ART 4 2-DAY 03 August v.9.70
Died on 03 August 1894: George
Innes I, US Hudson
River School painter, specialized in Landscapes,
born on 01 May 1825.
George Inness, born near Newburgh, New York, was the fifth of thirteen children. His father, a prosperous grocer, tried to make a grocer out of him, but the youth decided instead to become an artist. About 1841, he received a month's instruction from John Jesse Barker, a painter living in Newark, New Jersey, where the Inness family had moved in 1829. From the age of sixteen, Inness served a two-year apprenticeship as an engraver with the New York mapmaking firm of Sherman and Smith. He took some instruction in painting from Régis Gignoux [1816-1882] about 1843, around the time he was studying and being influenced by prints of the paintings of Claude Lorrain and the seventeenth-century Dutch landscape masters. He was also seeing the work of the leading Hudson River School painters - particularly that of Thomas Cole and Asher B. Durand - whose style is recalled in some of his early canvases.
Inness exhibited for the first time at the National Academy of Design in 1844 and continued to exhibit there almost every year until the end of his life. Though he was elected an Associate of the Academy in 1853, he was not made an Academician until 1868. He was one of the important early members of the Society of American Artists, an exhibition organization founded in 1877 to challenge the conservative policies of the Academy.
By the late 1840s, Inness was exhibiting regularly in New York and had attracted a patron, Ogden Haggerty. Inness married Elizabeth Hart in 1850, and the following February the couple departed for a fifteen-month stay in Italy made possible by Haggerry's financial support. On their way home, they stopped in Paris, where Inness visited an exhibition that included work by the Barbizon painter Théodore Rousseau; after a second trip abroad, in 1853-54, the work of Rousseau and other Barbizon painters exerted a strong influence on Inness's art.
Inness and his family left New York in 1860, moving first to Medfield, Massachusetts, and later to an estate near Perth Amboy, New Jersey. In the early 1860s, fellow artist William Page introduced Inness to the theories of Emanuel Swedenborg, which made a deep and lasting impression on him; indeed, became a major force in his intellectual life. Throughout that decade, spent in rural surroundings, he sought to make his paintings convey the profound spiritual meaning he felt the landscape around him possessed.
In 1870, the Innesses moved to Italy for four years, during which time the artist sent back paintings to be sold by the Boston dealers Williams and Everett, receiving in exchange regular monthly payments. Stopping again in Paris on the way back to the United States, in 1874, Inness first saw works by the Impressionists in an exhibition he visited, but he thought little of that new style of painting.
In 1878, Inness's fortunes improved when Thomas B. Clarke, a prominent New York art dealer, became his agent. He took a studio in the New York University Building and bought a house and studio in Montclair, New Jersey. His theories on painting were published in Harper's New Monthly Magazine in 1878 and 1882; in 1882, Charles De Kay, under the pseudonym Henry Eckford, wrote an important critical article about his work. Two years later, a major exhibition of Inness's work was sponsored by John E Sutton, proprietor of the American Art Association, from which the artist emerged as the leading light in American landscape painting, an eminent position he enjoyed for the rest of his career. During the last years of his life, he spent summers traveling and painting in Connecticut, New York, Massachusetts, Virginia, California, and Florida. He and his wife returned to Europe in 1894, when Inness once again visited Paris, as well as Baden-Baden and Munich. On his way home, he died of a stroke in the Bridge of Allan, a small Scottish resort village. On 23 August 1894, the National Academy of Design held an impressive funeral service for Inness, who was by then one of its most illustrious members.
— George Inness, one of the most prominent figures in US art of the 19th century, is best-known today for his poetic and highly expressive approach to landscape painting. He was born in Newburgh, New York, in 1825, the son of a local grocer. While still a youth, he decided to pursue a career as an artist. He initiated his studies during the 1840s, working briefly under John Jesse Barker in Newark, New Jersey. At some point between 1843 and 1845 he was taught by the French-born landscapist, Regis Gignoux, in New York City. During this period, he also spent two years as an apprentice engraver with the New York firm of Sherman and Smith.
Inness began exhibiting his pictures at the National Academy of Design in 1844. His early work, in its emphasis on detail and topographical accuracy, reveals the influence of the prevailing Hudson River School aesthetic as exemplified by such painters as Asher B. Durand. However after making trips to Italy (1851-1852) and France (1853-1854), he became deeply influenced by the serene, broadly-painted landscapes of Rousseau, Troyen, Daubigny and other members of the French Barbizon School.
In 1860, for reasons of health as well as discouragement with what he felt to be a lack of recognition from local critics and patrons, Inness moved with his family to Medfield, Massachusetts. He remained there for four years and then settled at Eagleswood, an estate near Perth Amboy, New Jersey. It was around this time that he met the painter William Page, who introduced him to the spiritual teachings of the Swedish philosopher Emanuel Swedenborg. Throughout the 1860s, Inness gradually began to abandon many of the precepts associated with the Hudson River style, turning instead to a greater emphasis on mood and poetic effect through the use of rich color and fluid brushwork. One of his major points of divergence involved his vision or concept of the US landscape itself; while the Hudson River painters focused on the untamed wilderness, Inness was drawn to what he once described as the "civilized landscape," where nature was shaped to suit the needs of mankind, a combination of both the real and the ideal.
In 1870, Inness made another trip to Europe, spending most of his time in Rome. Returning to the United States four years later, he spent a year in Boston before moving back to New York in 1875. In 1878, he bought a home and studio in Montclair, New Jersey, where he would live for the rest of his life. During that same year, he helped to found the Society of American Artists, a group of younger, European influenced artists dissatisfied with the conservative, insular attitude prevailing at the National Academy. In 1882, Inness's work was the subject of a major article by the New York critic Charles De Kay in Century Magazine. Two years later, a comprehensive exhibition of his pictures at the American Art Galleries helped further to strengthen his growing reputation.
Throughout the 1870s and 1880s, Inness's art moved towards a greater level of individual expression. He continued to explore various aspects of both style and theory, always turning to color for its emotive potential. He also began to incorporate one, sometimes, two figures into his compositions, evident in such works as The Monk (1873). Inness produced his most original and his most visionary work during the last decade of his life. In paintings such as Sunrise, he explored mood and feeling through color, diffused light and a limited number of softly defined forms. Many of his pictures from this period are depictions of forest interiors at dawn or twilight. Although the hazy atmospheric qualities and ethereal nature of Inness's late work has led to comparisons with Impressionism (a movement which did inform his work to some extent), his concept of nature--spiritual, subjective (and thus very modern) — took him well beyond Impressionism's material and scientific concerns. Indeed, in his emphasis on emotion, his free handling of pigment and in his quiet, harmonious compositions, he was tremendously influential for a younger generation of painters, such as Henry Ward Ranger and Dwight Tryon, whose related aesthetic concerns have since been defined as Tonalism.
During his later years, Inness painted in New York, New Jersey and Connecticut as well as in California and Florida. He traveled to Europe in 1894, visiting Paris, Munich, and Baden. He died in Bridge-of-Allan in Scotland that same year.
— Louis Comfort Tiffany [1848-1933] was a student of Inness.
— The Coming Storm (41x61cm _ ZOOMable)
–- Landscape (1848, 75x113cm; 730x1129pix, 123kb _ .ZOOM to 1488x2258pix, 647kb _ .ZOOM+ to 2976x4516pix, 2186kb)
— Morning, Catskill Valley (1894; 747x1147pix, 210kb)
The Lackawanna Valley (1855; 532x800pix, 71kb _ ZOOM to 1884x2832pix, 4127kb)
— Lago Albano (1829; 532x800pix, 72kb _ ZOOM to 1363x2048pix, 274kb)
— Indian Summer (1829; 533x800pix, 61kb _ ZOOM to 1365x2048pix, 192kb)
–- Saint Andrew's, New Brunswick (1893, 83x108cm; 868x1152pix, 148kb)
— Lake Nemi (31x46cm; 533x800pix, 83kb _ ZOOM to 1066x1600pix, 316kb)
Old Homestead (1877) _ detail
Off the Coast of Cornwall (1887)
— Landscape with Pond (1868, 31x51cm)
— Valley Near Perugia (1867, 63x48cm)
— Autumn (1859, 26x46cm)
— End of Day aka Montclair (1855, 42x30cm)
— Étretat (1874, 24x33cm)
— 65 images at Ciudad de la Pintura
>Died on 03 August 1816: François~André Vincent,
painter, specialized in historical
subjects, born on 30 December 1746.
— Vincent, son of the Genevan miniaturist François Elie Vincent, and student of Joseph-Marie Vien, was one of the principal innovators in French art of the late l8th century, particularly in the fields of neoclassicism and themes of national history. He won the Prix de Rome in 1768 and in the 1770s he fell under the strong influence of Fragonard, whom he met in Rome in 1774. From the 1780s onwards, his studio ranked with those of David [30 Aug 1748 – 29 Dec 1825] and of Jean-Baptiste Regnault [17 Oct 1754 – 12 Nov 1829] as the most popular in Paris. Unlike his archrival David, also a student of Vien, Vincent rejected frieze-like compositions for a more realistic approach to his subjects that drew inspiration from a wide variety of sources, ranging from Netherlandish to Bolognese art. Nevertheless David eventually overshadowed Vincent, who then abandoned the monumental history paintings which David had made his own, and turned increasingly to genre painting.
— Vincent's students included Horace Vernet and John Vanderlyn.
— Vincent became the lover of Adélaïde Labille-Guiard [1749-1803], whose first teacher had been his father. In 1800 he married her, becoming her second husband, and she painted .his portrait (1800, 73x59cm; 882x809pix, 64kb — .ZOOM to 2247x2024pix, 380kb).
–- La Leçon de Labourage (an VI = 1798, 213x313cm; 741x1128pix, 73kb — .ZOOM to 1769x2819pix, 410kb) _ The upper part of the canvas was burnt in a fire on 07 December 1870. There are two preparatory drawings; three studies in paint also exist. The scene attests to the physiocratic ideas as found in Treatise on the Cultivation of the Land (1750) by the agronomist Henri Louis Duhamel du Monceau [20 Jul 1700 bapt - 22 Aug 1782] and Rural Philosophy or General and Individual Economy of Agriculture (1764, 3 volumes) by the economist Mirabeau [1715-1789]. It may depict the family of the future Girondin member of the National Convention, François Bernard Boyer-Fonfrède [1766-1793], with his wife Marie-Anne, née Barrère, and their children Geneviève and Jean-François Bernard, who is having a ploughing lesson.
–- L'Arrestation du Président Molé (1779; main detail 897x1147pix, 116kb — .ZOOM TO FULL PICTURE 1795x1791pix, 351kb)
— Henri IV faisant entrer des vivres dans Paris (1783, 157x192cm; 611x768pix, 57kb) _ Assiégeant Paris en 1590, Henri IV décide, contre l'avis de ses généraux, de ravitailler la ville affamée. Cette toile est un carton de tapisserie pour la tenture de l'Histoire de Henri IV, commandée par le comte d'Angiviller. Elle témoigne de l'intérêt alors grandissant pour le passé national.
— Zeuxis choisissant pour modèles les plus belles filles de Crotone (1789, 323x415cm; 489x642pix, 57kb) _ The account of Zeuxis choosing his models is taken from Cicero, De Inventione, II, I, I, with a shorter description in Pliny the Elder, Natural History, XXXV, 36. Having been commissioned to paint a portrait of Helen of Troy for the Temple of Jupiter at Crotona, the famous Greek artist Zeuxis had to seek the most perfect characteristics from five of the greatest beauties of the city. Vincent has exhibited his own scholarship by incorporating items which are exclusively fifth century, while the image of Helen herself is drawn in outline as on a Greek vase painting. The Doric columns, the mixing bowl with its colonnettes and oil flask placed on the table beside the artist, the frieze derived from the sarcophagus of the Muses in the Albani collection in Rome, and Zeuxis's arm which seems to have been borrowed from the Apollo Belvedere, are all talismans of classical erudition and archaeological truth. Here Vincent seems to revive the seventeenth century idealistic vision of achieving perfection by selecting the most pleasing aspects from the natural world, but it seems that Vincent may be suggesting that at least one of the young beauties was rejected altogether. Why else would the girl in the foreground by weeping in the arms of another if she had been chosen to model? Thus, while otherwise following the narrative, the artist has distorted the story by introducing the human reality of sorrow and disappointment, albeit superficial, into a scene which would otherwise be without deep sentiment. Vincent's large painting, one of his most ambitious efforts, was enthusiastically received by the critics.