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ART “4” “2”-DAY  09 August v.9.71
^ >Died on 09 (10?) August 1915: Frank Bramley, English painter born on 06 May 1857.
—   He attended Lincoln School of Art from 1873 to 1878. He studied from 1879 to 1882 with Charles Verlat at the Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Antwerp, as did other future Newlyn school painters such as Fred Hall [1860–1948], Thomas Cooper Gotch and Norman Garstin. After a period in Venice (1882–1884) Bramley joined the artists’ colony in Newlyn, Cornwall, where he stayed until 1895. The Newlyn School (or British Impressionism) became known for its Cornish {NOT corny} genre scenes and plein-air approach, but Domino (1886) typifies Bramley’s initial interest in interiors with varied natural and artificial light effects, as well as his involvement with tonal harmonies and the surface qualities of the square brush. Bramley was a founder member of the NEAC but resigned in 1890 after a vicious review of his work by Sickert. He was elected a Royal Academician in 1911.

–- A Hopeless Dawn (1888, 123x168cm; 684x945pix, 83kb — ZOOM to 1824x2205pix, 1400kb) _ This was painted at Newlyn, Cornwall, and exhibited at the Royal Academy in London in 1888, with a passage of the comments by John Ruskin [08 Feb 1819 – 20 Jan 1900] in the collection of mezzotint prints of pictures by Turner [23 Apr 1775 – 19 Dec 1851] published as The Harbours of England. The passage dwelt on the effort and sorrow of the lives of fishermen and their families, yet offered consolation in the thought of Christ’s hand being ‘at the helm of every lonely boat, through starless night and hopeless dawn’. An open Bible lies on the window seat beside the fisherman’s mother, who is comforting his young wife; both have given up hope of his return after waiting for a day and a night. _ A fisherman’s wife and mother have kept vigil all night, reading the Bible and waiting in vain for his return. Bramley contrasts the bleak early morning light with the flickering candle on the table, while on the window-ledge a candle has gone out, symbolising the fisherman’s death. Outside the window, the restless storm continues mercilessly; the cracked panes of glass suggests humanity’s fragility in contrast to the power and terrible indifference of the raging sea.
Primrose Day (1885, 50x35cm) _ The title of this picture refers to the annual commemoration on 19 April of the death of the great Conservative statesman Benjamin Disraeli [1804-1881] who was Prime Minister in 1868 and from 1874 to 1880. Primroses were said to be his favorite flower. The girl has been collecting primroses in her hat; others are arranged in a vase on the table, above which is a print of Disraeli. Bramley's picture is also an exercise in the color harmonies of yellow, white and brown. A leading Newlyn painter, he has used the square brush and horizontal strokes for which the Newlyn artists were famous.
A Truce
Sir Frederick Augustus Abel, Bt (120x99cm)
–- S#*> Study of a Fishergirl, Newlyn (1886, 25x20cm; 900x705pix, 94kb)
–- S#*> Le Vieux Marin et sa Petite Fille (1886, 35x21cm; 900x705pix, 94kb) seems unfinished, barely begun in fact.
^ Died on 09 August 1652: Jan Dirkszoon Both, Dutch Baroque era painter born in 1618 or 1610. Brother of Andries Both. Both Boths studied under Abraham Bloemaert.
— Both Both, Jan, and Berchem, Nicolaes, were the most celebrated of the Italianate landscape painters. Both did not come from Utrecht, but Both came from Utrecht, where he studied under Bloemaert before moving to Italy for a period of about four years, 1637-1641. Both Boths died young, but Jan's output was large, though none of the more than 300 paintings attributed to him can be convincingly dated to his stay in Italy. His landscapes are typically peopled by peasants driving cattle or travelers looking at Roman ruins in the light of the evening sun. Such contemporary scenes were an innovation, for Claude Lorrain and the earlier Dutch painters of the Italian countryside had populated it with biblical or mythological figures. They express the yearning of northerners for the light and idyllic life of the south, and proved immensely popular with collectors, not least in England, helping to shape ideas about Italy for two centuries. Jan's brother Andries [1612-1641] lived with him in Rome 1639-1641. Both Boths are said to have collaborated, but Andries is best known for paintings and drawings of lively peasant scenes that have little in common with Jan's idyllic tone. He was accidentally drowned in a Venice canal.
Karel Dujardin and Michiel Sweerts were both Both's students, but they were not both Boths' students. They were the students only of Jan Both, both of them.

Italian Landscape with Draftsman (1650, 187x240cm) _ In a shady spot beside a raging mountain stream, a small group is taking a rest from the journey. One of the travelers, on the left by the bridge, is drawing. The paper is illuminated by a ray of sun falling directly across it. A shepherd is looking over the draughtsman's shoulder. The sunlight also draws attention to the herd of goats on the far left and to the other people, the travelers and goat herds, who are sitting on the rocks either side of the ravine. Others continue on their way, their luggage being carried by mules. This is unmistakably a southern landscape conjured up by the painter, a piece of Italy bathed in warm sunlight.
     Jan Both has painted a sophisticated composition with a wooded, rocky landscape on the left framed by a seething brook. To the right the painting opens up to a sun-bathed mountain vista. The landscape evokes an imposing yet peaceful mood which is emphasised by the quiet activities of the figures. There is a striking amount of attention paid to the plants which have been painted in great detail. Jan Both lived in Italy from 1638 to 1642. After his return to the Netherlands he continued to paint sunny, Italian landscapes, in particular using the landscape around Rome in his pictures.
     Many Dutch painters went to Italy to study the art of classical antiquity, the Renaissance, and the contemporary art of the day. Rome was usually the main destination. They often stayed there for a few years among other Dutch and foreign artists. On returning to Holland they continued to paint Italian landscapes, sometimes combining these with Dutch elements. The work of these painters, the Italianates, was popular in seventeenth century Holland. Their paintings were often sold as souvenirs, reminders of journeys abroad. High prices were paid for these paintings until well into the nineteenth century. A couple of examples by other painters: A Waterside Ruin in Italy (54x48cm) by Jan Asselijn [1611-1652], The Painter's Studio (1650, 71x74cm) by Michiel Sweerts [29 Sep 1618 – 1664] which features a pile of antique sculptures.
Ruins at the Sea (55x45cm; 1000x830pix, 142kb) _ There are several versions of this typical Italianate landscape by Both.
–- Mountainous Landscape With Travelers Along a Road (55x64cm; 1223x1398pix, 167kb)
–- S#*> Susanna and the Elders (1640, 55x40cm; 900x644pix, 71kb) monochrome, by both Boths, Andries having painted the persons.

^ Born on 09 August 1861: John William Godward, English Neoclassicist painter who commited suicide on 13 December 1922.
— He was the first of the five children of John Godward [–1904], an investment clerk in a life insurance office in Fleet Street, and his wife, Sarah Eborall Goodward [1835 – 29 Dec 1935]. As a boy, J. W. Godward had a sheltered and somewhat claustrophobic home life dominated by his father who had in mind that his sons should follow the stable and respectable family profession of insurance and banking. The others did , but John William only for a short time.
      He lived at home until he was 26. His first job was as an insurance clerk with his father. In the evenings he may have studied rendering and graining from architect William Hoff Wontner [1814 – Feb 1881], with whose son, portrait painter William Clarke Wontner, he became friends.
     Godward's earliest known work is a posthumous gouache of his grandmother (who had died in 1866), Portrait of Mary Perkinton Godward  (1881, 11x8cm). It is not known where he got trained as an artist, which was not career his parents wished for him. About 1885 he painted Giotto Drawing on A Tablet (as a young shepherd drawing sheep).
     The next known Godward picture is his first oil painting, Portrait of Mary Frederica Godward, (1883, 36x31cm), his sister, head-and-shoulders in profile to the left. Unlike his earlier portrait, it shows that he had received some art training. It displays a rich impasto and soft tonal quality unlike his later style.
      1887 saw his first accepted entry into the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition: A Yellow Turban. Although it attracted little attention it did herald his acceptance as a 'real' artist, enabling his painting to be taken more seriously and gain some acceptance from his disapproving family. He continued to exhibit there regularly until 1905.
      His paintings were first placed with a sales gallery of note in 1888, that of Arthur Tooth and Sons of Haymarket Street in the West End of London. However he soon settled with the competing dealer Messrs. Thomas Miller McLean who had premises just next door to Tooth and who also represented Alma-Tadema and Poynter.
     At the age of 26, upon leaving his parents' home (now in Wimbledon), at least for part of the time, he took an atelier at No. 19 Bolton Studios in Kensington. The 27 studios there tended to be occupied on a shared basis. Amongst the other artists working there at the time were Henry Ryland [1856-1924] and George Lawrence Bulleid [1858-1933], who became Godward's friends.
      In 1889, after a period of financial success selling through McLean, Godward moved into a leasehold house in Saint Leonard's Terrace, Chelsea (50 yards from the home of the novelist Bram Stoker). Just around the corner he was also able to occupy his own studio at No.1 Saint Leonard's Studios.
      The year of his move, Godward painted about 25 oils, mostly for McLean, of which two of the most ambitious works were Sewing Girl and Waiting for an Answer, which possibly incorporates a self-portrait: the similarity of the male figure to Godward's brothers as seen in various photographs is quite striking (there are no known extant photographs of the artist). The girl in the painting is his regular model with whom he might have had an amorous liaison. He painted very few men.
     1891 saw at least 21 oils by Godward, including Sweet Siesta of a Summer Day. McLean's 18th annual London exhibition of 1892 featured the academic At the Garden Shrine, Pompeii. McLean had purchased it for £75. The Betrothal was another important work of that year since it introduced the 'polka-dot' stola into his repertoire of props, and it was also his first work to be accepted into the permanent collection of a major art museum, being donated in 1916 to the Guildhall Art Gallery.
      1893 might be regarded as Godward's creative watershed in which his style matured and his career became fully established. It was also at this time that some of his canvases were reproduced and published by McLean as photo-engravings. One of these was The Betrothed. The two most impressive works of this year are Endymion and Yes or No?.
      In 1894 Godward moved out of the Saint Leonard's Terrace studios, taking a 40 year lease on a better property at 410 Fulham Road. Like Alma-Tadema, he used his home as an instrument of his art and decorated it internally as an ancient Roman building set in a garden of pergolas and fountains. But, unlike Alma-Tadema's home which was always open to parties, "artist's Tuesdays" and drop-in visitors, Godward's home was more of a hermitage which he left only to visit the shops and East End dealers in marbles and antique paraphernalia.
      The new century arrived with Godward still painting prolifically and becoming recognized as a major exponent of classical figure painting. However, his retiring nature still hindered him in significantly furthering his career and, by the turn of the century, beauties painters had difficulty in receiving critical acclaim beyond the walls of the Royal Academy. Notwithstanding this, a major work from this period is Ionian Dancing Girl. Then, with a subtle change of style, his 1903 canvas Summer Flowers (GOW020) was the first in which flowers became a more dominant feature. He had used the effect before, but never so profusely.
      In 1904 the artist's father died. In the same year Godward actually produced two of his finest paintings: Dolce Far Niente and In the Days of Sappho. Dolce Far Niente was one of 7 paintings bearing this title and it depicts an Italian model wearing a luxurious saffron robe as an exhausted Bacchante collapsed after a frenzied dance. The viewer's eye is led to the recumbent girl via her peacock fan and bear and lion furs. In the Days of Sappho is a beautifully composed and rendered set-piece notable for its original and subtle color scheme with the girl capturing the viewer's attention by gazing out of the picture.
      In 1905 Godward made his first trip to Italy. He painted oil studies near Sorrento, Pompeii, and the Bay of Naples. Works from this period include Nerissa and Drusilla.
      In the period 1908-1910 one of his finest works was Noonday Rest which depicts a reclining beauty on a marble ledge with the beautiful yet poisonous oleander bush appearing from behind a column, symbolising the Victorian view of the fickleness of women, the whole bound in a fine synthesis of the contrasting textures of marble, fur, fabric and flesh.
      By 1912 Godward had left England to reside in Rome, running off with his Italian model, an act for which his mother never forgave him. In Rome he painted Absence Makes the Heart Grow Fonder, a trompe l'oeil work combining the innocence of the model with still life irises. One of his best works of that year was A Tryst. In Rome, Godward lived in an artist studio among those of other artists, the most notable being the Ilya Repin [1844-1930].
      In 1913 Godward was awarded the gold medal at the Rome Internationale exhibition for The Belvedere. Most of his works were now set out of doors. In Tranquillity (1914) a greater proportion of the canvas begins to be dedicated to landscape. However, from 1915 onwards his output seemed to decrease. The most significant work of 1917 is Under the Blossom that Hangs on the Bough, inspired by Shakespeare's The Tempest. It is a work of harmonious color transitions superimposed on a marble background.
      In 1921, Godward returned to his London home. His health declined further and under-nourishment from a spartan existence likely led to dyspepsia (the same illness which took Alma-Tadema's life a decade earlier). Without doubt he was also mentally affected by the belligerence of the intellectual modernism of the Bloomsbury Group, particularly after the death of Edward J. Poynter in 1919. The latter was President of the RA, a last bastion of the classical movement. Rather than continue with the misery of ill health and seeing his art suffer, Godward committed suicide. Returning from work that evening, his brother found him dead in his studio, having gassed himself over a gas-ring in the wash-room, the word "GAS" in his handwriting left pinned as a warning to the outside of the door.

By the Wayside (1912, 125x83cm; _ ZOOMable)
Mischief (1905, 102x51cm; _ ZOOMable)
The Mirror (1899, 81x38cm; _ ZOOMable)
Lesbia with her Sparrow (1916, 99x50cm; _ ZOOMable)
On the Balcony (1911, 81x41cm; _ ZOOMable)
A Grecian Girl (1908, 95x95cm; _ ZOOMable)
A Quiet Pet (1906, 51x76cm) _ detail (_ ZOOMable) a turtle, but its human is the main subject.
The Tambourine Girl (1906, 114x76cm; _ ZOOMable)
At the Gate of the Temple (_ ZOOMable) This painting bears certain compositional similarities with The Priestess (1894). The bacchante was undoubtedly Lily Pettigrew, a noted model who often posed for Godward. She is posed as a delicated guard of the temple of Dionysius. Standing straight and upright before the bolted door, she holds a thyrsus stick with a pine-cone topknot.
Endymion (1893, 63x103cm; _ ZOOMable)
At the Garden Shrine, Pompeii (_ ZOOMable)
The Old, Old Story (72x87cm; _ ZOOMable)
A Souvenir (1920, 89x120cm; _ ZOOMable)
Lying down (1893; 600x1152pix)
The Betrothed (1892; 113kb)
The Tease (1901; 102kb)
Dolce_far_niente (1904; 658x1000pix, 170kb) _ same at another site: Dolce Far Niente (516x800pix; 131kb)
Nerissa (106kb) same at another site: Nerissa
Noonday Rest (103kb)
A Grecian Lovely
A_Cool_Retreat (600x800pix, 40kb)
The_Flowers_of_Venus (1890)
A Pompeian Lady
A Souvenir
A Trys
An offering to Venus
In the Tepidarium
Far Away Thoughts
The Sweet Siesta of a Summer Day
Innocent Amusements
Ionian Dancing Girl
La Pensierosa (1913)
Le Billet Doux
Summer Flowers
Sweet Dreams
The Belvedere
The Engagement Ring
The Jewel Casket
Godward The New Perfume
The Peacock Fan
Under the Blossom that Hangs on the Bough
Waiting for an Answer
With Violets Wreathed and Robe of Saffron Hue
Youth and Time
119 images at ARC
^ >Died on 09 August 1943: Chaim Soutine, French painter born in Belarus in 1894 (before 13 January Gregorian = in 1893 after December 19 Julian), in a Jewish family of Lithuanian origin. Soutine's highly individualistic style uses thick antipasto... er... make that impasto, agitated brushwork, convulsive compositional rhythms, and disturbing psychotic... ER ... psychological content, closely related to the mainstream of early 20th-century Expressionism.
   — Soutine, whom critics describe as a "painter's painter," is characterized by his energetic, lively brushwork and bold use of color that electrify his somewhat traditional choice of subject matter--portraits, landscapes, and still lifes. His work can be classified in three time periods--the 1920s, the 1930s, and the 1950s--when Soutine was being defined and redefined by his audience as an unschooled tragic genius, as a savior of traditional French painting, and as a progenitor of Abstract Expressionism and the avant-garde in the US.
— Studied at the School of Fine Arts in Vilno 1910-1913, his fellow students including Kikoine and Kremegne. In 1913 moved to Paris and studied briefly in Cormon's studio at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Met Modigliani, Laurens, Pascin, Lipchitz and Zadkine. In 1919-1922 worked mainly at Céret, where his work reached its most expressionistic extreme and where he executed a series of wildly distorted landscapes with convulsive rhythms. The purchase by Dr Albert C. Barnes of a number of his pictures in 1923 was his first big success after years of poverty. Afterwards divided his time between Paris and Lèves, the Riviera, the Pyrenees, the Beauce, Touraine and the Indre. First one-man exhibition at the Galerie Bing, Paris, 1927. Besides landscapes and portraits, his later work included still lifes of carcasses of beef or dead poultry, studies of valets, choir boys and communicants, and a few pictures inspired by works by Rembrandt and Courbet. Lived in Champigny-sur-Veude in Touraine 1941-1943, during the German Occupation; died in Paris after being rushed there for an operation.

Self-Portrait (1916; 862x478pix, 41kb)
— different /S#*>Self-Portrait (55x40cm; 900x648pix, 115kb)
Carcass of Beef (1926, 116x81cm; 800x547pix, 67kb — ZOOM to 2000x1368pix, 410kb)
Le Petit Patissier (1922)
Winding Road (1939)
Céret Landscape (1920; 195kb)
— different Céret Landscape (1922; 402x560pix, 83kb) but the houses are still falling over each other.
La Route de Céret (1924; 580x688pix) the houses still can't manage to stand up straight {were all these pictures painted during earthquakes?}.
–- S#*> Le chasseur de chez Maxim's (1925, 82x75cm; 799x728pix, 76kb) _ On the right bank of the Seine on the rue Royale is the restaurant Maxim's, the place of employment of the figure immortalized in Le chasseur de chez Maxim's. Maxim's was founded in 1893 by a former waiter, Maxime Gaillard, who anglicized his name and created one of the smartest establishments of the Belle Époque. Known for its refined French cooking and art nouveau décor, Maxim's was the gathering place for the élite, and by the 1920s, its lofty reputation was still attracting those from the most fashionable echelons of Parisian society. Soutine was among those who frequented Maxim's, but his interest in this setting was piqued more by those who worked at this establishment than those who dined there. Rather than depicting the international set of ladies and gentlemen who reveled in the wild nightlife of Paris, as Toulouse-Lautrec had done thirty years earlier, Soutine recognized that the life blood of this culture was the working class, like this modest page in his dapper uniform.
      Soutine was fascinated with the appearance of uniformed figures, and beginning in 1925 he made a number of paintings of valets, chefs, cooks and servants. The present work resembles the monumental full-length portrait of the same title at the Albright Knox Museum in Buffalo, probably depicting the same page boy, and Le Groom (1925), now in the collection of the Musée National d’Art Moderne in Paris. Unlike the fragile sitters in the two companion pieces, the boy in the present painting demonstrates a more solid figure, occupying the entire canvas in his upright, more self-assured pose. The unusual confidence of the sitter is echoed by the boldness of brush strokes and vividly contrasting color planes of bright red of the uniform, and the deep blue tones of the background.
      Soutine’s involvement with uniformed figures, seen already with the pastry cooks, continues in the paintings of 1925-1929, in which we encounter choir boys, cooks, and hotel employees. The impulse to group colors into broad self-contained areas makes the uniform an attractive motif for Soutine. The uniform provides a ready-made surface of large, flat shapes of color. Each color is isolated into its own field, within which variations or nuancing occur. Red seems to be the dominant color (note in his paintings the choir boys, grooms, and hotel figures), with blue, white, and black following. See also, for example, Le Pâtissier au mouchoir rouge (1923, Musée de l’Orangerie, Paris).
Woman in Pink (1000x683pix, 125kb)
Street of Cagnes-sur-Mer (1924)
Large Poplars at Civery (or After the Storm) (1939)
11 images at Insecula
^ Died on 09 August 1892: Emil Jakob Schindler, Austrian Impressionist painter specialized in Landscapes, born on 27 April 1842.
— Emil Jakob Schindler, who belonged to the same generation as Leibl, Monet and Renoir, was mainly responsible for a movement which in its more notable achievements also represented a very Austrian version of the international 'plein air' - outdoor -school. The confrontation with pictures of the 'School of Barbizon' at the First International Art Exhibition in Munich in 1869, persuaded Schindler and his fellow students Ditscheiner, Jettel, Ribarz and Russ to dedicate themselves to outdoor painting altogether. Several French painters had discovered the forest of Fontainebleau already in the 1830s. Théodore Rousseau settled in Barbizon, and others such as Constant Troyon, Charles-François Daubigny and Jean-François Millet soon followed. The Fontainebleau forest offered not only a wealth of delightful motifs but also the much-sought-after peace and rural surroundings.
      In sharp contrast to the purportedly 'important' themes of history painting, these artists turned to simple landscapes and scenes from the lives of simple folk. In 1852 Camille Corot had presented his first picture painted exclusively 'en plein air'. Whereas the French painters had restricted their use of color to the canon of tone-on-tone painting, Schindler's precise observations of nature had led him further and enabled him to portray dazzling sunlight in pure, bright and starkly contrasting colors, turning objects into abstract planes. Schindler's particular interest centered on emanations of light and weather, atmosphere and its constant changes, and his preoccupation often manifested itself in studies of plain or unpretentious objects. Especially favored were dawn and twilight, faint mist and leaden skies. Finally Schindler began painting series recording the changes that times-of-day, seasons, and weather conditions had on one and the same motif. What became more and more important both to him and the painters around him was the mood a landscape might evoke in the beholder. Among Schindler's students were Tina Blau, Olga Wiesinger Florian, Marie Egner, Marie Louise von Parmentier, Carl Moll, and also the self-taught Theodor von Hörmann, a fanatic adherent of realism who painted outdoors in all weathers, even at the risk of his own life.

Schindler's list (links)
An extensive landscape in evening twilight (1870, 20x42cm)
Steamer Landing Stage near Kaisermühlen (1872; 400x577pix, 49kb) _ On finishing his studies under Albert Zimmermann, Emil Jakob Schindler was one of the first to devote himself completely to outdoor painting and to concentrate on contemporary motifs. Taking his cue from the 'paysages intimes' of the Barbizon artists, Schindler painted a series of Viennese suburban scenes, among them many views of a Danube steamer landing stage near the Prater park. In contrast to the French painters however, Schindler in this dazzlingly sunlit picture made no attempt at chromatic harmony but merged details into planes of color, and in radically simplifying their appearance went a considerable step further. The light too gains an unprecedented harshness and leads to daring contrasts, all of them at odds with the tonal precepts of the Academy. Beginning with his conception of nature, he goes on to champion the importance of unfiltered light and unbridled color and, with resolute brush strokes, transposes them into pure planes. As a result Schindler, who attained a high degree of subtlety in conveying the atmosphere of a landscape, became a leading personality. The powerful influence he exercised on a whole group of contemporary and younger artists ensured his position as the main exponent of 'Atmospheric Impressionism'.

Died on a 09 August:

>1994 Iberê Bassani de Camargo [18 Nov1914–], Brazilian painter, engraver and teacher. — Iberê Camargo (768x1024pix, 643kb) “portrait” (?) by tiagón.
untitled (1986; 790x559pix, 465kb) —(090809)

^ 1919 Robert Thegerström, Swedish painter born on 06 January 1857 in Cairo. — {Not much about Thegerström on the Internet. The Gerström (syndrome) has even less coverage.}
The Nile (46x37cm; 500x629pix, 12kb)
Hugo Alfvén

^ 1546 (or 06 Feb 1549) Martin Schaffner, German painter and medallist born in 1478. He produced some of the outstanding altarpieces of the Renaissance in Swabia. His birthdate is suggested by a self-portrait medal of 1522 on which he describes himself as aged 44. He was obviously trained in Jörg Stocker’s workshop in Ulm: his name first appears on the reverse side of the winged altar made by Stocker in 1496 for St Martin at Ennetach, where he signed The Carrying of the Cross. Yet Schaffner’s contribution here would have been confined to subsidiary details; Stocker, a rather conservative and spiritless artist, could have imparted only basic painting skills to the young painter. An altar wing with paintings on both sides (1500), perhaps also painted by Schaffner in Stocker’s studio, seems old-fashioned, though not totally devoid of the charm of his later figures. Schaffner was a taxpaying householder in Ulm in 1499, suggesting that he had meanwhile become an independent master, free to develop along his own lines.
Die Farbe des Himmels (720x770pix, 177kb)
Der Hl. Georg im Kampf mit dem Drachen (1532; kb)
Ptolomeus: Tischplatte des Asymus Stedelin (1533; 296x389pix 28kb)

>1516 Jeroen Anthoniszoon van Aken “Hieronymus Bosch” [02 October 1453–]; Netherlandish painter. His works are unusual in a complex and individual style. Although at first recognized as a highly imaginative “creator of devils” and a powerful inventor of seeming nonsense full of satirical meaning, Bosch demonstrated insight into the depths of the mind and an ability to depict symbols of life and creation.
      Bosch was a pessimistic and stern moralist who had neither illusions about the rationality of human nature nor confidence in the kindness of a world that had been corrupted by man's presence in it. His paintings are sermons, addressed often to initiates and consequently difficult to translate. Unable to unlock the mystery of the artist's works, critics at first believed that he must have been affiliated with secret sects. Although the themes of his work were religious, his choice of symbols to represent the temptation and eventual ensnarement of man in earthly evils caused many critics to view Bosch as a practitioner of the occult arts. More recent scholarship views Bosch as a talented artist who possessed deep insight into human character and as one of the first artists to represent abstract concepts in his work. A number of exhaustive interpretations of Bosch's work have been put forth in recent years, but there remain many obscure details.
      An exact chronology of Bosch's surviving work is difficult because, of the approximately 35 to 40 paintings attributed to him, only 7 are signed and none are dated. There exists little documentary information on the early life of the artist, other than the fact that he was the son and grandson of accomplished painters. His name does appear on the register of the Brotherhood of Our Lady, located in the city of his birth, and there is mention of him in official records from 1486 until the year of his death, when he was acclaimed an Insignis Pictor. In addition to painting he undertook decorative works and altarpieces and executed designs for stained glass.
      Works attributed to his youthful period show an awkwardness in drawing and composition and brushwork somewhat limited in its scope. Such paintings as The Cure of Folly, Crucifixion, The Adoration of the Magi, The Seven Deadly Sins, The Marriage at Cana, Ecce Homo, and The Conjurer are representative of this period. The presence of certain motifs, expanded in the more sophisticated works of the artist's middle period, and a limited technique, unsure yet bold, provide a beginning from which to view Bosch's artistic origins. Between the first painting in this early group, The Cure of Folly, and the last, The Conjurer, a steady development can be seen. The iconography of the latter is more complex, and the characteristic themes that received their fullest expression in the great masterpieces of his late period have begun to emerge.
      In these early paintings Bosch had begun to depict humanity's vulnerability to the temptation of evil, the deceptive allure of sin, and the obsessive attraction of lust, heresy, and obscenity. In calm and prosaic settings, groups of people exemplify the credulity, ignorance, and absurdities of the human race. However, the imagery of the early works is still relatively conventional, with only an occasional intrusion of the bizarre in the form of a lurking demon or a strangely dressed magician.
      To Bosch's fruitful middle period belong the great panoramic triptychs such as the Hay Wagon, The Temptation of Saint Anthony and the Garden of Earthly Delights. His figures are graceful and his colors subtle and sure, and all is in motion in these ambitious and extremely complex works. These paintings are marked by an eruption of fantasy, expressed in monstrous, apocalyptic scenes of chaos and nightmare that are contrasted and juxtaposed with idyllic portrayals of mankind in the age of innocence. During this period Bosch elaborated on his early ideas, and the few paintings that survive establish the evolution of his thought. Bosch's disconcerting mixture of fantasy and reality is further developed in the Hay Wagon, the outside wings, or cover panels, of which recall the scenes of The Seven Deadly Sins. The cursive style that he worked out for the triptych resembles that of watercolor. In the central panel, a rendition of the Flemish proverb “The world is a haystack from which each takes what he can,” Bosch shows the trickery of the demon who guides the procession of people from the earthly paradise depicted on the left wing to the horrors of hell shown on the right one.
      Bosch's Temptation of Saint Anthony displays his ascent to stylistic maturity. The brush strokes are sharper and terser, with much more command than before. The composition becomes more fluid, and space is regulated by the incidents and creatures that the viewer's attention is focused on. His mastery of fine brush-point calligraphy, permitting subtle nuances of contour and movement, is fully evident. Bosch portrays man's struggle against temptation, as well as the omnipresence of the Devil, in his Saint Anthony, one of the best keys to the artist's personal iconography. The hermit saint in this work is cast as the heroic symbol of man. In the central panel Saint Anthony is beset by an array of grotesque demons, their horrible bodies being brilliantly visualized amalgamations of human, animal, vegetable, and inanimate parts.In the background is a hellish, fantastically bizarre landscape painted with the most exquisite detail. Bosch's development of the theme of the charlatan deceiving man and taking away his salvation receives its fullest exposition in the Saint Anthony, with its condemnation of heresy and the seductions of false doctrines.
      The Garden of Earthly Delights, representative of Bosch at his mature best, shows the earthly paradise with the creation of woman, the first temptation, and the fall. The painting's beautiful and unsettling images of sensuality and of the dreams that afflict the people who live in a pleasure-seeking world express Bosch's iconographic originality with tremendous force. The chief characteristic of this work is perhaps its dreamlike quality; multitudes of nude human figures, giant birds, and horses cavort and frolic in a delightfully implausible, otherworldly landscape, and all the elements come together to produce a perfect, harmonious whole.
      Bosch's late works are fundamentally different. The scale changes radically, and, instead of meadows or hellish landscapes inhabited by hundreds of tiny beings, he painted densely compacted groups of half-length figures pressed tight against the picture plane. In these dramatic close-ups, of which The Crowning with Thorns and the Carrying of the Cross are representative, the spectator is so near the event portrayed that he seems to participate in it physically as well as psychologically. The most peaceful and untroubled of Bosch's mature works depict various saints in contemplation or repose. Among these works are Saint John the Evangelist in Patmos and Saint Jerome in Prayer.
      Bosch's preoccupation in much of his work with the evils of the world did not preclude his vision of a world full of beauty. His adeptness at handling color harmonies and at creating deeply felt works of the imagination is readily apparent. Though a spate of imitators tried to appropriate his visual style, its uniqueness prevented his having any real followers.
The Last Judgement. (5669x4298pix, 4393kb)
— other paintisgs of The Last Judgement.
The Garden of Earthly Delights
Adoration by the Magi triptych
The Temptation of Saint Anthony triptych
The Hay Wagon
Visions of the Hereafter various works
40 images of paintings at Wikimedia + other works and works of others. —(090803)

1458 Pietro di Francesco degli Orioli, Italian artist born in 1458.

Born on a 09 August:

^ >1919 Emilio Vedova [–25 Oct 2006], Italian painter and printmaker. He was the son of an artisan and was essentially self-taught as an artist. In his early drawings, inspired by Venetian churches, for example San Moisè (1938), the artist investigated the dynamics of space, concentrating his attention on bands of lines and coagulated structures; in his studies based on the work of Old Masters, for example Moses Making Water Spring from the Rock (after Tintoretto) (1942), the figures are intended to be energy nuclei in their own right or in virtual expansion. It is above all in his encounter with the dense color of Georges Rouault and Maurice de Vlaminck, however, that he expanded the neo-Baroque quality of his works into new imaginary realms.
     Vedova participated in the activities of the Corrente group in 1942 and signed the manifesto Oltre Guernica in May 1946 and that of the Fronte nuovo delle arti in October 1946; he was also a member of Fronte's successor, the Gruppo degli otto pittori italiani. These groups adopted an anti-19th-century style of painting that rejected aesthetic indulgence and demanded the spectator's participation. Inspired by the moral and aesthetic position expressed in Picasso's Guernica, Vedova attempted to remain faithful to the sense of disinterested moral involvement that he regarded as the basis of each work of art. He reproposed the geometric strictness of Cubism in modern terms and tempered its tonal harshness with a sense of emotional involvement. The painting style developed by Vedova required the will to experiment and a great expenditure of physical energy. It is, therefore, no coincidence that his early studies give the impression of feverishness or convulsion.
     From 1948 Vedova began producing series that are either dynamic themselves or structured to exploit the dynamic qualities of light, including the Cycles of Nature (e.g. Cycle of Nature No. 3, Palmaria), Cycles of Protest (e.g. Cycle of Protest 1958 No. 1) and Clashes of Circumstances (e.g. Clash of Circumstances '59 – 1). In 1959 he created large polyptychs, sometimes asymmetrical and L-shaped, consisting of a number of works on the same theme, for example the series Clashes of Circumstances. In 1961 he designed the setting and costumes for Luigi Nono's Intolleranza '60, staged at the Teatro La Fenice in Venice: it was a triumphant display of the possibilities of light, an example of the ‘theatre of harsh realities' involving the spectators.
     In the same year Vedova began his series of Multiples, paintings with a new type of structure, constructed on different levels and interlocking planes and offering a wide variety of visual possibilities. Here he strove to identify painting, theatrical space and spectator: the dynamic space is unpredictable, aggressive and stimulating, and the spectator experiences the figurative process in an onslaught of alarming signals, appeals and symbols. This investigation, which relies ever more heavily on a discourse between the spectator and the artist's ‘presence' in the work, evolved in the reliefs initiated in 1963 (e.g. Berlin 1939, 1964) and the massive Space-multiple-light (53×24×16 m, 1965), in which sophisticated projectors and electronic instruments created unusual effects with moving, superimposed and continuous light. This complex structure was followed by other cycles of works with the same or similar titles, including Lacerations (1975–1978; e.g. Lacerations Cycle 77/78 – 2 – Binary 4, 1978), the monochrome series De America (1976; e.g. De America '76 – 1) and the polyptychs Co-presences (1977–83; e.g. Cycle '81 – Co-presences – 6 –, 1981) and Registrations (1977–1983; e.g. Registration '81 – 5, 1981).
     His series of Multiples were groups of works created using the most diverse techniques, placed in spatial relationships on platforms (Binaries) of wood and steel, sometimes enhanced by monotone electronic sounds, as in Venezia Revenice (1978).
     Among his most important creations during the 1980s were the light effects for Luigi Nono's Prometheus, which represented the sum of Vedova's experiences, and his Disks (1985), pictorial complexes in round or oval form, presented from several viewpoints (vertical, suspended, slanting, touching etc), which display an original reappropriation of space and can produce a sense of vertigo.
     In his later creations Vedova continued to pursue his investigations into physical space independently of any prejudged attitudes towards balance, logic and behavior; awareness of man's destiny and of his tendency to break rules also shows itself in his contributions to various discussions and international debates. By making use of the latest technological materials and discoveries, Vedova appears to be attempting a ‘total art' dreamt of by the Futurists in 1913, with the difference that his spectacular, centralized creations are not a hymn to modern times, but rather a confirmation of the feelings of alarm and distress that pervade contemporary society. Criticism of this Abstract Expressionist work has emphasized the emotional aspect, but it is always sustained by strict formal considerations.
— Emilio Vedova was born in Venice. He is essentially self-taught as an artist. About 1942 he joined the Milanese artists’ association Corrente, which also included Renato Birolli, Renato Guttuso, Ennio Morlotti, and Umberto Vittorini. Vedova participated in the Resistance movement from 1943–1945. In 1946 he collaborated with Morlotti on the manifesto Oltre Guernica in Milan and was a founding member of the Fronte Nuovo delle Arti in Venice. He describes his paintings of this period, 1946–1950, as Geometrie nere.
     Vedova’s first solo show in the United States was held at the Catherine Viviano Gallery in New York in 1951. In the same year he was awarded the prize for young painters at the first São Paulo Bienal. In 1952 he participated in the Gruppo degli Otto, organized by Lionello Venturi. Vedova was represented at the first Documenta exhibition in Kassel in 1955 and won a Guggenheim International Award in 1956. He made his first lithographs in 1958, the year he went to Poland on the occasion of his retrospective at the Muzeum Narodowe in Poznan and the “Zacheta” in Warsaw. In 1959 he created large L-shaped canvases, called Scontri di situazioni, which were exhibited in an environment created by Carlo Scarpa for the exhibition Vitalità nell’arte, which opened at Palazzo Grassi, Venice, and traveled to the Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam. This led to the first Plurimi in 1961–1963: freestanding, hinged, and painted sculpture/paintings made of wood and metal.
     Vedova was awarded the Grand Prize for Painting at the 1960 Venice Biennale, the year in which he created moving light sets and costumes for Luigi Nono’s opera Intolleranza ’60. From 1963 to 1965, Vedova worked in Berlin, at the Deutsche Akademischer Austausch Dienst, and created his best known Plurimi, the Absurdes Berliner Tagebuch, seven of which were presented at Documenta III, Kassel. From 1965 to 1969 (and in 1988), he succeeded Oskar Kokoschka as Director of the Internationale Sommerakademie in Salzburg. In 1965 and 1983 he traveled in the United States, where he lectured extensively. For the Italian Pavilion at Expo ’67, Montreal, he created a light-collage using glass plates to project mobile images across a large asymmetric space. Vedova taught at the Accademia di Belle Arti, Venice, from 1975 to 1986. Since the late 1970s, he has experimented with a variety of new techniques and formats such as the Plurimi-Binari (mobile works on steel rails), monotypes, double-sided circular panels (Dischi), and large-scale glass engraving. In 1995 he began a new series of multifaceted and manipulable painted objects called Disco-Plurimo.
Immagine del tempo (Sbarramento) (1951, 130x170cm; 440x573pix, 135kb) _ Emilio Vedova’s work has antecedents in the long tradition of dynamic expression that has existed in Italian art since Tintoretto. Like the Futurists, Vedova sees his work as a response to contemporary social upheavals. Though he shares the emotional pitch of the Futurists, his political position is antithetical to theirs. While they romantically celebrated the aggressive energies of societal conflict, Vedova in his feverish, violent canvases conveys in abstract terms his horror and moral protestation in the face of man’s assault on his own kind. Vedova expressed a political consciousness in his work for the first time during the late 1930s, when his works were inspired by the Spanish Civil War. His continuing commitment to social issues gave rise to series such as Cycle of Protest and Image of Time, initiated during the first years of the 1950s. Although the generating impulse of this turbulent painting is political, its formal preoccupations parallel those of the American Abstract Expressionists Jackson Pollock and, above all, Franz Kline. The drama of the angular, graphic slashes of black on white is heightened with accents of orange-red. Occupying a shallow space, pictorial elements are locked together in formal combat and emotional turmoil.
Nel Tempo (1999, 84x59cm)
–- Incombente 82-1 (699x900pix, 98kb) _ The pseudonymous Emillione Doveva has transformed this almost exclusively black-and-white scribble into the colorful symmetrical abstraction
     _ Income Bent Eighty-Two Percent At First aka Mace Cam (2006; screen filling, 328kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2698kb) and further into
     _ Incompetente 82+1=128 aka Must Sum (2006; screen filling, 344kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 3186kb).
–- Ciclo 1959 S7 (711x900pix, 122kb) monochrome greenish gray, off-white dabs on dark background. A greater fool paid €301'275 for this non-art at a Sotheby's auction on 26 May 2005.
–- Spazio Inquieto - N.6 (1125x781pix, 120kb)
–- Studio (1134x1575pix, 236kb) _ Doveva has metamorphosed a combination of these last two pictures into
      _ Studio Spazzato in Quiète (2007; 550x778pix, 128kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 256kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 534kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1417kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 3508kb) and
      _ Spasmo del Studioso Inquieto (2007; 550x778pix, 128kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 256kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 534kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1417kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 3508kb) —(080808)

^ 1851 Jules Scalbert, French painter who died in 1928..
Hommage à Louis Pasteur (130x165cm)
Les Baigneuses (72x100cm)
–- Les Bateliers (1069x1398pix, 148kb) —(090729)

^ 1806 Eugène Pierre François Giraud, French painter and engraver who died on 28 December 1881. He was a student of the engraver Théodore Richomme and of the painter Louis Hersent. Giraud entra à l'école des Beaux-Arts de Paris en 1821. Il reçu le Prix de Rome pour la gravure en 1826 et exposa au Salon de 1831 à 1866. Il voyagea en Espagne (avec Baudelaire) et en Orient. — The genre painter Sébastien Charles Giraud [18 Jun 1819 – 30 Sep 1892] was his brother.
Gustave Flaubert (599x413pix, 47kb _ ZOOM to 1535x1058pix, 164kb)
Making Crèpes (1843, 115x146cm)
A Spanish Beauty with a Fan (81x59cm)
Blind Man's Buff (115x146cm)
–- S#*> The Finding of Moses (1856, 51x74cm; 510x757pix, 71kb)
New slave in Harem (300x484pix, 59kb)
Interior of a Harem (251x450pix, 49kb) —(060808)

^ 1606 Theodoor (or Theodor) van Thulden, Flemish (Dutch?) painter, engraver and designer of tapestries, who died in 1669. — Van Thulden was a student and collaborator of Rubens. Although like most contemporary painters of historical and religious themes he was strongly influenced by Rubens, he did succeed in working out a personal idiom. His appealingly sweet style won him numerous commissions both inside and outside of Flanders, and he worked in The Hague and Paris, as well as Antwerp, where he was mainly based.
Harmony and Marriage (1652, 194x135cm; 1130x782pix, 123kb)
Le Christ ressuscité apparaissant à la Vierge, sa mère (1642, 573x360cm) _ Dans la partie supérieure du tableau, un concert d'anges célèbre la joie de Marie, Regina coeli. —(070806)

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