ART 4 2-DAY 27 April v.10.30
Baptized as an infant on 27 April 1642:
Jean-François Francisque Millet
(or Millé, Milée), French painter who was buried on 03 June
1679. Not to be confused with the better known Jean-François
Millet [04 Oct 1814 20 Jan 1875], much less with Francis
Davis Millet [03 Nov 1846 – 15 Apr
Jean François Millet, called Francisque, was born Flemish. He worked in Paris from 1659, painting landscapes in the style of Gaspard Dughet. He was received into the French Academy in Paris in 1763, after having worked in the Low Countries and in England. He can lay claim to being the best interpreter of Nicolas Poussin's classical landscapes, retaining the formality and dignity of his models without loss of subtlety. Like those of Gaspard Dughet, his pictures are largely attributions on purely stylistic grounds, there being no sure documentation. He had relatives of the same name, and it is not clear what is by him. Three etchings are also now attributed to him.
— Little is known about his life. His oeuvre remains ill-defined, in part because he seems never to have signed his paintings and in part because, after his death (by poisoning), both his son Jean Millet [1666–1723] and later his grandson Joseph Millet [1688–1777] took the name Francisque and continued to paint landscapes in his style. The firmest point of reference for attributions to Millet is a series of 28 engravings after his works made by one Théodore, possibly a student. They are all landscapes, some with religious, mythological or heroic genre subjects, and have been identified with a number of surviving paintings that can therefore be given to Millet on this evidence.
imaginary landscape (1665, 57x66cm _ ZOOM to 1787x2024pix, 263kb) _ Under Louis XIV, the two main landscape painter of the time were Pierre Patel and Francisque Millet. They were largely derivative in their styles, but this was the reason for their success. Both of them are relatively little known today. Francisque Millet was more talented than Patel, though his present reputation is also obscure. Flemish in origin like Philippe de Champaigne, he worked mainly in Paris, specializing in classical landscapes inspired by the works of Dughet and Poussin. Millet had imagination and good powers of observation, but he never painted anything without a classical format. Millet preferred an intense blue for his landscapes (as did Poussin), which gives then an unnatural air. The ideal landscape in Budapest characterizes well the style of this French painter of Flemish origin.
— Italian coastal landscape (1665, 106x119cm; 1808x2024pix, 361kb)
— mountain landscape with lightning (1675, 97x127cm; 830x1075pix, 84kb)
Died on 27 April 1834:
Thomas Stothard, English Neoclassical
painter, designer, and illustrator, born on 17 August 1755.
Stothard is best known for his graceful and distinctive book illustrations, such as those for Clarissa, Tristam Shandy, Robinson Crusoe, Pilgrim's Progress, The Vicar of Wakefield, The Rape of the Lock, and the works of Shakespeare, Byron, Milton, etc. His best known painting is The Canterbury Pilgrims, which heralds the Pre-Raphaelite style.
— Stothard was one of the most popular, prolific and successful artists of his time and was highly regarded by such contemporaries as Thomas Lawrence and Walter Scott. He was the son of a prosperous publican and completed his apprenticeship as a silk weaver (1770–1777), before studying at the Royal Academy, London (1777–1783). From the beginning of his career, book illustration was his main area of activity. His earliest surviving works are in the decorative Rococo mode, but he soon adopted the more idealistic Neo-classicism of John Hamilton Mortimer and James Barry. Together with his friends and near contemporaries, William Blake and John Flaxman, Stothard developed an austere, linear style of drawing. This is more pronounced in such drawings as Boadicea Inspiring the Britons against the Romans (1780) than in his published illustrations, where the call for realism was stronger.
–- The Schoolboy (1799, at p. 3 in the book Shakespeare's Seven Ages of Man illustrated, engraving with hand coloring 47x29cm)
–- Shakespeare - Othello-Act II, Scene 1 (Thomas Ryder engraving with hand coloring 49x64cm)
— Nymphs Discover the Narcissus (1793, 32x35cm)
Born on 27 April 1842: Emil
Jakob Schindler, Austrian Impressionist
painter specialized in landscapes
who died on 09 August 1892. — Relative (in some way unknown to me)
of Austrian-US architect Rudolph
Michael Schindler [05 Sep 1887 – 22 Aug 1953]
Schindler, who belonged to the same generation as Leibl, Monet and Renoir, was mainly responsible for a movement which in its more notable achievements also represented a very Austrian version of the international 'plein air' - outdoor -school. The confrontation with pictures of the 'School of Barbizon' at the First International Art Exhibition in Munich in 1869, persuaded Schindler and his fellow students Ditscheiner, Jettel, Ribarz and Russ to dedicate themselves to outdoor painting altogether. Several French painters had discovered the forest of Fontainebleau already in the 1830s. Théodore Rousseau settled in Barbizon, and others such as Constant Troyon, Charles-François Daubigny and Jean-François Millet soon followed. The Fontainebleau forest offered not only a wealth of delightful motifs but also the much-sought-after peace and rural surroundings. In sharp contrast to the purportedly 'important' themes of history painting, these artists turned to simple landscapes and scenes from the lives of simple folk. In 1852 Camille Corot had presented his first picture painted exclusively 'en plein air'.
Whereas the French painters had restricted their use of color to the canon of tone-on-tone painting, Schindler's precise observations of nature had led him further and enabled him to portray dazzling sunlight in pure, bright and starkly contrasting colors, turning objects into abstract planes. Schindler's particular interest centred on emanations of light and weather, atmosphere and its constant changes, and his preoccupation often manifested itself in studies of plain or unpretentious objects. Especially favoured were dawn and twilight, faint mist and leaden skies. Finally Schindler began painting series recording the changes that times-of-day, seasons, and weather conditions had on one and the same motif. What became more and more important both to him and the painters around him was the mood a landscape might evoke in the beholder.
— Among Schindler's students were Tina Blau, Olga Wiesinger Florian, Marie Egner, Marie Louise von Parmentier, Carl Moll, and also the self-taught Theodor von Hörmann, a fanatic adherent of realism who painted outdoors in all weathers, even at the risk of his own life.
I looked for Schindler's list, and I found mainly tiny pictures:
— Schindler's list (links)
–- Bauernhof bei Haslau an der Donau (892x1175pix, 104kb) _ auctioned for £25'095 at Sotheby's on 09 April 2002.
— Landschaft (1886, 29x37cm; 373x482pix, 60kb)
— An extensive landscape in evening twilight (1870, 20x42cm; 221x500pix, 47kb)
— Flußlandschaft bei Lundenburg, mit Gänsen (38x58cm; 219x348pix, 21kb)
— Holländische Landschaft (45x65cm; 223x341pix, 21kb)
— Steamer Landing Stage near Kaisermühlen (1872; 400x577pix, 50kb) _ On finishing his studies under August Albert Zimmermann, Emil Jakob Schindler was one of the first to devote himself completely to outdoor painting and to concentrate on contemporary motifs. Taking his cue from the 'paysages intimes' of the Barbizon artists, Schindler painted a series of Viennese suburban scenes, among them many views of a Danube steamer landing stage near the Prater park. In contrast to the French painters however, Schindler in this dazzlingly sunlit picture made no attempt at chromatic harmony but merged details into planes of color, and in radically simplifying their appearance went a considerable step further. The light too gains an unprecedented harshness and leads to daring contrasts, all of them at odds with the tonal precepts of the Academy. Beginning with his conception of nature, he goes on to champion the importance of unfiltered light and unbridled color and, with resolute brush strokes, transposes them into pure planes. As a result Schindler, who attained a high degree of subtlety in conveying the atmosphere of a landscape, became a leading personality. The powerful influence he exercised on a whole group of contemporary and younger artists ensured his position as the main exponent of 'Atmospheric Impressionism'.
on 27 April 1656: Gerrit Hermanszoon van Honthorst
Gherardo della Notte, Dutch painter and draftsman addicted
to night scenes, born on 04 November 1592 (1590?). [Did he hunt horsed?]
Honthorst was a leading member of the Utrecht school influenced by the Italian painter Caravaggio.
Like his slightly older contemporary Hendrik Terbrugghen, Honthorst first studied under Abraham Bloemaert in Utrecht. In about 1610 he moved to Italy, where he had leading nobles as patrons and assimilated Caravaggio's realism and dramatic use of artificial light into a personal idiom. Notable works of his Italian sojourn include The Beheading of Saint John the Baptist,
_ Christ Before the High Priest (1617), and the
_ Supper Party (1620), all nocturnal scenes.
Returning to the Netherlands in 1620, Honthorst stayed in Utrecht until 1627, the year of Rubens' visit to his home. He was dean of the Utrecht Guild of St. Luke in 1625-26, and in 1628 he worked at the court of Charles I in London. The rest of his life was spent primarily in The Hague and, after 1652, at Utrecht.
Although Honthorst accepted commissions for decorative cycles and painted at least one illusionistic ceiling, his most significant contribution to Dutch painting was his joint leadership, with Terbrugghen, of the Utrecht followers of Caravaggio. Rembrandt's use of Caravaggesque devices in his early works derives in large part from his knowledge of Honthorst's paintings. Honthorst's brother Willem van Honthorst (1594-1666), who was also an accomplished painter, sometimes worked with him.
— He came from a large Catholic family in Utrecht, with several artist members. His grandfather, Gerrit Huygensz. van Honthorst (fl 1575–1579), and his father, Herman Gerritsz. van Honthorst (fl 1611–1616), were kleerschrijvers (textile and tapestry designers); his father is also occasionally mentioned in documents as a painter. Both his grandfather and father held official positions in the Utrecht artists’ guilds, Gerrit Huygenszoon from 1575 to 1579, and Herman Gerritszoon in 1616. Two of Gerrit Hermanszoon’s brothers were also trained as artists. Herman Hermanszoon van Honthorst (fl 1629–1632) was trained to be a sculptor but later became a priest, and Willem Hermanszoon van Honthorst [1594–1666] studied painting under Gerrit Hermanszoon, whose style he frequently emulated.
Gerrit Hermanszoon was the most successful artist in the family and the most famous member of the group of Utrecht Caravaggisti. His predilection for turning the Caravaggio’s dramatic patterns of natural light and shadow into nocturnal scenes with cleverly rendered effects of artificial illumination won him the nickname Gherardo delle Notti.
Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, with His Wife Amalia van Solms and Their Three Youngest Daughters (1647)
The Merry Fiddler (1623, 108x89cm) _ Honthorst’s native city of Utrecht, the primary Catholic stronghold in the predominantly Protestant Netherlands of the seventeenth century, had unusually close ties to Rome. Consequently, many painters from Utrecht traveled to Rome, and Honthorst was no exception. He made his artistic pilgrimage between 1610 and 1612 and remained in Rome for some time, enjoying a considerable reputation. By 1620, he was back in Utrecht, where he (and Dirck van Baburen, also newly returned from Rome) introduced into northern painting the single half-length genre figure. These life-size figures included musicians, shepherds and shepherdesses, and peasants, often depicted enjoying themselves while engaging the spectator. The idea, which met with great success, was apparently borrowed from Bartolomeo Manfredi, an Italian follower of Caravaggio, whom the artists might have known in Rome.
This painting is Honthorst’s earliest known example of the half-length type. The artist has emphasized the volume of the violinist and heightened the illusionistic effect by placing the bulky figure behind a window ledge and extending his arm toward the viewer. Honthorst here employs Caravaggio’s characteristic palette, the vitality and nearness of his figures, and the strong contrasts between light and dark, innovations that were quite new to northern art. What Honthorst contributed to Caravaggio’s pictorial strategies is the directness with which his figure appeals to the viewer, almost proffering an invitation to join in the fun.
The violinist’s outdated, theatrical costume and the suggestive symbols he holds might have carried specific associations to the seventeenth-century viewer that are now lost to us. Furthermore, The Merry Fiddler might have originally had a pendant. The Flute Player in Schwerin shares the dimensions, the height of the windowsill, the space in front of the painting, and the musical subject with The Merry Fiddler. Whether or not a further meaning was intended, The Merry Fiddler, alone or as part of a pair, was certainly intended to convey delight — in wine, music, and life.
Samson and Delilah (1617‚ 129x94cm) _ The most important and successful of the northern Caravaggisti was the Utrecht painter Gerrit van Honthorst. Perhaps as early as 1610, he followed the path taken by many of his colleagues and departed for Rome. While there, he quickly received the recognition that would continue throughout his career. It was also in Rome that Honthorst developed his ability to turn Caravaggio's "dramatic patterns of natural light and shadow into nocturnal scenes with cleverly rendered effects of artificial illumination." This ability earned him the Italian nickname Gherardo delle Notti (Gerard of the Nights). Few paintings make a better case for such a nickname than Samson and Delilah. The bright flame atop the candle held by the heroine's accomplice dramatically illuminates just enough of the darkened room to enable Delilah to cut the long locks of the sleeping Samson's hair. Honthorst painted Samson and Delilah during his years in Rome, and at least one scholar has suggested that "this painting might very well be Honthorst's earliest Roman work and not from his more mature years. In spite of its potential for dramatic effect, the subject was rarely painted by the northern Caravaggisti. Based on Judges 16:19, the scene shows the Philistine woman Delilah, assisted by her servant, cutting the source of Samson's strength-his hair-while he dozes. This event took place only after Delilah, Samson's lover, had been bribed by her countrymen to find out his secret. Afterwards, Samson could offer little resistance against the Philistines who blinded and imprisoned him.
Mars, God of War (1624‚ 90x74cm) _ The figure in this painting can be identified as Mars, the brutal and aggressive god of war from Roman mythology. Many art historians believe that the painting is a fragment of a larger work, an opinion prompted by the fact that the torch and sword are cut off by the right edge of the canvas, the god's elbow by the left, and that the figure seems squeezed into the space. These concerns were outlined in a letter by Nicolson to the work's previous owners. I am most impressed by the tilt of the sword and the way the light is managed in this area, and also by the way the strap, crossing the chest, follows the contours of the body in a subtle and sophisticated manner. I am a little puzzled by the subject. Honthorst was not in the habit of painting simple figures of mythological subjects, (I take it this is the figure of Mars), and considering that it is a finished painting and not a study for a figure, that the right elbow, sword point and fire br and, are cut off by the frame and the dimensions are quite small for a mythological subject, it could be a fragment of a much larger horizontal picture. It may never be known if this work in its current format was part of a much larger, multi-figured composition, or whether the artist merely made minor adjustments along the edges of the canvas. This work also dates from the 1620s and provides onlookers with a close-up view of the god against a stark, undefined backdrop. Honthorst provided an immediacy to his figure that is enhanced by the powerful and dramatic chiaroscuro.
by the Shepherds (1622, 164x190cm) _ This painting probably came from
the Stadtholder's collection and during the 18th century hung in the Carthusian
church of St. Barbara in Cologne. Honthorst was one of the Stadtholder's
court artists who had studied in Italy and worked in the Baroque style.
Childhood of Christ (1620) _ Using a single candle light in the center of the picture is a characteristic feature of Honthorst's paintings.
Christ before the High Priest (1617, 272x183cm) _ detail _ Honthorst, like Ter Brugghen, was a student of the history painter Abraham Bloemaert in Utrecht and also went to Rome. Unlike Ter Brugghen, however, he there achieved an international reputation, working for nobles and princes of the Church. The Italians called him Gherardo delle Notti, - Gerard of the Nocturnes - and this painting, made for the Marchese Vincenzo Giustiniani in whose palace Honthorst stayed, explains why. On his return north of the Alps Honthorst was so famous that he was invited to England by Charles I, for whom he painted mythological subjects and many portraits. He continued to receive commissions from royalty in Holland, executing portraits and allegorical decorations for Prince Frederick Hendrik of Orange, and in 1635 he sent the first of a long series of historical and mythological narratives to Christian IV of Denmark. The exiled Queen of Bohemia, Elisabeth Stuart and her daughters were among his many students in The Hague.
Where Ter Brugghen in The Concert uses candlelight to create a scene of dreamlike enchantment, Honthorst employ it to lend veracity and dramatic tension to a biblical story (Matthew 26:57-64). After his capture on the night of the Agony in the Garden, Jesus is taken for interrogation and trial before the High Priest Caiphas, where two false witnesses - the shifty-looking men behind Caiphas - speak against him. Within the vast composition - in scale and format like an altarpiece but never intended for one - the visibility of the life-size figures depends entirely on that single candle flame. Its gleam unifies the whole, by giving the impression of illuminating the entire room with evenly decreasing intensity until its force is spent in the dark, and by justifying the reddish cast of all the colors It allows the two principal characters to stand out more solidly in relief and in greater detail than the others. It focuses attention on their poses, gestures and expressions. It picks out the few significant accessories, notably the books of the Law and the rope by which Christ is tied, and it creates the solemn and threatening atmosphere of a nighttime interrogation.
Through his mastery of the physical effects of illumination from a single source, Honthorst is also able to make symbolic points. Christ's white robe, torn from his shoulder when he was made prisoner, reflects more light than the priest's furred cloak - so that light seems to radiate from him. Though submissive, Christ is without question the main subject of the painting, the Light of the World and the Son of God.
Concert on a Balcony (1624, 168x178cm) _ Besides religious and mythological scenes Honthorst painted in the 1620s in Utrecht at least one illusionistic ceiling, the Musical Group on a Balcony, which was done for his own house in Utrecht. The painting is the earliest existing Dutch illusionistic painted ceiling. Equally innovative for Holland is his illusionistic Concert on a Balcony. The 'trompe-l'oeil' picture, which decorated the Palace of Nordeinde, shows, in steep perspective, life-size musicians and their companions in an architectural setting, but this one was intended as illusionistic wall not a ceiling. The prototype for Dutch illusionistic fields of walls and ceilings is found in decorative schemes executed for high-placed patrons in Italy. The unmistakable source for Honthorst's illusionistic paintings is Orazio Gentileschi and Agostino Tassi's life-size trompe-l'oeil frescoes, painted in 1611-12 for Cardinal Scipione Borghese's garden 'Casino of the Muses', now part of the Palazzo Pallavicini-Rospigliosi in Rome. Honthorst had ample opportunity to study them when he worked for the Cardinal.
Margareta Maria de Roodere and Her Parents (1652, 140x170cm) _ The social status of the painters in the Dutch Republic varied from day laborers through independent masters to well-rewarded court artists such as Michiel van Miereveld and Gerrit van Honthorst, who specialized in portraiture of high officials. In one such portrait, van Honthorst represented yet another type of painter: a well-to-do amateur who painted for pleasure. Several women became accomplished painters in this way. Most master was men, but more than a dozen women are recorded as having attained master's status, most famously Judith Leyster [1609-1660].
Musical Group on a Balcony (1622, fresco) _ Honthorst was born in Utrecht; there he was Abraham Bloemaert's student. He is said to have been in Rome as early as 1610-12, but he is not documented there until 1616. Nothing is known about his artistic activity until the last year of the decade, and not a work painted before he went to south has been discovered. He became the best-known Dutch follower of Caravaggio. A typical example of his religious paintings executed in Italy is the Christ before the High Priest (National Gallery, London). Though Honthorst continued to depict scenes from the Scripture after his return to Utrecht in 1620, the religious pictures he made in Rome are from many points of view the climax of his work as a painter of biblical themes. During the 1620s he painted works in the Arcadian mode which shows that he had looked at the Carracci as well as the Caravaggio while in Italy. Besides religious and mythological scenes he painted at least one illusionistic ceiling, Musical Group on a Balcony, which was done for his own house in Utrecht. The painting, only partially preserved, is the earliest existing Dutch illusionistic painted ceiling.
Supper Party (1619) _ Honthorst's genre pictures of lighthearted gatherings had a great impact in Utrecht. He made such pictures while he was still in Italy. His Supper Party, painted during his last months in Italy, set a precedent for similar scenes done in the 1620s at Utrecht where artists favored the erotic as well as the ascetic side of Baroque art. This is already evident in Honthorst's Supper Party where the person who covers the light has the effect of 'repoussoir': the large dark figure in the foreground causes, by contrast, the merrymakers behind him to recede in space, and thus enhances the illusion of depth. The second advantage is the vivid reflection of light thrown on the figures and, in particular, on their faces, which are painted in reddish-yellow colors This helps Honthorst to overcome the harshness found in the work of other Caravaggio followers.
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Born on 27 April 1791: Samuel Finley Breese Morse, US painter, telegraph pioneer, who died on 02 April 1872.
Morse developed an electric telegraph, which he first demonstrated in 1838. Several years later, he received a grant from Congress to build an experimental telegraph line, from Baltimore to Washington DC. In 1844, Morse transmitted the historic message, "What hath God wrought?"
Morse is born in Charlestown, Massachusetts, the eldest son of Reverend Jedidiah Morse and Elizabeth Ann Breese. Morse's intellectual outlook and future commitment to cultural nationalism were deeply influenced by the orthodox Calvinist millennialism and evangelism he inherited from his father. He began to paint portraits in the naive style characteristic of the Connecticut School while attending Yale University. After graduation he moved to Boston and became the private student and friend of Washington Allston, who introduced him to a traditional program of academic study that encompassed drawing, anatomy, and art theory. With Allston's encouragement he went to London in 1811, where he met Benjamin West, befriended Charles Robert Leslie, and was accepted as a student at the Royal Academy of Art.
Morse's first major painting, The Dying Hercules (1813), was a fairly competent attempt at the neoclassical history painting that was in vogue among Academy painters. Full of optimism, the young painter returned to America in 1815 with expectations of establishing himself as a professional artist. The unsophisticated cultural atmosphere was not conducive to his aspirations, and Morse was forced into earning a meager living as an itinerant portraitist, active in New England, Charleston, South Carolina, and New York. He suffered a major disappointment when his painting
_ .The House of Representatives (1823), envisioned as a touring picture for public entertainment, was a critical and financial failure.
Morse's perseverance was finally rewarded in 1824 when he won the most prestigious commission of the decade to paint the full-length portrait The Marquis de Lafayette (1826) when the French hero was on his triumphal tour of America. The successful completion of this important portrait gained Morse the recognition and professional eminence he had sought for a decade, and designated the apex of his career as an artist. An educated, eloquent, and tireless crusader on behalf of artists' rights, in 1826 Morse used his new prestige to lead a group of young artists who seceded from the moribund American Academy of Art and founded the progressive National Academy of Design; he served as its first president until 1845. The foundation of this new organization, which was dedicated primarily to art instruction, led directly to an efflorescence of American art, and a new generation of painters and sculptors made their debuts at its annual exhibitions.
In 1826 Morse delivered a series of four important lectures at the New York Athenaeum in which he argued for the advancement of art in US society. In 1829 he embarked on a three year grand tour of Europe, where he studied and copied works by the old masters in the museums of France and Italy. This period culminated in the large
_ Gallery of the Louvre (1833; 379x535pix, 31kb), a pictorial summation of European art with which he hoped to improve US culture after his return to New York in 1832. Despite its favorable reception among the intelligentsia, the painting failed before the general public. Morse was further humiliated in 1837 when the Congressional Committee on Public Buildings decided not to commission him to paint a mural for the Capitol Rotunda. This rejection may in part have been brought about by Morse's reputation for radical politics; in the middle 1830s he became associated with the Native American party and wrote several widely-read and vitriolic anti-Catholic diatribes whose xenophobic tone bordered on paranoia.
Disillusioned by failure, Morse ceased painting in 1837 at the age of forty-six, and devoted the last thirty-five years of his life to perfecting the electromagnetic telegraph. He died in New York in 1872. Strictly as an artist Morse did not exert a major impact on the stylistic development of nineteenth century US art, and his ideas and art appealed exclusively to the cultural elite. Well before his death Morse's invention of the telegraph had eclipsed his early renown as a painter, and it was only after the retrospective exhibition of his work held at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1932 that interest in his art revived. With the exception of the romantic Lafayette portrait, his most ambitious works failed before an unreceptive public. Unable to earn a living through painting historical subjects he was forced into portraiture, and many of these paintings are of negligible quality. It was as a founder and first president of the National Academy of Design that Morse did much to advance art in America.
Inventor of the telegraph, but not the first.
Samuel F. B. Morse developed an early interest in electricity at Yale from the lectures of Jeremiah Day and Benjamin Silliman in 1807. Although he pursued a career as an artist, Morse loved to tinker with machines and scientific problems, developing a wide range of talents that would make him the "American Leonardo." During a trip to Europe in 1830, he observed the French semaphore system for sending messages, as Morse described, "by telegraphic despatch" faster than the slow mail in the US. He believed that an electric spark could send messages faster than the French semaphores ( see Telegraphs before Morse) During the return voyage to the US on the ship Sully in October and November 1832, Morse designed his telegraph using a simple code of dots and dashes. These would be recorded on paper tape by an electromagnetic lever moving a pencil up and down according to changes in the electric current sent from a distant transmitter. Morse apparently was unaware of earlier telegraphs based on the discoveries of Volta, Oersted, and Ampère.
The direct-current electricity came from gravity batteries that were the weak point in the 1835 model. With the help of Leonard Gale who had read Joseph Henry's 1831 article on electromagnetism, the original one-cell battery was replaced with a 20-cell battery, and 100 turns of wire were wound around the electromagnet. By 03 October, 1837, the device could transmit through 15 km of wire, and Morse file a patent caveat. Gale owned a share of the patent, as well as a new partner, Arthur Vail, who helped redesign and improved the telegraph for a successful demonstration on 06 January 1838, at Vail's Speedwell Iron Works in Morristown, New Jersey, transmitting 3 km the sentence: "Railroad cars just arrived, 345 passengers."
By the time of the next demonstration on 24 January at New York University, Morse developed a new code with dots and dashes representing letters rather than digits. Vail's family later claimed that Arthur Vail invented the Morse code, but Vail himself denied it and wrote that Morse invented the code. Vail's most important contribution was to replace the portrule with a hand-operated key that reproduced the code by means of a pattern of clicks. On 21 February 1838, Morse demonstrated his telegraph to President Van Buren and the Cabinet in Washington. To help sell his telegraph to the government, Morse accepted the partnership of Francis O.J. "Fog" Smith, Chairman of the Committee on Commerce.
However, Congress would not pass the bill to spend $30'000 for a telegraph line until 03 March 1843. Ezra Cornell was hired to lay the underground pipe for the wires from Washington to Baltimore using a trenching plow of his own design. When the pipe was found to be defective, Morse put the wires on overhead poles as Dyar had done in Long Island and Wheatstone in England. The double wires were insulated with gum shellac and raised on the chestnut poles 7 m high and 60 m apart, starting north from Washington in March, 1844, reaching Annapolis Junction by the time the Whig convention met on 01 May in Baltimore. When Clay and Freylinheusen won the nomination, the news was telegraphed by Vail in Annapolis Junction to Morse at the Capitol in Washington.
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On 24 May 24 was finished and Morse sent to Baltimore the code for What hath God wrought! (chosen by Annie Ellsworth from Numbers 23:23). Telegraph operators quickly learned to send and receive solely from the sound of the clicks rather than use paper tape.
[Telegraph Register, 01 May 1849 patent # 6420 by Morse >]
Morse was not the first to invent a telegraph, but he is known as the father of the telegraph because he created a new industry. Hiram Sibley and Ezra Cornell made Western Union into one of the most influential corporate empires in American history. The electric telegraph was the stimulus for inventors to search for better methods of sending and recording all kinds of messages, including voice and music. David E. Hughes, a Professor of Music at St. Joseph's College in Kentucky, invented in 1855 a keyboard telegraph with rotating type-wheel printer that became the foundation of the modern telex industry. In Germany, telegraph printers were patented as early as 1848 and Philip Reis invented an acoustic transmitter in 1861 that used a diaphragm to open and close an electrical circuit. He called it a telephone hoping to use it to reproduce speech and music but was unsuccessful. Elisha Gray and his Western Electric Company in Chicago had also invented an improved telegraph receiver, calling it a telephone after 1874 because it produced a wide range of sounds, but failed make a similar transmitter. [Morse coder]
–- Self Portrait (1812; 76x64cm)
Self Portrait (1818)
–- The Muse
–- Mrs. and Mr. Terry
–- The Goldfish Bowl
–- Lucretia Morse
–- Mrs. Kahlenkamp
–- Chapel of the Virgin at Subiaco
–- Niagara Falls
— William Cullen Bryart (1830; 600x515pix, 43kb_ ZOOM not recommended to blurry 1400x1202pix, 98kb)
James Monroe (1820)
Lucretia Morse and her Children (1824)
Died on 27 April 1886: Louis-Eugène-Gabriel
Isabey, French painter and printmaker, one of Louis-Philippe’s
principal court painters; equally notable for his land- and seascapes, he
represents a link between the artists of the Rococo revival and the birth
— Eugène Isabey was born on 22 July 1803, son of portrait miniaturist Jean-Baptiste Isabey [11 Apr 1767 – 18 Apr 1855]. Eugène Isabey spent his earliest years in the Louvre among such artists as François Gérard and the Vernet family, and at 7 rue des Trois Frères at the foot of Montmartre. His first works, mostly landscapes in watercolor, painted on the outskirts of Paris, display an independent character that owes little to the influence of his father or the other artists among whom he had lived. In 1820 he visited Normandy with his father, Charles Nodier, and Alphonse de Cailleux, the future director of the Louvre. In 1821 he visited Britain with Nodier and discovered British painting; it is uncertain whether Isabey ever met Richard Parkes Bonington (his father certainly knew him), but Bonington’s free watercolor technique had a decisive influence on his development. Isabey’s admiration for Géricault, the advice of his friends and a passionate temperament also helped to form his style, which was characterized by skilfully worked brushstrokes and a preference for impasto rather than glazing. Between 1821 and 1824 Isabey seems to have returned to Normandy several times, painting on the coast between Le Havre and Dieppe. At the Salon of 1824 he exhibited a series of seascapes and landscapes, which helped to establish his reputation.
–- La Tentation de Saint Antoine (1869, 347x310cm; 2343x2161pix, 557kb) -_ détail (857x1144pix, 112kb)
— Un port en France (1825; 600x700pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1633pix)
— Paysage de côte avec un bateau de pêche (1828; 600x920pix _ ZOOM to 1400x2147pix)
— Le transfert des cendres de Napoléon à bord de La Belle Poule, le 15 octobre 1840 (1825; 600x944pix _ ZOOM to 1400x2203pix)
— Christine Boyer (circle 580x580pix _ ZOOM to 1353x1353pix)
L'arrivée du duc d'Alba à Rotterdam en 1567 (1844)
— Repas Dans Un Couvent (1876, 62x94cm)
— Retour Au Port (152x259cm)
— La Réception du Cardinal (53x58cm)
— Hurricane before Saint Malo (1860, 107x156cm) _ On the wind-lashed Brittany coast, men and women strain to drag a boat up the beach. The wind is almost palpable, smoke from the chimney near the centre of the picture blows horizontally, the small flags stream backwards and the frothy turbulent sea is blown up against beach and harbor. Against this strong diagonal movement, from bottom left to top right, the masts of the boats lean into the wind, just as we would in such a gale to stay on our feet.