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ART “4” “2”-DAY  23 April v.10.30
BIRTHS: 1820 SANT — 1861 MOLL 1833 VOLLON   1775 TURNER
^ Died on 23 (24?) April 1774: Christian Wilhelm Ernst Dietrich (or Dietricy), German painter and etcher born on 30 October 1712. — [Did he eat a rich diet, or was the family fortune made by running a fat farm?]
— Dietrich spent most of his life in Dresden, where he became a Professor at the Academy in 1764, and where he died. A diverse and eclectic artist, he painted pastiches of, for example, Watteau, Salvator Rosa, Adriaen van Ostade and Rembrandt; he also decorated Meissen porcelain and practiced as an etcher. He died in Dresden.
— Born in Weimar, he received his first training from his father, Johann Georg Dietrich [1684–1752], a court painter at Weimar, and, at the age of 13, was sent to Dresden to study under the landscape painter Johann Alexander Thiele [1685–1752]. In 1728 they traveled to Arnstadt to paint landscapes for stage sets. In 1730 Thiele presented his student to Frederick-Augustus I, Elector of Saxony, as a prodigy. Frederick-Augustus appointed Dietrich court painter and entrusted him to his minister Heinrich, Graf von Brühl, for whom he worked on some decorative paintings.
      From 1732 he used the name ‘Dietricy’ to sign his paintings. He traveled in Germany from 1734 and may have visited the Netherlands, the source of his artistic inspiration. He returned from his travels in 1741 and was appointed court painter to Frederick-Augustus II, Elector of Saxony, (King Augustus III of Poland), who sent him to Italy in 1743 to study. Dietricy visited Venice and Rome but returned to Dresden in 1744. In 1748 he was appointed Inspector of the Gemäldegalerie in Dresden, which had recently become more influential because of important purchases from Italy. The following period saw Dietrich at the height of his success, and his works were in demand all over Europe.

Seesturm und Schiffbruch I (801x1099pix, 65kb — ZOOM to 1201x1649pix, 248kb)
Seesturm und Schiffbruch II (883x1198pix, 80kb — ZOOM to 1178x1598pix, 215kb)
Himmelfahrt Christi (1048x570pix, 78kb)
La Transverberation de Sainte Thérèse (75x60cm)
The Wandering Musicians (43x33cm, signed and dated, bottom right: Dietricij fecit 1745) _ The style is an imitation of Adriaen van Ostade's. Dietrich himself later made an etching of the composition as did his friend, the engraver Jean-George Wille. In 1761, he painted a pendant showing a woman selling cakes.
Felsige Landschaft mit Wasserfall (1752; 430x542pix, 50kb)
^ Born on 23 April 1820: James Sant, English painter who died on 12 (02?) July 1916.
— He studied under John Varley and Sir Augustus Wall Callcott and at the Royal Academy Schools, London. He was elected ARA in 1861 and RA in 1869. In 1872 (1871?) he became portrait painter to Queen Victoria, whose portrait he painted with three of her grandchildren. He exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy from 1840, retiring in 1914. He was a prolific and successful portrait painter who often created striking effects of pose, tone and color, with vigorous handling. At the end of the 19th century he adopted a freer style, influenced by John Singer Sargent. He also painted landscapes, allegories and genre scenes and worked in watercolor as well as oil. Such sentimental subjects as Little Red Riding Hood (1860) were immensely popular in reproduction. The London-based landscape painter George Sant (fl 1856–1877) was evidently his brother, for whose works James often provided the figures.
— James Sant was primarily a painter of portraits, and from 1872 was officially portrait painter to Queen Victoria. He had many other patrons amongst the aristocratic families of Britain, hence he must have been a painter entrepreneur. Sant's portraits of noble ladies were flattering, something they, and their husbands unsurprisingly liked. He also painted allegorical and genre pictures. Rather surprisingly Sant was known to be very straightforward with sitters who applied what he considered to be too much make-up. He started exhibiting at the Royal Academy in 1840, and showed his last picture in 1915.

The Children Of Major H. Barrett Of Moredon, Taunton (1909, 158x97cm; 1000x595pix, 103kb)
The Russell Sisters (1858, 92x74cm)
The Schoolmaster's Daughter (1870, 85x110cm)
Feeding The Chicks (61x51cm)
Innocence (61x51cm)
Lillie Langtry (31x23cm)
The Duet (oval 77x64cm)
Sentiment (76x63cm)
Miss Martineau's Garden (1873, 31x47cm)
Rosalind (79x66cm)
Ophelia (64x76cm) _ This half-length Ophelia looks more like a child than a woman capable of the attentions of the thirty-year-old Hamlet. Ophelia, wreathed in flowers and holding a pansy ("that's for thoughts"), is more puzzled — even vacant — than mad. Sant's keep-sake portrait is clearly aligned with the tradition of a young, vulnerable, and delicate Ophelia.
^ Died on 23 April 1864: Claude-Marie Dubufe , French painter, best known for portraits, born in 1790.
— His father, a chef d'institution, educated him for a career in the diplomatic service. At the age of 19 he was nominated vice-consul and was on the point of leaving for America when David (who had given Dubufe some instruction) persuaded his father to allow him to train as a painter. Dubufe received no further support from his father and paid for his lessons from David by playing the violin in an orchestra. Dubufe's Salon paintings A Roman Allowing his Family to Die of Hunger rather than Touch a Sum of Money Entrusted to his Keeping; like Achilles Protecting Iphigenia (1812) and Christ Calming the Tempest (1819) have disappeared. His earliest surviving composition, Apollo and Cyparissus (1821), is elegantly mannered in a style inspired by Girodet but did not appeal much to the critics. He then painted the first of a number of sentimental genre pictures in the manner of The Surprise (1828), of which the most famous, Souvenirs and Regrets (Pasadena, CA, Norton Simon Mus.), were widely known through many engraved versions. He was the father of Louis-Édouard Dubufe [31 Mar 1819 (1820?) – 11 Aug 1883]

La famille Dubufe en 1820 (1820, 64x82cm; 512x643pix, 95kb) _ The artist's self-portrait is the profile at the right edge.
Sleeping (600x788pix, 133kb)
Awakening (600x791pix, 157kb)
La Douleur aka La lettre de Wagram or Femme Pleurant (65x54cm; 650x533pix, 42kb) _ A woman weeps over a letter she has just read, accompanying the Légion d'Honneur decoration posthumously awarded to her husband, who died fighting in the Battle of Wagram (05 and 06 July 1809), in which Napoléon [15 Aug 1769 – 05 May 1821] defeated the Austrians under Archduke Karl [05 Sep 1771 – 30 Apr 1847]. The engraving La Douleur (1828; 650x650pix, 135kb) is a monochrome mirror-image. The model is said to be the actress Mlle. George, who had been a mistress of Napoléon Bonaparte. Après l'immense succès de deux tableaux exposée au Salon de 1827, Les souvenirs et Les regrets, Dubufe se fit une spécialité de ces têtes d'expression féminines, sentimentales à la Greuze; ont été gravées: La Suppliante, La Candeur, Le Repentir, etc.
Les Regrets (1827, 92x119cm; 413x540pix, 37kb _ ZOOM to 826x1080pix, 160kb _ ZOOM+ to detail 826x1080pix, 131kb _ ZOOM++ to detail 826x1080pix, 95kb)
Les Souvenirs (1827, 92x119cm; 420x540pix, 38kb _ ZOOM to 839x1080pix, 160kb _ ZOOM+ to detail 839x1080pix, 131kb _ ZOOM++ to detail of head 839x1080pix, 95kb _ ZOOM++ to detail of arm and hand holding locket 839x1080pix, 95kb)
Une Jeune Femme (130x98cm; 540x396pix, 24kb _ ZOOM to 1081x792pix, 97kb _ ZOOM+ to detail 1081x792pix, 99kb _ ZOOM++ to detail of head 1081x792pix, 79kb)
Joseph Fouché (411x299pix, 42kb) _ Il est en grand habit de ministre de la Police générale sous l’Empire. Joseph Fouché [21 May 1758 – 25 Dec 1820] was a French opportunistic and unprincipled politician who managed to have a post under every government from 1792 to 1815 (usually by betraying the previous one). He was most efficient as a ruthless minister of police.
–- Lady Menuhin's Grandfather and Great-Grandmother (148x116cm; 900x705pix, 46kb _ .ZOOM to 1575x1233pix, 93kb) the future paternal grandfather of the ballerina Diana Rosamond Constance Grace Irene Gould Menuhin [12 Nov 1912 – 25 Jan 2003] (2nd wife of Yehudi Menuhin [22 Apr 1916 – 12 Mar 1999]) , Gérard Gould, being a young child at the time (his son, the father of Diana, bore the same name).
–- Le Duc de Morny (885x732pix, 34kb)
^ Born on 23 April 1861: Carl Moll, ,Austrian painter, specialized in nearly square landscapes. In the 1930s he became a Nazi. When Nazi Germany was going down in defeat, he commited suicide on 12 April 1945 together with his daughter and her husband, in Vienna, into which the victorious Russians were entering. — {Moll did not have a moll?} {Heureusement que ses parents ont décidé de ne pas l'appeller Bernard, Bertrand, Blaise, Barnabé, Barthélémy, ou Baudoin: il aurait été B. Moll et serait peut-être devenu musicien.}
— Moll studied (1880–1881) under Carl Griepenkerl at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna but had to abandon his course because of ill-health. Subsequently he studied privately under the Austrian painter Emil Jakob Schindler [1842–1892], and in 1895 he married Schindler’s widow, making him the stepfather of her daughter, later Alma Mahler Gropius Werfel [31 Aug 1879 — 11 Dec 1964] (who hated him), and, when Alma, after several flirtations, including one with Gustav Klimt [14 Jul 1862 – 06 Feb 1918], married (1902, 1915, 1929), that made Moll the stepfather-in-law, successively, of the composer Gustav Mahler [07 Jul 1860 – 18 May 1911], of the architect Walter Gropius [18 May 1883 – 05 Jul 1969], and of the writer Franz Werfel [10 Sep 1890 – 26 Aug 1945], not to mention the ... hum (is there such a thing as a “stepfather-out-law”?) ... of the painter Oskar Kokoschka [01 Mar 1886 – 22 Feb 1980], whom Alma did not marry but to whom she was much more than just a model (between 1911 and 1915 only, let's hope). Kokoschka painted her many times, most notably in Die Windsbraut (1914).
      From 1888 Moll exhibited in the Künstlerhaus in Vienna but did not become a member until 1892. In 1897 he joined the Vienna Secession. He became one of its leading organizers, working on the magazine Ver sacrum and taking responsibility for most of the exhibitions of foreign artists, including the French Impressionist exhibition of 1903. In 1900–1901 he was president of the Secession, leaving it along with the Klimt group in 1905. In 1908–1909 he took part in the Vienna Kunstschau, and until 1912 he was an adviser at the Galerie Miethke in Vienna. He was active in helping the young painters Oskar Kokoschka, Anton Kolig, and Franz Wiegele. In 1930 he published a monograph on Schindler.
— Carl Moll begann sein Studium bei Carl Haunold und an der Wiener Akademie bei Christian Griepenkerl; 1882 wurde er anschließend Privatschüler und treuer Freund von Emil Jakob Schindler, mit dessen Witwe er sich nach des Malers Tod vermählte. Er war Mitglied des Wiener Künstlerhauses und 1897 Mitbegründer der Wiener Secession, deren Präsident er 1900/01 wurde; 1905 erfolgte allerdings der Austritt mit den Künstlern der "Klimt-Gruppe". Moll, der selbst ein großer Organisator und Förderer des Wiener Kunstlebens war, unternahm Zeit seines Lebens viele Reisen, die ihn u.a. nach Deutschland, Belgien, Holland, Frankreich, Italien, Spanien sowie nach Nordafrika führten.

Mein Wohnzimmer (1903; 600x597pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1394pix, 409kb)
Aus meinem Atelier Selbstbildnis (1906, 100x100cm; 349x350pix, 28kb _ ZOOM to 595x600pix, 64kb)
Junges Mädchen (660x763pix, 79kb)
Motiv aus Venedig (1926, 35x35cm) _ Im Jahr 1926 besuchten Carl Moll und seine Gattin Anna deren Tochter Alma und Franz Werfel in Venedig, die dort die sogenannte „Casa Mahler“ besaßen. Bei diesem Aufenthalt entstand nebenstehendes Gemälde, das den Blick von der Insel San Giorgio Maggiore auf die mächtige Kuppel von S. Maria Salute mit dem vorgelagerten Zollgebäude (Dogana) unter einem sonnigen Himmel zeigt. Davor ankert ein großes, elegantes Schiff und einige kleine Boote gleiten im ruhigen graugrünen Wasser der Lagune. Mit dieser treffsicher und mit flottem Pinsel gemalten Venedig-Ansicht zeigt sich Moll wieder als großartiger Beobachter von Licht und Atmosphäre. Motive wie nebenstehendes gehören zu den seltensten im Werk des berühmten Künstlers.
Blick in den Park von Schloß Neudorf (1930, 35x36cm; 446x450pix, 118kb) _ Nebenstehendes Gemälde entstand im Park des Renaissance-Schlosses Neudorf (bei Wildon in der Steiermark) an einem freundlichen, sonnigen Sommertag. Der Blick wandert über die blumenübersäte grüne Wiese des Vordergrundes zum alten Gemäuer, das hinter den Bäumen des Parks versteckt hervorlugt. Die friedvolle Szenerie des Schloßgartens, der zu langem Verweilen einlädt, besticht durch die klare kompositorische Anlage, die meisterlich nuancierten Grün- und Ockertöne sowie durch den duftigen, „lichtvollen“ Farbauftrag. Es handelt sich um ein kraftvolles Gemälde mit herrlichem Kolorit und expressiver, pastoser Pinselführung, die für das Werk Carl Molls aus dieser Zeit charakteristisch sind.
Blick auf die Rax (1940, 17x23cm; 343x450pix, 93kb) _ Seit 1913, als die Villa Mahler-Werfel am Kreuzberg (Gemeinde Breitenstein / NÖ) fertiggestellt wurde, war auch Carl Moll immer wieder zu Gast in diesem Sommerrefugium und „kulturellen Zentrum“ und erkundete malerisch die Semmering-Landschaft. Auch nebenstehendes kleines Gemälde, unweit der Villa Mahler entstanden, zeigt einen Blick über die herrlichen Wiesen und Wälder des Kreuzberges an seinem Abhang ins Preintal bis zum mächtigen Massiv der Raxalpe, die den markanten Bildabschluß bildet. Die Landschaft, in den leuchtenden Farben eines sonnigen Spätsommertages geschildert, ist durch den Wechsel von Wiesen- und Waldstücken sowie durch die Heumandln im Vordergrund spannungsreich rhythmisiert. Ein virtuos gemaltes Landschaftsbild voller Atmosphäre, das sich als Andenken an einen stimmungsvollen Sommertag ehemals im Besitz von Alma Mahler-Werfel befand.
Olivengarten in der Provence (1933, 34x35cm; 431x450pix, 125kb)_ Ausgehend von einem "Poetischen Realismus" seines Lehrerfreundes Schindler fand Moll ab der Jahrhundertwende zu einer ruhigen secessionistischen, manchmal pointillistischen Malerei, die zur unverwechselbaren und berühmten Kunst des "Wien um 1900" wurde. Nebenstehender "Olivengarten in der Provence" ist für die späteren Arbeiten repräsentativ: ein pastoser, oft gespachtelter Farbauftrag, das beibehaltene "secessionistische" Bildformat und eine Hinwendung zu einem licht- und farbbetonten "Expressionismus" prägen die intime Darstellung dieses sonnendurchfluteten südfranzösischen Olivenhaines bei Sanary, wo der Künstler mit seiner Frau einige Monate des Jahres 1933 verbrachte.
Sommerliches Mohnfeld (1930, 26x27cm) _ Erst nach Beendigung seiner zeitintensiven Tätigkeit in der Galerie Miethke 1912 konnte sich Carl Moll voll und ganz der Malerei widmen; unter dem Eindruck der „expressionistischen“, farbstarken Malerei der von ihm geförderten jungen Malergeneration – etwa Kokoschka, Faistauer, Kolig und Wiegele – wird sein Pinselduktus unbeschwerter und freier, sogar der Einsatz der Malerspachtel fast zur Gewohnheit und die Farbigkeit intensiver. Ein bezauberndes Beispiel seiner Malerei dieser Zeit ist nebenstehendes voll erblühtes „Sommerliches Mohnfeld“, welches sich als wogendes Blütenmeer über die Hälfte des Bildraumes erstreckt, perspektivisch elegant fortgesetzt von einer mit Obstbäumen bestandenen Wiese unter hellem, leicht bewölktem Sommerhimmel. Der harmonisch gewählte Landschaftsausschnitt – in abwechslungsreich abgestufter Farbigkeit und mit souveräner, leidenschaftlicher Pinselführung gemalt – vermittelt ein intensives Gefühl sommerlicher Idylle und zählt durch Motiv und malerische Qualität mithin zu den äußerst stimmungsvollen Werken aus der späteren Schaffensphase des Künstlers.
Am Heustadlwasser im Wiener Prater (1930, 60x60cm) _ Nach den Jahren subtilster Stricheltechnik und der behutsamen Wiedergabe von (Stadt-) Landschaften und Interieurs, findet Moll ab dem 2. Jahrzehnt des 20. Jahrhunderts zu einer unmittelbareren, kraftvolleren Darstellung der Natur. In unserem prachtvollen Gemälde, das geradezu idealtypisch für seine Malerei der 20er und 30er Jahre ist, zeigt der Künstler einen Ausschnitt vom Heustadlwasser im Wiener Prater. Die wohlausgewogene und dennoch spannungsreiche Komposition ist bestimmt von der mächtigen Baumkulisse der Uferböschung, deren Blattwerk vibrierend und lichtüberglänzt tief zur ruhigen, in verschiedenen Grünschattierungen schimmernden Wasserfläche hinabhängt. Die blau gestrichenen, am Ufer vertäuten Boote bilden schöne farbige Akzente inmitten der unberührt und ursprünglich wirkenden Aulandschaft. Ein Meisterwerk an Farbintensität und Tiefe, das die Atmosphäre eines idyllischen Sommertages im Wiener Prater heraufbeschwört.
Stilleben mit Astern und Glasdose (22 Jul 1921, 35x34cm; 450x439pix, 81kb) _ In nebenstehendem Gemälde erweist sich Carl Moll einmal mehr als vortrefflicher Schilderer von Materialeffekten und Oberflächentexturen. Vor einem dunklen Hintergrund kombinierte der Künstler eine Vase voll aufgeblühter Astern mit einer gläsernen Deckeldose. Das auftreffende Licht läßt die virtuos gesetzten weißen und roten Blüten aufleuchten, während die beiden Gefäße von raffinierten Reflexen umspielt werden. Dieses seltene und charakteristische Beispiel der hervorragenden Stillebenmalerei Carl Molls besticht durch seine farbenfrohe Lebendigkeit und greifbare Plastizität.
Gartenterrasse (1903; 496x500pix, 275kb _ ZOOM to 992x1000pix, 120kb)
Marktplatz in Waidhofen an der Ybbs (1938, 34x35cm; 416x418pix, 90kb)
Blick vom Zimmer Gustav Mahlers auf die Heiligenstädter Pfarrkirche (34x35cm; 434x447pix, 102kb)
Sommerblumen (1926, 60x60cm; 428x425pix, 105kb)
Platz Am Hof mit Radetzkydenkmal (47x33cm; 700x507pix, 96kb)
Südfranzösische Landschaft (1919, 50x61cm; 325x400pix, 19kb)
Beethovens Haus, Eroikagasse, Wien (1902 woodcut; 640x584, 197kb)
Died on a 23 April:

^ >1880 Raden Syarif Bustaman Saleh (or Sarief Bastaman), Javanese painter born in 1814. Saleh, a Javanese aristocrat, was trained by the Belgian painter A.A.J. Payen. During a stay in the Netherlands, from 1829 on, Saleh was a student of landscape painter A. Schelfhout and og portrait painter C. Kruseman. Later he went on a long journey through Germany. Saleh was heavily influenced by Europe. Back home in Batavia, he built a Neogothic palace.
Self~Portrait (107x85cm; 1600x1275pix, 177kb)
Jacht (2106x3497pix, 1442kb)
Leeuw (2252x2681pix, 1423kb) in need of restauration.
Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels (1838, 119x98cm; 1600x1318pix, 179kb) _ The life of Daendels [21 Oct 1762 – 02 May 1818] was very eventful. Political developments in the Netherlands about 1800 were certainly the reason for this. Within a short time there was a large number of changes of rulers. Daendels's career appeared to survive these changes. He was first and foremost a soldier. In 1808 he was appointed Governor General of the Asian colonies. After heavy criticism of his leadership, he was replaced in 1811. He then became an officer in the French army. King William I appointed Daendels Governor General of the Dutch Colonies on the west coast of Africa. There he died of yellow fever.
     Daendels is portrayed as the Governor General of the Dutch East Indies. His coat has two large epaulettes. In his hand is a telescope. The other hand is pointing towards a map on which a route has been marked: the Great Post Road, which was built under Daendels's administration. On the left of the painting we can see the building of this road. The Post Road cut through a large part of Java. Its purpose was mainly military: the Post Road made it possible to move troops quickly across the country. The length of the journey from Batavia to the Surabaya in the far east of the island was reduced from three weeks to one. The building of the road cost the lives of many unpaid Javanese workers.
     Daendels's rule as governor general meant a rigorous break with the system that had come into being under the VOC. Daendels wanted to make the colony a centralized state under one bureaucratic administration. Financial perks attached to particular offices were discontinued and corruption and abuse of power were combated. Daendels took little notice of the native traditional power relations in his policies.
     Daendels's portrait was painted twenty years after his death by the young Saleh.
–- S*#> Landscape (1832, 28x37cm; 884x1189pix, 207kb) —(090905)

1876 Otto Grashof, German painter born in 1812. He left Germany in 1852 for a visit to Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, and finally Chile where he arrived in February 1854. He was back in Germany on 10 April 1857.
The Family of Franz Hallmann on the Terrace of his House in Valparaiso (1858, oval 55x65cm)
The Founders of Chile (92x121cm; 400x532pix, 32kb) _ They are José Miguel Carrera Verdugo [15 Oct 1785 – 04 Sep 1821], Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme [20 Aug 1777 – Oct 1842], José de San Martín Matorras [25 Feb 1778 – 17 Aug 1850], and Diego José Victor Portales [26 Jun 1793 – 06 Jun 1837].
A View of Valparaiso (400x672pix, 99kb)
Gaucho (1851 print; 450x593kb)

>1793 Henri Horace Roland de la Porte, Paris French still-life painter born in 1724. — {Est-ce que ses visiteurs craignaient que la servante leur montre la Porte?}
Nature Morte à la Vielle (1764, 80x101cm; 441x560pix, 48kb) —(100422)

1681 Justus (Josse) Susterman (or Soetermans), Flemish artist born on 28 September 1597.
Leopoldo de' Medici [16 Nov 1617 – 10 Nov 1675] (350x420pix, 8kb) He was made a cardinal on 12 December 1667, before he received even minor orders.
Galileo (1636; 326x244pix, 12kb)

^ 1625 Juan de las Roelas “El Clérigo Roelas” “Doctor Pablo”, Spanish painter born in 1559. He was the leading painter of his period in Seville. He was a priest and almost all his work was done for churches and religious houses in and around Seville. Roelas has been called the Spanish Tintoretto [Venetian 1518 – 31 May 1594] and the Spanish Veronese [Venetian 1528 – 09 Apr 1588], and the painterly richness of his large multi-figure compositions suggests he had studied in Italy. His work, however, has a religious fervor that is typically Spanish rather than Italian, and his blending of mysticism with naturalism was deeply influential in Seville.
— He is one of the most important Spanish painters of the early 17th century; his work was extremely popular in his own time. His innovative style introduced the spirit of the early Baroque into painting in Seville at the beginning of the 17th century. His paintings are naturalistic but have a transcendental quality, and his figures are endowed with an expressive vitality that contrasts with the physical and spiritual immobility of contemporary painting. Roelas used light, loose brushstrokes, with heavy, warm tonalities that contrast with the cool, chromatic tones, derived from Mannerism, that were favored by his colleagues.
     Roelas came from an aristocratic family, and his father was an admiral in the Spanish Navy. Juan Roelas held the office of chaplain throughout his life. He began his artistic training in Seville but may have completed it in Italy, as his work suggests an Italian influence. His paintings are in some cases derived directly from the late 16th-century Venetian school, in particular the work of the Bassano family. Roelas is documented in 1597 in Valladolid and worked in the city again when Philip III’s court was there. In 1603 he moved to Olivares, near Seville, acting as chaplain in the collegiate church. He must soon have left Olivares for Seville, where he was a priest in the church of El Salvador. Between 1604 and 1606 he made part of the paintings for the main reredos of the Jesuit church (now the university church) in Seville. He painted The Circumcision in the central canvas of this reredos, filled with large figures and a celestial scene, as well as the right-hand panel, The Adoration by the Shepherds, which is a more naturalistic work; he also painted a Saint John the Baptist and a Saint John the Evangelist, both situated in the upper part of the reredos. In 1608 Roelas contracted to paint the Triumph of Saint Gregory for the English Jesuits in Seville, also a Saint James at the Battle of Clavijo and a Pietà (both 1609). Two important works are known to date from 1612: the Vision of Saint Bernard and Saint Peter Released from Prison.
— La fecha de nacimiento de Juan de Roelas se pueden situar en torno a 1558 o 1560 siguiendo a Ceán Bermúdez, aunque no existe ningún dato que asegure esta hipótesis. Hijo del general de la Armada Pedro de Roelas compatibilizó su actividad pictórica con su cargo eclesiástico de capellán. De los orígenes italianos de su formación apenas se conocen datos, aunque las características técnicas y estilísticas permitan asegurarlos. Los primeros datos fiables que se conservan de Juan de las Roelas lo sitúan en Valladolid en 1598 participando en el túmulo levantado en la Universidad de Valladolid con motivo de las honras funebres de Felipe III. Poco más tarde, en 1601, se encontrará trabajando para el duque de Lerma en la iglesia de San Pablo de Valladolid. En esa ciudad debió permanecer hasta que en 1603 ocupó la capellanía de Olivares en Sevilla. Su trabajo como religioso no le retiró de su labor pictórica, así, en 1604 se encargaba de las pinturas del retablo mayor de la Casa Profesa de los jesuitas de Sevilla. En 1611 lo encontramos ya establecido en Sevilla desde donde habría de pasar a la corte madrileña. En ella contactó con el duque de Medina Sidonia para quien realizará el retablo mayor de la iglesia de la Merced en Sanlúcar de Barrameda. Más tarde, dejará Madrid para trasladarse de nuevo a Olivares desde donde, en 1624, realizará las pinturas de los retablos laterales de la iglesia de la Merced de Sanlúcar. Poco después, en mayo de 1625 moría, siendo enterrado en la iglesia colegial de Olivares. Dos de sus obras más conocidas son El martirio de San Andrés y La venida del Espíritu Santo. Fundamental fue la participación de Roelas en el ambiente sevillano del primer tercio del siglo XVII pues introdujo en el los nuevos gustos estéticos que tantos clientes le posibilitaría durante su periodo creativo sevillano.
El martirio de San Andrés (1610,. 520x346cm; 432x291pix, 107kb gif _ ZOOM to 864x582pix, 100kb) _ detail (880x662pix, 118kb) _ This is perhaps the greatest masterpiece of Roelas, in which the his interest in naturalism and his rejection of formalistic representation are revealed in the vitality of the details. The figures in the lower part of the picture are especially fine. The spatial values are rendered with visual fidelity. La elección de este santo entre otros muchos se debe a que la escena debía adornar una capilla a la que acudían los flamencos afincados en Sevilla durante el siglo XVII. San Andrés era patrón de borgoñones y flamencos. Roelas traduce un momento de transición en el arte sevillano, que evoluciona desde el Manierismo hasta el Barroco. Los rasgos predominantes en este lienzo así lo confirman, pues combina una serie de personajes de rostros crispados y movimientos agitados, que muy bien recuerdan lienzos de medio siglo anterior. Pero por otro lado, la luz dorada y uniforme, los colores cálidos de matices dorados, el rompimiento de ángeles en el cielo y el naturalismo de las expresiones están hablando del nuevo estilo que se impone entre los artistas españoles del momento.
Pentecostés (1615, 363x329cm; 443x393pix, 143kb gif _ ZOOM to 886x786pix, 82kb)

Born on a 23 April:

1934 Irene Iribarren, Spanish painter and etcher. —(090422)

1927 Manuel Rivera Hernández [–02 Jan 1995], Spanish painter. He studied drawing and painting at the Escuela de Artes y Oficios in Granada in 1941 and from 1944 at the Escuela de Bellas Artes in Seville. In 1951 he moved to Madrid, where he painted a succession of murals that were to have a decisive influence on his subsequent work. He turned to abstraction c. 1953 and soon after abandoned traditional materials in favour of metallic surfaces to identify his work. In 1957 he joined the El Paso group. In the following year he began to use open frames, over which he stretched wires and wire mesh to create different spatial levels and the appearance of a spider’s web, as in Metamorphosis (Self-portrait) (1961; London, Tate); critics began to refer to these works as ‘transparent sculptures’, although Rivera continued to think of them as paintings. From 1965 he introduced a wide range of colors and began to use reflective surfaces for works, to which he gave the generic title of Mirrors.

1926 Gerardo Rueda Salaberry [–26 May 1996], Spanish abstract painter and sculptor. —(090422)

>1842 Fritz Beinke, German painter who died on 16 December 1907. — {When he was learning drawing and asked whether he should use pencil or ink, was he told: “Let it be ink, Beinke.”?}
Der Spielwarenverkäufer auf dem Lande 44x33cm; 659x478pix, 209kb) —(090422)

1833 Antoine Vollon, French painter who died (full coverage) on 27 August 1900. —(050827)

1775 Joseph Mallord William Turner, British painter who died (full coverage) on 19 December 1851. —(061212)

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