913, 76x63cm) _ When this work was first exhibited a reviewer commented: “It resembles a Channel steamer after a violent collision with a pier. You detect funnels, smoke, gangplanks, distant hotels, numbers, posters all thrown into the melting-pot, so to speak. Mr. Nevinson acted as interpreter, explaining that it represented a state of simultaneous mind”. Nevinson was fascinated by the idea of 'simultaneity', which was championed by the French Orphists and Italian Futurists. In June 1914 The Observer published Vital English Art: A Futurist Manifesto, which was co-produced by Nevinson and the Italian Futurist leader, the poet Filippo Marinetti. This attempt to lead the London avant-garde prompted Wyndham Lewis to launch Vorticism with the publication of the magazine Blast.
La Mitrailleuse (1915, 61x51cm) _ Nevinson presents a grim view of a French machine-gun post in the trenches during the First World War. His earlier celebration of war had been transformed by personal experience of its devastating effects, witnessed while working as an ambulance driver at the Front. Employing a modified Futurist style, Nevinson draws visual links between the machine gun noted in the title and the angular features and clothing of the soldiers. This reflects both the artist’s recognition of humans as ‘mentally and physically capable of killing’ and his sympathy for those made inhuman by conflict.
Bursting Shell (1915, 93x72cm) _ One of the most apocalyptic of Nevinson’s paintings, Bursting Shell uses the strong lines and swirling movement of Futurist and Vorticist compositions to recreate the effect of an explosion. The dark shapes, which could be shards of debris or shadows, fracture what appear to be the bricks and timber of buildings and roads. The strong focal point of the vortex – with its bright light and dizzying spiral – simulates the disorientating sensory experience of an explosion.
A Star Shell (1916, 51x41cm) _ Nevinson’s depictions of the Western Front drew on his experiences in the Red Cross and the Royal Army Medical Corps. He caused controversy by depicting soldiers as brutalized and mechanistic, though his work was popular with some troops. Here, a flare hangs in the night sky, a parody of a star, to illuminate a barren landscape. Flares were sent up at night to reveal men moving around in No Man’s Land. There is no evident human presence, but the silhouetted posts and churned-up earth hint at the carnage and the many deaths that the place has witnessed.
The Soul of the Soulless City (1920, 92x61cm) _ The skyscrapers and railways of New York epitomised the dynamism of the modern metropolis. This painting, originally titled New York – an Abstraction, shows Nevinson’s enthusiastic response, in which the urgency of the city is matched with a modernist style of painting derived from Futurism. However, Nevinson’s work did not receive the success for which he had hoped, and his initial excitement gave way to the disillusion indicated by his revised title.
Any Wintry Afternoon in England (1930, 61x76cm; 508x635pix, 151kb) _ A typical winter weekend, and a group of men play football in the pouring rain. Behind them is an urban backdrop of industrial buildings and terraced houses. Smoke rises from the factory chimneys, and steam emerges from the train, enveloping the scene in a foggy atmosphere. The players struggle against the wind and rain, their movement and that of the waterlogged ball – oversized and not quite round – suggested by their shifting contours and the visible force-lines in their wake.
 
click for full painting of Liberty Leading the People ^ Died on 13 August 1863:
Ferdinand-Victor-Eugène Delacroix.


— Born on 26 April 1798 to Victorie Delacroix and the diplomat and statesman Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand Perigord. His early education was at the Lycée Imperial. In 1816 he began to study painting under Pierre Guérin at the École des Beaux-Arts, where he received a formal classical training in the manner of David. Delacroix's eclectic interests extended beyond the academic study of works by Michelangelo, Rubens, Veronese, and Tintoretto at the Louvre, to being influenced by the romantic poets of his time like Byron, as well as Dante, Shakespeare, medieval history, and the Orient. His début at the Salon of 1822 with the painting La Barque de Dante established Delacroix as one of the leading artists of French romanticism. He traveled to England in 1825 with his close friend Richard Parkes Bonington to study the use of color in the paintings of such artists as Sir Thomas Lawrence, William Etty, and Sir David Wilkie. During his stay he also filled many sketchbooks with studies of antiquities and animals. In 1832 he accompanied the Comte de Mornay to Morocco, Algiers, and southern Spain, creating many vividly colored works of North Africa and its exotic peoples.
— In 1815 Delacroix joined the studio of the Neoclassical painter Pierre-Narcisse Guérin, where he met Théodore Géricault. After Géricault’s death in 1824, Delacroix became the head of the Romantic school in France. Delacroix’s paintings exhibited in the 1820s at the Salon were a dramatic success, including La Barque de Dante (1822), Le Massacre de Scio (1824), and The Death of Sardanapalus (1827). In the 1820s the artist preferred literary and historical subjects, rarely turning to themes from actual life. However, his most famous painting, Liberty Leading the People (1830), is dedicated to a contemporary event, the July Revolution of 1830. In 1832 Delacroix spent six months in Morocco at the court of Sultan Moulay Abd-er-Rahman. His impressions of the trip and the sketches he made during that year served as the basis for the numerous oriental works the artist created over the following quarter century. In his later years Delacroix devoted much time to writing in his famous journal and to painting monumental murals. In particular, from 1853 through 1861 he ornamented the Chapel of the Holy Angels in Saint-Sulpice, which brought him fame as the greatest colorist of the era.
—           Delacroix, the most vivid representative of French Romanticism, was born on 26 April 1798, the fourth child of Charles Delacroix, Foreign Minister under the Directoire and Préfet of Bouches-du-Rhône (Marseilles). There is some reason to believe that his real father was Talleyrand [1754-1838], the famous diplomat, whom Eugène Delacroix resembled in character and appearance.
            Charles Delacroix died in 1805; in 1814 Eugène’s mother followed, leaving him an orphan at the age of 16. In 1816 he entered l'École des Beaux-Art, where he befriended Bonington and Pierret.
            In 1822 his La Barque de Dante (189x242cm) was accepted for the Paris Salon, and subsequently acquired by the state {it would be smudgily imitated by Cézanne in 1870: La Barque de Dante, après Delacroix (738x1025pix)}. At the 1824 Salon Delacroix presented The Massacre of Chios (417x354cm -- here is a detail), a personal reaction to the genocide practiced by the Sublime Porte against the Greeks. This work placed Delacroix firmly among the Romantic painters. Summer of 1825 he spent with Bonington in England, acquainting himself with English literature; made lithograph illustrations for Macbeth and Hamlet and heroes of Sir Walter Scott and Byron.
            In 1828 a series of 17 lithographs illustrating Goethe’s Faust was published. At the 1828 Salon Delacroix exhibited The Death of Sardanapalus and The Execution of Marino Faliero. In his Liberty Leading the People (28 July 1830) (260x325cm) Delacroix expressed his emotions and understanding of the July Revolution of 1830, and included his own self-portrait, holding a musket, in the first rank of the people in arms following Lady Liberty [image above].
            In 1832, Delacroix spent 6 months in North Africa, in the retinue of the Count Charles de Mornay, Ambassador to the Sultan of Morocco, abd er-Rugman. The life and customs of the Arabs fascinated him and were to inspire many paintings: The Fanatics of Tangier (1837-1838), The Sultan of Morocco and His Entourage (1845), The Lion Hunt in Morocco (1854), Arab Saddling His Horse (1855). In 1833-1837 Delacroix received many commissions for portraits, decorated the King's Chamber in the Palais Bourbon: Frescoes on the west wall (1833-1837). His Women of Algiers in Their Apartment (1834, 180x229cm) was a great success at the 1834 Salon.
            In 1838-1844 he decorated the library of the Chambre des Deputés and the Chambre des Pairs in the Palais du Luxembourg, as well as the Chapel of the Holy Sacrament at Saint-Denis; he continued to exhibit at the Salon; The Shipwreck of Don Juan (1840), Medea about to Kill Her Children (1838), The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (1840). In 1850-51 he decorated the ceiling of the Apollo Gallery in the Louvre: Apollo Slays Python (1850-1851). In 1855 he exhibited 48 paintings at the Universal Exposition in Paris. On his eighth attempt he was made a member of the Academy. His health worsened, he could no longer work and spent much time in the country. On 13 August 1863 he died.
— Baudelaire considered Delacroix “The last of the great artists of the Renaissance and the first modern”. Delacroix's position as one of the great figures of art history was assured not just by his daring and originality qualities generally considered Romantic — but for the fact that they found expression within a tradition. As Paul Valéry said: “The veritable tradition in great things is not to repeat what others have done, but to rediscover the spirit that created these great things — and creates utterly different things in different times.” Delacroix rediscovered the spirit of Michelangelo and Rubens, but the masterpieces that he created under their influence are of a very different kind. In his turn, Picasso made many studies of Delacroix's Women of Algiers. Picasso can be imagined telling Delacroix: “You took what you could from Rubens and made Delacroix of it. In the same way, I think of you and what I make is my own.”
      The last of the great Renaissance artists, Delacroix comes of a lineage whose founder is Michelangelo and whose prodigal son is Rubens. In his Journal, Delacroix more than once lays claim to this heritage: "Familiarity with the work of Michelangelo has exalted and elevated every subsequent generation of painters." Writing on Michelangelo, Delacroix speaks as the perpetuator of the tradition he describes: "The depiction of tender sentiments lies outside the bounds of Michelangelo's genius. In this work [The Last Judgement in the Sistine Chapel] above all, he indulged his taste for terribilitas. His imagination, oppressed by endless re-reading of the Prophets, yielded only images of dread, and the solitude he cherished could only exacerbate his melancholy disposition.”
^   In rendering homage to Michelangelo, Delacroix describes himself. The genius of Michelangelo is perhaps the closest kin to his own (in 1850, he imagined and painted Michelangelo in his Studio). Like Michelangelo, Delacroix inclines to terribilitas; his imagination too dwells on images of dread. From The Massacre of Chios to The Death of Sardanapalus, the tragic visions of Delacroix portray horrors unequalled even in the Sistine Chapel. Charles Baudelaire, an unconditional admirer, puts it thus in his Eugène Delacroix, Work and Life: Everywhere we see “ ... desolation, massacres and fire, everything testifies to the eternal and incorrigible barbarity of mankind. Smoke rises from cities razed to the ground, the throats of victims are cut, women are raped, and children hurled beneath horses' hooves or pierced by the daggers of their raving mothers; this entire corpus is a hymn in praise of suffering inevitable and unrelieved”.
      Though we trace Delacroix's artistic heritage directly back to Michelangelo and Rubens, in the matter of color there is a further influence, that of the Venetian school. Delacroix is a master of color, and his influence on Cezanne and Matisse is clear. In his own words: “The work of a painter who is not a colorist is illumination rather than painting. If one intends something other than cameos, color is, strictly speaking, one of the founding principles of painting, no less so than chiaroscuro, proportion and perspective... color gives the appearance of life." "As early as 1824, Stendhal had perceived in Delacroix "a student of Tintoretto”. In his Journal, Delacroix noted: "In Giorgione, Titian and their students, Venice possesses artists who perform miracles of color without any derogation from beauty." In Delacroix's words, "all the great problems of art were resolved in the 16th century"; perfection "in drawing, grace and composition" had been attained by Raphael, and in "color and chiaroscuro" by Correggio, Titian, and Paolo Veronese.
      Nonetheless, it was Rubens who, after Michelangelo, left the most profound mark upon Delacroix's art. Delacroix was overwhelmed. The affinity between the swirling dynamic vitality of Rubens and Delacroix's art is clear: "Then comes Rubens, who had already forgotten the traditions of simplicity and grace. He created a new ideal through sheer force of genius. Strength, striking effects and expressiveness are pushed to their limits." Delacroix perceived that, under the impetus of Rubens, a new epoch of art had opened up, an era of synthesis and equilibrium. On the one hand, there was the power, abundance, fiery dynamism, realism — and a certain penchant for Baroque eloquence and even effect. On the other, there was a nobility of conception and style. the paradigmatic harmony, sobriety and austerity of the Classical masters. Thus Delacroix discovered himself through Rubens. In Rubens, his own errors found their vindication. They had been severely criticized by his contemporaries, especially in his large decorative compositions; but, as in Rubens, they are the work of a genius at once rational and impulsive, inventive and objective, visionary and realist.
      The superabundant life and decorative invention that typify the work of Rubens are present throughout Delacroix's career. To take just two examples, in The Death of Sardanapalus, the women butchered upon the pyre derive from the Nereids in Rubens' The Landing of Marie de' Medici' in Marseilles (1626, 394x293cm), which Delacroix repeatedly copied; and the Christ on the Cross (1845) was inspired by a detail in another Rubens masterpiece, Christ on the Cross (Le Coup de Lance) (1620). For Delacroix admired in Rubens a quality that he himself possessed in abundance: the ability to unite allegory and history, and mould into a tumultuous whole figures mythological, historical, literary and real. He too could convey the turbulent movement of brightly colored forms without disturbing the harmony of their arrangement and their overall composition in light and space.
      To understand Delacroix we must know not only the influences that left their mark upon him, but how he was able to assimilate these; how he made use of them to construct his own originality. This, in its turn, became his own legacy, and his own influence has been very widespread. The lesson that he teaches is clear. It is not enough to imitate the great masters, one must, instead, draw on them for inspiration as one seeks to transcend their achievement.

LINKS
Self-Portrait (1837, 65x55cm)
–- Les Fanatiques de Tanger (1838; 877x1200pix, 103kb _ .ZOOM to 1462x2000pix, 287kb) _ Eugène Delacroix was the acknowledged master of the French Romantic school. In 1832, he traveled to North Africa with the French ambassador, Count de Mornay, who was to negotiate a treaty of friendship with the sultan of Morocco. One day in Tangier, the two hid in an attic and through the cracks of a shuttered window witnessed the frenzy of the Aïssaouas, a fanatical Muslim sect. The turmoil of that event is conveyed in this vividly colored and vigorously brushed depiction of the fanatics hurling themselves down the street. Of the pictures resulting from the Moroccan experiences, this remains one of Delacroix's most arresting.
–- Le Massacre de Chios (1824, 417x354cm; principal detail 864x1054pix, 131kb _ .ZOOM to 1501x1266pix, 261kb — ZOOM+ to 2252x1899pix, 356kb)
–- Murder of the Bishop of Liège (1829; 938x1191pix, 122kb _ .ZOOM to 1983x2518pix, 456kb) _ The bishop, who would be canonized as a martyr, is Albert, a son of Godfrey III, Count of Louvain, and brother of Henry I, Duke of Lorraine and Brabant. Albert was elected Bishop of Liège in 1191 by the suffrages of both people and cathedral chapter. But Emperor Henry VI, on the pretext that the election was doubtful, gave the see to his puppet Lothair of Hochstadt. Albert journeyed to Rome to appeal to Celestine III, who ordained him deacon, created him cardinal, and sent him away with gifts of great value and a letter of recommendation to the Archbishop of Rheims, where he was ordained priest and consecrated bishop. Outside that city, soon after, he was set upon by eight German knights of the Emperor's following, who took advantage of the confiding kindness of the saintly bishop, and stabbed him to death. The date of his martyrdom is given variously but 21 November 1192 is the most probable.
      Liège owes its existence as a city to the martyrdom of a predecessor of Saint Albert as Bishop: Saint Lambert, who had completed the conversion of the pagans in the region. The see of the diocese, since its creation after the first half of the fourth century, was at Tongres, northeast of Liège, which was only a small village named Vicus Leudicus. There, in 705 or thereabouts, Lambert was murdered, for his defense of church property against the avarice of the neighboring lords, and he was popularly regarded as a martyr. His successor, Saint Hubert, built, to enshrine his relics, a basilica which became the true nucleus of the city of Liège, and near which the residence of the bishops was fixed.
–- La Barque de Dante (1822, 189x242cm; 886x1183pix, 108kb _ .ZOOM to 1899x2538pix, 687kb)
Liberty Leading the People (1830, 260x325cm) _ Detail of Delacroix self-portrait as musket-bearer _ Detail of Liberty
–- Arabs and Horses near Tangiers (1832, 17x27cm; 555x888pix, 44kb _ .ZOOM to 785x1256pix, 256kb)
A Turkish Man on a Gray Horse
An Arab Horseman at the Gallop (1849)
Cliff at Étretat (1859)
Unknown Cliffs near Dieppe (1855)
Count de Mornay's Apartment (1833)
Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi (1826, 209x147cm)
The Coast of Spain at Salabrena (1832)
Turkish Horseman (1825)
Lion Hunt (1854, oil sketch 86x115cm)
Lion Hunt (1861)
La chasse au lions au Maroc (1854, 74x92cm)
Arab Horseman Attacked by a Lion (1850)
The Sultan of Morocco and his Entourage (1845)
Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople on 12 April 1204 (1840, 411x497cm) _ detail surrendered women
Christ on the Lake of Gennesaret
The Death of Sardanapal (1827, 392x496cm) _ detail cut throat
Arabian Horses Fighting in a Stable (1860, 65x81cm)
Arabs Skirmishing in the Mountains (1863, 93x75cm)
Andromeda (1852, 33x25cm)
The Abduction of Rebecca (1846)
Frédéric Chopin unfinished (1838)
George Sand unfinished (1838)
Orphan Girl in a Cemetery (1824)
Ovid Among the Scythians
The Sea of Galilee
Combat of Giaour and Hassan (1826)
The Jewish Bride of Tangier (1832)
62 ZOOMable images at Wikimedia with 24 smaller ones.
132 images at Ciudad de la Pintura
—(060812)
^ Born on 13 August 1576: David Vinckboons, (or Vinkenbons, Vinckeboons, Vinckenboons), Flemish painter who died in 1629.
— Vinckboons was active in Amsterdam. He painted landscapes and genre scenes and is a transitional figure between the decorative and imaginative Mannerist tradition and the more naturalistic style associated with 17th-century Dutch painting. His early genre pictures depicting village festivals reveal the influence of Pieter Bruegel, and Vinckboons is credited with introducing some of his motifs into Holland. It has been asserted that Vinckboons's works can always be identified by the presence of a finch ('vinck') in a tree ('boom'), but the painstaking student usually finds that the bird has flown.

LINKS
Distribution of Loaves to the Poor (28x45cm) _ A leading figure in the transition from Mannerist tradition to the new realism in genre painting was David Vinckboons, one of the most popular and prolific painters and print designers of his time. Good proof of Vinckboons' debt to Bruegel is the debate which scholars still hold about whether some pictures should be attributed to Pieter Brueghel the Younger, whose art was a shadow of his great father's, or to Vinckboons.
      Vinckboon's family had settled in Amsterdam by the time he was fifteen years old, and he apparently spent the rest of his life in Holland. His work indicate that he had contact with Gillis van Coninxloo, the gifted Flemish landscape painter, who also emigrated to Amsterdam. Vinckboons was one of the artists who helped to forge the new landscape style, but toward the end of his career his interest in the activities of men and women increased. His genre pictures range from early multicolored ones of large crowds strolling through gardens and Bruegel-like kermis scenes, to those made in the last years of his life which show a close view of a single couple in a landscape.
Forest Scene with Robbery (70x113cm) _ David Vinckboons together with Roelandt Savery introduced landscape painting in Amsterdam and Utrecht. This painting was made in collaboration with Sebastian Vranckx.
A hunt near a castle (print; _ ZOOM to 842x1290pix, 586kb)
Landscape with Animals (30x40cm; 457x600pix, 102kb)
Couple Flirting Under a Tree (600x1024pix)
Before a Village Inn (600x896pix)
Carousing (600x896pix)
–- S#*> A Blind Hurdy-Gurdy Player (27x38cm; _ /S#*>ZOOM to 1016x1440pix, 281kb ) _ The hurdy-gurdy player is surrounded by children {who look more like dwarfs} and a few peasants near a door; in the back a man is being pick-pocketed; there is a village street in the background. This famous composition was engraved, with minor variations, by Claes Janszoon Visscher in 1607 with the following text: 'Siet hoe dat Iorden luystert nae des blinde-mans lier:/Voor t'ghehoor meent hij te gheven niet een sier:/Maer Gauwert die loert nae zijn Tas int Secreet,/en neemter het ghelt uijt, dat Iorden niet en weet'. This text refers to an avaricious peasant, called Jorden, who is being pick-pocketed by a child, named Gauwert, while listening to the hurdy-gurdy player. The picture originally had a companion piece depicting a Procession of feasting lepers, which was also engraved by Visscher in 1608. There was also a preliminary drawing by Vinckboons for the present painting (17x25cm)
–- S#*> Palace Garden (77x108cm; 848x1201pix, 250kb ) Elegant people are dancing and making music in the foreground; in the background there are boats on moats, with the palace and bridges. _ This extensive composition is derived from a print of 1602 by Nicolaes de Bruyn [1571-1656] done after a preliminary drawing by Vinckboons. While the architectural plan of the palace garden in the print is identical to that of this composition, there are however numerous differences in the people, especially the larger ones in the foreground, and in other pictural elements such as the boats and animals. Most known variants of this composition in existence copy exactly the De Bruyn print.
–- S#*> Mountainous River Landscape (59x89cm; 590x900pix, 115kb ) Elegant people are seen on the approaches to a village. _ The early landscapes of Vinckboons, with their dense foliage and river vistas, are greatly indebted to those produced at a slightly earlier date by the Frankenthal painter Gillis van Coninxloo, to whom this painting was formerly attributed. Vinckboons may well have known Coninxloo, for the latter had settled in Amsterdam by 1595. The handling of the landscape details and of the figures in particular, however, find ready parallels in Vinckboons's youthful landscapes, such as Landscape with musicians at the edge of a wood (1601), or Landscape on the margin of a wood ( 1608).
–- S#*> Landscape with elegant people (81x135cm; 539x900pix, 135kb ) The people are shooting and promenading beside a river, there is a village and château beyond. Although its authorship is not certain, the composition and style of this elegant landscape find many parallels in the late landscapes of Vinckboons. A Protestant whose family had fled Antwerp to settle in Amsterdam in 1586, Vinckboons played a crucial role in the development of genre and landscape painting in the northern Netherlands. The elegant figures found here are particularly reminiscent of the somewhat overdressed sportsmen and courtiers that characteristically populate his large landscape panels of this format. The landscapes of Vinckboons are influenced by an earlier Flemish emigré, Gillis van Coninxloo [1544-1607], who had worked in Frankenthal in the Palatinate before also settling in Amsterdam.
–- S#*> David and Abigail (1610, 52x109cm; 406x860pix, 94kb )— There is a 205x620cm tapestry of this subject based on Vinckboons' composition, woven by Franciscus Spiringius (Frans Spierinck) of Delft.
 
^ Died on 13 August 1896: John Everett Millais, British Pre-Raphaelite painter born on 08 June 1829. — {Un pessimiste dirait d'un Millais qu'il est mi-laid, un optimiste qu'il est mi-beau}
— He was born in Southampton. His family was of French descent. In 1838 he attended Henry Sass' Drawing School and the Royal Academy in 1840. While still a youth, he won various medals for his drawings. His first painting was Pizzarro Seizing the Inca of Peru (1846).
      With Rossetti and Hunt, he founded the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in 1848. The influence of this movement was first discernible in his Isabella of 1849. Ophelia, begun in the summer of 1851 and exhibited the following year at the Royal Academy, markes the culmination of Millais' youthful period. Endowed with a virtuoso technical skill and encouraged by Ruskin, he rapidly outstripped his Brotherhood colleagues and won lasting fame. He was elected a member of the Royal Academy in 1863 and served as President in 1896. Millais' works never failed to elicit praise. His remarkable technique lent his canvases a unique distinction, particuarly in his last paintings, long after the exhilaration of the radiant Pre-Raphaelite period had died away. Towards the end of his life, he turned to portraiture. He was also a fine illustrator. Millais died in London.
— Millais was born in Southampton and educated in art at the Royal Academy of Arts in London. At the age of 17 he exhibited at the academy his Pizarro Seizing the Inca of Peru (1846), then considered one of the best history paintings shown that year. In 1848 he and two other English painters, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and William Holman Hunt, formed a brotherhood of artists known as the Pre-Raphaelites. Millais's first Pre-Raphaelite painting, the scene Lorenzo and Isabella (1849), recalls the manner of the early Flemish and Italian masters. Beginning in the early 1870s, he created many portraits of British personalities, famous in his time. He was a careful artist who paid strict attention to detail, unusual composition, and clarity. In much of his later work he succumbed to the Victorian taste for sentiment and anecdotal art.
— A child prodigy in art, Millais entered the Royal Academy Schools at age 11, and exhibited at the RA from age 17. There he became friends first with Holman Hunt, and afterwards Rossetti, and these three founded the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in 1848. Millais produced the most well-known portrait of the famous critic in 1854, and incidentally married the wife of Ruskin after the latter's marriage was annulled. He thrived at the Royal Academy, becoming ARA as early as 1853, then RA and finally, in the year of his death, President of the Academy. However, his art became more popular, and he turned to pictures of society ladies, little girls, and fashionable lovers. His Saint Isumbras at the Ford, showing the knight and two oversweet children on an oversize horse, induced the young Frederick Sandys to draw a famous caricature featuring Millais as the knight, Rossetti and Holman Hunt as the children, and the donkey as John Ruskin. Some of Millais's best paintings are Ophelia, The Vale of Rest, The Blind Girl, Autumn Leaves, Lorenzo and Isabella, Saint Isumbras, The Black Brunswicker, Return of the Dove to the Ark, The Bride of Lammermoor, The Convalescent, Brighteyes.
—    Millais was born in Southampton. He started to draw at the age of 4 years; and his parents supported his artistic inclinations, providing him with private art lessons with a Mr. Bessel. Encouraged by Mr. Bessel, the family came to London with an introduction to the President of the Royal Academy and in 1840 John Millais became the youngest student ever at the Academy. In 1846, he exhibited his Pizarro Seizing the Inca of Peru at the RA.
    Along with Dante Gabriel Rossetti and William Holman Hunt he was a founder of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, and was markedly influenced by them and by John Ruskin. His first Pre-Raphaelite picture Lorenzo and Isabella (1849), the banquet scene from the poem Isabella, or The Pot of Basil about ill-fated love by English poet Keats, figures in the Academy in 1849, where it was followed in 1850 by Christ in the House of His Parents (1849), Ferdinand Lured by Ariel (1849) which met the full force of the anti-Pre-Raphaelite reaction.
    In 1851, The Woodman's Daughter (1851), Mariana (1851) and The Return of the Dove to the Ark (1851) are exhibited at the RA, but were poorly received. Four years later in Paris the same The Return of the Dove to the Ark and The Order of Release made a strong impression. Millais executed a few etchings, and his illustrations in Good Words, Once a Week, The Cornhill, etc. (1857-64) place him in the very first rank of woodcut designers.
    In 1855, he married Euphemia (Effie) Charmers Ruskin, the divorcée of John Ruskin, who bore him 8 children; they appeared later on many of his pictures. Ruskin continued to praise the artiSaint
    Preoccupied with his social standing, Millais later abandoned the Pre-Raphaelite style, broke with John Ruskin, and began to cater to popular tastes. The exquisite Gambler’s Wife (1869) and The Boyhood of Raleigh (1870) mark the transition of his art into its final phase, displaying brilliant and effective coloring and his effortless power of brushwork. The interest and value of his later works, largely portraits, lies mainly in their splendid technical qualities. A late painting Bubbles (1886), showing his grandson, William James, achieved huge popularity.
^ — Born into an affluent middle class family in Southampton, Millais was a naturally talented artist with an engaging, unspoiled personality. He became the youngest student ever at the R.A. Schools when he arrived there aged 11, and the youngest to complete the course five years later. Technically he was extremely competent and was the star student, but he was criticized for lacking a certain breadth of imagination and vision, which is ironic given his future as a Pre-Raphaelite.
      For the Summer Exhibition of the R.A. in 1849 he painted Isabella, a story of passion, jealousy and murder from a poem by Keats after a story by Boccaccio. Millais depicted all these elements in Italianate style with intricate symbolic metaphors worked through both colors and objects: the passion flower hints at Isabella's true nature, while the blood orange she holds shows her passion will end in spilt blood, and a hawk ripping a white feather to pieces indicates the cruel nature of her two brothers, who go on to murder her lover. The work was generally well received, particularly for its early Renaissance quality of composition, colorings and slightly flat perspective.
      The following year Millais painted himself into the furore that surrounded his picture Christ in the Carpenter's Shop. He lost a lot of the kudos he had gained previously as the Academy's most gifted student and aroused public doubts about his personal religious leanings. His other paintings of the time took themes from William Shakespeare; in Ferdinand Lured by Ariel, Millais tried his first major painting out of doors. Painted on a pure white ground the colors sing out in true Pre-Raphaelite fashion. The painting went to the B.A. in April 1850 where it was bought for £50.
      The other Shakespearean painting, which excited him more in concept, was Ophelia, one of the greatest Pre-Raphaelite works of all. This shows Ophelia floating down the river into which she has cast herself, feeling rejected by Hamlet. Her hair fans out in the stream, a necklace of violets around her neck and a loose bouquet of many different flowers drifting away from her slightly raised hands. All of these in Victorian flower lore contain meaning or are mentioned by Shakespeare in Hamlet. The plants on the riverbank show a typical selection of flowers and plants from an English summer hedgerow, all painted in precise detail. After casting around for a suitable location for the painting, he finally chose a quiet spot on the Hogsmill River (a tributary of the Thames) at Ewell in Surrey. Much of the walk was painted outdoors on the riverbank, greatly to the annoyance of a pair of swans who disputed the territory and drove Millais to near distraction. For convenience he took lodgings at Surbiton Hill, a few miles away, with his friend Holman Hunt.
      For the 1851 R.A. Exhibition Millais produced three paintings, one of which, The Woodsman's Daughter, proved a great success and laid the foundations for his election to become an Associate of the Academy in November 1853, at age 24 the earliest possible age. Only Sir Thomas Lawrence was elected younger. He then exhibited The Huguenot, a work showing a Catholic girl and her Huguenot lover on the day of the Saint  Bartholomew's Day Massacre in Paris, at the R.A. Exhibition in 1852. Interestingly this religiously-themed picture was conceived at the same time at Worcester Park Farm that Holman Hunt was developing ideas for The Light of the World. It was clearly an anti-Catholic picture painted at a time when religious paranoia over the intentions of the Pope were rife in England. The painting further cleared any popish doubts lingering over his earlier work The Carpenter's Shop.
      In 1853 Millais was invited to join the Ruskins on holiday in Scotland, with the intention of painting two portraits, one of John Ruskin and another of his wife Effie, who had previously posed for him for The Order of Release. Millais stayed with them in the Trossacks for almost four months, in the course of which he painted the definitive picture of John Ruskin: he set him standing by a small but fast running stream with a background of interesting geological rocks and plants. The work took a long time as it was so meticulously painted, with pedantic attention to even the smallest details of Nature - in keeping, of course, with Ruskin's ideals. Soberly dressed in black, Ruskin holds his hat by his side and stares with a pensive but pleasant expression on his face. Had he any idea that at the same time the young artist was falling in love with his wife, and furthermore the feelings were reciprocated, Ruskin might well have canceled the project. In due course the Ruskins were to divorce.
      In the mid-1850s Millais's style began to change; he continued with the Pre-Raphaelite attention to detail but changed his theme to ill-fated lovers, which suited his public and also his private state of mind until he was able to claim Effie as his own: this he was able to do on 03 July 1855 after her scandalous divorce from Ruskin.
      That same year Millais decided to embark on a painting that was beautiful in its own right without any attempt to tell a story. His models were four young girls, all under 13 years of age, chosen for their youth and beauty. They were to be shown standing around a pile of gently smoldering autumn leaves which they had just collected from their garden. The painting, which became known as Autumn Leaves, was designed to evoke a mood and a feeling of the transience of life and beauty - all is doomed to eventual decay, even the greatest innocence and beauty is overwhelmed by the passage of time. The painting is considered to be Millais's masterpiece. He wanted the picture to awaken the deepest religious reflections with its solemn air and restrained coloring. The work was influenced personally by Alfred Lord Tennyson, one of whose works he was illustrating at the time, in particular by his poem The Princess. Autumn and dead leaves are favorite images of the poet.
      The painting was sold, sight unseen, for £700 before the R.A. Exhibition opened, to a collector from Bolton. He didn't like it and swapped it soon after with a Liverpool collector for three unremarkable paintings. The general feeling about the painting was that it was nice enough but what was it all about? Millais was anticipating the Impressionists and the public was not ready and the response was generally disappointing. So, he returned to his more accessible (and saleable) narratives of lovers, and as a result by 1856 Millais was the most successful painter in England. In testimony to this, the Academy Exhibitions of the mid to late 1850s are full of imitations of his work. In the 1860s Millais broadened out his style until it lost all resemblance to the work of the early Pre-Raphaelites.
      Having started out as a young firebrand, Millais became a stalwart establishment figure - even becoming a baronet always faithful to the dictates of the R.A. He regularly showed at Academy exhibitions and became so influential there that he was made President in 1896, the same year that he died."
^
— Millais was born in Southampton, the son of John William and Emily Mary Millais. His father came from a well-known Jersey family, and his mother nee Evamy came from a prosperous family of Southampton saddlers. Emily Millais had been married previously to one Enoch Hodgkinson, by whom she had two sons. By her marriage to John William Millais she had, as well as John Everett a daughter, and another son William Henry, who was the close companion of his famous younger brother throughout his life, and a well-known painter of watercolors The family initially moved back to Jersey and then to London in 1838, specifically to further the artistic education of their precocious son. Armed with a letter of introduction they visited Sir Martin Archer Shee, the President of the Royal Academy. As a result of this meeting Millais became the youngest ever student at the Royal Academy Schools in the summer of 1840. He was known at the RA Schools as ‘The Child,’ and his talent caused considerable jealousy amongst fellow students. Millais was very thin, extremely agile, and physically brave, and was well-able to cope with the bullying he encountered at this time. At the RA Schools he met William Holman Hunt, who became a lifelong friend, and Dante Gabriel Rossetti. From the meeting of these three youthful idealists the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was born.
      Millais was by far the most naturally gifted of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. His early paintings in the Pre-Raphaelite style were amazingly accomplished for such a young artiSaint He produced pictures which were minutely observed, with a painstaking attention to detail, which meant that painting them was a slow and laborious process. He would typically paint landscape backgrounds in the summer, and add figures in the foreground in his studio during the winter. Each of his pictures was also the result of a large number of detailed preparatory drawings. He went to considerable trouble and expense, even as an impecunious young artist to find the right props, a notable example of this being the dress worn by Ophelia, for which he paid four pounds a considerable sum at that time.
      The first paintings exhibited at the RA by Millais and the other Pre-Raphaelites were initially greeted with derision, followed by vicious critical attacks, the most notorious of these being that by Charles Dickens, on the famous early painting Christ in The House of His Parents, exhibited at the RA in1850, in which Dickens spoke of the young Jesus as ‘a hideous wry-necked blubbering boy.’ It is difficult for us to understand today why this particular work was felt to be so objectionable, but the depiction of the family of Christ as ordinary people was regarded as very disrespectful. When it emerged that this group were called the Pre-Raphaelites, and that they did not agree with the commonly held view that Raphael was the greatest artist of all time critical attacks on them reached a crescendo.
      As a result of these attacks John Ruskin, the foremost art critic of his day was asked to intervene, which he did writing a letter to The Times on behalf of the young artists. From this intervention came the meeting between Ruskin and Millais, which was to result in the most famous sexual scandal of the day. Ruskin had married Euphemia Chalmers Grey, daughter of a Scottish family living near Perth. Ruskin, his wife, and Millais set off together on a holiday in Scotland, and a strong attraction developed between Effie Ruskin and Millais. It transpired that Ruskin had not consummated the marriage. It is amazing for us today to learn that Effie knew that something was missing from her marriage, but that she was so innocent she did not know what it was. Following an acrimonious and notorious divorce case, Effie married Millais, and rapidly produced eight children. It is interesting to note that the publicly-humiliated Ruskin had the generosity of spirit to continue to provide critical support for the artiSaint
The Move Away From The Pre-Raphaelite Style.
      The marriage of the John and Effie Millais proved to be a catalyst in the evolution of his style which started in the early 1860s. Millais said that it was no longer economically possible for him to spend the whole day painting an area ‘no larger than a five shilling piece.’ Thus he changed to a broader, looser, more spontaneous style of painting, with a strong element of sentiment, which was perfectly in keeping with the popular taste of the day. This change has been seen by many critics as a great artist selling-out, and becoming a mere populiSaint These attacks persist to this day. Millais also became one of the most successful portrait painters of Victorian Britain. Some of these portraits are extremely successful by whichever criteria they are judged. Physical likenesses are, it goes without saying, excellent, and the best portraits as well as being wonderfully painted, are brilliantly successful in illustrating the character of the sitter. In the painting Twins, of 1876 Millais produced a portrait of the identical daughters of a wealthy manufacturer. The markedly different characters of the confident and assertive Kate, and the more nervous introverted Edith are illustrated wonderfully well. The portrait of Tennyson is dramatic and powerful, and is quite simply a masterpiece. None of this is to say that the later portraits are of uniform quality. The famous painting of the dying Disraeli is a lost opportunity, and some of the pictures of children are overly-sentimental pot-boilers.
      The later paintings at their best are of great virtue. They are spontaneous, the use of paint is brilliant, with a creamy, textured surface. The reaction against Millais after his death was greatly exaggerated, and the blanket condemnation cannot be justified today. The Scottish Autumnal landscapes are also of very considerable merit.
Millais The Man.
      Millais was in essence a great craftsman, and was not in any way an intellectual. He was a Victorian hearty, with a love of hunting, shooting, and fishing. Throughout his life he remained at heart a large enthusiastic schoolboy. He was a devoted father, and was particularly indulgent to his daughters. He had the gift of inspiring loyalty and affection amongst a wide circle of friends. Fellow artists who one would not expect to be sympathetic to Millais the artist regarded Millais the man with affection, Edward Burne-Jones was amongst his admirers. The artist himself did not feel that he had compromised his standards. In later life he said ‘ I may honestly say that I have never consciously placed an idle touch upon canvass; and that I have always been honest and hardworking.’ This is not the comment of a cynical, financially motivated individual.
      In later life Millais became very materially successful, earning over £30'000 a year. In 1878 the Millais family moved into a vast house at 2 Palace Gate, Kensington, which had been designed and built for their use, and as an affirmation of the success of John Everett. The Scottish landscapes I mentioned above were painted during visits to a baronial house in Perthshire which Millais rented. Much of the adverse criticism directed at the artist since his death has been motivated by disapproval of his material success and ostentatious display of his wealth. In 1885 Millais became the first English artist to be made a baronet.
Millais The Last Years And After.
      In the early 1890s the wonderful facility to paint that the artist had used to such effect for over forty years started to decline. Millais was painfully aware of this situation. In 1892 he suffered from what was at first thought to be influenza, but turned out to be the onset of throat cancer — he had for many years been a constant pipe-smoker. In 1895 Millais gave an address to the Royal Academy in the absence of Leighton. He was very hoarse and giving the speech was a considerable ordeal. When Leighton died in January 1896, the dying Millais was elected PRA in his stead. His condition deteriorated and by July he was very ill. Queen Victoria contacted the PRA and asked if there was anything she could for him. Millais asked that the Queen received his wife, who had been excluded from court circles throughout their married life, due to the scandal attached to the annulment of her marriage to Ruskin — the now rather elderly Lady Millais was duly presented at court. After Millais died he was succeeded by Sir Edward Poynter as President of the Royal Academy. Since his death Millais the artist and man has consistently received severe handling from some critics. In reality the censure is based on disapproval of Millais the man, and of his material success. This is sad, unfair, spiteful, and unnecessary. John Millais was one of the great nineteenth century artists.
— Anthony Trollope praised Millais as a book illustrator thus: “In every figure that he drew it was his object to promote the views of the writer whose work he had under-taken to illustrate, and he never spared himself any pains in studying the works so as to enable him to do so. I have carried on some of those characters from book to book, and have had my own ideas impressed indelibly on my memory by the excellence of his delineations.”
^LINKS
Self-Portrait
–- Christ in the House of His Parents aka The Carpenter's Shop (1850, 86x140cm; 802x1265pix, 153kb _ ZOOM to 1603x2530pix, 477kb) _ When this work was first exhibited in 1850, the public found it somewhat offensive, and it was subject to a virulent attack by Charles Dickens, who called it mean, revolting, and repusive. Showing the holy family as ordinary people in a carpenter’s workshop was thought to be disrespectful, in a way we find difficult to imagine today. Queen Victoria was interested enough to demand a private viewing, and the young painter remarked (privately), that he hoped the experience had not proved too corrupting. The model for the head of Joseph was, yet again, Millais senior, though a carpenter was hired, so the muscular development of the arms would be accurate. The Virgin was modeled by the same young woman as Isabella in his earlier painting. The child Jesus' bloody hand is an omen of his ultimate crucifixion. The picture has many symbolic features which are no longer familiar to us today.
Peace Concluded (1856, 117x92cm; 925x719pix, 532kb _ ZOOM to 1688x1312pix, 2174kb) _ At first glance this appears to be a family portrait complete with realistic details of middle-class English decor. In fact, it is a staged scene of domestic harmony, celebrating the end of the Crimean War. The father, a wounded officer, holds a copy of The Times headlining the war's end. One daughter clasps his combat medal. On the mother's lap, four animals from the toy Noah's Ark represent the four belligerents: Britain (lion), Russia (bear), the Ottoman Empire (turkey), and France (rooster). The girl at the left holds a dove with an olive branch in its beak, a symbol of peace.
     Each member of the family tells us something about the meaning of the picture, by what they wear and by their actions. The father wears a dressing gown, indicating that he is convalescing, possibly from a concealed wound. He has just read the news of the war's end in the London Times newspaper, evidently with mixed emotions. Previously he had been reading a popular contemporary novel by William Thackeray (now lying behind his pillow), The Newcomes, about an exceptionally virtuous military man.The dog is an Irish wolfhound, an ancient British breed. Dogs usually symbolizes strength and fidelity to man, and also marital fidelity when portrayed together with a married couple.
      On his wife's face there is a resigned, melancholy gaze. Perhaps she is despondent about the gravity of her husband's condition. She wears an embroidered velvet gown and heavy gold jewelry, indicating that the family is well off and can afford such luxuries.
      The little girl on the right wears a delicate lace dress, and clutches a medal bearing Queen Victoria's profile that her father had obviously earned. This medal honored participants in any of the five major battles of the war. She has been playing with the toy animals on her mother's lap, which represent the four warring countries: Britain (lion), Russia (bear), the Ottoman Empire (turkey) and France (rooster). These animals belong to a toy Noah's Ark set, then commonly found in English households. (The rest of the animals are in the box on the floor).
      The other little girl holds a toy dove carrying an olive branch in its beak, symbolizing peace, but may also refer to the dove's role in the biblical story of Noah, when it returns to the Ark with proof of land. This child, too, wears a richly decorated velvet dress. The turkey carpet on the floor is another sign of the family's wealth and comfort.
      Behind the group is a large, spreading myrtle bush. Since it is an evergreen, myrtle symbolizes eternal love, in particular conjugal fidelity. The battle picture on the wall represents an engraving, by James Heath, of a renowned painting by John Singleton Copley, the Death of Major Pearson. As a young commander, Major Pierson led his troops to victory by repelling a French invasion, but lost his life in the conflict.
      Millais painted with oil paint on canvas, using very flat, thinly layered brushstrokes to create a smooth surface. The painting has been varnished, which not only protects the surface but also increases the brilliance of the colors.

Cymon and Iphigenia (1848; 586x800pix; 121kb just as good as 279kb ) _ “Cymon and Iphigenia” is a story from Bocaccio's Decameron. Cymon, the son of a nobleman of Cyprus, a handsome, though coarse and unlettered, youth, fell in love with the girl Iphigenia. The love made him a miracle; he was turned into an accomplished and polished courtier.
Lorenzo and Isabella (1849, 103x143cm) _ This very accomplished picture was painted when the artist was only 20, and the models for the various figures include the artist’s father, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and the painter's rather disreputable friend Jack Harris appropriately kicking the dog. Worthy of note are the rather flat naive perspective, the sheer virtuosity of the painting, and the initials PRB on the back leg of Isabella’s chair.
Apple Blossoms aka Spring (1859, 111x173cm) (includes 8 women) _ Though known for his historical narrative paintings such as ‘Sir Isumbras at the Ford’, at about the same time Millais painted a small number of modern dress pictures without specific stories. They were ‘mood’ pictures intended to awaken ‘the deepest religious reflection’, to quote the artiSaint (1859) Also known as Spring. A
     This painting is a sequel to Autumn Leaves. Both paintings illustrate the transience of human life and the inevitable passing of youth and beauty. The scythe at the right is a 'memento mori', reminding us of the coming summer and harvest and the harvest reaped by time and death.'
      The girls, relaxing in an orchard of spring blossom, are tasting curds and cream. The underlying theme, however, is the transience of youth and beauty. This is expressed in the fragile bloom of adolescence, the wild flowers and the changing seasons. The scythe on the right indicates the inevitability of death. This type of picture, showing contemplative figures seated in an idyllic landscape, goes back to the ‘fête champêtre’ paintings of Titian and Giorgione. It anticipates the figure compositions of dreamy young women painted by Whistler in the 1860s.
     Spring was painted over a four-year period in which Millais worked in a number of orchard settings. The young girls,relaxing in an orchard of spring blossom, tasting curds and cream. However, the figure in the bottom right-hand corner - symbolic of death under an arched scythe - confronts the viewer with the notion of life's transience. At exhibition at the Royal Academy in 1859, the response was unfavourable and he had difficulty selling the work. The painting attracted very strong critical condemnation from The Times and The Atheneum, the latter maintaining that Millais 'dreaded distance.' The inclusion of a low grey stone preventing spatial disharmony wall somewhat confirms this but it seemed as though the critics ganged up on Millais. To the modern eye the painting looks exquisite.
      Effie Milais commented that of all her husband’s paintings to date, this one caused him the most problems, for instance he was forced to extend the bottom of the canvas. It is another comment on the transience of life with the analogy drawn between the young girls and the blossoms. The painting of the apple blossom was criticized for it’s coarseness at the time, though to modern eyes it seems an artistic tour de force.
     'Spring', also known as 'Apple Blossoms', was painted by the Pre-Raphaelite artist John Millais. He exhibited it at the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition of 1859. This was the most important venue of the Victorian art world and artists reserved their best works for showing there. The painting can be read on a number of different levels. On a literal level, Millais has painted a group of girls in a meadow, in front of an orchard full of apple trees in blossom. The girls are relaxing, seated or lying on the ground around a bowl of cream. One is pouring milk from a jug. Another is eating curds from a bowl. Bunches of flowers picked by the girls are placed in baskets on the ground. The painting is an example of Victorian realism, a modern scene, showing young girls in contemporary Victorian dress, enjoying a day in the country.
      The painting can also be read on another level. On the face of it, this is a picture about youth and beauty, but it has a deeper message. On the right is a scythe, hinting at the inner meaning of the picture. The scythe is a traditional symbol of death, associated with the figure of 'Death, the Grim Reaper', often depicted as a skeleton carrying a scythe. Millais's message is that even the youth and beauty of the girls will come to an end. Flowers fade, the seasons move on and the summer grass is cut down at harvest time.
      We know that thoughts of death were in Millais's mind when he first began work on Spring. He was also working on a picture of autumn, entitled Autumn Leaves. This also depicts beautiful young girls but here they are heaping leaves on a bonfire in autumn at twilight. The end of the day, the end of the year, the dead leaves and the smoke are all symbols of the transience of earthly life and the inevitability of death. Millais may have originally thought of the two pictures as a pair. They share the themes of the decay of beauty, the cycle of the seasons, the inevitability of change and of death.
      Though Millais did not write these ideas down about Apple Blossoms, he did write about Autumn Leaves that he “intended the picture to awaken by its solemnity the deepest religious reflection.” The same applies to Apple Blossoms. Unlike some of the early Pre-Raphaelite paintings, which are packed full of heavy symbols and coded references, this painting suggests its message quietly. The scythe is introduced casually placed to one side; it makes sense as a real object. Though it also operates as symbol, it does not disturb a naturalistic reading of the painting.
Autumn Leaves (1856, 104x74cm) _ This painting is of all the Millais paintings of the 1850s the most powerfully atmospheric-the viewer can almost feel the cool sharp evening, and smell the burning leaves. The twilight sky is brilliantly painted. The painting received critical, but not public acclaim. The young pretty girls and the burning of the leaves are an illustration of the transience of human life. The picture was painted in the garden of the Grey family home in Perth.
     Millais evokes autumn with a rich palette of reds, oranges, browns and yellows. At the centre, young girls burn fallen leaves on a bonfire, their faces lit by the warm firelight. The fallen leaves, the smoke, the setting sun and the season itself are all symbols of transience and mortality, reminding us that the girls, despite their youth, will also age and die. As in his painting of Spring (Apple Blossom) the symbolism is deliberate, Millais said he hoped this picture would ‘awaken by its solemnity the deepest religious reflection.
The Blind Girl (1856, 83x62cm) _ This painting is a very rare foray by the artist into the area of social comment. He is showing the poverty and humiliation of disabled people, in this instance the blind girl, at that time. The poverty of the girl is illustrated by her ragged clothes, and her tenuous means of earning a living by the concertina on her lap. The picture was painted at the Perth home of Effie Millais’s family the Greys, and the background is a combination of Sussex and Perth. Initially the work was badly received, and the painter who was well-aware of his exceptional talent thought that this was due to jealousy. In time The Blind Girl, became regarded as one of the core of great early Pre-Raphaelite paintings. _ This painting shows two beggar girls resting after a rain shower in the countryside, one of whom is unable to see the beauty of the rainbow behind her. The girls' poverty is shown by their clothes and by the concertina, used for begging, resting on the lap of the blind girl.
      The model for the blind girl was Millais' wife, Effie. Millais began this painting in the autumn of 1854 at Winchelsea in Sussex, and completed it two years later near his home in Perthshire, Scotland. Dante Gabriel Rossetti found it 'one of the most touching and perfect things I know'. Ruskin described it thus: 'The common is a fairly spacious bit of ragged pasture, and at the side of the public road passing over it the blind girl has sat down to rest awhile. She is a simple beggar, not a poetical or vicious one, a girl of eighteen or twenty, extremely plain-featured, but healthy, and just now resting, not because she is much tired but because the sun has but this moment come out after a shower, and the smell of grass is pleasant.'
      Soaking up the sun after a storm, the rosy-cheeked blind girl is oblivious to the glorious double rainbow. The beauty around her highlights the pathos of her situation. She feels the sun on her face and the tuft of grass in her hand but cannot see them. Her draped shawl makes her look like a Madonna and implies her virtue, while the rainbow suggests God's care, even for the most vulnerable. In a double rainbow the color sequence of the second rainbow is reversed. Millais originally got this detail wrong but later corrected it, making sure he was paid for his trouble.
^ The Bridesmaid (1851, 28x20cm) _ This is the most powerfully erotic of the early pictures. The bridesmaid passes a small piece of wedding cake through the wedding ring a number of times. The superstition was that she would then see a vision of her own future husband. The lovely girl has long luxuriant dark red hair, flowing right down over her shoulders, and this in combination with the phallic symbolism of the sugar caster produces a highly sexually charged image. BUT the blossom on her breast is a symbol of virginity. On a lesser point the artist was a great specialist in painting silver, with its different shades and reflections.
Ferdinand Lured by Ariel (1850, 65x51cm) _ This is one of the very greatest of the early paintings. The subject comes from Shakespeare’s The Tempest (Act I, Scene 2), with the sprite Ariel leading Ferdinand to his master Prospero. The quality and detail of the painting of the grass and vegetation are difficult to credit, as is the painting of Ferdinand’s face and his clothing. The painting also creates a most mysterious and intriguing image.
Mariana in the Moated Grange (1851, 60x50cm) _ Note the sheer brilliance of these early paintings. She has often been described as ‘the lady with the aching back!’ Mariana takes a break from her embroidery, and miserably looks through the window. She has been rejected by her lover and feels tired of life. The stained glass has vivid colors and through the lower windows can be seen the trees and the leaves which are in themselves a bravura piece of painting. The velvet dress in deep blue velvet is wonderful, as is the shadowing of the unhappy face, and Mariana’s attractive figure.
_ [read Millais's "Mariana": Literary Painting, the Pre-Raphaelite Gothic, and the Iconology of the Marian Artist]
.
_ The picture was inspired by this poem by Tennyson :

Mariana
in the Moated Grange





With blackest moss the flower-plots
Were thickly crusted, one and all:
The rusted nails fell from the knots
That held the pear to the gable-wall.
The broken sheds look'd sad and strange:
Unlifted was the clinking latch;
Weeded and worn the ancient thatch
Upon the lonely moated grange.
She only said, "My life is dreary,
He cometh not," she said;
She said, "I am aweary, aweary,
I would that I were dead!"


Her tears fell with the dews at even;
Her tears fell ere the dews were dried;
She could not look on the sweet heaven,
Either at morn or eventide.
After the flitting of the bats,
When thickest dark did trance the sky,
She drew her casement-curtain by,
And glanced athwart the glooming flats.
She only said, "The night is dreary,
He cometh not," she said;
She said, "I am aweary, aweary,
I would that I were dead!"


Upon the middle of the night,
Waking she heard the night-fowl crow:
The cock sung out an hour ere light:
From the dark fen the oxen's low
Came to her: without hope of change,
In sleep she seem'd to walk forlorn,
Till cold winds woke the gray-eyed morn
About the lonely moated grange.
She only said, "The day is dreary,
He cometh not," she said;
She said, "I am aweary, aweary,
I would that I were dead!"




About a stone-cast from the wall
A sluice with blacken'd waters slept,
And o'er it many, round and small,
The cluster'd marish-mosses crept.
Hard by a poplar shook alway,
All silver-green with gnarled bark:
For leagues no other tree did mark
The level waste, the rounding gray.
She only said, "My life is dreary,
He cometh not," she said;
She said "I am aweary, aweary
I would that I were dead!"

And ever when the moon was low,
And the shrill winds were up and away,
In the white curtain, to and fro,
She saw the gusty shadow sway.
But when the moon was very low
And wild winds bound within their cell,
The shadow of the poplar fell
Upon her bed, across her brow.
She only said, "The night is dreary,
He cometh not," she said;
She said "I am aweary, aweary,
I would that I were dead!"

All day within the dreamy house,
The doors upon their hinges creak'd;
The blue fly sung in the pane; the mouse
Behind the mouldering wainscot shriek'd,
Or from the crevice peer'd about.
Old faces glimmer'd thro' the doors
Old footsteps trod the upper floors,
Old voices called her from without.
She only said, "My life is dreary,
He cometh not," she said;
She said, "I am aweary, aweary,
I would that I were dead!"




The sparrow's chirrup on the roof,
The slow clock ticking, and the sound
Which to the wooing wind aloof
The poplar made, did all confound
Her sense; but most she loathed the hour
When the thick-moted sunbeam lay
Athwart the chambers, and the day
Was sloping toward his western bower.
Then said she, "I am very dreary,
He will not come," she said;
She wept, "I am aweary, aweary,
Oh God, that I were dead!"

Chill October (1870, 141x187cm)
Mercy - Saint Bartholomew's Day, 1572
A Huguenot, on Saint Bartholomew's Day Refusing to Shield Himself from Danger by Wearing the Roman Catholic Badge (1852)
North-West Passage
James Wyatt and His Granddaughter Mary (1849) Wyatt (1774-1855) was a picture dealer and frame-maker; he was a prominent civic figure in Oxford and was Mayor of the city for 1842-1843.
Mrs James Wyatt and child.
— The Eve of Saint Agnes (1863)
— Trust Me
Message from the Sea (99x135cm)
–- Yes or No (900x649pix, 42kb)
–- No! (900x642pix; 42kb)
–- Yes (800x621pix, 65kb _ ZOOM to 1600x1242pix, 125kb)
Annie Miller (1854, 23x15cm)
–- The Death of Romeo and Juliet (1848; 355x600pix, 36kb)
Bubbles [child looks up at soap bubble he has blown.] _ The child is the artist's grandson. This picture became world famous as an advertisement for Pears soap.
A Dream of the Past - Sir Isumbras at the Ford (1857, 124x170cm)
–- The Romans Leaving Britain (1865, 46x70cm; 491x800pix, 80kb _ ZOOM to 736x1200pix, 80kb) _ This is a reduced version of a picture that Millais exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1865, with a quotation from Holinshed's Chronicles to explain the subject. The picture represents an imaginary scene at the time when Roman occupying forces were withdrawing from Britain in the late fourth and early fifth centuries AD. A Roman legionary is bidding a passionate farewell to his British mistress, both of them knowing that they would never meet again.
–- The Crown of Love (1875, 128x87cm; 700x461pix, 53kb) _ The female model was Millais' daughter Alice. The painting was exhibited at the Royal Academy with the following quotation from George Meredith:
O, might I load my arms with thee,
Like that young lover of Romance,
Who loved and gain'd so gloriously
The fair Princess of France.
Because he dared to love so high.
He, bearing her dear weight, must speed
To where the mountain touch'd the sky.
So the proud king decreed
Unhalting he must bear her on,
Nor pause a space to gather breath,
and on the height she would be won:
And she was won in death.
 

Died on a 13 August:

1997 Carel Weight, English painter born (full coverage) on 10 September 1908.

1961 Mario Sironi, Italian painter born (full coverage) on 12 May 1885. —(060511)

^ 1902 Ludwik Kurella, Polish genre painter, dies on his 68th birthday. He visited Belgium in 1867. Ludwik Kurella byl jednym z wybitniejszych przedstawicieli polskiej koloni artystycznej w Monachium, znanym i cenionym autorem obrazów, chetnie i niejednokrotnie za wysokie ceny, kupowanych przez niemieckich i amerykanskich "Kunsthandlerów". Studia artystyczne rozpoczal w warszawskiej Szkole Sztuk Pieknych, gdzie byl ulubionym uczniem R. Hadziewicza. W r. 1857 wyjechal do Drezna i w tamtejszej Akademii ksztalcil sie pod kierunkiem J. Schnorra von Carosfeld. Podrózowal po Europie, a pózniej przeniósl sie do Monachium, gdzie w Akademii byl uczniem W. Kaulbacha, J. Schraudolpha i A. Ramberga. W Monachium pozostal na stale, nalezal do Kunstverein, mial wlasna pracownie, przyjaznil sie z J. Brandtem, Maksymilianem i Aleksandrem Gierymskimi, J. Chelmonskim, W. Czachórskim. Bral udzial w wystawach; swoje obrazy nadsylal takze na wystawy krajowe do Warszawy, Krakowa i Lwowa. Okolo r. 1900 powrócil na stale do Warszawy.
Holowanie galarów -berlinka ciagnieta w góre rzek (1890, 66x100cm; 466x700pix, 80kb)
W malym miasteczku (1890, 66x118cm; 394x700pix, 52kb)

1894 Remigius Adrianus Remy van Haanen, Dutch artist born on 05 January 1812.

1816 Per Hillestrom, Swedish artist born on 18 November 1732.

^ 1523 Gheeraert Janszoon David van Oudewater, Flemish painter born in 1460. He studied under Hans Memling. He is known as the last of the ‘Flemish Primitives’. Although born in the northern Netherlands, he moved to Bruges as a young man, and most of his work expresses the impassive, unmannered, microscopically realistic approach peculiar to south Netherlandish art in the time of Jan van Eyck. David was skilled at synthesizing the art of several important south Netherlandish predecessors, adapting, for instance, the compositions of van Eyck and the technique of Hugo van der Goes. He was also influenced by Hans Memling, whose example led him to refine and polish his cruder northern Netherlandish style and to adopt the popular theme of the Virgin and Child enthroned.
— David went to Bruges, presumably from Haarlem, where he is supposed to have formed his early style under the instruction of Albert van Ouwater; he joined the guild of St Luke at Bruges in 1484 and became dean in 1501. In his early work, such as the Christ Nailed to the Cross and the Nativity, he followed the Haarlem tradition as represented by Ouwater and Geertgen tot Sint Jans but already gave evidence of his superior power as a colorist. In Bruges he studied masterpieces by the van Eycks, Rogier van der Weyden, and Hugo van der Goes and came under the influence of Hans Memling. To this period belong the Marriage at Cana (1500) and the Enthroned Madonna with Angels. But the works on which David's fame rests most securely are his great altarpieces: the Judgment of Cambyses (two panels, 1498), the triptych of the Baptism of Christ (1507); the Virgin and Child with Saints and Donor (1505); the Annunciation on two panels; and, above all, the documented altarpiece of the Madonna with Angels and Saints (1509). These are mature works - severe yet richly colored, showing a masterful handling of light, volume, and space. The Judgment panels are especially notable for being among the earliest Flemish paintings to employ such Italian Renaissance devices as putti and garlands. In Antwerp David became impressed by the life and movement in the work of Quentin Massys, who had introduced a more intimate and more human conception of sacred themes. David's Deposition (1515) and the Crucifixion (1515) were painted under this influence and are remarkable for their dramatic movement. Authorities disagree about the intent of David's eclectic, deliberately archaic manner. Some feel that he drew on earlier masters in an effort, doomed by lack of imagination, to revive the fading art of Bruges. Others see David as a progressive artist who sought to base his innovations on the achievements of the founders of the Netherlandish school.
— His students included Ambrosius Benson and Jan Gossart [1478-1532]. — LINKS
The Annunciation (600x464pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1083pix, 283kb)
The Marriage at Cana (1500, 100x128cm; 755x1009pix, 168kb; _ ZOOM to 1400x1848pix, 591kb) _ detail
30 images at WGA
28 images at ARC
22 images at ABC —(080812)


Born on a 13 August:


1904 Gaston Chaissac, French painter who died (main coverage) on 06 November 1964. —(060928)

^ 1879 Felice Carena, Italian painter who died in 1966. Studia con Giacomo Grosso all'Accademia Albertina di Torino e si lega d'amicizia con esponenti dell'area simbolista, come i poeti Arturo Graf e Giovanni Cena , che ritroverà più tardi a Roma, il critico Enrico Thovez, ma soprattutto con Leonardo Bistolfi. Vincitore del Pensionato artistico nazionale, nel 1906 si trasferisce a Roma, inserendosi subito nella vita artistica e intellettuale della capitale. Nel 1910 ha una sala alla mostra degli Amatori e Cultori, cui segue, due anni più tardi, la personale nell'ambito della Biennale di Venezia ; qui l'artista raduna tutte le opere del primo periodo romano, che concludono sua fase simbolista. Nel 1913 è tra i membri della commissione ordinatrice della I Secessione romana. La guerra del 1915-’18 segna un periodo di stasi nella sua attività. Si trasferisce ad Anticoli Corrado, che sarà anche in seguito il luogo prediletto per i soggiorni estivi. Tra il 1922 e il 1924 organizza insieme allo scultore Attilio Selva una scuola d’arte presso gli Orti Sallustiani. Le lezioni sono frequentate, tra gli altri, da Emanuele Cavalli, Giuseppe Capogrossi, Fausto Pirandello, Onofrio Martinelli, che lo seguono anche nei soggiorni estivi ad Anticoli. Non è difficile ritrovare tracce del magistero di Carena nelle opere giovanili di questi artisti. Nel 1924 si trasferisce a Firenze, dove gli è assegnata per chiara fama la cattedra di pittura all'Accademia di Belle Arti della quale diviene in seguito direttore.
–- S#*> Self-Portrait (1901, 144x70cm; 900x427pix, 94kb ) almost monochrome
La rivolta (1904, 499x550pix, 16kb)

^ 1852 Christian Krogh, Norwegian painter who died on 16 October 1925.
The Sick Girl (1881)

1834 Ludwik Kurella, Polish painter who would die on his 68th birthday. (see above)

^ Happened on a 13 August:
2001: announcement:
A REMBRANDT ON SALE
FOR $35'600'000

     A portrait by Rembrandt van Rijn has been put up for sale at $35.6 million, $7.5 million more than it fetched at auction less than a year ago, its Dutch owner announces.
      "It is a lot of money but I have two very keen institutional parties who are trying to get the money together," art dealer Robert Noortman says.
      Noortman bought the oil painting, entitled Portrait of a Lady Aged 62, at an auction at Christie's in London in December 2000 for $28.1 million, way above the expected $5 million to $8 million price tag.
     $35 million would be the highest price paid for a Rembrandt. The previous record was Portrait of a Bearded Man in a Red Coat, which sold for just over nine million dollars in New York in 1998.
      The most expensive Old Master picture sold at auction is Pontormo's Portrait of Duke Cosimo de Medici, which sold for over $35 million in New York in 1989.

LINKSAn Old Lady with a Book (1647) Lady with a PinkPortrait of a Lady with an Ostrich Feather Fan (1660) — A Bearded Man in a Beret (1657) A Bearded Man in a CapPortrait of a Bearded Man in a Wide-Brimmed Hat (1633) — Portrait of a Bearded Man in Black Beret (1654) —
Pontormo: Cosimo Medici il Vecchio (1520, 86x65cm)
1958 Salvador Dalí [11 May 1904 – 25 Jan 1989] contracts a Catholic marriage with the promiscuous “Gala” (Elena Ivanovna Diakonova) [07 Sep 1894 – 10 Jun 1982] , who was his mate since 1929, after she ditched “Paul Éluard” (Eugène Émile Paul Grindel) [14 Dec 1895 – 18 Nov 1952], and his civil law wife since 1934. —(080812)


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