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ART “4” “2”-DAY  11 April v.9.30
^ Born on 11 April 1767: Jean-Baptiste Isabey, French painter, draftsman, and printmaker, who died on 18 April 1855.
—   He was trained in Nancy by Jean Girardet [1709–1778] and then by Jean-Baptiste-Charles Claudot [1733–1805], master of the miniaturist Jean-Baptiste-Jacques Augustin [1759-1832]. In 1785 Isabey went to Paris, where he began by painting snuff-boxes. In 1786 he received lessons from the painter François Dumont, who had also studied with Girardet in Nancy, before entering the studio of David [1748-1825]. Although he had received aristocratic commissions before the Revolution to paint portrait miniatures of the Duc d’Angoulême and Duc de Berry and through them of Marie-Antoinette, he did not suffer in the political upheavals that followed. He painted 228 portraits of deputies for a work on the Assemblée Législative and from 1793 exhibited miniatures and drawings in the Salon.
      Success came to him in 1794 with two drawings in the ‘manière noire’, The Departure and The Return. This type of drawing, using pencil and the stump to simulate engraving, was very fashionable in the last years of the 18th century and reached its peak with Isabey’s The Boat (1798), an informal scene including a self-portrait, in which the artist exploited contrasts of light and shade with considerable success.
      He was the father of painter Louis-Eugène-Gabriel Isabey [22 Jul 1803 – 27 Apr 1886]

Christine Boyer (round; 599x620pix, 58kb _ ZOOM to 1956x2024pix, 331kb)
Mrs. Rufus Prime, Augusta Temple Palmer [1807–1840] (1828, oval, 138x102mm)
Elisa Bonaparte (1810) _ Jean-Baptiste Isabey was closely involveed with Napoleon I and his court. Isabey was entrusted with overseeing the ceremonies for the coronation of Napoleon and the ensuing festivities, becoming court painter to the Empress in 1804. The artist recorded the Bonaparte family in a series of magnificent miniature portraits. Isabey must have painted Elisa, eldest sister of Napoleon, and Princess of Lucca and Piombino, around 1810 when she was at the height of her political influence. In this miniature, he captured to perfection the severe features of the sitter, who was the least attractive and most intelligent of Napoleon’s sisters.
The Empress Josephine (1808, oval 14x10cm; 879x650pix, 50kb) _ The Empress was a particular admirer of Isabey and actively promoted his career at the Imperial Court.
Prince August of Prussia (1814, oval 12x10cm; 652x524pix, 51kb) _ Nephew of Frederick the Great, Prince August was captured by Napoleon at Prentzlow in 1806 and subsequently became a figure in French society. The elaborate frame indicates an important commission.
^ Born on 11 April 1661: Antoine Coypel, French Baroque painter, specialized in historical paintings, who died on 07 January 1722.
— He would be the most distinguished artist of the Coypel family, stylistically drawn away from the influence of his father Noël Coypel [25 Dec 1628 – 24 Dec 1707] and Charles Le Brun [1619-1690] by the attractions of the style of Rubens [28 Jun 1577 – 30 May 1640] and the theories of Roger de Piles. Antoine Coypel is the father of Charles-Antoine Coypel [11 Jul 1694 – 14 Jun 1752] and the half-brother of Noël-Nicolas Coypel [17 Nov 1690 – 14 Dec 1734]. — [Was Coypel coy? pale?]
— Antoine Coypel went to Rome as a child with his father and there is a strong Italian element in his style. This comes out particularly in his most famous work, the ceiling of the Chapel at Versailles (1708) which derived from Baciccio's ceiling in the Gesù in Rome. This and Coypel's decorations at the Palais Royal in Paris (1702, destroyed) rank as the two most completely baroque schemes found in French art of this period. The Versailles ceiling is more successful than much of Coypel's work, which often combines the bombast of the Baroque and the pedantry of the classical style without the virtues of either.
— Antoine studied at the Collège d’Harcourt and then trained in his father’s studio and at the Académie Royale. In 1672 Noël Coypel was made Director of the Académie de France in Rome, and Antoine, who accompanied his father to Italy, benefited from the education given to the students there. He also joined in their long sessions spent copying frescoes by Raphael [26 Mar 1483 – 06 Apr 1520] in the Vatican Loggie and the works of Agostino Carracci [15 Aug 1557 – 22 Mar 1602], Annibale Carracci [03 Nov 1560 – 15 Jul 1609], Lodovico Carracci [21 Apr 1555 – 13 Dec 1619], and Domenichino [21 Oct 1581 – 06 Apr 1641] in the Palazzo Farnese. He met Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini [1598-1680] and Carlo Maratti and was awarded a drawing prize by the Accademia di San Luca. During his return journey Antoine stopped in northern Italy to study the works of Correggio [1489 – 05 Mar 1534] — which were to have a decisive influence on him — as well as those of Titian [1485 — 27 Aug 1576] and Veronese [1528 – 19 Apr 1588]. On reaching Paris in April 1676 he resumed his place as a student at the Académie Royale, where he was awarded second prize for painting in November of that year.

Self~Portrait (1734)
Democritus (1692, 69x57cm)
The Swooning of Esther (1704, 105x137cm)
Louis XIV reçoit l'ambassadeur de Perse
Venus Imploring Jupiter in Favor of Aeneas
Head of a Young Man (1717, red, black, and white chalk with stumping; 25x19cm) _ The most important French painter of his generation, Antoine Coypel worked during the period of transition from the monarchy of Louis XIV (reigned 1643-1715) through the Regency (1715-1723) and the ascendance of Louis XV (reigned 1715-1774). A beautiful colorist also steeped in the academic tradition of drawing, Coypel used red, black, and white chalk together on this sheet to achieve tonal range. This drawing is connected to Coypel's greatest achievement: the series of large painted decorations for the Gallery of Aeneas in the Palais Royal in Paris. This study of facial expression shows one of the mourners attending the funeral of Pallas, a scene from the Aeneid of Virgil [70-19 BC]. This painting still exists, though in a ruined state. But most of the paintings for the Gallery of Aeneas did not survive at all. However there are numerous drawings for the project.
Athalie chassée du temple (1696, 156x213cm; 535x768pix, 38kb) _ La tableau fait partie d'une série de sept oeuvres à sujet biblique exécuté entre 1695 et 1697 que l'artiste reprendra à partir de 1710 en grand format pour une tenture de tapisserie dite de l'Ancien Testament. Les attitudes théâtrales et les mimiques parlantes des personnages relèvent de la recherche de “l'expression des passions”, souci constant chez Coypel, influencé en cela par Le Brun.
^ Born on 11 April 1749: Adelaïde Labille~Guiard, French Neoclassical painter who died on 24 April 1803, specialized in Portraits.
—      She first was trained (1763) by the miniature painter François-Elie Vincent [1708-1790], whose studio was next door to her father’s shop. By 1769 she had obtained membership in the Académie de Saint-Luc, no doubt sponsored by Vincent, who was Conseiller to this Académie. In that year she married Louis-Nicolas Guiard, a financial clerk; the marriage was childless. In 1779 she obtained a legal separation from her husband. For some time between 1769 and 1774 she studied the technique of pastel with Maurice-Quentin de La Tour [1704-1788]. She first exhibited her work at the Académie de Saint Luc in 1774, when she showed a life-size pastel Portrait of a Magistrate and a Self-portrait in miniature. With the ambition of eventually becoming a member of the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, she entered in 1776 the studio of her childhood friend François-André Vincent [30 Dec 1746 – 04 Aug 1816], in order to learn oil painting, a technique she had mastered by 1780. Following the suppression of the Académie de Saint Luc in 1776, artists who were not members of the Académie Royale had no venue in which to exhibit until the establishment of the Salon de la Correspondance in 1781. There Labille-Guiard exhibited in 1782 and 1783 a series of artists’ portraits in pastel. Her subjects included leading members of the Académie Royale, such as Joseph-Marie Vien (1782), from whom she had requested sittings as a means of developing her professional connections and demonstrating her talent. By then she had made her own studio and by 1783 had been teaching nine women students. In that year she was admitted to full membership of the Académie Royale, on the same day as Elisabeth Vigée Le Brun [1755 – 1842]. 
— Adélaïde Labille-Guiard exemplifies what a woman of humble beginnings could achieve in 18th-century France if she had talent, determination, and strength of character. First trained under a miniaturist near her father's haberdashery shop, Labille-Guiard later studied pastel and portraiture with Maurice-Quentin de la Tour. Being a charming miniaturist and pastelist was not enough for her, however. Quelling rumors that her oil painting teacher helped her, she gained Académie Royale membership on the same day in 1783 as her rival, Elizabeth Vigée-Le Brun. Soon after, the Académie limited the number of women members, but Labille-Guiard campaigned to open its privileges to other women. As a teacher, she took great interest in her students' careers.
     Labille-Guiard's portraits were forthright, unpretentious, perceptive, and displayed a subtle sense of color. Like her contemporaries, she carefully described the textures and details of her sitters' clothes. Well-known and respected, she received patronage from the court and fellow artists like Hubert Robert. She was named official painter to Louis XV's daughters.
     When she supported the French Revolution, she lost her clientèle, and revolutionaries ordered her to destroy the huge, unfinished painting of a monarchy-related subject on which she had labored for over two years. It was a devastating blow. With the painting's destruction came the end of her hopes that this painting would win for her the Academy's highest rank of history painter. Always of fragile health, she never found within her the strength to begin another work of such magnitude.

Self-Portrait with Two Students, Melle Marie Gabrielle Capet [1761–1818] and Melle Carreaux de Rosemond [–1788] (1785)
François André Vincent (73x59cm; 600x480pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1120pix _ ZOOM+ to 2533x2024pix, 505kb)
Delightful Surprise (1779, 55x44cm) _ Turning towards an off-frame visitor, a young woman leans back on a pillow, her gown falling away to expose her upper body. Adélaïde Labille-Guiard created this work as a fantasy portrait, in which the subject reflects the emotion of sensual awakening rather than portraying a specific individual. Labille-Guiard skillfully captured the sense of the woman's body abruptly turning toward an unseen visitor. The quicker pastel medium was capable of suggesting the delicate softness of the woman's skin, lips, and glossy hair.
^ Born on 11 April 1893: John Northcote Nash, , British painter, wood-engraver, and illustrator, who died on 23 Sep 1977. — Not to be confused with British architect John Nash [1752 – 13 May 1835], or US mathematician John Forbes Nash [13 Jun 1928~].
— John Northcote Nash was born in London. He had no formal art training but was urged by his brother Paul Nash [11 May 1889 – 11 Jul 1946] to develop his natural talent as a draftsman. His early work was in watercolor and included biblical scenes, comic drawings and landscapes. A joint exhibition with Paul at the Dorien Leigh Gallery, London, in 1913 was successful, and John was invited to become a founder-member of the London Group in 1914 and to join the Cumberland Market Group in 1915. On the outbreak of the First World War, Nash joined the First Artist Rifles. He began painting in oils with the encouragement of Harold Gilman, whose meticulous craftsmanship influenced his finest landscapes such as The Cornfield (1918)

Dorset Landscape (1915, 41x39cm)
A Path through Trees (1915, 51x611cm)
Over the Top (1918; 363x493pix, 36kb) _ On the outbreak of the First World War, Nash joined the First Artist Rifles. On one occasion Nash was one of eighty men ordered to cross No-Mans-Land at Marcoing near Cambrai. Of these, only Nash and eleven men returned. Afterwards Nash painted Over the Top in memory of the failed attack. John's brother, Paul Nash, was one of the best known artists of the war. Unlike his brother, John favored a painstaking naturalist style of painting.
Oppy Wood 1917. Evening (183x213cm; 414x482pix, 68kb) _ Oppy was a village not far from Vimy. Fortified by the Germans, it withstood the assaults of the British, Canadian, and French troops until September 1918. Although not the most famous of his war paintings, John Nash's painting depicts with careful didacticism the circumstances of the confrontation - the destruction of nature, the plain ravaged by shell-holes which had been turned into lakes, shelters dug deep in the ground, and trenches with cemented floors and arches reinforced by sheet metal, and - once again - the immobility, the void, the lookout on his watch with his face at ground level among the roots and clods of earth.
The Cornfield (1918, 69x76cm) _ John Nash served in the army in the World War One. In 1918 he left the army and became an official war artist. The Cornfield was the first painting he made after that, which did not depict the subject of war. In its ordered view of the landscape and geometric treatment of the corn stooks, it prefigures his brother Paul’s Equivalents for the Megaliths, also shown in this room. John wrote that he and Paul used to paint for their own pleasure only after six o''clock, when their work as war artists was over for the day. Hence the long shadows cast by the evening sun across the field in the center of the painting.
The Moat, Grange Farm, Kimble (1922, 76x51cm) _ In this brooding landscape the trees and their tendril-like branches threaten to invade the viewer’s space. The dark colors and evening light give the painting a claustrophobic atmosphere. Like his brother Paul, John Nash had served with the Artists’ Rifles for two years before becoming an Official War Artist in 1918. This painting, completed soon after the war, is characterised by a sense of bleak desolation that suggests the profound introspection that for many followed the devastation of the war.
Harvesting (1947 color lithograph, 50x76cm)
Mill Building, Boxted (1962, 71x81cm; 449x512pix, 33kb)

Died on an 11 April:

^ 1998 Rover Thomas, Joolama tribe Australian aborigine painter born in 1926.
–- Bugaltji - Lissadell Country (1986; 700x1400pix, 76kb) monochrome dark reddish brown _ The pseudonymous R. Antonio Joyorama has transformed this into
      _ Bugati Liso del Contra aka Asilo Liso (2006; screen filling, 220kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1500kb) and
      _ Bug Altered List of Countess Adèle aka Silo Lis (2006; screen filling, 176kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1423kb)
–- Untitled (700x1400pix, 56kb) _ Joyorama has combined these two pictures of Thomas and thoroughly transformed them into the amazingly colorful and finely detailed twin abstractions (best appreciated at full magnification):
      _ Bugalla al Chili (2007; 755x1096, 289kb _ ZOOM 1 to 1096x1550pix, 434kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1700x2404pix, 1387kb _ ZOOM 3 to 2636x3728pix, 3372kb _ ZOOM 4 to 3728x5272pix, 6732kb) and
      _ Bugs, All in Chile (2007; 755x1096, 289kb _ ZOOM 1 to 1096x1550pix, 434kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1700x2404pix, 1387kb _ ZOOM 3 to 2636x3728pix, 3372kb _ ZOOM 4 to 3728x5272pix, 6732kb)
Yilinburri Mountain House (800x1213pix, 68kb) simplistic monochrome dark reddish brown abstraction, which Joyorama has metamorphosed into the gloriously colorful and complex:
      _ Yell in Burning Mountain Home (2007; 755x1096, 319kb _ ZOOM 1 to 1096x1550pix, 628kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1700x2404pix, 1508kb _ ZOOM 3 to 2636x3728pix, 3556kb _ ZOOM 4 to 3728x5272pix, 6583kb) and
      _ Cry in Flooded Valley House (2007; 755x1096, 319kb _ ZOOM 1 to 1096x1550pix, 628kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1700x2404pix, 1508kb _ ZOOM 3 to 2636x3728pix, 3556kb _ ZOOM 4 to 3728x5272pix, 6583kb) —(070410)

^ 1936 Frans Mortelmans, Belgian painter born on {main coverage} on 01 May 1865. —(080430)

^ 1925 Jan Styka, Polish painter born on 04 April 1858. — Father of Adam Styka [07 Apr 1925 – 23 Sep 1959] and of Tade Styka [12 Apr 1889 – 11 Sep 1954]. — Jan Styka attended a secondary school run by the Bernardines in Lvov. Then he was admitted to the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna, from which he graduated from the Academy with a golden medal for the painting Ulysses Hunting a Boar. After being awarded the Prix de Rome he moved to Italy for a year. Some of his best paintings are Polonia; Regina Poloniae; the four panoramas: The Battle of Raclawice, Bem in Siedmiogrod; The Martyrdom of Christina in Nero's Circus, and the even larger The Crucifixion aka Golgota; and illustrations for Quo Vadis of Sienkiewicz the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer. He also painted portraits.
Saint Peter preaching in the Catacombs (331x508pix, 40kb) (Quo Vadis illustration)
Tadeusz Kosciuszko (1904; 331x274pix, 26kb) _ Kosciuszko [04 Feb 1746 – 15 Oct 1817] was a hero of the Polish uprising against Russia and of the US War of Independence.
–- The Raclawice Panorama (1500x11'400cm; 510x6972pix, 646kb _ .ZOOM to 765x10'462pix, 821kb) It depicts the Battle of Raclawice, during the Kosciuszko Uprising. The idea came from Styka, who invited the battle-painter Wojciech Kossak [1857-1942] to participate in the project. They were assisted by Ludwik Boller, Tadeusz Popiel, Zygmunt Rozwadowski, Teodor Axentowicz, Wlodzimierz Tetmajer, Wincenty Wodzinowski, and Michal Sozanski. The battle was fought on 04 April 1794 between the insurrectionist force of regulars and peasant volunteers commanded by Kosciuszko and the Russian army commanded by General Tormasov.
Jeanne d'Arc (752x500pix, 40kb)
–- Officers on Horseback (1898, 147x143cm; 600x583pix, 79kb) yellowed —(070409)

^ 1909 Frederick Edward Hulme [29 or 30 Mar 1841–], British illustrator. He joined a strong amateur's interest in natural history to an art, illustration and writing livelihood supported by his association with various colleges and other institutions. His best known work is probably the book Natural History, Lore and Legend. Hulme also wrote on a number of antiquarian subjects. — Son of Frederick William Hulme [22 Oct 1816 – 14 Nov 1884]
Corn Cockle (1719x925pix, 519kb)
Columbine (1243x759pix, 114kb)
Cineraria (1290x857pix, 164kb)
Crimson Mallow (934x619pix, 74kb)
Cuphea (992x636pix, 67kb)
Crimson Flax (1002x649pix, 55kb)
York and Lancaster Rose (1043x750pix, 102kb)
Commelina (1151x768pix, 75kb)
Zinnia (1145x748pix, 69kb)
Crimson Petunia (1173x734pix, 105kb) —(081018)

1894 Raphaël Ritz, Swiss artist born (main coverage) on 17 January 1829. —(060410)

>1844 Arnoldus Bloemers, Dutch painter born in 1792 or 1786.
–- A still life of peonies, roses, honeysuckle, poppies, a crown imperial, rhododendrons and other flowers in a terracotta urn on a ledge (76x61cm; 1200x960pix, 82kb).
Summer flowers in an urn with fruit and game on a marble ledge (87x131cm; 480x377pix, 40kb). —(090410)

^ 1836 Augustin van den Berghe, Belgian painter born on 13 October 1756 in Brugge in the Austrian Netherlands, who moved to France, where he dies in Beauvais. He won the Prix de Rome in 1786. Father of Charles-Auguste van den Berghe [1798-1853]. — Relative? of Frits van den Berghe [03 Apr 1883 – 23 Sep 1939]? — Opleiding aan de Academie te Brugge o.l.v. J. Garemijn. Ging zich in 1779 bekwamen aan de École Académique te Parijs en werd er leerling van J.B. Suvée. Voorkeur voor historische, allegorische en mythologische onderwerpen, landschappen, etc.
–- Venus and Adonis (100x152cm; 927x1398pix, 100kb) and two swans, and Cupid struggling with three dogs; in a landscape.. —(070409)

1760 Louis de Silvestre, French painter born on 23 June 1675. He was first apprenticed to his father, engraver Israel Silvestre the Younger [03 Aug 1621 – 11 Oct 1691], going on to study under Charles Le Brun and then Bon Boullogne. In 1694 he competed unsuccessfully for the Prix de Rome but left nevertheless for Italy. In Rome he met Carlo Maratti; he also visited Venice and Piedmont. On his return to Paris he was received (reçu) in 1702 into the Académie Royale, presenting the Creation of Man by Prometheus. He embarked on a successful career, earning academic honors (he was appointed an assistant professor in 1704 and a full professor in 1706) and commissions from both the Church and the court. In 1703 he was commissioned by the guild of Paris goldsmiths to execute the May of Notre-Dame (Healing of the Sick). In 1709 he painted a Last Supper for the chapel at Versailles. This was followed by nine scenes from the Life of Saint Benedict (1709) for St Martin-des-Champs, and a Saint Matthew (1710) for the cupola of Saint Roch, both in Paris. Among the secular works of his early career are the paintings originally intended for the Pavillon de la Ménagerie at Versailles, including Arion Playing the Lyre (1701), and Hector Taking Leave of Andromache with its pendant Ulysses Taking Astyanax away from Andromache, painted in 1708 for Armand-Gaston I de Rohan-Soubise (1674-1749); he also painted contemporary historical subjects (e.g. Battle of Kassel and Siege of Saint Omer) for the funeral of Philippe I, Duc d’Orléans (-1701).

1638 Willem Jacobszoon Delff (or Delft), Delft, Netherlands, engraver, born on 15 September 1580, son of portrait painter Jacob Willemszoon Delff the elder [1550–1601], from whom he presumably received his earliest artistic instruction. Because his earliest known work, an engraved portrait of Christianus Goesius (Bailiff in Delft, 1600) was made after a drawing by the Antwerp engraver Johan Wierix, it has sometimes been assumed that Delff studied engraving under this Flemish artist. This, however, is unlikely since the original drawing had been made over 20 years earlier. It is far more probable that Delff was taught engraving by a Dutch artist, possibly Hendrick Goltzius. In the first part of his career Delff devoted himself primarily to producing book illustrations. He also produced portrait prints after the work of such painters as Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt and Jan Anthoniszoon van Ravesteyn.

^ 1525 Davide Bigordi Ghirlandaio, Florentine painter and mosaicist born on 14 March 1452. — brother of the better known Domenico di Tomaso Bigordi Ghirlandaio [1449 – 14 Jan 1494] and of Benedetto Ghirlandaio [1458 – 17 Jul 1497], uncle of Ridolfo Bigordi Ghirlandaio [1483-1561], and presumably great-uncle of Michele di Ridolfo del Ghirlandaio [1503-1577], all descended from goldsmith Tomaso Bigordi the “garland maker”. — Most of the professional career of Davide Ghirlandaio was linked to that of his brother Domenico Ghirlandaio. The date of birth of Davide is recorded in the baptismal records of Florence Cathedral, and in 1472 he is listed with Domenico in the Libro rosso of the Compagnia di San Luca. On 03 January 1472 he was admitted to the confraternity of San Paolo. His collaboration with Domenico is documented from 1480, when he is listed in his father’s tax declaration as being 29 years old and described as Domenico’s ‘aiuto’, but a precise definition of his role as assistant is unclear. Suggestions range from considering him a financial adviser (the source of which is an anecdote in Vasari) to an alter ego of his brother. His participation in Domenico’s painting commissions is well documented, but a clear view of his own early style is impossible to establish owing to the lack of independent commissions documented to him. The earliest such commission, a panel of Saint Lucy and a Donor (1494), shows a style that differs from Domenico’s largely in terms of its inferior quality. Both figure and drapery style show Domenico’s imprint, but the drawing and modelling are both simpler and stiffer. Vasari recorded other works by Davide, including a fresco of the Crucifixion with Saints, the facial types, drapery and figure styles of which show similarities with the Santa Maria Novella St Lucy.
— Nastagio degli Onesti detail (400x300pix, 39kb) the fleeing woman. _ Davide Ghirlandaio shows the various episodes of Boccacio's story of Nastagio in a single picture. See also how Botticelli [1445 – 17 May 1510] made different pictures for different episodes of the story of Nastagio degli Onesti, and read the story.

Born on an 11 April:

1882 Fernando Fader [–25 Feb 1935], Argentinian Post-Impressionist painter.
Victor Torini (1913, 40x30cm; 1771x1353pix, 792kb)
Fin de Invierno (1918, 100x120cm; 1541x1862pix, 921kb)
La Mazamorra (1926, 100x120cm; 1333x1558pix, 693kb)
Corral de Cabras (1927, 88x108cm; 1565x1943pix, 911kb)
Los Manilas (1914, 166x141cm; 1700x2043pix, 1006kb)
Caballo al Sol (1904, 35x47cm; 1770x2343pix, 1133kb)
Comida de Cerdos (1904, 127x98cm; 1802x1343pix, 608kb) almost monochrome orange. —(090410)

^ >1880 Daniel Garber, US Impressionist painter who died in 1958. With Edward Willis Redfield and Walter Elmer Schofield, Garber formed the triumvirate of painters who more than any others brought into prominence the Pennsylvania School of Impressionism, giving it national recognition. Born in Indiana, he received his early artistic training at the Art Academy of Cincinnati and then, beginning in 1899, at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, where he studied under Thomas Anshutz, William Merritt Chase, and Cecelia Beaux. Garber spent the summers of 1899 and 1900 studying with Anshutz at The Darby School, a summer program where the curriculum stressed landscape painting and encouraged students to paint the local landscape from life, working outdoors rather than in a studio. In 1905 Garber's skill was recognized by the Pennsylvania Academy when they awarded him a scholarship to study in Europe for two years. Upon his return to the US in 1907, Garber settled in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, where he eventually became the leader of the New Hope group. The rolling hills, Delaware River and surrounding landscape provided a sense of tranquility and endless subject matter for the artist. Though he retained his Philadelphia studio, by 1915 Garber had begun to spend at least a few nights each week in the country. — LINKS
Corn (1908, 107x128cm)
Tanis (1915; 67kb)
Springtime in the Village (1917; 125kb)
Walter H. Gardner (1923 drawing, 62x46cm)
–- Reflections (1940, 92x102cm; 1011x1108pix, 121kb _ .ZOOM to 1770x1939pix, 295kb) _ This depicts the pond near Holland, New Jersey, looking towards Pennsylvania. With its tapestry-like surface and rich color, Reflections is a classic example of Garber’s impressionist technique. The detailed surfaces of his canvases are an indication that Garber took his time painting. Speed and spontaneity were not qualities that he valued. Thus the slow, careful building up of surface and color is evidence for the more studied, meditative working process typical of studio painters. Yet he was primarily a plein air painter. Garber said: “I want to paint things as I see them. I have too much respect for the trees that I paint, and their true forms, to make something out of them that I do not feel exists in them. To look at a Garber painting is to enter a tranquil and orderly universe in which emotion and intellect, the concrete and the ideal, are all honored more or less equally
–- Byram Hills, Springtime (1937, 107x127cm; 948x1131pix, 139kb) _ This was painted from Staunton's Place, looking over in Jersey. Garber returns to the view from the hill at Point Pleasant, Pennsylvania, depicted in his From Tinicum Hill (1928). Unlike his friend and fellow Bucks County painter Edward W. Redfield who often painted winter scenes, Garber preferred to paint the warmer seasons of spring and summer. Byram Hills, Springtime depicts a landscape immersed in sunlight, a profusion of white flowers blossoming on the trees and a clear blue river running through the newly green hills. In characteristic fashion, Garber achieves a tapestry-like texture by dispersing interwoven strands of brilliant pigment in an intricately patterned and stitch-like series of brushstrokes. From the 1880s, when the terminology first came into vogue, decorativeness had been a desirable quality in all the arts and a powerful word of praise, lacking the implications of superficiality that it carries today. For Garber, the term seems to have been called forth partly by his effects of color and texture. More important, his personal compositional style created strong two-dimensional patterns, usually resulting from the use of a few favored effects. Most frequently his landscapes divide into horizontal bands, sharply setting off foreground, middle ground (often the Delaware River) and distance. Garber advised his students to see the landscape in planes like 'curtains,' and this is exactly the decorative effect his paintings produced. Garber's idealizing sensibility always coexisted with his realist approach, and the unique effects produced by his balance of the two impulses had been detected in his paintings from the very beginning of his career. The search for the restful and the beautiful within the 'plain facts' of his own life motivated all of Garber's best work, and transformed his homeliest subject into something serene and golden.
–- Down in Pensylvania (1138x1398pix, 138kb) —(070409)

1856 Attilio Pratella, Italian artist who died in 1932 or 1949.

1852 Leon Wyczólkowski, Polish painter and printmaker who died on 27 December 1936. — {He should have shortened his name to Kowski. That way, in his golden years, people might have called him “wise old Kowski”.] — He studied at the Warsaw Drawing School (1869-1873) under Aleksander Kaminski [1823-1886], Rafal Hadziewicz [1803-1886] and Wojciech Gerson; from 1875 to 1877 he studied at the Munich Kunstakademie under Alexander Wagner [1838-1918], and then at the Kraków School of Fine Arts under Jan Matejko from 1877 to 1879. Most of his early works are technically competent realistic portraits that reveal his sensitivity to color (e.g. The Artist’s Grandmother, Mrs Falinska, 1880) and drawing-room scenes in the Munich tradition of anecdotal realism (e.g. I Once Saw, 1884). From 1883 to 1894 he lived in the Ukraine. During his last years there he produced numerous scenes of peasant and bourgeois life. Such works as Fishermen (1891) and Croquet (1895) were influenced in technique by the Impressionist paintings he had seen while in Paris in 1889, but were still predominantly realist in conception.

1822 John Thomas Peele, British artist who died on 19 May 1897. — {Is the appeal of the beauty of a Peele only skin deep in the eye of the beholder?}

1789 Peter Paul Joseph Noël, Belgian artist who died on 22 November 1822.

1673 Nicolaas Verkolye (or Verkolje), Dutch artist who died on 21 January 1746. — {Les modèles devaient-elles porter un vert collier pour Verkolye?} — He was taught by his father, Jan Verkolje I [09 Feb 1650 – 08 May 1693], and became, like him, a versatile artist, producing not only genre pieces but also mythological scenes, ceiling paintings and portraits. He was also an expert mezzotint artist, like his father. In 1700 Nicolaas settled in Amsterdam, where he remained until his death. He was commissioned in 1731 to make prints after seven paintings by Gérard de Lairesse in the town hall of The Hague. He occasionally painted figures in the work of Isaac de Moucheron [23 Nov 1667 – 1744] — Brother of Jan Verkolje II [-1760]

1659 Hendrick van Streek, Dutch artist who died in 1719. — {Could one detect a yellow streak in a Streek?}

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