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DEATHS: 1588 SANCHEZ — 1616 KETEL — 1902 TISSOT — 1949 TORRES — 2003 KHAKHAR 1898 BOUDIN 1685 SALVI
BIRTHS: 1646 KNELLER 1869 VALTAT
1492: DÜRER'S SAINT JEROME ENGRAVING
^ Died on 08 August 1588: Alonso Sánchez Cuello (or Coello), 57, Spanish painter born in 1532.
— He went to Portugal in about 1541 or 1542 to join his grandfather, who was then in the service of the Portuguese monarchs and who obtained Portuguese titles of nobility. Though there is no documentary evidence, his artistic training probably began in that country. In about 1550 he went, at the expense of King John III, to Flanders, where he was taught by Antonis Mor and came under the protection of Cardinal Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle in Brussels. On his return to Lisbon in 1552 he entered the service of members of the Portuguese royal family, John III, João Manuel [–1554] and Joanna of Austria (sister of Philip II of Spain). He remained in Lisbon until 1555, when he entered the service of the widowed Infanta Juana, Regent of Spain, in Valladolid. She recommended him to Philip II on his return to Spain in 1559, and thenceforth Sánchez Coello was closely linked to the Spanish court. The fact that he came from Portugal, probably speaking Portuguese, and also having a surname that is fairly common in that country (Coelho), meant that he was often taken to be Portuguese and he appears as such in some official documents.   
— Sánchez Cuello was one of the pioneers of the great tradition of Spanish portrait painting. The favorite portrait painter of King Philip II, he introduced into Spanish portraiture a specifically Spanish character that endured until Velázquez came to the court in the 1620s.
      After spending his childhood in Portugal, he was sent by the Portuguese king John III to study under Anthonis Mor in Flanders. Returning to Portugal in 1550, he served as a court painter to John. In 1555 he moved to the Spanish court of Philip II, having been recommended by the widow of John III, Juana, who was the sister of the Spanish king. He spent the remainder of his life at the court, becoming a personal favorite of the king and acquiring honors and wealth.
      Sánchez Coello produced both portraits and religious paintings. The religious works, many of which were created for El Escorial, are conventional and undistinguished. It is for his portraits that he is remembered. They are marked by an ease of pose and execution, a dignity and sobriety of representation, and a warmth of coloring. Although influenced by the paintings of both Mor and Titian, these portraits display an original talent and reflect admirably the modesty and formality of the Spanish court. Paintings of Philip II (1580) and Infanta Isabel Clara Eugenia (1571) are two of his finest works.
— Felipe de Liaño and Juan Pantoja de la Cruz [1553 – 26 Oct 1608] were students of Sánchez Coello.

LINKS
–- Las Infantas Isabel Clara Eugenia y Catalina Micaela (1575)
Prince Don Carlos of Austria
Philip II (1580)
Infanta Isabel Clara Eugenia (1571)
 
^ Died on 08 August 1616: Cornelis Ketel, Dutch painter, draftsman, and sculptor, born on 18 March 1548. He was active also in France and England.
— He was one of the most important portrait and narrative painters of the Dutch Mannerist school of the late 16th century and the early 17th. He received his earliest training in Gouda from his uncle Cornelis Jacobsz. Ketel [–1568] and studied for a year (1565) under the painter Anthonie Blocklandt in Delft. Ketel then went to France and lived in Paris and Fontainebleau. However, because of the uncertain political climate, he returned to the Netherlands and from 1567 to 1573 worked in Gouda.
— Dutch portrait and history painter. He worked mainly in Gouda and Amsterdam, but also in France and in England, where he lived from 1573 to 1581. He painted a portrait of Queen Elizabeth I for the Earl of Hertford in 1578, but the picture is lost. The portrait of Martin Frobisher, however, is a good example of his work from his English period. Ketel's finest portraits are his group portraits, which prefigure those of Frans Hals [1581 – 01 Sep 1666]. — {there is no record of his having painted a still life in a classy seafood restaurant, a fine Ketel of fish.}
— Wouter Crabeth and Pieter Isaacszoon were students of Ketel.

LINKS
Company of Captain Dirck Jacobszoon Rosecrans and Lieutenant Pauw (1588)
Adam Wachendorff (1574)
Double Portrait of Young Brother and Sister (109x81cm; 1022x770pix, 110kb)
Portrait of Thomas Pead (1578, 118kb)
 
^ Born on 08 August 1646: Gottfried Kniller, who would become Sir Godfrey Kneller, German English Baroque era painter, specialized in Portraits, who died in 1723 some time between 19 October and 27 October. He studied under Ferdinand Bol and Carlo Maratta. Kneller's students included Johann Boeckhorst.

— Kniller settled in England and became the leading portraitist there in the late 17th century and early 18th century. He studied in Amsterdam under Bol, a student of Rembrandt, and later in Italy, before moving to England, probably in the mid 1670s. The opportune death of serious rivals (notably Lely in 1680) and his own arrogant self-assurance enabled him to establish himself as the dominant court and society painter by the beginning of the reign of James II (1685). He was appointed Principal Painter jointly with Riley on the accession of William III and Mary II in 1689 (becoming sole bearer of the title when Riley died in 1691), was knighted in 1692, and created a baronet in 1715. Kneller established a workshop-studio in London with a large team of specialized assistants, many of them foreign, organized for the mass-production of fashionable portraits. Sitters were required to pose only for a drawing of the face and efficient formulas were worked out for the accessories. He is said sometimes to have accommodated as many as fourteen sitters in a day. The average portrait turned out from this studio in this way was slick and mechanical (the heavy wigs then fashionable make for great monotony in male portraits), but Kneller was capable of work of much higher quality when he had a sitter to whom he especially responded; outstanding examples are The Chinese Convert (1687) and Matthew Prior (1700). Many other examples of his work, including the portraits of the Kit-Cat Club, are in the National Portrait Gallery, London. His style was less elegant and more forthright than Lely's, but the influence of his mass-produced work was stultifying. He was the last foreign-born artist to dominate English painting, but it needed a Hogarth and a Reynolds to break through the conventions that he had popularized.

LINKS
The Chinese Convert (1687, 212x132cm) _ Kneller shared with John Riley the post of Principal Painter to William III and Mary II; previously he had received commissions from the courts of Charles II and James II and was subsequently to do so from the courts of Queen Anne and George I. He was knighted by William III in 1692 and granted a baronetcy by George I in 1715. His most sustained work for the English court was the series of portraits of fourteen naval commanders, painted with Michael Dahl for Queen Anne and Prince George of Denmark (the works were given by George IV to Greenwich Hospital in 1824), and the so-called Hampton Court Beauties, painted for Mary II. Both projects were inspired by similar undertakings by Lely during the reign of Charles II. The sitter (Michael Alphonsus Shen Fu-Tsung) was born of Chinese Christian parents and came to Europe at the instigation of Father Philip Couplet, Procurator of the China Jesuits in Rome. After leaving Macao in 1681 they traveled together in Italy, France and England. Shen Fu-Tsung left England in 1688 for Lisbon where he entered the Society of Jesus. He died near Mozambique on his way back to China in 1691. Shen Fu-Tsung seems to have been a well-known figure at the English court and his portrait was painted for James II. The first reference to the work is by the naval surgeon, James Yonge, who saw Shen Fu-Tsung at Windsor Castle in July 1687, describing him as 'a young, palefaced fellow who had traveled from his country and become a papist (his picture being done very well like him in one of the King's lodgings).' When James II visited Oxford in September 1687, Shen Fu-Tsung was the subject of conversation at the Bodleian Library, where the sitter had apparently helped to catalogue the Chinese manuscripts. On that occasion James II remarked that 'he had his picture to the life hanging in his room next to the bed chamber.' The painting can be categorized either as a religious picture or as a portrait. The composition succeeds on the basis of the unaffected sense of design and the directness of the characterization. The fact that the sitter looks upwards and away from the viewer suggests divine inspiration. According to Horace Walpole, 'Of all his works, Sir Godfrey was most proud of the converted Chinese.'
Edward and Lady Mary Howard
–- Grinling Gibbons (before 1690) [not to be confused with Grinning Gibbons]
John Locke (1697)
Isaac Newton (1702)
Dorothy Mason, Lady Brownlowe
 
^ >Died on 08 August 1902: “James” Tissot, French painter, printmaker, and enamellist, born Jacques-Joseph Tissot on 15 October 1836.
— He was born and grew up in Nantes, a port city which inspired his later paintings set on board ship. He moved to Paris in 1856 and became a student of Louis Lamothe and Hippolyte Flandrin. He made his Salon début in 1859 and continued to exhibit there successfully until he went to London in 1871. His early paintings exemplify Romantic obsessions with the Middle Ages, while works such as the Meeting of Faust and Marguerite (1861; ZOOMable), Marguerite au Rampart (1861, 111x87cm), and Marguerite à l'Église (1860) show the influence of the Belgian painter Baron Henri Leys. In the mid-1860s Tissot abandoned these tendencies in favor of contemporary subjects, sometimes with a humorous intent, as in ?W?*>Two Sisters (1864; 1107x716pix) and Beating the Retreat in the Tuileries Gardens (1868; _ ZOOMable). The two paintingsYoung Ladies Looking at Japanese Objects (1869) and Young Ladies Looking at Japanese Objects (1870) testifie to his interest in things Oriental {and, but we already knew that, French young ladies}, and Picnic (1869), in which he delved into the period of the Directoire, is perhaps influenced by the Goncourt brothers. Tissot re-created the atmosphere of the 1790s by dressing his characters in historical costume.
— Tissot was born Jacques Joseph Tissot in Nantes, to a middle class family. He initially studied art at Beaux-Arts in Paris. Tissot’s early paintings are mainly historical, & heavily influenced by the Dutch School. He came into contact with the Impressionists as a young man, and was leading a fairly unadventurous life. This was changed totally by the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. Following the crushing French defeat in this war, and the subsequent fall of the Paris Commune, Tissot decided to move to London, which he did in 1871. This move must have caused considerable problems in his life, and the painter needed to earn some money quickly. Tissot started, therefore, to paint accomplished highly finished pictures of London society ,and social events, including the famous Too Early (1873; _ ZOOMable). These pictures had an immediate success with the art viewing and buying public, but not with the critics.
      Tissot’s succcess in London aroused considerable jealousy amongst his Impressionist colleagues in France, where he was regarded as a very minor figure. The critical hostility Tissot’s pictures met with, is not easy for us to understand today. The main criticisms were that the pictures were really only painted photographs, and they were vulgar. There is some truth in the first case, though the paintings show dazzling technique, and a dash of Gallic wit and sophistication, home grown English artists were quite unable to match. In the second case the basis of the adverse comment, was the class-consciousness of British society at that time. The pictures were held to show shallow nouveau-riche society at it’s worst.
      In 1876 an event occurred which changed Tissot’s life. He met a young and attractive Irish divorcée, Kathleen Newton. Kathleen had married an English army officer in India. She had formed an adulterous relationship with another man, borne his child, and returned home in disgrace, beyond the pale of polite society. Kathleen Newton became Tissot’s mistress, and moved into his London home. This necessitated a radical change in his lifestyle, as the sophisticated, well-dressed, and good-looking painter had become a popular figure socially. Tissot withdrew from the social round, living quietly at his Grove End home with Kathleen. They did, however, entertain less conventional friends from the artistic community. Kathleen Newton became Tissot’s muse, and appeared in many of his pictures. She was in every sense the love of his life. Another attraction for Tissot was the Port of London, and the river Thames. His paintings with the river as the background have an evocative atmosphere missing in his other work. One can almost smell the smoke, and hear the shouts of the dockers and watermen.
      In 1882, Kathleen Newton died of consumption at the age of twenty eight. Tissot never recovered from this tragedy, and moved back to Paris within a week of her death .He was never again romantically involved with woman. His house in London, was sold to Alma-Tadema. Initially Tissot carried on painting society and genre pictures in Paris, but soon gave this up, devoting the rest of his life to painting religious scenes. He visited the Middle- East twice to find genuine backgrounds for his religious paintings. In late life Tissot became increasingly interested in Spiritualism, a vogue of the time, and of course his motivation for this interest is not a mystery. Tissot died at Buillon on Friday 08 August 1902. A great artist, his beautiful fallen woman, and a tragic love story. It has everything! In recent years Japanese and American collectors have fuelled a vast increase in the value of Tissot paintings. The critics remain hostile. Does it matter?

LINKS
–- Self Portrait (1865, 50x30cm, 1207x716pix, 131kb _ .ZOOM to 2416x1432pix, 685kb)
–- La comtesse d’Yanville et ses quatre enfants (1895, 135x126cm; 980x910pix, 103kb — .ZOOM to 2000x1820pix, 357kb)
–- On the Thames: the Frightened Heron (1872, 93x60cm; main detail without heron 869x1178pix, 157kb _ .ZOOM to full picture 1876x1244pix, 331kb) _ When James Tissot fled to England in 1871 as a political refugee following the Franco-Prussian war, he discovered that English suspicion of French painting technique and a preference for sentimental narrative would require him to adapt his work for the British market. In this painting, one of his first English works, Tissot created a successful amalgam of these two aesthetics by serving up to British tastes his French technique wrapped in the sweet Victorian charm of beautiful young women boating on the Thames. Also presented here is the artist's full comprehension of the aesthetics of Japanese design in his use of a high vantage point and the juxtaposition of two separate pictorial elements in compressed space. Further the instantaneous realism and framing of the composition also suggests the influence of photography.
–- Journey of the Magi (1894, 71x102cm; main detail 889x1168pix, 158kb _ .ZOOM to full picture 1374x2000pix, 454kb) _ Tissot's reputation has so firmly come to rest on the artist's depictions of the stylish leisured class of the late-nineteenth century that the religious works of his late career — illustrations of the life of Christ — are little known. However, at the turn of the century, these biblical images were considered his greatest achievement due, on one hand, to the popularity of images from the near East and, on the other hand, to the sense of immediacy Tissot gave to an age-old tale through uncompromising attention to detail. The Journey of the Magi was created after the second of three trips that the artist made to Palestine between 1886 and 1896 to gather sketches and photographs of the people, costumes, topography, and light of the region.
The Artist's Ladies (1885; _ ZOOMable)
The Traveler aka The Bridesmaid (1885; _ ZOOMable)
The Garden Bench (1882; _ ZOOMable)
Cache-cache (1882, 734x539cm; _ ZOOMable)
Kathleen Newton aka Mavourneen (1877; _ ZOOMable)
October (1877, 216x109cm; _ ZOOMable)
Pique~Nique aka Les Vacances (1876; _ ZOOMable)
The Bunch of Lilacs (1875; _ ZOOMable)
Le Bal à bord (1874; _ ZOOMable)
La Fille du Capitaine (1873; _ ZOOMable)
Waiting for the Ferry (1878; _ ZOOMable to 1605x2376pix, 801kb) with children
Waiting for the Ferry (1878; _ ZOOMable to 1790x2483pix) without children
Portsmouth Dockyard aka “How happy I could be with either” (1877; _ ZOOMable)
The Gallery of HMS Calcutta (Portsmouth) (1877; _ ZOOMable)
Une Convalescente (1876; _ ZOOMable)
Chut! aka Le Concert (1875; _ ZOOMable)
London Visitors (1874; _ ZOOMable)
The Captain and the Mate (1873, 54x76cm; _ ZOOMable)
Une Histoire Intéressante (1872; _ ZOOMable)
L'Histoire Ennuyeuse (1872 ; _ ZOOMable)
Mauvaise Nouvelle aka La Séparation (_ ZOOMable)
The Ladies of the Cars (1885; _ ZOOMable) the cars are horse-drawn, in a circus.
Women of Paris: The Circus Lover aka The Sporting Ladies (1885, 147x102cm; _ ZOOMable)
Un Petit Nimrod (1882; _ ZOOMable)
The Prodigal Son in Modern Life: The Departure (1882; _ ZOOMable to 1346x1820pix) _ duplicate (676x922pix, 86kb) _ study
The Prodigal Son in Modern Life: In Foreign Climes (1882; _ ZOOMable to 1356x1850pix, 400kb) _ duplicate (679x919pix, 97kb)
The Prodigal Son in Modern Life: The Return (1882; _ ZOOMable) _ duplicate (676x924pix, 97kb)
The Prodigal Son in Modern Life: The Fatted Calf (1882; _ ZOOMable) _ duplicate (673x921pix, 94kb)
The Return of the Prodigal Son (1862; _ ZOOMable)
Au Soleil (1881; _ ZOOMable)
The Political Lady (1885; _ ZOOMable)
The Shop Girl aka The Milliner's Shop (1885; _ ZOOMable)
The Woman of Fashion (1885; _ ZOOMable)
Going to Business aka Going to the City (1879; _ ZOOMable)
Orphan (1879; _ ZOOMable)
A Passing Storm (1876; _ ZOOMable)
On the Thames (1874; _ ZOOMable)
The Last Evening (1873)
Young Lady in a Boat (1870 ; _ ZOOMable)
The Return from the Boating Trip (1873; _ ZOOMable)
Letter 'L' with Hats (1885; _ ZOOMable)
Goodbye, on the Mersey (1881; _ ZOOMable)
By the Thames at Richmond (1878 - 1879; _ ZOOMable)
Le Veuf (1877; _ ZOOMable)
Room Overlooking the Harbor (1878; _ ZOOMable)
The Thames (1876)
Jesus at Bethany (1894; 560x800pix, 116kb)
Mary Magdalene’s Jar of Very Expensive Ointment aka Jesus Is Anointed (1896; 897x1112pix, 289kb)
What Our Savior Saw from the Cross aka Christ Consoling the Wanderers (1894)
Emigrants (1873, 39x18cm)
–- Ruth gleaning (592x900pix, 42kb) _ Ruth the Moabite said to Naomi, "Let me go and glean ears of grain in the field of anyone who will allow me that favor." Naomi said to her, "Go, my daughter," and she went. The field she entered to glean after the harvesters happened to be the section belonging to Boaz of the clan of Elimelech. The full story is told in the biblical book of Ruth Ch.2.
112 images at the Athenaeum 147 images at ARC (some are duplicates)
—(090406)
^ >Died on 08 August 1949: Joaquín Torres García, Uruguayan painter and sculptor born on 25 July 1874.
— Joaquín Torres-García was born in Montevideo, Uruguay. His family moved to Europe when he was a teenager. It would be forty-three years before he returned to Uruguay and changed the direction of Latin American art. He first studied art in Spain, where he also taught for the first time. In 1926, Torres-García met and befriended a number of avant-garde artists in France. This resulted in his experimentation with many modern artistic theories and movements. He eventually began to diverge from his peers in his feeling that industry was the enemy of creativity, and that art should be permanent and unchanging, not innovative and progressive. When Torres-García developed his own theory of art, which he called Universalismo constructivo, his desire was to found a truly Latin American art. He believed that art should incorporate human experience, and that geometry was the most effective and universal means to represent that experience. Focusing on what he called "spiritual geometry" rather than strictly mathematic geometry, Torres-García created a system of abstraction that incorporated symbols filled with personal and national history and meaning. He found that pre-Hispanic culture was, for him, rich in "spiritual geometry...which does not lie in knowing the physical, but the essential of everything." When he finally returned to Uruguay in 1934, he was determined to create a school to advance Universal Constructivism. The result was El Taller Torres-García, part of the School of the South, where artists worked collectively on murals, architecture, sculpture, and crafts, often in conjunction with writers, musicians, and performers.
— Torres García contribuyó decisivamente a la difusión del constructivismo en Latinoamérica, con su teoría del universalismo constructivo (1944). Nació en Montevideo. Hijo de padre catalán y madre uruguaya ingresó en la Escuela de Bellas Artes de Barcelona en 1892, tras el regreso de su familia a España. Aquí se vio muy influenciado por el movimiento modernista catalán, con el que siempre se identificó, e inició su amistad con Pablo Picasso y Antoni Gaudí, con quien colaboró en la realización de las vidrieras del templo de la Sagrada Familia en Barcelona (1903-1907). Durante los veintinueve años que vivió en la ciudad, llevó a cabo varias obras en edificios públicos y privados (ayuntamiento, diputación, iglesias de San Agustín y San Jorge), También trabajó con Gaudí en la restauración de la catedral de Palma de Mallorca, donde realizó unas vidrieras con diseño geométrico y colores planos, que producen en el interior una iluminación singular. En 1910 se traslada a Bruselas para decorar el pabellón uruguayo de la Exposición Internacional (dos murales sobre la agricultura y ganadería uruguayas) y con motivo de este viaje visita también París, Florencia y Roma. En 1913 publica Notes sobre Art, con el que se inicia en la teoría artística y realiza el fresco La Catalunya ideal. En 1919 viaja a Nueva York, y tres años más tarde a Italia y Francia fijando su residencia en París, en 1926. Aquí toma contacto con Mondrian, Van Doesburg y Seuphor. Con éste funda en 1930 la revista y el grupo 'Cercle et Carré', promotor de la primera exposición de arte constructivista y abstracto. En 1932 abandona París y se instala en Madrid, donde conoce a Lorca y crea un grupo de artistas constructivos. Tras su regreso a Montevideo en 1934, funda la 'Asociación de Arte Constructivo' y más tarde el 'Taller Torres García'. Su teoría sobre el constructivismo fue difundida a través de la revista Cercle et Carré y de su libro Universalismo constructivo (1944); en 1944 le fue concedido el Premio Nacional de Pintura. De su obra cabe resaltar además: Ritmos curvos en blanco y negro (1937), Arte constructivo (1942) y siete murales de 1944 (Locomotora blanca, El sol, El tranvía). Tras su muerte en 1949 se organizaron diversas muestras de su obra en Europa y América; su influencia fue muy importante para el desarrollo de la plástica uruguaya.

LINKS
–- Abstract Art in Five Tones and Complementaries (1943, 52x68cm; 876x960pix, 71kb) _ Many of Torres-García's symbols and words are autobiographical in origin, and this painting is typical of his style. The saw at the upper left refers to human production in general, and carpentry in particular; both his father and grandfather were carpenters. The stylized primitive pot on the right is one of his most commonly employed symbols. Often grouped with a hammer or compass, it refers to culture and labor. The hourglass form at the lower left is a sign for the intellect. The words in the painting announce his origins and priorities: MONTEVIDEO is his birthplace; ARTE ABSTRACTO the style in which he paints; SIGLO XX is the twentieth century; and his initials and the date of the work are also incorporated as design elements. _ The pseudonymous José Aquino Muros Gracia has metamorphosed this rather static and wordy picture into the richly colored and textured dynamic abstractions
      _ A Tract on Art in Five Complimentary Tomes (2007; 550x778pix, 208kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 404kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 786kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1870kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 4520kb) and
      _ Five Tons of Completely Abstruse Art (2007; 550x778pix, 208kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 404kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 786kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1870kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 4520kb)
Locomotora con casa constructiva (1934, 73x59cm; 1984x1599pix, 1097kb) _ Joaquín Torres-García painted this in the year is which he returned to Montevideo after decades of living abroad, a move that would influence art-making throughout Latin America. This painting embodies ideas Torres-García would express in his 1935 manifesto, La escuela del sur, which promoted a uniquely South American art. Finding inspiration in his surroundings, Torres-García shunned figurative painting, creating instead a schematic and symbolic art that captured the unique design and rhythm of the city. This composition recalls the forms and colors of the typical narrow houses on the sloping streets of Montevideo.
Mujer española (1926, 540x389pix, 38kb)
Acuario (1930; 507x410pix, 65kb)
Composición (1937; 450x345pix, 61kb)
–- Rouge Ocre (560x372pix, 33kb)
—(070803)
book cover^ Died on 08 August 2003: Bhupen Khakhar, of prostate cancer. Born on 10 March 1934, he was a painter of social and personal narratives who was one of the most influential artists of his generation in India.
— He got trained as an accountant in Bombay before becoming interested in art in his twenties and attending the Fine Arts Faculty at the University of Baroda (1963–1965). He subsequently resumed his career as an accountant, working part-time while also painting. His first exhibited works, such as Interior of Temple (1965), presented deities cut from popular prints, glued on to mirrors, supplemented by graffiti and gestural marks. He first achieved international recognition in 1967 and was proclaimed as India’s first Pop artist. Over the next few years he plundered other Indian genres — miniatures, Company paintings, temple maps — although his use of these genres for artistic reference outweighed the relatively insignificant content. Khakhar himself felt dissatisfied and sought a direct language, more in line with the modest stories he published in Gujerati newspapers (deadpan accounts of very ordinary, often lonely, lives).
— Bhupen Khakhar was born in Bombay in 1934 into a middle class Gujarati family. His father died when Khakhar was four years old, and his mother, Mahalaxmi, brought up the children. In keeping with the expectations of the successful mercantile classes, Khakhar initially trained as an accountant, graduating with degrees in commerce and administration. He began painting in the early 1960s. He moved to the University town of Baroda, north of Bombay, where he completed a degree in Art Criticism at the Fine Art Faculty at the M.S. University. Khakhar thus comes to painting relatively late. His early works draw on his interest in the imagery of Indian popular culture - cinema posters, calendar art and street kitsch. This interest became less apparent in the later work of Khakar, who became an established artist and one of India's foremost 20th-century painters.
— Khakhar studied accounting and explored art in his spare time. He had so little confidence in the value of his art that he maintained a full-time job as an accountant until he was well into his 50's. After meeting the painter Gulammohammed Sheikh in 1958, he decided to attend art school in Baroda, India, where he joined a circle of contemporaries who were shaping a new Indian art, among them Mr. Sheikh, Nilima Sheikh, Nalina Malani, Vivan Sundaran and the critic Geeta Kapur. In 1962 Mr. Khakhar was introduced to Pop Art. It, as well as the work of Henri Rousseau, David Hockney and early Italian Renaissance painting, had a lasting effect on him, as did earlier Indian modernism, Rajput miniature painting, popular religious art and his own observation of urban street life.
     Largely self-taught, Khakhar developed a cleanly executed, richly colored style in oil, watercolor and gouache. His focus on narratives, which combined daily life and fantasy, stood in contrast to the abstraction and expressive figuration that prevailed among progressive artists of an older generation. He set himself further apart from the earlier generation when, from the beginning of the 1980s, he made his homosexuality a chief subject of his art. This move, which was particularly audacious in a conservative South Asian context, coincided with the rise of identity politics as a defining feature of a multicultural art world. His work began to be included in big international exhibitions. In 1986 he had a solo show at the Pompidou Center in Paris. A career retrospective was organized by the Reina Sofía National Art Center in Madrid last summer and traveled to Britain. Khakhar published short stories and a play. His homosexual partner, Vallarbhai Shah, died on 30 July 2003.

Death in the Family (1978; 1112x1100pix, 297kb)
Seva (1986, 117x112cm; 473x450pix, 20kb)
Portraits of my mother and my father going to Yatra (1971, 106x107cm) _ This painting is a rare representation of Khakhar's parents. In the background is the 'Residency Bungalow' in Baroda, which was Khakhar's home during the 1970s after he had left Bombay. The word 'yatra' means pilgrimage, which is an important journey to visit specific religious sites. Khakhar paints his parents, garlanded for the auspicious event, about to embark on their first pilgrimage before his birth. Yet curiously, it is Khakhar who sits on the pink verandah of his home witnessing this journey.
      Khakhar paints his parents as they might have appeared in 1971, rather than in the 1930s when this first pilgrimage took place. His father, Parmanand Kalidas Khakhar [1937 photo], having died when Khakhar was four years old, is painted from memory, while his mother's image was made from a contemporary photograph. This is another anachronism — one would imagine that Khakhar would use a photograph of his father and paint his mother from memory. Adding to this sense of time disrupted, Khakhar depicts his mother, Mahalakshmi Khakhar [1978 photo], attired in a simple white sari and without the red kumkum marking on her forehead which, in India, declares her widowhood.
     In Portraits of my mother and my father going to Yatra, the manner in which Khakhar paints the other buildings in the landscape is in the style of pilgrim charts. These are available from such sites as Mathura and Varanasi, and lay out precisely the nearby sacred sites that should be incorporated into the pilgrimage. Using the Residency Bungalow as both central and starting points, the 'pilgrimage chart' alludes to another personal journey, Khakhar's own artistic pilgrimage.
      The Residency Bungalow pictured in Portraits of my mother and my father going to Yatra was Khakhar's first significant home away from Bombay. It is an important building, as it is symbolic of the new 'artistic', 'home' and 'family' that Khakhar adopted from 1962, in Baroda. That Khakhar paints his parents in front of the Residency Bungalow reveals a duality in the way Khakhar might consider his family. Acknowledging two important and parallel strands of his life, Portraits of my mother and my father going to Yatra is a beautiful exercise in disclosing how a portrait can operate on many levels. Another work by Khakhar, Residency Bungalow (1969) alludes to his artistic family, featuring long-time friend and colleague Gulammohammed Sheikh. Gulammohammed Sheikh was influential in persuading Khakhar to become a painter and to move to Baroda. He lived at the Residency Bungalow for a period with Khakhar and a number of other art-world luminaries such as K.G. Subramanyan.
 

Died on a 08 August:


^ >1943 Plinio Nomellini, Italian painter born on 06 August 1866. — {As to paintings, I find little from Plinio Nomellini, and no Nono Nomellini, no Nono Mellini, no Mellini, on the Internet. However, in Florence, Italy, the heirs of Michele Mellini manufacture stained glass windows and artistic mosaics.}— {Is one of the Mellini heirs named Nono? Did he say: “I , Nono Mellini, know no Nomellini. But I am sure that Plinio Nomellini is no Mellini. No Nomellini can possibly equal me, Nono Mellini. And, if there was a Nono Nomellini, he would be no Nono Mellini. But I know no Nono Nomellini. No, no Nono Nomellini.”?}— {This is irrelevant, but there is a No no Nanette.}— After studying in Livorno, Nomellini {and no Mellini} received a local grant that enabled him to enrol at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence, where he {and no Mellini} studied under Giovanni Fattori and became friends with the painters Telemaco Signorini and Silvestro Lega. He {and no Mellini} exhibited works both in Florence and, in 1889, at the Exposition Universelle in Paris. About 1890 he {and no Mellini} moved to Genoa, where he was based until 1902. He {and no Mellini} developed a marked interest in radical politics, in 1894 being charged with anarchism and imprisoned for several months. Nomellini’s house in Genoa became a meeting place for artists and writers and his painting had an important influence on turn-of-the-century Ligurian Divisionists. In 1902 Nomellini {and no Mellini} moved to Torre del Lago, remaining in the coastal region of north-west Italy until 1919. He {and no Mellini} became a close friend of the composer Giacomo Puccini; his reading of the works of Gabriele D’Annunzio and his friendship, from 1903, with the poet Giovanni Pascoli subsequently helped to steer his fervent political idealism towards an increasingly nationalistic position. In 1919 Nomellini {and no Mellini} finally settled in Florence, although he continued to make frequent visits to Versilia, the coastline around Livorno and the island of Elba, where he {and no Mellini} set up a studio. — Lorenzo Viani was a student of Nomellini {and of no Mellini}.
–- Autunno (1239x1575pix, 216kb)
–- S#*> Marina con figure (811x900pix, 154kb)
–- S#*> Scena Piratesca (830x900pix, 193kb)
–- S#*> Paesello dell'Elba (587x900pix, 146kb)
–- S#*> Ciuchini a Fossa dell'Abate (647x900pix, 198kb)
–- Vortice Azzurro (1125x815pix, 143kb) _ The pseudonymous Paolinio Simelini has transformed this into the amazing pair of abstractions
      _ Vertice dil Zuzzurullone (2007; 550x778pix, 166kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 328kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 648kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1536kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 3240kb) and
      _ Voce di Sussurro (2007; 550x778pix, 166kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 328kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 648kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1536kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 3240kb)
Il Fieno (1887, 178x150cm; 827x683pix, 118kb)
La Spagnola (1930, 187x140cm; 549x403pix, 62kb)
Parisina (917x722pix, 283kb) —(090807)

^ 1926 Frank Myers Boggs (“Frank-Boggs”), US painter born (main coverage) on 06 December 1855. —(090808)

^ 1910 Rudolf Epp, German painter, specialized in scenes of feeding oil on canvas (Öl auf Segeltuch), born in June (July?) 1834. Epp, born at Eberbach, Baden, was a genre and portrait painter, student at the Carlsruhe Art School under Descoudres. In 1865 he settled in Munich, and painted academic, genre inspired subjects. He was actually right in step with the late nineteenth century movement across all of Europe; what appealed in Munich generally appealed in London, Paris, or in Rome; given minor regional differences, taste was remarkably uniform throughout all those European countries whose industrial revolutions and other upheavals had transformed the class of people who had money and the inclination to spend it on pictures. — Rudolf Epp was the father of the Nazi-era general and politician Franz Ritter von Epp [16 Oct 1868 – 31 Dec 1946] who, when he was a baby, was not fed Öl auf Segeltuch, but, as an adult Nazi, may have done worse to others.
Feeding the Baby Oil on Canvas (79x65cm) {yarrch!}
Feeding the Chickens Oil on Canvas (86x67cm) {after the baby died?}
— /S#*>Die Birnenschälerin (92x111cm; 746x900pix, 122kb) Besides peeling pears, she is giving an unpeeled one to the baby, who much prefers Birnen to Öl auf Segeltuch.
Father Arriving Home (1875, 66x56cm; 385x477pix, 33kb) He is not bringing Öl auf Segeltuch, so everyone is happy to see him.
The Gift (1875, 48x43cm; 385x325pix, 19kb) Not only the little girl, but also the dog are eager to find out what it is, confident that it is not Öl auf Segeltuch.
Junges Mädchen (38x27cm) She is not feeding anybody Öl auf Segeltuch or anything else, just knitting a sock.

1898 Eugène Louis Boudin, French painter born (full coverage) on 12 July 1824.

^ 1695 Karel van Vogelaer “Distelploom” “Carlo dei Fiori”, Dutch artist born in 1653
–- Flowers on stone steps (52x51cm; 714x690pix, 39kb) _ Estimated at about €6000 for 11 June 2003 auction at Dorotheum Auctioneers
–- Still-life of flowers in vase (122x87cm; 740x517pix, 26kb)
–- Flowers in a vase on the ledge of a table (98x81cm; 750x608pix, 32kb)
–- Vase of flowers (88x60cm; 800x548pix, 35kb)

1685 Giovanni~Battista Salvi “il Sassoferrato”, Italian painter born (full coverage) on 29 August 1609. (050828)


Born on a 08 August:


1869 Louis Valtat, French painter who died (full coverage) on 02 January 1952.

^ 1863 Jules Charles Clément Taupin, French artist who died on 02 September 1932. — Jules Taupin est élève de l'Ecole des Beaux-Arts de Paris. Il expose ses oeuvres au Salon de la Société des Artistes Français en 1931. Ses tableaux présentaient la vie quotidienne des habitants des villes sahariennes ou la richesse des ornements des femmes berbères côtoie la simplicité de l'architecture locale.
La Discussion, Bou-Saada (65x46cm, 480x348pix, 26kb) _ Taupin a su peindre à merveille la lumière inédite d'une journée ensoleillé du Sahara.

^ 1863 Jean Léon Jérome Ferris, US artist who died in 1930.
The Abduction of Pocahontas (1910; 391x596pix, 225kb)

^ 1736 Lorenzo Baldissera Tiepolo, Venitian artist specialized in genre scenes in pastel, who died in August 1776 before his birthday. In 1750 he went to Würzburg with his father Giovanni Battista Tiepolo [05 March 1696 – 27 March 1770] and brother Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo [30 August 1727 – 03 March 1804]. There he worked alongside them on the decorative fresco cycle in the Kaisersaal of the Residenz at Würzburg. Some drawings from these apprentice years have been attributed to him. In 1753 the family returned to Venice. The three painters together created fresco cycles in Spain and northern Europe as well as Italy. They were the last and not the least in the monumental tradition of Italian art.
La Naranjera (500x333pix, 49kb)

^ Happened on a 08 August:
click to ZOOM IN on complete picture1492: Dürer's first Saint Jerome engraving.   

      Publication of Saint Jerome's Letters at Bâle, Germany. The book itself was not as significant as its title page which was a woodcut by a rising 21-year-old artist. Within a few years men would say Germany had only two artists: Holbien and Dürer. Few would achieve Albrecht Dürer's equal with engravings.
      This early Saint Jerome was homey, set in a very European building. The lines were simple and yet the cloth of Jerome's robe is full of folds and encases all but the great scholar's face. The face seems somewhat anxious, not particularly scholarly or spiritual. Books stand on a shelf behind Jerome and there is some illusion of depth as the young artist works with the new Renaissance techniques of perspective and shadow. The lion at Jerome's feet, however, is almost a caricature. The whole is strong but static.
      In 1512 Dürer did a picture of .Saint Jerome Seated Near a Pollard Willow. By then his mastery was complete. Using the techniques of dry point, he placed Jerome out of doors beneath a tree. Jerome looks every inch the prophet. His muscular arms are bare. He sits amidst rocky crags. The lion rests its head upon great padded feet. Jerome's hands are couched for prayer. Half-tones abound. The mastery of the earlier work is transcended. This Saint Jerome is considered one of the greatest works ever done, full of proportion and inner life. Dürer did another Jerome in 1514. This .Saint Jerome in His Study is in an elongated room and shows perspective at its best.
      Dürer's work was no idle pleasure. It was not even merely an effort to support himself. It was instead an offering to God of the work of one's hands and a venture in Christian education. Few people could then read. Pictures were used in religious works to instruct the illiterate. Dürer did some of the best. Imbued with the Renaissance zest for knowledge and mastery of self and world and with a Reformation hunger for a new relationship with God, Dürer drew a simply incredible range of subject material into his largely religious work and did it all well--allegories, animals, bible stories, buildings, fantasy, figure studies, plants, portraits, self-portraits, utensils.
      As soon as Martin Luther took his famous stand at Wittenberg, Dürer became his admirer. When Luther was kidnapped, Dürer exclaimed in his diary, "O God, if Luther is dead, who will henceforth explain to us the gospel?" His art reflected his understanding of faith. In his Malencolia the dreadful apparition of a comet (representing God's wrath) is buried in a rainbow (representing his mercy). In the end Dürer never left the Catholic church. He would not abandon the faith of his deeply pious parents. The artist died too young to see the outcome of the Reformation. Yet his work is just another example of the vital role of the Christian faith in the arts in the history of the Western world.
            Albrecht Dürer was born on 21 May 1471 the son of prosperous goldsmith Albrecht Dürer  the Elder [1427-1502], and Barbara Holper. His early training was in drawing, woodcutting and printing, which were to remain his main and favorite media throughout his artistic career. 1486 through 1489 he apprenticed in the workshop of Nuremberg artist Michael Wolgemut.
            He traveled much. In 1490 he left his native city for four year, probably initially visiting Cologne and possibly the Netherlands. He traveled to Italy twice in 1494-1495 and 1505-1407, visited Venice and Bologna, perhaps Florence and Rome. His fame was broadcast through his engravings, and artists in Italy were soon drawing on them for ideas. In Venice he knew and admired above all the aged Giovanni Bellini. In 1495 he established his own workshop in Nuremberg. He died on 06 April 1528.
            His best known works are his 18 engravings of the Apocalypse cycle, the most interesting of which is .The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1498). One of his patrons was the Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony from 1496, whose portrait he painted in 1496. He commissioned Dürer to paint several altarpieces: .The Seven Sorrows of the Virgin (c.1496-1497), .The Jabach Altarpiece (1504), .The Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand (1508) and .The Adoration by the Magi (1504), which is considered to be one of the Dürer's masterpieces. Dürer's other patrons for religious works were wealthy Nuremberg citizens, who commissioned the following pieces: Lot Fleeing with His Daughters from Sodom (1498), .The Paumgartner Altarpiece (1504), .Lamentation for Christ (1503), .The Adoration of the Holy Trinity (1511), .The Virgin and Child Before an Archway.
      Dürer was also known for his portraits, which were frequently commissioned from him. Among his best are Portrait of Dürer's Father at 70 (1497), Portrait of Oswolt Krel (1499), Portrait of Bernard von Reesen (1521), Portrait of Hieronymus Holzschuher (1526). He also painted several self-portraits, which give us the greatest insight into his character and beliefs: .Self-Portrait at 13 (1484), .Self-Portrait at 22 (1493), .Self-Portrait at 26 (1498) and .Self-Portrait at 28 (1500).
            Throughout his life Dürer produced a lot of watercolor landscapes and nature studies, the best are .Saint John's Church (1489), .House by a Pond (1496), Willow Mill (1496-1498), .A Young Hare (1502), .The Large Turf (1503).
            Dürer's greatest achievement in printmaking were the three engravings of 1513-1514, regarded as his masterpieces .Knight, Death and the Devil (1513), .Saint Jerome in His Study (1514) and Melencolia I (1514). After completing these engravings Dürer worked for the Emperor Maximilian , who commissioned him to design a huge print The Triumphal Arch, to celebrate the Emperor's achievements. This monumental project, composed of 192 woodblocks and 330 cm (11') high, is still the largest woodcut print ever made. In 1515 Emperor Maximilian granted him a pension of 100 florins, although it was stopped after his death in 1519. Dürer had to travel to the Netherlands in 1520-1521 to the court of the Emperor Charles V to have the pension confirmed. During his journey he met many famous Netherlands painters such as Quentin Massys, Joos van Cleve, Lucys van Leyden and others. In Antwerp he met Erasmus, the humanist scholar, and sketched his portrait.
            Dürer became an early and enthusiastic follower of Martin Luther. His new faith can be sensed in the growing austerity of style and subject in his religious works after 1520. The climax of this trend is represented by The Four Holy Men (1526).
            Albrecht Dürer is akin to Leonardo in his restless intellectual curiosity. He wrote and published theoretical works: Manual of Measurement (1525); Various Instructions for the Fortification of Towns, Castles and other Localities (1527). His Four Books on Human Proportion were published in October 1528, after his 06 April 1528 death..

— More DÜRER LINKS –- Saint Jerome in His Study (1514) –- Saint Jerome in the Wilderness (1494) –- Saint Jerome Penitent in the Landscape (1496) –- Saint Jerome Seated Near a Pollard Willow (1512) –- Saint Jerome {with a headache?} (1521)
 

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