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DEATHS: 1872 STANLEY — 1808 MOSNIER
BIRTHS: 1855 MELVILLE — 1731 WATTEAU 1877 KUBIN 
^ Died on 13 April 1872: John Mix Stanley, US painter and photographer, specialized in the US West, born on 17 (14?) January 1814.
— He spent his youth in New York State, where, aged 14, he was apprenticed to a coach maker. In 1834 he moved to Detroit, where he gained his first artistic experience, working as a sign painter. One year later he began to study art more seriously, as a student of the Philadelphia portrait painter James Bowman [1793–1842], with whom he opened a studio in Chicago in 1838. From 1839 he was an itinerant portrait painter, traveling from New York to Minnesota and working mostly in Wisconsin and Illinois. His first Amerindian portraits date from these years.
— John Mix Stanley, like his contemporaries George Catlin, Paul Kane and Alfred Jacob Miller, is best known today for vivid documentation of Amerindian life in the US West, before it was swept away by advancing settlement. Stanley spent his youth in upstate New York and, at the age of fourteen, was apprenticed to a coach maker. In 1834 he moved to Detroit, where he made his living in house and sign painting. It was in Detroit that he received his first training in the fine arts under the recognized artist, James Bowman, with whom he began a partnership painting portraits. Stanley and Bowman moved to Chicago in 1838 and then traveled to Illinois, Wisconsin, and on to Fort Snelling, Minnesota. It was in Fort Snelling that Stanley first began to paint Amerindian subjects, a genre that was to consume him for the remainder of his life. He returned to the East for a two-year period, 1840-1842, painting portraits in Troy, New York, New York City, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, DC. There is little doubt that Stanley's desire to paint the Amerindians of the West was influenced by the precedent of Catlin, who had achieved fame in the late 1830's with his Indian Gallery. Beginning in the summer of 1842 Stanley and a partner, Sumner Dickerman, traveled to Arkansas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. On 19 January 1846, Stanley and Dickerman opened their North American Indian Gallery in Cincinnati. Later that same year Stanley journeyed again to New Mexico along the Santa Fe Trail. From there he accompanied major Stephen W. Kearney on a military expedition to San Diego as a topographical draftsman with the corps of engineers. During the spring of 1847 Stanley traveled overland to San Francisco, Oregon, and the area that is now the state of Washington, where he collected Amerindian artifacts among the tribes around Fort Walla Walla. In the summer of 1848 he left San Francisco and traveled to Hawaii to paint portraits of the Hawaiian royal family. By 1850 he had returned to New York where he completed paintings from the sketches made in the West. These were added to his Amerindian collection, which was enthusiastically received in New York City and later sent on tour to Troy and Albany, New York, New Haven and Hartford, Connecticut, and Washington DC. In 1852 Stanley settled in the capital, placing his Indian Gallery, which included over on hundred fifty items, on deposit at the Smithsonian Institution. The following year, from July to December, he returned to the West as an official artist on a government expedition led by General Isaac I. Stevens to explore a railroad route from St. Paul, Minnesota, to Puget Sound. During that trip he made many sketches and used a daguerreotype camera to photograph the Amerindians and the landscape. From 1854 to 1862 Stanley again lived in Washington DC. Much of his time was consumed by a huge panorama of the West based on the sketches and photographs he had made on the Stevens expedition. The panorama, comprising forty-two separate scenes, took two hours to view and was shown in Washington and Baltimore. Like Catlin, Stanley tried in vain to persuade the government to purchase his Indian Gallery. Tragically, all but five of the paintings from it were destroyed in 1865 by a fire at the Smithsonian; a later fire destroyed another group of paintings deposited at P.T. Barnum's New York Museum. In 1863 Stanley moved to Buffalo, New York, where he remained for a year and completed another large panorama, this time of the Civil War. In 1864 he exhibited the work successfully in Detroit where he moved to and remained for the rest of his life.
—      Stanley, was born in Canandaiguia, New York, and died in Detroit, Michigan. He was an important painter of Amerindians and survey artist. As a boy, Stanley became interested in Amerindians around his father’s tavern. He was orphaned in 1828 and apprenticed to a coachmaker. To find a better job, Stanley moved to Detroit in 1834 as a painter of houses and signs. In 1853 James Bowman, an accomplished portrait painter trained in Italy, admired a Stanley sign and took Stanley as a pupil. From 1836 to 1838, Stanley painted portraits around Chicago. In 1839 at Fort Snelling, Minnesota he began to devote himself to Amerindian portraits and scenes but could not support himself. In three years of portrait painting and taking daguerreotype likenesses in the East, he saved enough to return West. In 1842 Stanley set up a studio in Fort Gibson, Oklahoma, painting frontiersmen and Amerindians. Until 1845, Stanley lived in Amerindian country, painting a grand Amerindian council at Tahlequah in 1843 and a second council of prairie Amerindians. By 1846, the Stanley Amerindian paintings were on display in Cincinnati. Stanley left the same year to join a wagon train for Santa Fe where he became artist of the Kearny military expedition to aid in the conquest of California. The guide was Kit Carson. Kearny’s official report contained lithographs from Stanley sketches. Stanley was painting Amerindian portraits in Oregon in 1847, and Polynesian portraits in Hawaii in 1848-49. In 1850-51, Stanley displayed his Indian Gallery in Eastern cities, and in 1852 put his collection of 150 paintings on display at the Smithsonian in order to offer it to the Government for $19,200 in return for his 10 years’ work and $12'000 in expenses. Congress refused, and in 1865 the collection was destroyed by fire. Other Amerindian paintings by Stanley were destroyed by fire at P.T. Barnum’s American Museum in New York. In 1853, Stanley had become official artist for the Stevens expedition for the northern railway survey, making scores of sketches of bison, Red River white hunters, councils, and views. Stanley was dispatched to Washington with the preliminary survey report, and by 1854 he had used his field sketches to prepare a huge panorama of 42 episodes of Western scenes that required two hours for viewing. Like most of Stanley’s original work, the panorama has disappeared. Stanley married in 1854. The remainder of his life was spent as a studio artist, including Amerindian subjects, and in arranging for chromolithography of his paintings.
— Stanley became one of the most significant artists of the US frontier but also one of the most tragic in that three separate fires destroyed almost all his lifetime's work. He was raised in upstate New York where his father had a tavern that many Amerindians and other frontier people visited. At age 14, he became an orphan and apprenticed to a coach maker. But looking for better work, he moved to Detroit in 1834 and became a house and sign painter and subsequently trained with European educated James Bowman, who saw one of his signs and admired his work. From 1836 to 1838, Stanley painted portraits in the Chicago area and in 1839, based at Fort Snelling, Minnesota, tried unsuccessfully to support himself as a painter of Amerindian portraits and genre. He returned East and studied in Philadelphia and by 1842, had a studio at Fort Gibson in present-day Oklahoma, and he painted Amerindians and frontiersman. In 1846, the work from this period was exhibited in Cincinnati. During the next ten years, he traveled and sketched on the Santa Fe Trail, in California during the Mexican War, and the Amerindians of Oregon and the Northwest. He was the first non-Amerindian US artist to travel to Arizona, arriving in 1846 as the draughtsman for the exploratory expedition of General Stephen Watts Kearny whose mission was to help the United States secure California. Kit Carson was expedition guide. Stanley's duties were to depict the landscape through which they passed, and some of his subsequent studio paintings were the first panoramic western landscapes. By 1847, he was painting Amerindian portraits in Oregon and in 1848-1849, Polynesian portraits in Hawaii. In 1853, he was the official artist for the Stevens Expedition for the northern railway survey and did hundreds of sketches along the Red River from which he prepared a huge panorama of two hours of viewing of forty-two episodes of Western scenes. After his attachment to the Pacific Railroad Survey, Stanley traveled south to Fort Vancouver, from which he departed for San Francisco, eventually crossing the Isthmus of Panama and journeying back east. By 1854, he had married and settled into his studio in Detroit, completing oil paintings from his sketches and preparing for chromolithography of his paintings. From forty-three tribes, he had done Amerindian portraits during his extensive exhibitions in the East. In 1852, one-hundred fifty of these paintings were loaned to the fledgling Smithsonian Institution with the hope of selling it to the US government in return for his expenses and ten years of work. But Congress refused, and they remained in the Smithsonian where they were destroyed by fire in 1865. A second fire at P. T. Barnum's American Museum, housing additional work, wiped out more paintings, and after his death, a studio fire in Detroit destroyed most of his field sketches and later paintings.

LINKS
Oregon City on the Willamette River (1852; 384x580pix, 60kb)
Buffalo Hunt on the Southwestern Prairies (1845; 393x593pix, 54kb) _ by the Keechies tribe.
Osage Scalp Dance (1845, 344x500pix, 41kb)
{pursuing a stray cow?} (473x710pix, 39kb) _ An Amerindian, at a gallop, in a rainstorm. Possibly not by Stanley.
Scene on the Columbia River (17x21in)
—(060401)
Born on 10 April 1855: Arthur Melville, Scottish painter who died on 28 August 1904.
      Melville was an avant-garde Scottish painter known for his wild watercolor technique that emphasized intense colors and blownout whites. When he was 28 years old he traveled to Egypt and lived in Cairo for two years. In 1882 while traveling cross country by horse on a trip from Bagdad to the Black Sea he was twice attacked by bandits. The second time he was captured, robbed, stripped and left to die naked of exposure and thirst, he was saved by the local Iraqis and was later able to help the authorities hunt down and execute the robbers. The local Pasha liked Melville but was suspicious that he might be a British spy. Melville was detained for several weeks and during this period witnessed scenes such as the one in the painting.

LINKS
Awaiting an Audience with the Pasha (watercolor, 1882).
The Blue Night, Venice (1897)
Audrey and her Goats (1886)
 
^ Died on 13 April 1808: Jean-Laurent Mosnier, French painter born in 1743. — {To whom was Mosnier most near?}
— He was a student at the Académie de St Luc, Paris, where he trained as a miniature painter. In 1776 he was appointed Peintre de la Reine to Marie-Antoinette. He was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1786 and received (reçu) as a full member in 1788, presenting two portraits of Academicians, the sculptor Charles-Antoine Bridan and the painter Louis Lagrenée I. He exhibited a Self-portrait at the Salon of 1786, showing himself relaxed and confident at the center of his studio, flanked by two canvases, which are being admired by his two daughters. After the outbreak of the French Revolution, Mosnier fled to London in 1790 and exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1791 to 1796. His English portraits make some concession to current English taste: George, 7th Marquess of Tweedale, for example, is shown full-length in an outdoor setting; Edwards, however, considered these pictures laboured, ‘too mechanical in their execution, to stand in competition with the portraits of the English artists’. From London Mosnier went to Hamburg, where he stayed four years, and then, in 1801, to Saint-Petersburg, a favorite destination for French émigré artists. A potential rival, Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun, left the city later that year, and Mosnier assumed an influential position. In 1802 he was accepted into the Saint-Petersburg Academy, and he was made a professor there in 1806. His portrait sitters included the imperial family (e.g. The Empress Elizabeth, Wife of Alexander I, as a Girl). This charming and delicate three-quarter-length portrait has the Empress wearing a white Empire dress, with her profile seen in a mirror on the left. Mosnier was a versatile and prolific portrait painter, capable of modifying his style in accordance with changed geographical circumstances, and using his skill as a trained miniaturist to good effect in his highly polished and detailed full-size portraits. He died in Saint-Petersburg.

LINKS
Self-Portrait (1786; 83x64cm; 1090x840pix, 676kb _ ZOOM to 2305x1777pix, 2418kb)
Anna Muravyeva-Apostol [1775-1810] with Her Son Matthew [1793-1886] and Her Daughter Catherine [1794-1849] (1799, 129x99cm) _ Anna was the daughter of a general first of the Austrian, and then of the Russian Army, Simon Cernoevic, a nobleman of Serb origin, and his wife Elisabeth Kashkina. On 19 April 1790, Anna married the diplomat and scientist Ivan Matveevich Muravyev-Apostol. She brought up her children in France and was afraid to bring them home in fear of the corruptive influence of serfdom. Because of the unfriendly relations between France and Russia she had to ask Napoleon’s permission to live in Paris, which he granted with the words that “as long as virtue is respected in France, Mme Muravyeva will meet no oppression in this country”. Only on their way to Russia, in 1809, Anna told her sons that they would find slaves at home. All three of her sons became revolutionaries, two of them died for the cause: Sergey Ivanovich [1796-1826] was executed by order of tsar Nicholas I, Ippolit Ivanovich [1806-1826] committed suicide after the December revolt of 1825 failed. The boy in the picture, Matvey Ivanovich [1793-1886], was stripped of all titles and property and exiled to Siberia, where he spent 30 years. Anna Dmitrievna had 3 sons and 4 daughters.
Countess Elisabeth Borisovna Shakhovskaya [29 Nov 1773 – 1796] _ She was the daughter of Lieutenant General count Boris Grigorievich Shakhovskoy and his wife Baroness Varvara Alexandrovna Stroganova. She spent her childhood and youth in France, where, on 04 February 1792, she was married off to Prince d’Arenberg [1757-1795], who took an active part in revolutionary events in Europe. When Catherine II found out about the marriage, she was indignant, declaring: “Je veux agir avec vigueur dans un pareil cas”. She ordered both countesses to return to Russia and Prince d’Arenberg was not allowed to enter the country. Catherine II was afraid of his revolutionary ideas, which could become more effective thanks to the enormous fortune of the countesses (they had 13'000 serfs in the Perm region alone). The marriage was dissolved by the Holy Synod. On her return to Russia Elizabeth fell in love with her namesake, Count Piotr Fiodorovich Shakhovskoy [1773-1841] and left with him to his estate, where they were married against the will of her parents. A year later Elizabeth committed suicide by poisoning herself. This death aroused many rumors in high society. According to one, her former husband, Prince d’Arenberg, came to Russia incognito, met her and asked her to return to him. After she refused, he committed suicide on 02 April 1795 in Rome. She, in her turn, killed herself when she learned about his death. An alternative story is more probable: Elizabeth fell in love with a young guard officer, who did not reciprocate, and the passionate beauty chose death.
Count Aleksandr Sergeevich Stroganoff, the President of the Academy of Arts (1800-1811) [03 Jan 1733 – 1811] (1804, 129x99cm) _ compare Portrait of Count Aleksandr Stroganoff by Johann Baptist Lampi the Elder. _ Aleksandr was the son of Baron Sergei Grigorievich Stroganoff [1707-1758] and his wife Sophia Kirillovna, née Naryshkina. At the age of 19 he was sent by his father to continue his education abroad. He lived for 2 years in Geneva, attending lectures of famous professors, then traveled throughout Italy, where he studied art and started his own collection of art. In Paris he lived for 2 years and studied physics, chemistry, and metallurgy, visited factories and manufacturing plants. In 1757 he returned home and married Countess Anna Mikhailovna Vorontsova [1743-1769], daughter of the Vice-Chancellor. In 1760 he received the title of Count of the Holy Roman Empire from the Austrian Royal court. After 6 years of unhappy marriage the spouses separated and started a divorce process, which was not concluded when Anna Mikhailovna died. Soon Stroganoff married Princess Ekaterina Petrovna Trubetskaya [1744-1815]. This marriage also failed. The couple lived in Paris for several years, in 1779 they returned to Saint-Petersburg and soon the countess fell in love with Ivan Nikolaevich Korsakov, favorite of Catherine II [02 May 1729 – 17 Nov 1796]. When Korsakov was banished from the court, she went with him to Moscow, leaving her only son, Pavel, to her husband. Count Stroganoff devoted himself to his son. He was one of the closest friends of Catherine II, traveled with her much in Russia, and was a constant partner in cards. She liked him for wit, independence, and for not interfering in politics. He was in favor with the next emperors, Paul I [01 Oct 1754 – 23 Mar 1801] and his wife Empress Maria Fedorovna, and Alexander I [23 Dec 1777 – 01 Dec 1825]. In 1810, he was appointed a member of the State Council. Stroganoff was a patron of arts; he collected of paintings, graphic works, coins, etc. From 1800 to 1811 he was the President of the Academy of Arts.
Count Aleksandr Pavlovich Stroganoff [1794 – 23 Feb 1814] (1805, 54x45cm) _ The sitter was the only son of Count Pavel Aleksandrovich Stroganoff, who, in 1813, was a Lieutenant General fighting Napoleon's forces, and took the young man with him into the army. They took part in the battle of Leipzig (17 to 19 Oct 1813). Aleksandr Pavlovich was killed in battle.
Count Pavel Aleksandrovich Stroganoff (1772-1817) (1808, 69x56cm) _ Senator, Secret Councilor, Lieutenant General. He was the only son of Count Aleksandr Sergeevich Stroganoff. Pavel Stroganoff was born in Paris. His mother, Ekaterina (or Catherine) Petrovna, née Princess Trubetskaya, soon fell in love with another man and left her husband and small son. Count Aleksandr invited a French tutor, Gilbert Romme, to bring up and educate his son. Romme used travels as a means of education; the teacher and the student traveled much in Russia, then, in 1787 went abroad, first to Switzerland, then, in 1789 to Paris. The revolutionary events in France involved not only Romme, but his Russian student as well. Romme founded the Friends of Law Club, and the young Count Stroganoff became a member; they both became members of the Jacobite Club. As directed by Catherine II, Count Aleksandr Sergeevich ordered his son to return home immediately. Pavel was back in Russia in December 1790. Catherine II ordered him to stay in his estate Bratzovo, near Moscow. There, in 1793, he married Princess Sophia Vladimirovna Golitsina (1775-1845), and there, in 1794, their son, Aleksandr (1794-1814) was born. After Catherine’s II death Count Pavel Stroganoff went to Saint-Petersburg, where Paul I promoted him to a Chamberlain. Stroganoff made a strong impression on the Grand Duke Aleksandr Petrovich (future emperor Alexander I). Both young men discussed revolutionary ideas, the future political reforms in Russia, liberation of the serfs, necessity of education of the population, etc. When in 1801 Alexander I ascended to the throne he was eager to undertake the reforms, but the conservatives were more powerful than the reformers. France was also marching from “Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité” into an empire. Alexander I betrayed his youthful ideals. Stroganoff was bitterly disappointed. A Senator and a Secret Councilor, he, in 1807, joined the army, which was engaged in Napoleonic Wars in Europe. His military career was brilliant. He reached the rank of Lieutenant General and commanded an army corps in the 1811-1815 campaigns against Napoleon. He was wounded several times and had many military awards, including the order of Saint-George, 2nd degree.
Countess Sophia Vladimirovna Stroganoff [11 Nov 1775 – 1845] (1808, 69x56cm) _ She was the daughter of Prince Vladimir Borisovich Golitsin and Princess Natalya Petrovna, née Countess Tchernyshova. Sophia Vladimirovna spent her childhood and early youth abroad and got there a good education, but her Russian suffered and on her return home she had to work much to improve in her native tongue. She did it brilliantly and later translated into Russian some Western poetry, including Dante’s Divine Comedy. In 1793 she married count Pavel Aleksandrovich Stroganoff (1772-1817). Sophia Vladimirovna and Pavel Aleksandrovich had one son Aleksandr Pavlovich and four daughters: Nataly [1796-1872], Adelaide [1799-1882], Elizabeth, and Olga [1807-1837]. The early deaths of her son and husband produced a deep impression on her. For several months she was between life and death herself. She remained the only heir to the Stroganovs titles and estates. After the death of their only son Aleksandr, Pavel Aleksandrovich asked the tsar to grant to his elder daughter Natalya the right of primogeniture to inherit the Stroganovs’ titles and estates after his and his wife’s deaths. Natalya’s husband was to inherit the title of Count Stroganoff. The parents tried to find a husband for Natalya among their kin, in another branch of the Stroganoffs. Their choice fell on Baron Sergey Grigorievich Stroganoff [1794-1882], who is the Sergey of the portrait by Vigée-Lebrun Baroness Anna Sergeevna Stroganova and Her Son Sergey, and was the son of Baron, later Count, Grigory Aleksandrovich Stroganoff [1769-1857], a diplomat, Secret Councilor, and member of the State Council, third cousin of Count Pavel Aleksandrovich, and his wife Anna Sergeevna, née Princess Trubetskaya. The young man refused at first, but after meeting the young lady, fell in love with her and changed his mind. Sergey and Nataly had four sons and two daughters. Their marriage founded the new line of the Counts of Stroganoff. .
Ekaterina Fedorovna Muravyova [1771-1848] with Her Son Nikita Muravyov [1796-1866] (127x98cm) _ Née Baroness Kolokoltsova, she was the wife of Mikhail Nikitich Muravyov [1757-1807], mentor of Grand Dukes Aleksandr (future Alexander I) and Konstantin, Senator and State Secretary. They had two sons, who both became revolutionaries and participated in the December revolt of 1825.
 
^Born on 10 April 1731: Louis-Joseph Watteau “de Lille”, French painter who died on 27 August 1798, nephew of Jean~Antoine Watteau. [bap 10 Oct 1684 — 18 Jul 1721]
— Louis-Joseph Watteau painted in the style of his famous uncle, Jean~Antoine Watteau. He and his son François-Louis-Joseph Watteau [18 Aug 1758 – 01 Dec 1823], also a painter in the same style, are known as the ‘Watteau de Lille’ after their main place of work. Louis Watteau was trained in Paris by Jacques Dumont, and at the Académie Royale, where in 1751 he was awarded first prize for painting. In 1755 he settled in Lille; there he became assistant teacher at the school of drawing, but was dismissed, because of what was considered a scandalous innovation, the introduction of study of the nude, as in Paris. He then returned to Valenciennes for some 15 years; about in 1770 he became assistant teacher to Louis-Jean Guéret, director of the school of drawing in Lille, whom he succeeded in the post in 1778. On Watteau’s initiative, an annual Salon, at which he himself exhibited regularly, was established in Lille in 1773. In 1795 he was chosen to draw up an inventory of works of art seized during the French Revolution from religious foundations and the houses of émigrés, with a view to establishing a museum.
— Louis-Joseph Watteau est né à Valenciennes le 10 avril 1731, baptisé le même jour à Notre-Dame-la Grande, fils de Noël et de Marie Charles Denoyelles. Apprenti sous Jean-Baptiste Bondu en 1738-1739, il se rend ensuite à Paris où il devient l'élève de Jacques Dumont le romain, puis de l'Académie royale. En 1755 il est nommé professeur à l'Ecole de dessin de Lille nouvellement créée;mais la pratique du modèle nu provoque un scandale. Il quitte alors Lille pour regagner Valenciennes où il achète le 24 décembre 1756 une charge de peintre pour le prix de 200 livres. Il participe alors activement à la vie de la confrérie de Saint-Luc comme compteur-juré de 1758 à 1761 puis comme connétable de 1761 à 1764. Pendant cette période il a trois apprentis peintres : Ph. Lecocq, A. Dumoulin, Ch. Moreau, deux apprentis par plaisir: Dolmery, J.B. Manouvrier et un ouvrier : Bassé fils. En 1770 on le retrouve à Lille comme professeur adjoint au peintre Guéret auquel il succède en 1778 à la tête de l'Ecole de dessin. Il expose régulièrement aux Salons de Lille et fait partie de l'Académie de cette ville dès 1775. Louis Watteau n'a cependant pas oublié sa ville natale et il est un des principaux artisans de la fondation de l'Académie de Valenciennes en 1783;il en est d'ailleurs le premier membre agréé;il est reçu le 5 décembre 1785. Fixé définitivement, il revend sa charge de peintre valenciennois en 1788;son souci de sauvegarder les tableaux confisqués au début de la Révolution l'amène à être en fait le créateur du musée de la ville en 1795. C'est à Lille qu'il meurt le 10 fructidor an 6 (27 août 1798). Il a épousé, le 23 novembre 1757 à Maubeuge, Marie Agnès Dandois qui luidonne douze enfants parmi lesquels il faut noter : François, peintre, qui est son collaborateur et son successeur à Lille. Martin Raphaël, né à Valenciennes e 19 octobre 1764, qui se rend à Paris pour faire des études artistiques mais meurt prématurément en 1782. Béatrice qui épouse François Dupont, dit Dupont-Watteau, mécanicien, peintre et musicien.

LINKS
The Storm (720x1030pix, 103kb)
Monsieur Blanchard's Fourteenth Aeronautical Experiment, Accompanied by Chevalier Lépinard, Lille, 26 August 1785. (1785, 99x129cm; 366x482pix, 94kb gif) _ Jean-Pierre Blanchard [04 Jul 1753 – 07 Mar 1809] perfected the Montgolfier brothers' balloon. On 07 January 1785, he and US physician John Jeffries had made the first Channel crossing in a balloon. The same year, he would be the first (after a dog) to try out the parachute. He made numerous balloon flights in Europe and America before he suffered a heart attack over the Hague in February 1808 and fell some 15 meters, never recovering from that. His wife, Marie Sophie Armand [1778-1819} was also a balloonist and was to fall to her death when fireworks ignited the hydrogen of her balloon.
Le congé absolu (1785, 97x130cm) _ L'épisode se situe au moment où le jeune soldat retrouve sa fiancée qui l'accueille avec empressement, tandis que ses parents assis devant leur maison et s'apprétant à déjeuner, paraissent surpris de ce retour. D'autres scènes se juxtaposent dans cette toile : un berger indifférent au bonheur de la famille, joue de la flûte tout en gardant ses animaux, tandis qu'au premier plan, deux enfants sortent des fagots d'un panier et regardent cette arrivée avec étonnement. L'ensemble de la composition est traité d'une manière anecdotique: au naturalisme de la nature morte et des ustensiles de cuisine, on peut opposer la vision imaginaire du vaste paysage et surtout celle des bâtiments à demi-ruinés où l'on sent encore le souvenir, presque obligé, d'Hubert Robert. Le succès de tels tableaux est assuré auprès des amateurs qui apprécient l'aspect moralisateur d'une telle oeuvre (la fiancée fidèle attendant son promis, la présence du chien à ses côtés, l'émotion des vieux parents...). Morceau de réception à l'Académie de Valenciennes en 1785; Louis Watteau a abordé à de nombreuses reprises ces sujets tout à la fois militaires et galants souvent dans de petits formats d'une qualité assez secondaire (Le Départ du conscrit _ Le Départ du volontaire, ... ); à l'inverse, dans les moyens et grands formats c'est le cas du présent tableau {mais pas de cette minuscule image!}, Watteau atteint une grande maîtrise dans l'élégance des gestes, les effets de lumière sur les draperies ou sur les feuillages d'un arbre. Toujours en 1785, Watteau peint deux grands panneaux, Les Divertissements du camp où l'on retrouve le même motif des arbres qui se croisent, le vaste panorama s'étendant sur la gauche et les bâtiments rejetés de l'autre côté. On peut reprocher à l'artiste ce poncif un peu facile mais il lui permet de montrer ses réels talents de paysagiste et nous prouve qu'il est bien autre chose qu'un simple peintre de sujets galants.
 
not by Scarpitta
Died on a 10 April:


^ 2007 Salvatore Scarpitta [23 Mar 1919–], US so-called “artist”. — LINKS
The Elephant Trap (1959, 105x81cm; 480x368pix, 122kb) he should have replaced the capital T with a capital C, but an even better title would be One More Greater Fool Trap. _ The pseudonymous Salvatodo Zapatito has managed to salvage this monochrome non-art by thoroughly transforming it into the colorful twin abstractions
      _ The Lethal Fire Ant (L. F. Ant) Trap (2007; 775x1096pix, 414kb _ ZOOM to 1096x1550pix, 818kb _ ZOOM+ to 1700x2404pix, 1983kb _ ZOOM++ to 2636x3728pix, 4808kb) and
      _ The Elephant Crab (2007; 775x1096pix, 414kb _ ZOOM to 1096x1550pix, 818kb _ ZOOM+ to 1700x2404pix, 1983kb _ ZOOM++ to 2636x3728pix, 4808kb) _ Compare with the realistic
      _ The Ram Horned Elephant Crab (381x500pix, 52kb)
Overpass (1962, 144x161cm; 480x527pix, 39kb) a better title: Overpriced. _ To estimate how overpriced, compare with
      _ Overpriced Painting (637x1024pix, 169kb) sold to tourists around Ankor Wat.
Tischamingo (1964, 165x152cm; 480x443pix, 27kb) or should the first syllable be reversed? _ Compare with
      _ Merda d'Artista by Piero Manzoni [13 Jul 1933 – 06 Feb 1963].
Untitled (1958, 171x145cm; 480x404pix, 99kb) unentitled to a title. —(070707)

>1985 Eusebio Sempere [03 Apr 1923–], Spanish painter, graphic artist, sculptor. —(100410)

^ 1945 Hendrik Nikolaas Werkman, Dutch painter and printmaker born on 29 April 1882. — {He must have produced werkmanlike artwork, but I find few examples of it on the internet.} — In 1896 he saw an exhibition of Vincent van Gogh’s work, and when he started to paint in 1917, it was initially in an Expressionistic style, akin to that of van Gogh [1853-1890], but later in a manner which was close to the expressionism of De Ploeg (“The Plough”), the Groningen artists’ society that he joined in 1920. In 1922 he saw an exhibition in Groningen of the art of De Stijl artists. His printing business, which he had run from 1907, went bankrupt in 1923; after this he continued to print but at a smaller business. In addition to commercial print he produced posters, programmes for De Ploeg and the magazine The Next Call, through which he reached the European avant-garde.
Kominy 2 (1923 lithograph; 70x40cm; 555x447pix, 129kb) almost monochrome red. —(070406)

1914 Józef Chelmonski, Polish painter and illustrator born on 07 November 1849. He received drawing lessons from his father and then (1867-1871) attended the Warsaw Drawing Class and the private studio of Wojciech Gerson. In 1871 Chelmonski went to Munich to join the substantial community of Polish artists and studied at the Munich Akademie under Alexander Strähuber [1814-1882] and Hermann Anschütz [1802-1880]. Chelmonski visited museums and galleries there but was also influenced by the lyrical realist style of other Polish artists in Munich, such as Maksymilian Gierymski. In Munich, Chelmonski produced his first successful mature works, such as Before the Rain (1873), remarkable for its strong sense of atmosphere. On returning to Warsaw in 1875 Chelmonski found no recognition there. The idealized picture of peasant life in Indian Summer (1875), shown at the Warsaw Society for the Encouragement of Fine Arts, was violently attacked by the critics for being too realistic. Other paintings sent for exhibition were likewise severely criticized.

1906 Richard Thomas Moynan, British artist born on 27 April 1856.

^ 1866 Joseph-Louis-Hippolyte Bellangé, Parisian painter born on 17 January 1800. He studied under Antoine-Jean Gros.— LINKS
Napoléon et le Petit Messager (72x84cm; 870x1050pix, 101kb)
Bataille d'Altenkirchen,.4 juin 1796 (1839, 268x192cm) _ detail 1 (410x512pix, 662kb) _ detail 2
News from the Front _ detail 1 the lady (360x360pix, 14kb) _ detail 2 the soldier (360x360pix, 14kb) _ detail 3 a horse's head (360x360pix, 13kb)
The Gleaners
^ 1865 William Frederick Witherington, Britist artist born on 25 May 1785. — {Was he weighed down by a withering ton of criticism? Did he answer it in a withering tone?}
— The Village Post Office (1853, 61x91cm)
The Robin (76x64cm)
The Broken Pitcher (1814, 12x9cm)
— Going to School (1817, 12x9cm)
Stepping Stones on the Machno, North Wales - Study from Nature (1844, 63x76cm)
— Woodcutters (16x25cm)
The Hop Garland (1843, 45x36cm) _ During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries the hop gardens of Kent, Sussex and Surrey provided artists with a rich source of subject matter. The picking season, when many families migrated from London for paid employment and fresh air, was a modest English equivalent of the more exotic French and Italian grape harvest or vintage. Witherington was a popular painter of scenes from rural life. He painted several works inspired by the picturesque sights of hop-pickers at work and at play. Here he shows young workers at rest while they garland a younger companion with the yellow hop flowers. A writer in The Art Journal thought that this was Witherington's best picture.
— The Gleaners (12x9cm) [shown here >]

^ 1840 Alexander Nasmyth, Edinburgh Scottish painter, illustrator, landscape gardener and engineer, born on 09 September 1758, second son of Michael Naesmyth who was the head of a family firm of architect–builders. Alexander Nasmyth was the most notable artist of the family. Among his 11 children, Patrick Nasmyth [1787-1831] was the best-known painter. The others were Jane Nasmyth [1788–1867}, Barbara Nasmyth [1790–1870], Margaret Nasmyth [1791–1869], Elizabeth Nasmyth [1793–1862], Anne Nasmyth [1798–1874], Charlotte Nasmyth [1804–1884], Alexander Nasmyth [1805–1816], George Nasmyth [1807–1860], James Nasmyth [19 Aug 1808 – 07 May 1890], and Mary Nasmyth [1810–1811]. Jane, Barbara, Margaret, and Charlotte assisted their father in running the art classes at 47 York Place in Edinburgh; like their sisters Anne and Elizabeth, they all painted. Alexander’s fourth son, James Nasmyth, painted but was best known for his invention of the steam hammer. His artwork includes a portrait of his father (1884) from a sketch by William Nicholson [1784–1844]. Alexander Nasmyth was educated for a career in architecture, but at an early age he showed artistic talent, and in 1773 he was apprenticed to James Cummyng [1730–1792], a house decorator and antiquarian. Nasmyth painted panels for carriages at Alexander Crichton’s coachworks and attended evening classes at the Trustees’ Academy. When Allan Ramsay visited Crichton in 1774, he was impressed with Nasmyth’s ability. Nasmyth subsequently accompanied Ramsay to his London studio where he continued his apprenticeship for four years. He also studied under Alexander Runciman. — The students of Alexander Nasmyth included Francis Grant, Andrew Robertson, J. C. Schetky, Rev. John Thomson, George Watson, Hugh William Williams, Andrew Wilson. — Biography of Alexander Nasmyth, Chapter 2 in the Autobiography of his son James Nasmyth.— Engraving portrait of Alexander Nasmyth as a child (482x450pix, 55kb gif)
The Port of Leith (539x791pix, 92kb)
Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli with the Temple of Vesta (467x729pix, 66kb)

^ 1830 Johann-Jakob Biedermann, Swiss painter and engraver born on 07 August 1763. — {Did retrospective psychoanalysis discover that Biedermann, when his id was suppressed, became a beer mann?}— He studied under Johann Rudolf Schellenburg in Winterthur and then, in 1778, with Heinrich Rieter (1751–1818) in Berne, where he was also influenced by the topographical landscapes of Johann Ludwig Aberli. He was adept at executing such sharply detailed engravings of Swiss cities as View of Lucerne (1790), which he sold to tourists. In 1802 he published an important series of views of Switzerland, which were widely circulated. His skill as a painter of animals was sometimes combined with his rendering of the landscape, as in View of the Lake of Bienne (1800). In 1807 he taught drawing in Basle and in 1814 was active in the area around Lake Constance. His paintings are often characterized by warm colors and frequently capture the atmosphere of late afternoon, as in Murg on the Lake of Walen (1820). Many of his landscapes are straightforward depictions of the Swiss countryside, stressing the romantic nature of the scene, as in View of the Area of Bex (1821). He painted in Zurich in 1827 and was known to have travelled to Munich and Dresden. His works are important visual documents of an image of the pastoral countryside frequently propagated by Swiss artists in accordance with the philosophical ideals of Jean-Jacques Rousseau [1712 – 02 Jul 1778].

^ 1823 Christian Georg Schütz (or Schuz) II "der Vetter", German painter born on 03 September 1758; nephew of Christian Georg Schütz I "der Ältere" [24 Sep 1718 – 03 Dec 1791]. — {I don't find any of his artwork online. Could this be because there is someone who shuts Schütz out of the internet?}— Christian Georg Schütz II wird am 3.09.1758 in Flörsheim als 8. von 9 Kindern des Acker- und Weinbauern Johann (-es Peter) Schütz und seiner Ehefrau Maria Barbara geboren. Der Vetter ist der einzige der Familie der eine Autobiographie hinterläßt, weshalb man seinen Lebensweg besser verfolgen kann, als den seiner Verwandten. Er nennt seine Autobiographie Umriß meines Lebens. Darin schreibt er, dass er von Herrn Christian Georg Schütz zur Taufe gebracht worden sei und er sich außerdem, nach dem Tod des Vaters, sich seiner Entwicklung zum Künstler annimmt. In den Jahren nach 1780 wird jeweils zur Sommerzeit der Taunus durchstreift, und in Oberursel, Kronberg, Königsstein oder Eppstein entstehen viele Studien. Im Jahre 1800 geht Schütz nach Eisenach, um dort Ansichten zu malen, danach reist er nach Weimar, wo er sogar Goethe und Frau von Stein vorgestellt wird.1815 rühmt Goerthe in "Kunst und Altertum" Schütz Blätter in Gouache und Sepia :"Sie sind von bewunderswürdiger Reinheit; die Darstellung der Rheinufer sei so getreu wie anmutig, und das Gefühl, da den Rheinfahrenden ergreife, werde bei Betrachtung der Bilder mitgeteilt oder wiedererweckt". Bis an sein Lebensende vergißt Christian Georg Schütz II seinen Geburtsort Flörsheim nicht. Bis zuletzt behält er einen Teil seines väterlichen Erbes an Haus- und Weinbergen, obgleich die ansehnlichen Bau- und Kriegskosten oft den geringen Ertrag verzehren. Christian Georg Schütz II stirbt am 10.04.1823 im Alter von 65 Jahren in Frankfurt am Main nachts um 2 Uhr im Wohnsitz der Familie, dem Arnsburger Hof in der Predigergasse, und wird am Samstag, den 12.04.1823 beerdigt.
Die Burg im Blau des Rokoko (1795, 20x26cm; 488x650pix, 165kb)


Born on a 10 April:


1936  David A. Hardy, British illustrator of space science fiction books. —(070416)

^ 1924 Kenneth Noland, US painter and sculptor. He served in the US Air Force from 1942 to 1946 and after his discharge took advantage of the G.I. Bill to study at Black Mountain College in North Carolina {What's the bet that, at the time, it was segregated and there was no Black Black Mountain College student?}. There he was taught by Ilya Bolotowsky, learning about Neo-plasticism and Mondrian; he also had one course with Josef Albers, whom he found rigid and doctrinaire but from whom he learnt about Bauhaus theories. He also had Theodoros Stamos as a teacher. During this period he also developed an interest in Paul Klee’s work, especially in his use of color. In 1948, again under the G.I. Bill, Noland went to Paris. There he studied sculpture in Ossip Zadkine’s studio and, guided by him, also painted, though Zadkine’s Cubist aesthetic seemed a little old-fashioned to him after his Bauhaus training. While in Paris he also saw paintings by Picasso, Miró, and Matisse and in 1949 had his first one-man show at the Galerie Raymond Creuze. — LINKS
Horizontal Stripes (III-27) (1978, 127x85cm; 798x526pix, 90kb). _ Noland must have had a very limited horizon, and a lack of imagination for stripes and for colors. On both accounts the pseudonymous Lohago Sitierra has gone way beyond Noland's picture, which Sitierra took as his starting point. Sitierra has produced a high definition image which will fit the height of your computer screen and stretches more than 200 times the width of most computer screens, an incredible 263'600 pixels:
     _ The Stripes To End All Stripes, Stretching Along an Almost Infinite Horizon, and the Star aka Lana Canal (2006; 553kb)
–- c (1200x906pix, 56kb) three right angles _ Sitierra's mentor, the pseudonymous Lecou Santerre, has amazingly metamorphosed this simplistic picture into a splendid series of 80 related abstractions which can be accessed by clics of the mouse from any of them, for example the asymmetrical
      _ See the Sea (2008; 564x798pix, 172kb _ ZOOM 1 to 798x1128pix, 354kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1128x1596pix, 765kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1880x2658pix, 2308kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 3659kb _ ZOOM 5 to 3760x5316pix, 6097kb) and the symmetrical
      _ Laissez les C (2008; 564x798pix, 174kb _ ZOOM 1 to 798x1128pix, 358kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1128x1596pix, 759kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1880x2658pix, 2337kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 3652kb _ ZOOM 5 to 3760x5316pix, 6199kb)
No. One (1192x1185pix, 125kb _ ZOOM not recommended to 2384x2370pix)
Brilliance (1958, 150x150cm; 798x526pix, 90kb) almost concentric almost-circles surrounded by smudges.
This (795x800pix, 102kb) concentric circles surrounded by a very dirty yellow smudgy halo.
— a different This (716x725pix, 58kb) concentric circles
That (800x794pix, 103kb) concentric circles surrounded by a blue-black smudgy halo. _ Here too Sitierra saw an opportunity to enhance the picture by transforming it into the much more interesting
     _ Concentrated Governing Circles by Arc Light and Heavy aka Top Pat (2006; screen filling, 185kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1255kb)
Circle: Bolero (722x726pix, 64kb) concentric circles.
Nieuport (800x796pix, 95kb) mostly buff background with small concentric circles at the center.
Duty (406x800pix, 40kb)
Dusk (800x643pix, 105kb)
Magic Recall (1970; 565x970pix) flat salmon-color background with a few horizontal pale lines or thin strips, that's all. Sitierra has preserved that as just one stripe in the picture which he enriched with modified elements from the preceding three pictures of Noland, resulting in
     _ Magisterial Call to Duty at Dusk in the New Port aka Cale Lac (2006; screen filling, 186kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1523kb)
103 images at Ciudad de la Pintura —(080410)

^ >1894 Ben Nicholson, British painter and sculptor who died on 06 February 1982. Son of William Nicholson [05 Feb 1872 – 16 May 1949], he attended the Slade School of Art in 1910–1911 (contemporary with Paul Nash), but he was mostly abroad between 1912 and 1918, devoting himself seriously to painting only after his marriage in 1920 to Winifred Roberts [21 Dec 1893 – 05 Mar 1981]. Before this date his works show a painstaking competence in a traditional manner, closer to Vermeer than to any modern artist. Nicholson’s decisive commitment to painting coincided with his commitment to modernism. This entailed ‘starting again’ by reference to a different concept of art: one in which strength of expression was valued over accuracy of description, and ‘integrity’ and ‘freshness’ of formal invention esteemed over practised facility in delineation. During the 1920s Nicholson thus followed the path laid down by such theorists of modernism as Roger Fry. On visits to Paris he informed himself at first hand about the typical subjects of a modernist interest: the works of the Italian Primitives and of African tribes, and the paintings of Cézanne, Henri Rousseau, Picasso, Matisse and Braque. Following an exhibition in 1923 at Paterson’s Gallery, London (with Winifred Nicholson), in 1924 he was invited to join the 7&5 Society. He was made chairman in 1926 and was to dominate the society from then until its demise. Ben Nicholson’s first one-man show was held in March 1924 at the Twenty-one Gallery in London.— Peter Lanyon was a student of Nicholson. — LINKS
Trout (600x637pix _ ZOOM not recommended to 1400x1486pix, 311kb) _ the title bears no relationship to the picture, which is of what looks like some partly superinmposed rough rectangles, mostly dirty-gray.
–- Composition (1939, 15x22cm; 596x900pix, 22kb _ .ZOOM unnecessary to 1104x1706pix, 67kb) _ Four rectangles in flat dull colors around a small red square. For a picture like that, the pseudonymous Nick Benolson does not need 22kb, 2kb is quite sufficient in however large a size, as in his
     _ Compare (2006; 596x900pix, 2kb _ ZOOM if you want to 5960x9000pix, 2kb, but there is not more detail). But, if you want the strong colors and complex texture that the Nicholson image, or any other of the same size cannot give you in 22kb, Benolson can provide that too, for example in his
     _ Compost (2006; 596x900pix, 275kb) —(080217)

1885 (04 Apr?) Georges Valmier, French painter, collagist, draftsman, and stage designer, who died on 25 March 1937. A few years younger than most of the Cubists with whom he became associated, he received a traditional art education at the École Nationale des Beaux-Arts in Paris from 1906 to 1910. He did not participate in any of the manifestations of Cubism that took place before World War I. His interest in the movement appears to have developed under the influence of Albert Gleizes, who painted his portrait while both served near the front in the 167th regiment at Toul in 1914–1915. By 1916 Valmier was making small and very delicate collages markedly different from those of Picasso, Braque, or Gris, composed of minutely fragmented surfaces.

1881 William John Leech, Irish painter who died on 16 July 1968. — [Was he a real blood-sucker?] — The son of a law professor at Trinity College, Dublin, he studied at the Metropolitan School of Art and at the Royal Hibernian Academy (RHA) schools in Dublin (1899–1901), where he was taught by Walter Osborne. He exhibited at the RHA from 1900, becoming an Academician in 1910.

^ 1880 Hans Purrmann, German painter, draftsman, and printmaker, who died on 17 April 1966. — [Did Purrman have Purrkatz? Did he imitate them so that, when faced with hostile critics, he became Hissmann?] — In 1893 he became apprenticed to his father, the painter Georg Heinrich Purrmann [1844–1900], and later attended the Kunstgewerbeschule in Karlsruhe (1897–1899), becoming a friend of Rudolf Levy. He then studied under the German painter Gabriel von Hackl [1843–] and Franz von Stuck at the Akademie in Munich (1900–1905). His fellow students included the Czech painter Eugen von Kahler [1882–1911], Willi Geiger, Klee, and Kandinsky. During a stay in Berlin (1904–1905) he came into contact with Paul Cassirer and Max Liebermann and joined the Berlin Secession. From 1905 to 1914 he lived in Paris, meeting with other artists at the Café du Dôme. In 1908 he and Sarah Stein [1870–1953] co-founded the Académie Matisse, which Purrmann ran until its closure in 1911. It was attended by German artists such as Oskar Moll, Margarete Moll [1884–1977], Rudolf Levy, Friedrich Ahlers-Hestermann and Mathilde Vollmoeller [1876–1943], who married Purrmann in 1912. He went to Germany three times with Matisse, introducing him to a Berlin public. Matisse and Fauvism were clear influences on Purrmann’s work; typical of his style are colorful, sensitively painted landscapes, still-lifes and portraits. After 1916 Purrmann lived in Berlin and Langenargen, Lake Constance, moving from there in 1935 to run the German art foundation at the Villa Romana in Florence. He lived there until 1943, then in the villages of Castagnola and Montagnola, Lugano.

1877 Alfred Leopold Isidor “Paul” Kubin, Czech artist who died (full coverage) on 20 August 1959.

1864 Guido Sigriste, Swiss (Ticinese?) artist who died in March 1915. — {“Si gris te déplait, Sigriste te déplait.” La conclusion est-elle valable?}

1758 Jean-Joseph-Xavier Bidault, French painter who died on 20 October 1846. He was apprenticed in Lyon for six years to his brother Jean-Pierre-Xavier Bidauld [1745-1813], a landscape and still-life painter. Subsequently, they left Lyon to travel together in Switzerland and Provence. In 1783 he moved to Paris, where he met Joseph Vernet (from whom he received valuable advice), Joseph-Siffred Duplessis and Jean-Honoré Fragonard. In 1785 he went to Rome with the assistance of Cardinal de Bernis and his patron, the dealer and perfumer Dulac. He stayed there for five years, traveling through Tuscany, Umbria and Campania and painting such works as Roman Landscape (1788). Bidauld was closely involved with the circle of French Neoclassical painters in Rome in the 1780s. He was friendly with Louis Gauffier, Nicolas-Antoine Taunay and especially with Guillaume Lethière, who became his brother-in-law and with whom he occasionally collaborated. After his return to Paris in 1790 he traveled extensively in France, visiting Brittany, the Dauphiné and in particular Montmorency, where he stayed in the Mont-Louis house that had been the home of Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

^ 1492 Vincenzo di Benedetto Tamagni, San Gemignano Italian painter who died in 1530. He was a student of Sodoma, whom he assisted on the frescoes in the monastery of Monte Oliveto Maggiore, near Siena. In 1510–1512 he made frescoes of the Virgin and Child with Saints and Others in the ex-pharmacy of the Ospedale di S Maria della Croce at Montalcino (Siena) and these show clearly the influence of Sodoma. He then moved to Rome, where he entered the shop of Raphael and probably worked on the decoration of the Loggetta of Cardinal Bernardo Bibbiena in the Vatican; his frescoes of 1516 in the apse of S Maria at Arrone (Terni) reflect contemporary Roman ideas, in particular from Raphael’s Vatican Stanze and from Baldassare Peruzzi. He then assisted in the decoration of the Vatican Logge, where, on the basis of the frescoes at Arrone, several scenes can be attributed to him, including the Anointing of David, the Adoration of the Magi and the Last Supper. According to Vasari, he also decorated façades of numerous Roman houses. On his return to San Gimignano in 1522, Tamagni executed a Virgin and Child Enthroned for San Gerolamo, and in 1523 the Birth of the Virgin for San Agostino. Also from this period is the Assumption of the Virgin in the Badia at Isola (Siena) and the Virgin and Child with Saints in the parish church of Pomarance, signed and dated 1525. About this date he returned to Rome, where he completed three ceiling frescoes at Villa Lante, of illustrious men and women surrounded by grotesque decoration. After the Sack of Rome in 1527, he returned to San Gimignano, where he painted works including the Mystic Marriage of St Catherine and the Meeting of Joachim and Anne, signed and dated 1528.
 
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