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ART “4” “2”-DAY  29 April v.10.30
^ >Born on 29 April 1783: David Cox I, British painter who died on 15 (07?) June 1859.
— He was an eminent landscape painter both in watercolor and in oil. Apprenticed in 1798 to a maker of lockets and brooches, which he painted with delicate designs. Studied drawing at night school. Master died soon after he was apprenticed. Became involved in set decoration for the theater. Went to London in 1804 and studied watercolor under John Varley.
— After taking drawing lessons from Joseph Barber [1758–1811] in Birmingham, Cox worked briefly as an apprentice to a painter of lockets and snuff-boxes named Fieldler. This was followed about 1800 by a longer period painting scenery for the New Theatre, Birmingham. On the promise of similar employment at Astley’s Amphitheatre in Lambeth, Cox travelled to London in 1804, but when this came to nothing he decided to make his name as a watercolor painter. He began exhibiting at the Royal Academy in 1805 and from 1809 until its demise in 1812 with the Associated Artists in Water-Colours, of which he became both member and president in 1810. He was elected an Associate of the Society of Painters in Water-Colours in 1812 and within a month had advanced to full membership. He remained a loyal supporter of the Society and a regular contributor to its exhibitions for the rest of his life.
— Cox was born at Deritend, near Birmingham, the son of blacksmith. About 1798, aged fifteen, he was apprenticed to Fieldler, a maker of metal objects, such as lockets and snuff-boxes, decorated with miniature paintings. Following Fieldler's suicide, Cox was apprenticed around 1800 as assistant to a theater scene-painter named De Maria (who nevertheless did not commit suicide). In 1804 Cox took work as a scene-painter with Astley's Theatre and moved to London. By 1808 he had abandoned scene-painting, taking water-color lessons from John Varley. In 1805 he made the first of his many trips to Wales, with Charles Barber; his earliest dated watercolors are from this year. Throughout his lifetime he made numerous sketching tours to the home counties, North Wales, Yorkshire, Derbyshire and Devon.
     Cox exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy from 1805. His pictures never sold for high prices, and his earned his living chiefly as a drawing-master. Through his first student, Col. the Hon. H. Windsor (the future Earl of Plymouth), who engaged him in 1808, Cox acquired several other aristocratic students. He wrote several books, including Ackermann's New Drawing Book (1809); A Series of Progressive Lessons (1811); Treatise on Landscape Painting (1813); and Progressive Lessons on Landscape (1816). The ninth and last edition of his Series of Progressive Lessons was published in 1845.
     In 1810 he was elected President of the Associated Artists in Water Colour. In 1812, following the demise of the Associated Artists, he was elected an Associate of the Society of Painters in Water Colour (Old Water Colour Society). He was elected a Member of the Society in 1813, and exhibited there every year except 1815 and 1817, until his death. In about 1814-15 he was appointed drawing-master at the Military Staff College, Farnham. With his appointment as drawing-master at Miss Croucher's girls' school he took up residence in Hereford. He made his first trip to the Continent, to Belgium and Holland, in 1826, and moved to London the following year. He exhibited for the first time with the Birmingham Society of Artists in 1829, and with the Liverpool Academy from 1831. In 1839 two of Cox's watercolors were bought from the Old Water Colour Society exhibition by the Marquis of Conynham for Queen Victoria.
     About 1840 Cox took up oil painting, studying under W.J. Müller. He exhibited two oil paintings at the Royal Academy in 1844. From 1844 until 1856 he spent summers at Bettws-y-Coed, in North Wales. His health suffered following a stroke in 1853. In 1855 he was represented by watercolors at the Paris Universal Exhibition. By 1857, however, his eyesight had deteriorated. An exhibition of his work was arranged in 1858 by the Conversazione Society, Hampstead, and in 1859 a retrospective exhibition was held at the German Gallery, Bond Street, London. Cox died several months later.
— Joseph Murray Ince was a student of Cox.

–- Sun, Wind and Rain (1845, 46x60cm; half~size) _ In the center of this picture a woman and a man, sitting astride a white horse, are caught in a squall. There is something mildly comic about the couple’s broad shapes huddled for protection beneath the woman’s parasol, and the image strongly suggests a scene witnessed firsthand. This is underscored by Cox’s lively paint-work which admirably captures the blustery wind whipping across the landscape and the changeable light of rain clouds driven across a sunlit sky.
–- Stonehenge: A Storm Coming On (1825, 23x35cm; 829x1245pix, 85kb)
A  Street in Beauvais (600x380pix _ ZOOM to 1400x887pix)
–- View Of Fécamp, France (390x575pix, 204kb)
Castle in an Autumn Landscape (1849, 49x74cm)
Near the Pont d'Arcole, Paris (1829, 24x37cm) _ Cox sprained an ankle on his visit to Paris in 1829 but he was not to be baffled in his intention of sketching the monuments of Paris; so, with his usual spirit, he used to drive out in a fiacre every day, and making it stop when he came to an interesting subject that took his fancy, he painted away indefatigably for many weeks, seated in the cab, or occasionally in a chair near the Seine or in some other not overcrowded spot. The Pont d'Arcole links the Ile de la Cité and the right bank of the Seine near the Hôtel de Ville.
Waiting for the Ferry Boat (1835, 20x29cm) _ Cox and De Wint can be said to have advocated a British Impressionism in the 1840s and 1850s. By contrast Turner, whose work as a watercolorist was known almost exclusively from his highly finished views, became the forerunner of High Victorian realist and Pre-Raphaelite landscape.
A Welsh Funeral, Betwys-y-Coed (1850, 54x75cm) _ From 1844 to 1856 Cox spent his summers in and around the village of Bettws-y-Coed in north Wales. On one of these visits, probably in 1847, he witnessed the funeral of a young girl, a relative of the landlord of the inn at which he stayed. The ceremony, which took place in the evening, evidently impressed Cox deeply. Several versions of this composition exist, both in oils and watercolor; this one is unusual in being in oil on paper.
Impression: Rhyl Sands (1854, 45x63cm _ ZOOM to 1400x1923pix) _ Cox began making regular visits to north Wales after settling near Birmingham in 1841. Rhyl lay en route to his favorite destination, Betws-y-Coed. Primarily a watercolorist, Cox only took up oil painting seriously around 1840. Rhyl Sands shows him working with total mastery and in a manner that is unique in British landscape painting of the 1850s.
Boy Opening Gate for Sheep (27x36cm) _ Cox began to break down the dense washes of his earlier style towards a new fragmentation, that was unlike the fine hatching and stippling of watercolor stalwarts like Hunt. Instead he used a looser, highly flexible method of painting in nervous flicks of the brush. This reinterpretation of the techniques of JR Cozens was to become Cox’s unmistakable style. He abandoned the sombre color of the earlier manner and adopted a fresh, naturalistic palette that set a standard of informal realism matched by none of his contemporaries except Constable. Artists such as Cox explored the physical qualities of air and sky with unprecedented insight.
A Windy Day (1850, 27x36cm) _ Towards the end of his life Cox produced a number of small pictures in which travelers are shown crossing open landscapes in windy or stormy weather. Some were based on earlier watercolors. There is a variant on this work, The Cross Roads, in which three other travelers precede the woman and her dog.
The Road Across the Commons (1853, 19x24cm; 408x512pix, 35kb)
Tour d'Horloge, Rouen (1829, 34x26cm)
Calais: Hôtel de Guise (1832, 16x22cm)
River Scene with Boys Fishing (19x25cm)
A Country Scene (25x20cm)
The School Walk (27x21cm; 390x306pix, 54kb) _ detail (390x520pix, 114kb)
^ Born on 29 April 1675: Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini, Venitian painter who died on 05 November 1741 (or possibly up to 3 days earlier).
— Student of Ricci and Pagani. 1716 painter to Prince-Elector of the Palatinate, traveled to Antwerp, the Hague (painted ceiling of the Mauritshuis), England.
— With Sebastiano Ricci and Jacopo Amigoni he was the most important Venetian history painter of the early 18th century. By uniting the High Renaissance style of Paolo Veronese with the Baroque of Pietro da Cortona and Luca Giordano, he created graceful decorations that were particularly successful with the aristocracy of central and northern Europe. He traveled widely, working in Austria, England, the Netherlands, Germany and France.
— Venetian decorative painter, who was a student of Sebastiano Ricci and one of the most important of Tiepolo's predecessors. Like Pittoni, he worked for many foreign patrons and travelled widely. He was first recorded as a painter in 1703 and soon after this he married the sister of Rosalba Carriera, who mentions him in her diary on several occasions. In 1707 Lord Manchester went on an embassy to Venice; he commissioned a picture to celebrate the event from Carlevaris and brought Pellegrini and Marco Ricci back to London with him in 1708. Pellegrini soon had considerable success and became a Director of Kneller's Academy in 1711.
      Pellegrini 'painted prodigious quick, had a very noble and fruitfull invention' which may be seen in the decorations at Kimbolton Castle (now a school), done for Lord Manchester, or in the decorations at Castle Howard (1709, mostly destroyed in 1941). In these decorative series Pellegrini shows that he was a true precursor of Tiepolo in the lightness and gaiety of his touch which contrasts with the duller history painting of Pittoni.
      In 1713 he went to Germany and Flanders; returning to England in 1719 when he was less successful because Marco Ricci had sent for his uncle Sebastiano, who was generally agreed to be a better painter. Pellegrini also painted a splendid ceiling for the Bank of France (since destroyed) in Paris, decorated the Great Hall in the Mauritshuis in The Hague (1718), and worked in Prague, Dresden and Vienna. There is a sketch of 1710 which may represent his design for the cupola of St Paul's for which “he made several designs and a moddle for painting the Cupolo at St Paul's for which he was paid tho' he had not the cupolo to paint”.
—   Vincenzo Damini, and Antonio Visentini [21 Nov 1688 – 26 Jun 1782] were students of Pellegrini.

Allegory of Sculpture (1730, 142x132cm) _ Very early in his career, Pellegrini, considerably influenced by Luca Giordano, absorbed the examples of Magnasco and Sebastiano Ricci and turned his style towards a refined decorative freedom in airily elegant works of pure rococo taste; and through his stays in several European artistic centres London, Düsseldorf, The Hague, Antwerp, Paris, Prague Dresden and Vienna, his work gained a certain popularity. The Allegory of Sculpture and the Allegory of Painting belong to his last years. They are an interweaving of the lightest of figural rhythms, a colored web of impalpable, rarified weightlessness, shot through with silvery transparencies which recall the pastels of the artist's sister-in-law, Rosalba Carriera. Like hers, the paintings of Pellegrini are emblematic of the skin-deep spiritual frivolity of a part of the eighteenth century.
Allegory of Painting (1730, 143x132cm)
A Man (600x480pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1120pix)
Rebecca at the Well (500x391pix, 54kb)
Saint Sebastian and Three Cherubs
^ Born on 29 April 1905: Ogden Minton Pleissner, US painter specialized in Landscapes, who died in 1983.
      Pleissner is best known for his painting of the outdoors and gentlemanly sports. Although he was a Brooklyn NY native, he was a country boy at heart. Beginning at the age of 16, Pleissner spent his summers in Dubois, Wyoming, including a summer on a dude ranch, where he drew and sketched the daily ranch activities and landscape. Pleissner began studying at Manhattan’s Art Students League, under Frank DuMond and Fredrick J. Boston. In 1932 the Metropolitan Museum of Art purchased an oil painting done by Pleissner, making him the youngest artist in the museum at the age of 27. Pleissner headed to World War II, as did most young US men during that time. He served as a painter for the United States Air Force and Life magazine, depicting war scenes in Europe through the use of watercolors. After returning from World War II, Pleissner specialized in sport art. He had a gift for capturing the excitement of sport, whether it was hunting for grouse in Scotland or fishing for salmon. Throughout his career, Pleissner believed “A fine painting is not just the subject… It is the feeling conveyed of form, bulk, space, dimension, and sensitivity. The mood of the picture, that is most important.” Pleissner demonstrates his belief through his obsession with exact composition and realistic depictions of human activity and anatomy.

On the Gaspé (36x61cm)
Below the Falls (40x58cm)
Man with a Gaff (40x58cm)
Scottish Moor — Chick Allyn and Guide (819x1352pix, 137kb) _ Stanley Charles “Chick” Allyn [1891-1970], chairman of the National Cash Register Company from 1940 to 1961, was one of Pleissner’s hunting companions.
–- Duck Hunting (486x798pix, 69kb) it is not a duck that is hunting, but ducks that are hunted.
Blue Boat on the St. Anne
Morning Mass (1928)
Casting a Line (14 x 21 1/4; 401x600pix, 60kb) _ auctioned for $13'800 at Shannon's in October 2002.
After the Hurricane (14 1/2 x 21 1/2; 408x600pix, 52kb)
Sherman Tanks Invade (328x500pix, 66kb)

^ Born on 29 April 1931: Frank Auerbach, German-born British painter and printmaker. — {Auerbach? Who will watch our back? Auerbach?}
—    He never saw his parents after 04 April 1939 when they sent him to England to escape the Nazi persecution of Jews. He moved from school in Kent to London in 1947, where he began attending art classes at Hampstead Garden Suburb Institute and acting in fringe theater. From 1947 to 1948 he studied at Borough Polytechnic under David Bomberg, whose teaching was especially valuable in its emphasis on risk and on seeking an organic, unified form. Auerbach continued in Bomberg’s evening life classes while at St Martin’s School of Art (1948–1952). He considered his first original achievement to have been Summer Building Site (1952), of a scene at Earls Court; this was rather geometric and painted in formal, prismatic color, but much of his early work was thickly and laboriously impastoed in earth colors, as in Head of E. O. W. (1955). He studied from 1952 to 1955 at the Royal College of Art and had his first exhibition at the Beaux Arts Gallery, London, in 1956.
     Auerbach is one of the painters who has been instrumental in defining The School of London. He is a figurative painter, with a never-ending interest in the relationship between his own art and that of art history's greatest painters, yet at the same time he remains a distinct individualist with his own form of expression. His special working method and his localized, almost monomaniacal choice of subjects has made him an almost mythical figure in today's art. The painting style of Frank Auerbach is both densely expressionistic and highly individual. Driven by his desire to capture the essence and reality of people and places, his paintings, which he works and reworks, produce a powerful surface impact. Auerbach's subject matter is unchanging: repeated portraits of two or three close friends and cityscapes seen from two or three locations in the immediate vicinity of his studio. The paintings materialize in an endless process of building up, scraping off, and building up again. These brush strokes, forever catching the changing light, the accidental drips, the swirling paint sometimes laid on like butter or mixed up like concrete or at other times reminiscent of the viscousness of black pitch, are all witnesses to a unique way of making and marking down reality in a visual way. The finished picture appears to be the result of a swift, apparently spontaneous act of painting, but is actually based on a laborious work process.
— Auerbach was born in Berlin of Jewish parents; his father was a lawyer and his mother a former art student. In 1939 he was sent to England to escape Nazism. His parents, who remained behind, died in concentration camps. He spent his childhood at a progressive boarding school, Bunce Court, at Lenham near Faversham, Kent, a school for Jewish refugee children. During the war years the school was evacuated to Shropshire. He attended St Martin's School of Art, London, from 1948 to 1952, and studied under David Bomberg in night classes at Borough Polytechnic. It was during this period that he developed a friendship with fellow student Leon Kossoff. Auerbach studied at the Royal College of Art from 1952 to 1955.
      He has used three principal models throughout his career: his wife Julia, who first posed for him in 1959; Juliet Yardley Mills ('J.Y.M.'), a professional model whom he met in 1957; and his close friend Estella (Stella) West ('E.O.W.'), the model for most of his nudes and female heads prior to 1973. Rarely leaving Britain, he lived and worked in London and had the same studio since the 1950s.
      He was criticized for his thick application of paint, resulting in work closer to sculpture than to painting. But, in spite of the heaped-up paint, these are painterly images, not sculptural ones, have to be read as paintings, not as polychrome reliefs, and make their point just because their physical structure is virtually that of sculpture but their psychological impact is that of painting. The effect of these works on the mind is of images recovered and reconceived in the barest and most particular light, the same light that seems to glow through the late, great, thin Turners, an unpremeditated manifestation arising from the constant application of true draftsmanship.

Primrose Hill, Autumn Morning (1968)
Camden Palace, Winter (1999)
Reclining Head of Julia (1995) _ In 1958 Auerbach married Julia Wolstenholme, a painter also studying at the Royal College of Arts.
Reclining Head of Julia II (1996)
Mornington Crescent (1965, 101x127cm) _ Mornington Crescent is the name of an intersection in a district of more or less anonymous buildings close to Auerbach's studio. Many of his paintings of this scene emerged in the period 1965-1970 when the district was being rehabilitated. Thus, the pictures are dominated by scaffolding and boardings on and around the old buildings. In the early morning Auerbach is up and out making sketches of his motif, later to be worked on in the studio in the usual way. Working in the studio allows him freedom to remove and to make additions, to treat the colors freely, independent of the subject-matter. But the basis is always his familiarity with the subject and intimacy with the image, built up through innumerable versions of the scene.
     This picture, therefore, is a sort of palimpsest, an image containing fragments and traces of earlier images. Just as the subject itself, and the city itself, is a living archeological site: a never-ending story, layer upon layer and space beside space. In Mornington Crescent, with its play of red and black against a pale yellow ground, Auerbach has created a subdued drama of shadows, spaces and silhouettes. He has utilized a "scaffolding" of horizontals and verticals and a few broken diagonals, weaving behind each other and opening to create spaces and constructions which can never be read unambiguously but always coalesce into the painting's apparently free pattern of stroke and color. The dynamism of city and painting merge within the painting's own silent world.
Head of E.O.W. I (1960, 43x35cm) _ This is a head study of Stella West ('E.O.W'), Auerbach's principal model from the early 1950s until 1963. A related work, 'Head of E.O.W V, is also on display here. Both paintings belong to a series of life size frontal heads on which Auerbach worked between late 1960 and summer 1961. The paint is built up and has an almost sculptural quality. This is the result of repeated overpainting of previous images on the same board, and is an extreme example of Auerbach's endeavor to convey a sense of his accumulated experience of the model.
The Sitting Room (1964, 128x128cm) _ Auerbach spent many evenings with his friend and frequent model, Stella West in this sitting room. The earthy colors generate a sense of warmth and intimacy. Stella appears in profile on the left, leaning forward. Across the room, her daughter is seated in a chair beside a standard lamp. To make a virtue out of the laziness of the sloppy artist, so-called critics make such senseless comments as: “The forms are experienced rather than exhaustively explained. There is a depth and atmosphere. The room has a soul.”
Study after Titian I (1965, 64x57cm; 512x473pix, 66kb) _ David Wilkie 's fascination for Titian led him to commission Auerbach to paint a number of works inspired by the Renaissance master. Six of Wilkie's Auerbachs came about as the result of such commissions. The first commission, in 1965, was for Auerbach to paint a version of Titian's Tarquin and Lucretia, a painting which had deeply moved Wilkie when he saw it in 1959. Of that memorable experience Wilkie later said 'for a fraction of a second it seemed that the room was on fire'. Auerbach painted two non-works related to the Titian (somewhat in the way that dogs are related to cats): this painting and the companion piece Study after Titian II mentioned next. (neither of Auerbach's slops has ever caught fire even for a fraction of a second).
Study after Titian II (1965, 67x62cm; 512x452pix, 48kb) Both this painting and the previously mentioned non-work, Study after Titian I, were purportedly inspired by Tarquin and Lucretia painted by Titian [1489 – 27 Aug 1576], or more precisely, as Wilkie specified, by the rather dull 1576 (812x691pix) version of Tarquin and Lucretia (in which Lucretia is clothed) kept in Vienna, rather than the more colorful and elaborate 1571 (189x145cm; 780x589pix, 68kb) version of Tarquin and Lucretia (in which Lucretia is not clothed), which is kept in Cambridge, or the undated dull version of Tarquin and Lucretia (in which Lucretia is not clothed), which is kept in Bordeaux, or any other that might exist. Lucretia is a legendary heroine of ancient Rome. According to tradition, she was the beautiful and virtuous wife of the nobleman Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus. Her tragedy began when she was raped by Sextus Tarquinius, son of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the tyrannical Etruscan king of Rome. After exacting an oath of vengeance against the Tarquins from her father and her husband, she stabbed herself to death. Lucius Junius Brutus then led the enraged populace in a rebellion that drove the Tarquins from Rome in 509 BC and replaced the monarchy by the Roman Republic. Lucretia's story is recounted in Shakespeare's narrative poem The Rape of Lucrece. Rather than Lucretia's suicide, which is the more common subject, Titian chose to represent Tarquin's violent attack upon her.
Auerbach created his versions of that image by working from a female model who adopted the pose of Lucretia, and from a drawing made from a reproduction of the original work, though the smudgy results with little resemblance to it or to any man or woman are an insult to Titian, who, if he were alive today, would probably turn over in his grave. In both of Auerbach's paintings a gash in the paint surface is meant to convey a sense of violence and violation, which Auerbach must have felt that, unlike Titian, he was incapable of doing by the picture itself.
–- Head of J.Y.M. II (886x963pix, 190kb)
–- a different Head of J.Y.M. II (1985, 66x61cm; 208kb) _ For this almost monochrome monstrosity , £352'800 were paid at a 23 June 2004 Sotheby's auction, presumably by a greater fool who believed such nonsense as the following (NOT endorsed by this web site):
      This is one of Auerbach's most intensely passionate portraits of Juliet Yardley Mills, whom he has transformed into a memorable theme in her own right through decades of intense study. Scraped and sculpted, the richly impastoed surface of the present work narrates the story of its creation, powerfully conveying the depth of Auerbach’s emotional response to his subject and resulting in “one of my best paintings,” according to him.
      J.Y.M has been one of only three main models used by Auerbach since they first met in 1957, and since this time she has continued to pose for him in the subject of some of the artist’s most intimate and powerful paintings exploring the solitary figure. Auerbach has turned her into one of the most vivid personages in modern depictive art, transformed by his repetition and re-seeing into a human icon as memorable as Giacometti’s wife Annette or his brother Diego. As a student of David Bomberg (a student of Sickert), Auerbach sits firmly within the tradition of great {???} British figurative {???} painters and regards depicting the posed human figure as the ultimate test of a painter’s capabilities. Through the process of painting the same subject repeatedly, Auerbach is able to construct a familiarity with his models whilst exploring the infinite variety offered by light, distance, angle and mood.
      With the J.Y.M portraits of the 1980’s, Auerbach felt able to risk a more direct engagement than in his earlier work. Rearing up, not recoiling, but with her back, one is made to feel, pressed against the back of the chair; the hair resolved into a dense supporting architecture by the broad ochre-to-umber swipes of the brush, J.Y.M is an imposing presence here, very old, almost hieratic. Yet although one feels a strong sense of confrontation with the sitter, she has no recognizable facial expression. Because of the lack of expression, the vehement marks with which Auerbach tries to summon up the density of her presence also push the image towards abstraction. The sense of movement is what counts. Auerbach was quite specific about that: painting must awaken a sense of physicality, transcend its inherent flatness, or fail.
     Instead of working from a palette, Auerbach applies pure pigment straight from the tube before energetically scraping and fusing colors together over the picture surface. A staunch perfectionist {???} and critic of his own work, Auerbach’s technique often involves the laborious removal of paint from previous sittings if he is not happy with a painting’s organic development. Effectively restarting his paintings many times until completely satisfied, the thickness of accumulated paint is a direct result of his desire to capture truthful {???} representation and likeness, energetically reapplying himself to the construction of a single image. As such his work develops over a period of months, sometimes years, assuming a sculptural presence in which one can retrace the artist’s process of creation. Sensitive to the gift of someone else’s time, Auerbach’s portraits capture a sense of urgency and anxiety within the shallow chamber of chiaroscuro in which he enshrines his figures.

–- Head of JYM III (255kb)
–- Head of JYM (900x1109pix, 264kb)
–- Reclining Head of JYM III (900x1015pix, 188kb)
–- Reclining Figure of J.Y.M. (87kb)
–- J.Y.M Seated, III (xpix, kb)
–- Catherine Lampert (224kb)
–- Primrose Hill (221kb) monochrome brown; presumably a cross section of the topsoil.
–- Primrose Hill, Autumn (169kb)
–- To the Studios II (xpix, 194kb)
–- From the Studio (510x508pix, 84kb)
120 images at Ciudad de la Pintura

Died on a 29 April:

^ >1964 Albert Saverys (or Saverijs), Belgian painter of landscapes and still lifes, born on 12 May 1886. — {Did Saverys savor rice?}
–- (nature morte) (720x735pix, 62kb _ .ZOOM to 1153x1176pix, 132kb _ .+ZOOM+ to 2162x2205pix, 313kb) curtains opened on a table with flowers in a jug and an empty cup and saucer.
–- Charrette Dans la Neige (1098x1392pix, 160kb)
A winter landscape (1925, 116x121cm). —(080428)

^ 1953 Moïse Kisling, Jewish Polish French artist born on 22 January 1891. — {That's Kisling NOT Quisling}— He studied at the School of Fine Arts in Krakow, where his teachers included Jozef Pankiewicz, a fervent admirer of Auguste Renoir and the French Impressionists, who encouraged him to go to Paris. He arrived there in 1910, frequented Montmartre and Montparnasse, and soon became acquainted with Amedeo Modigliani, Georges Braque, Pablo Picasso, Max Jacob, André Salmon and Chaïm Soutine. For a short time he lived in the Bateau-Lavoir in Montmartre and in 1911–1912 spent nearly a year at Céret. In 1913 he took a studio in Montparnasse, where he lived for the next 27 years; Jules Pascin and later Modigliani lived in the same building. On the outbreak of World War I he volunteered for service in the French Foreign Legion, and in 1915 he was seriously wounded in the Battle of the Somme, for which he was awarded French nationality. — Nikola Martinoski was a student of Kisling.

^ >1906 André Plumot [10 Feb 1829–], Belgian painter. — {C'est Plumot PAS Plumeau}{Il n'y eu plus mot de Plumot après le 29 avril 1906} {Est-ce que Plumot faisait des tableaux de ballet?}.
La Ferme (1883, 83x120cm; 434x640pix, 47kb) Ta Gueule is NOT an alternative title.
Le Rendez-Vous à la Barrière (1892, 48x81cm; 391x666pix, 33kb)
La Jeune Bergère (1874, 25x43cm; 231x400pix, 43kb)

1777 Antonio Joli [1700–], Italian painter of veduta. He was an apprentice of Rafaello Rinaldi, and later a student of Giovanni-Paolo Pannini [17 Jun 1691 – 21 Oct 1765].— LINKS
Departure of Charles de Bourbon for Spain seen from the sea (1761, 1008x1684pix, 214kb)
Arrival of Charles III in Naples (1750, 128x205cm; 600x980pix, 97kb)
— (Piazza San Pietro?) (1060x1772pix, 648kb)
The Colosseum and the Arch of Constantine (1748, 122x187cm; 760x1065pix, 122kb) _ He painted this in England, probably based on drawings.
30 images at (600pix in their largest dimension) —(100429)

^ 1655 Cornelis Schut I, Flemish painter, draftsman and etcher, active in Italy, born on 13 May 1597. — {Is identification of his works an Oh Pun and Schut case?}— In 1618 or 1619 he became a member of the Guild of St Luke in Antwerp. The influence of Abraham Janssen is evident in the early Adoration by the Magi, but whether Schut was a student of Janssen is open to question. From 1624 to 1627 Schut was in Rome, where he was a founder-member of the Schildersbent (the group of Netherlandish artists active in Rome at that time). Schut worked there under the patronage of the Flemish merchant Pieter de Vischere, whose country house at Frascati Schut decorated with mythological scenes. Schut must also have belonged to the circle of Vincenzo Giustiniani in Rome; two of his early works, the Adoration mentioned above and the Massacre of the Innocents were in Giustiniani’s collection. During these years Schut also painted small-scale works depicting allegorical and mythological themes, perhaps intended for the open market. In 1628 he was in Florence, where he designed tapestries for the Arazzeria Medicea. Schut adopted, and retained throughout his career, the new High Baroque style of painting, developed in Italy after 1625 under the influence of such artists as Pietro da Cortona. Features of this style include a strong sense of animation and pathos, in which light and color play a major role. Elements of late Mannerism are also evident, and Schut’s style, which is characterized by fierce foreshortening, sharp light contrasts and extreme facial expressions, bears some affinity with the work of Federico Barocci, which was important in the evolution of Baroque painting.

Born on a 29 April:

^ >1882 Auguste Herbin, French painter who died on 31 January 1960. — {I bet his mother cherished her Herbin much more than Herbin her bin}— He studied drawing at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Lille, from 1898 to 1901, when he settled in Paris. The initial influence of Impressionism and Post-Impressionism visible in paintings that he sent to the Salon des Indépendants in 1906 gradually gave way to an involvement with Cubism after his move in 1909 to the Bateau-Lavoir studios, where he met Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque and Juan Gris; he was also encouraged by his friendship with Wilhelm Uhde. His work was exhibited in the same room as that of Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes and Fernand Léger in the Salon des Indépendants of 1910, and in 1912 he participated in the influential Section d’Or exhibition. After producing his first abstract paintings in 1917, Herbin came to the attention of Léonce Rosenberg who, after World War I, made him part of the group centred on his Gallerie de l’Effort Moderne and exhibited his work there on several occasions in 1918 and 1921. Herbin’s radical reliefs of simple geometric forms in painted wood, such as Colored Wood Relief (1921), challenged not only the status of the easel painting but also traditional figure–ground relationships. The incomprehension that greeted these reliefs and related furniture designs, even from those critics most favorably disposed towards Cubism, was such that until 1926 or 1927 he followed Rosenberg’s advice to return to a representational style. Herbin himself later disowned landscapes, still-lifes and genre scenes of this period, such as Bowls Players (1923), in which the objects were depicted as schematized volumes. — LINKS
Green Landscape (1901)
Vendredi 1 (1951, 96x129cm; 530x700pix, 175kb) _ This boringly simple picture has provoked the pseudonymous Herbert Aprile into creating
    _ Mardi 31 aka Lune Nul (2006; screen filling, 315kb).
Nu (1960, 48x38cm; 462x361pix, 18kb) _ The title must mean that the geometrical figures, painted in flat white, blue, and red, on a black background, are not wearing any clothes. That is true. And they are not suggestive of anything other than triangles, circles, rectangles, and the gullibility of the greater fools willing to pay exorbitant prices for what they easily could do by themselves in less than an hour, with a ruler and a compass, or a very simple computer graphic program. Aprile has demonstrated that with his
    _ Un (2006; screen filling, 32kb), intentionally matching the worthlessness of Herbin's picture. From that Aprile has developed his magnificent
    _ Deux (2006; screen filling, 148kb _ ZOOM to 1414x2000pix, 1215kb).
Composition (1953, 47x32cm). —(070428)

^ 1882 Hendrik Nikolaas Werkman (or Werkmann), Dutch painter and printmaker who died on 10 April 1945. — {His paintings were always Werkmanlike}— In 1896 he saw an exhibition of Vincent van Gogh’s work, and when he started to paint in 1917, it was initially in an Expressionistic style, akin to that of van Gogh, but later in a manner which was close to the expressionism of De Ploeg (The Plough), the Groningen artists’ society that he joined in 1920. In 1922 he saw an exhibition in Groningen of the art of De Stijl artists. His printing business, which he had run from 1907, went bankrupt in 1923; after this he continued to print but at a smaller business. In addition to commercial print he produced posters, programmes for De Ploeg and the magazine The Next Call, through which he reached the European avant-garde.

^ 1861 Achille Guillaume Lauge, French artist who died on 02 June 1944. Lauge, a very prolific artist, painted compositions, landscapes, portraits, and flowers. An artist of the French school, he was born in the same year as Bourdelle and Maillol: artists who would become two of his closest friends. Lauge, however, was willed to study pharmacology by his parents, and, against their wishes, attended the school of the Beaux-Arts in 1878 while working at a pharmacy in Toulouse. It was there, at the Beaux-Arts, where he first met the artist Bourdelle. In 1881, Lauge enrolled at the Beaux-Arts in Paris. He there found himself surrounded by the ateliers of artists such as Cabanel and J.P. Laurens, and met Maillol. He debuted at the Salon in 1884 with a painting depicting his friend Bourdelle. Lauge left Paris in 1888, and beginning in 1889, he maintained an atelier in Carcassonne where he established many friendships. He had, by the end of his stay in Paris, already adopted the divisional touch of the Neo-Impressionists.
Fleurs (24x30cm; 137kb)
La route aux genêts (54x73cm; 71kb)
Bouquet de fleurs (101x205cm; 350x598pix, 26kb) _ Auctioned at Drouot in 2000 for 92'000 FF.

^ 1848 Theodore Blake Wirgman, in Louvain, Swiss painter and etcher, active in England, who died on 16 January 1925 in London. He studied at the Royal Academy schools and became a painter of history and genre subjects and portraits. He also worked as an illustrator for The Graphic.
Joan of Arc (750x147pix, 37kb)
Queen Victoria interviewing Disreali at Osborne (267x320pix, 25kb) _ Osborne House (photo 852x1136pix, 87kb) was Queen Victoria's vacation home on the Isle of Wight

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