ART 4 2-DAY 11 April v.9.30
Born on 11 April 1767: Jean-Baptiste
Isabey, French painter, draftsman, and printmaker, who died
on 18 April 1855.
— He was trained in Nancy by Jean Girardet [1709–1778] and then by Jean-Baptiste-Charles Claudot [1733–1805], master of the miniaturist Jean-Baptiste-Jacques Augustin [1759-1832]. In 1785 Isabey went to Paris, where he began by painting snuff-boxes. In 1786 he received lessons from the painter François Dumont, who had also studied with Girardet in Nancy, before entering the studio of David [1748-1825]. Although he had received aristocratic commissions before the Revolution to paint portrait miniatures of the Duc d’Angoulême and Duc de Berry and through them of Marie-Antoinette, he did not suffer in the political upheavals that followed. He painted 228 portraits of deputies for a work on the Assemblée Législative and from 1793 exhibited miniatures and drawings in the Salon.
Success came to him in 1794 with two drawings in the ‘manière noire’, The Departure and The Return. This type of drawing, using pencil and the stump to simulate engraving, was very fashionable in the last years of the 18th century and reached its peak with Isabey’s The Boat (1798), an informal scene including a self-portrait, in which the artist exploited contrasts of light and shade with considerable success.
He was the father of painter Louis-Eugène-Gabriel Isabey [22 Jul 1803 – 27 Apr 1886]
— Christine Boyer (round; 599x620pix, 58kb _ ZOOM to 1956x2024pix, 331kb)
— Mrs. Rufus Prime, Augusta Temple Palmer [1807–1840] (1828, oval, 138x102mm)
— Elisa Bonaparte (1810) _ Jean-Baptiste Isabey was closely involveed with Napoleon I and his court. Isabey was entrusted with overseeing the ceremonies for the coronation of Napoleon and the ensuing festivities, becoming court painter to the Empress in 1804. The artist recorded the Bonaparte family in a series of magnificent miniature portraits. Isabey must have painted Elisa, eldest sister of Napoleon, and Princess of Lucca and Piombino, around 1810 when she was at the height of her political influence. In this miniature, he captured to perfection the severe features of the sitter, who was the least attractive and most intelligent of Napoleon’s sisters.
— The Empress Josephine (1808, oval 14x10cm; 879x650pix, 50kb) _ The Empress was a particular admirer of Isabey and actively promoted his career at the Imperial Court.
— Prince August of Prussia (1814, oval 12x10cm; 652x524pix, 51kb) _ Nephew of Frederick the Great, Prince August was captured by Napoleon at Prentzlow in 1806 and subsequently became a figure in French society. The elaborate frame indicates an important commission.
Born on 11 April 1661: Antoine
Coypel, French Baroque
painter, specialized in historical
paintings, who died on 07 January 1722.
— He would be the most distinguished artist of the Coypel family, stylistically drawn away from the influence of his father Noël Coypel [25 Dec 1628 – 24 Dec 1707] and Charles Le Brun [1619-1690] by the attractions of the style of Rubens [28 Jun 1577 – 30 May 1640] and the theories of Roger de Piles. Antoine Coypel is the father of Charles-Antoine Coypel [11 Jul 1694 – 14 Jun 1752] and the half-brother of Noël-Nicolas Coypel [17 Nov 1690 – 14 Dec 1734]. [Was Coypel coy? pale?]
Antoine Coypel went to Rome as a child with his father and there is a strong Italian element in his style. This comes out particularly in his most famous work, the ceiling of the Chapel at Versailles (1708) which derived from Baciccio's ceiling in the Gesù in Rome. This and Coypel's decorations at the Palais Royal in Paris (1702, destroyed) rank as the two most completely baroque schemes found in French art of this period. The Versailles ceiling is more successful than much of Coypel's work, which often combines the bombast of the Baroque and the pedantry of the classical style without the virtues of either.
Antoine studied at the Collège d’Harcourt and then trained in his father’s studio and at the Académie Royale. In 1672 Noël Coypel was made Director of the Académie de France in Rome, and Antoine, who accompanied his father to Italy, benefited from the education given to the students there. He also joined in their long sessions spent copying frescoes by Raphael [26 Mar 1483 – 06 Apr 1520] in the Vatican Loggie and the works of Agostino Carracci [15 Aug 1557 – 22 Mar 1602], Annibale Carracci [03 Nov 1560 – 15 Jul 1609], Lodovico Carracci [21 Apr 1555 – 13 Dec 1619], and Domenichino [21 Oct 1581 – 06 Apr 1641] in the Palazzo Farnese. He met Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini [1598-1680] and Carlo Maratti and was awarded a drawing prize by the Accademia di San Luca. During his return journey Antoine stopped in northern Italy to study the works of Correggio [1489 – 05 Mar 1534] — which were to have a decisive influence on him — as well as those of Titian [1485 — 27 Aug 1576] and Veronese [1528 – 19 Apr 1588]. On reaching Paris in April 1676 he resumed his place as a student at the Académie Royale, where he was awarded second prize for painting in November of that year.
— Self~Portrait (1734)
Democritus (1692, 69x57cm)
The Swooning of Esther (1704, 105x137cm)
— Louis XIV reçoit l'ambassadeur de Perse
— Venus Imploring Jupiter in Favor of Aeneas
— Head of a Young Man (1717, red, black, and white chalk with stumping; 25x19cm) _ The most important French painter of his generation, Antoine Coypel worked during the period of transition from the monarchy of Louis XIV (reigned 1643-1715) through the Regency (1715-1723) and the ascendance of Louis XV (reigned 1715-1774). A beautiful colorist also steeped in the academic tradition of drawing, Coypel used red, black, and white chalk together on this sheet to achieve tonal range. This drawing is connected to Coypel's greatest achievement: the series of large painted decorations for the Gallery of Aeneas in the Palais Royal in Paris. This study of facial expression shows one of the mourners attending the funeral of Pallas, a scene from the Aeneid of Virgil [70-19 BC]. This painting still exists, though in a ruined state. But most of the paintings for the Gallery of Aeneas did not survive at all. However there are numerous drawings for the project.
— Athalie chassée du temple (1696, 156x213cm; 535x768pix, 38kb) _ La tableau fait partie d'une série de sept oeuvres à sujet biblique exécuté entre 1695 et 1697 que l'artiste reprendra à partir de 1710 en grand format pour une tenture de tapisserie dite de l'Ancien Testament. Les attitudes théâtrales et les mimiques parlantes des personnages relèvent de la recherche de “l'expression des passions”, souci constant chez Coypel, influencé en cela par Le Brun.
Born on 11 April 1749: Adelaïde
Labille~Guiard, French Neoclassical
painter who died on 24 April 1803, specialized in Portraits.
— She first was trained (1763) by the miniature painter François-Elie Vincent [1708-1790], whose studio was next door to her father’s shop. By 1769 she had obtained membership in the Académie de Saint-Luc, no doubt sponsored by Vincent, who was Conseiller to this Académie. In that year she married Louis-Nicolas Guiard, a financial clerk; the marriage was childless. In 1779 she obtained a legal separation from her husband. For some time between 1769 and 1774 she studied the technique of pastel with Maurice-Quentin de La Tour [1704-1788]. She first exhibited her work at the Académie de Saint Luc in 1774, when she showed a life-size pastel Portrait of a Magistrate and a Self-portrait in miniature. With the ambition of eventually becoming a member of the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, she entered in 1776 the studio of her childhood friend François-André Vincent [30 Dec 1746 – 04 Aug 1816], in order to learn oil painting, a technique she had mastered by 1780. Following the suppression of the Académie de Saint Luc in 1776, artists who were not members of the Académie Royale had no venue in which to exhibit until the establishment of the Salon de la Correspondance in 1781. There Labille-Guiard exhibited in 1782 and 1783 a series of artists’ portraits in pastel. Her subjects included leading members of the Académie Royale, such as Joseph-Marie Vien (1782), from whom she had requested sittings as a means of developing her professional connections and demonstrating her talent. By then she had made her own studio and by 1783 had been teaching nine women students. In that year she was admitted to full membership of the Académie Royale, on the same day as Elisabeth Vigée Le Brun [1755 – 1842].
— Adélaïde Labille-Guiard exemplifies what a woman of humble beginnings could achieve in 18th-century France if she had talent, determination, and strength of character. First trained under a miniaturist near her father's haberdashery shop, Labille-Guiard later studied pastel and portraiture with Maurice-Quentin de la Tour. Being a charming miniaturist and pastelist was not enough for her, however. Quelling rumors that her oil painting teacher helped her, she gained Académie Royale membership on the same day in 1783 as her rival, Elizabeth Vigée-Le Brun. Soon after, the Académie limited the number of women members, but Labille-Guiard campaigned to open its privileges to other women. As a teacher, she took great interest in her students' careers.
Labille-Guiard's portraits were forthright, unpretentious, perceptive, and displayed a subtle sense of color. Like her contemporaries, she carefully described the textures and details of her sitters' clothes. Well-known and respected, she received patronage from the court and fellow artists like Hubert Robert. She was named official painter to Louis XV's daughters.
When she supported the French Revolution, she lost her clientèle, and revolutionaries ordered her to destroy the huge, unfinished painting of a monarchy-related subject on which she had labored for over two years. It was a devastating blow. With the painting's destruction came the end of her hopes that this painting would win for her the Academy's highest rank of history painter. Always of fragile health, she never found within her the strength to begin another work of such magnitude.
— Self-Portrait with Two Students, Melle Marie Gabrielle Capet [1761–1818] and Melle Carreaux de Rosemond [–1788] (1785)
— François André Vincent (73x59cm; 600x480pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1120pix _ ZOOM+ to 2533x2024pix, 505kb)
— Delightful Surprise (1779, 55x44cm) _ Turning towards an off-frame visitor, a young woman leans back on a pillow, her gown falling away to expose her upper body. Adélaïde Labille-Guiard created this work as a fantasy portrait, in which the subject reflects the emotion of sensual awakening rather than portraying a specific individual. Labille-Guiard skillfully captured the sense of the woman's body abruptly turning toward an unseen visitor. The quicker pastel medium was capable of suggesting the delicate softness of the woman's skin, lips, and glossy hair.
Born on 11 April 1893: John Northcote Nash,
, British painter, wood-engraver, and illustrator, who died on 23 Sep 1977.
— Not to be confused with British architect John
Nash [1752 – 13 May 1835], or US mathematician John
Forbes Nash [13 Jun 1928~].
— John Northcote Nash was born in London. He had no formal art training but was urged by his brother Paul Nash [11 May 1889 – 11 Jul 1946] to develop his natural talent as a draftsman. His early work was in watercolor and included biblical scenes, comic drawings and landscapes. A joint exhibition with Paul at the Dorien Leigh Gallery, London, in 1913 was successful, and John was invited to become a founder-member of the London Group in 1914 and to join the Cumberland Market Group in 1915. On the outbreak of the First World War, Nash joined the First Artist Rifles. He began painting in oils with the encouragement of Harold Gilman, whose meticulous craftsmanship influenced his finest landscapes such as The Cornfield (1918)
— Dorset Landscape (1915, 41x39cm)
— A Path through Trees (1915, 51x611cm)
— Over the Top (1918; 363x493pix, 36kb) _ On the outbreak of the First World War, Nash joined the First Artist Rifles. On one occasion Nash was one of eighty men ordered to cross No-Mans-Land at Marcoing near Cambrai. Of these, only Nash and eleven men returned. Afterwards Nash painted Over the Top in memory of the failed attack. John's brother, Paul Nash, was one of the best known artists of the war. Unlike his brother, John favored a painstaking naturalist style of painting.
— Oppy Wood 1917. Evening (183x213cm; 414x482pix, 68kb) _ Oppy was a village not far from Vimy. Fortified by the Germans, it withstood the assaults of the British, Canadian, and French troops until September 1918. Although not the most famous of his war paintings, John Nash's painting depicts with careful didacticism the circumstances of the confrontation - the destruction of nature, the plain ravaged by shell-holes which had been turned into lakes, shelters dug deep in the ground, and trenches with cemented floors and arches reinforced by sheet metal, and - once again - the immobility, the void, the lookout on his watch with his face at ground level among the roots and clods of earth.
— The Cornfield (1918, 69x76cm) _ John Nash served in the army in the World War One. In 1918 he left the army and became an official war artist. The Cornfield was the first painting he made after that, which did not depict the subject of war. In its ordered view of the landscape and geometric treatment of the corn stooks, it prefigures his brother Paul’s Equivalents for the Megaliths, also shown in this room. John wrote that he and Paul used to paint for their own pleasure only after six o''clock, when their work as war artists was over for the day. Hence the long shadows cast by the evening sun across the field in the center of the painting.
— The Moat, Grange Farm, Kimble (1922, 76x51cm) _ In this brooding landscape the trees and their tendril-like branches threaten to invade the viewer’s space. The dark colors and evening light give the painting a claustrophobic atmosphere. Like his brother Paul, John Nash had served with the Artists’ Rifles for two years before becoming an Official War Artist in 1918. This painting, completed soon after the war, is characterised by a sense of bleak desolation that suggests the profound introspection that for many followed the devastation of the war.
— Harvesting (1947 color lithograph, 50x76cm)
— Mill Building, Boxted (1962, 71x81cm; 449x512pix, 33kb)