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ART “4” “2”-DAY  09 April v.9.30
^ Died on 09 April 1858: Joseph Karl Stieler, German painter born on 01 November 1781. — {Was Stieler a stealer from whom other artists were careful to keep their best innovative ideas? Or was Stieler a styler who generated innovative ideas?}
— Stieler, who originally came from Mainz, was well known for his sensitive portraits. His portrait style was most especially shaped during his work in the Parisian atelier of Francois Gérard, a student of David. After a long stay in Italy he worked mainly in the service of the Bavarian court. His painted likenesses in Schloss Nymphenburg - the so-called "Schönheitengalerie" or gallery of beauties - were commissioned by King Ludwig I and are his most famous works. The most distinguishing feature of Stieler's portraits is his utter focus on the sitter. Decorative additions are left out, and there is nothing that distracts the viewer's scrutiny. Stieler accomplished this concentration through deliberate light-dark contrast, which above all highlights the accurately characterized facial features.
— In 1798 he studied under Christoph Fesel [1737–1805] in Würzburg and in 1800 under Heinrich Füger [1751-1818] in Vienna, where his style was strongly influenced by English portraiture. After he studied in Paris (1807-1808) under François Gérard [04 May 1770 – 11 Jan 1837] the influence of Neoclassicism became apparent in his work. He visited Italy in 1809, 1810 and 1812 to do commissioned portraits for various patrons, among them Prince Eugène de Beauharnais (1809) and Joachim Murat, King of Naples (reg. 1808–1815). In 1812 Stieler went to Munich where he did work for middle-class clients, the nobility and the royal family of Bavaria (e.g. the portrait of Maximilian I Joseph, 1816). In 1820 he was appointed court painter to Ludwig I, King of Bavaria (reg 1825–1848), and painted several portraits of him. In 1823 he founded the Munich Kunstverein, along with Domenico Quaglio [01 Jan 1787– 09 Apr 1837], Peter von Hess [1792–1871] and Friedrich von Gärtner, to create better opportunities for artists to sell and exhibit their works.
     He was one of the most important portrait painters in the Neoclassical style. The competition between the painters nourished the growth of thematic specialization in the academies. In Munich, the term "Fächler" (subject specialists) became current, as painters specialised in landscape, portrait, history, or religious painting. Some fought their way through the fierce competition to become widely celebrated. They include the portrait painter Karl Joseph Stieler, who was commissioned by King Ludwig I of Bavaria to paint a portrait gallery of 36 of the most beautiful ladies in the land for the Schönheitsgalerie (1827–1842). The subjects include Nanette Kaula, 17, daughter of the head of the Jewish community, who was married to a nephew of Heinrich Heine, and Amalie Schintling, who died young. Stieler was not only technically highly accomplished, but has also left a document of the ideal of beauty of his time.
      In his portraits for the middle classes and for the court he devised certain peculiarities of form. He painted various members of the royal houses of Austria, Prussia and Sweden, as well as members of the nobility in the duchies of Saxe-Altenberg, Saxe-Coburg and Hesse. His sitters also included some of the most important figures in the political and intellectual life of Germany in the first half of the 19th century. He painted the pendant portraits of Franz Brentano and Antonie Brentano (both 1808), Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1828) and Ludwig Tieck (1838), the geographer and botanist Alexander von Humboldt (1843) and the musician Ludwig van Beethoven. After 1845 the classical elements in his paintings were sometimes combined with an application of color typical of plein-air studies. He also painted genre pictures and religious scenes.

Familienporträt des Herzogs Joseph von Sachsen-Altenburg (1848, 230x278cm, 600x722pix, 56kb; ZOOM to 2107x2536pix, 281kb)
W. J. von Schelling (600x468pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1092pix)
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1828, 78x64cm; 900x737pix, 69kb) _ Goethe [28 Aug 1749 – 22 Mar 1832] was the last great Renaissance man: not only the greatest German writer (critic, journalist, poet, novelist, playwright) of all times, but also a painter, theater manager, statesman, educationalist, and natural philosopher. Compare:
     _ by Tischbein [15 Feb 1751 – 26 Jun 1829] Porträt Goethes in der Campagna, gemalt 1787 in Rom (164x206cm; 600x759pix, 149kb _ ZOOM to 1600x2024pix, 458kb). Warhol [06 Aug 1928 – 22 Feb 1987] posterized the head-and-shoulders part of Tischbein's painting, miscoloring them in his Goethe (591x709pix, 86kb). But the pseudonymous Joker Chaingang Dishbuy Peacemound avenged Tishbein by transmogrifying Warhol's picture into the symmetrical and outrageously colorful Goethe's Self-Confrontational Introspection Nightmare as he Imagined Himself Hiding in a War Hole at the Second Battle of Castiglione on 05 August 1796 During Napoleon's Italian Campaign aka Toge Got (2006; screen filling, 181kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1035kb). Peacemound went on to metamorphose this into a splendid abstraction of which half should please the fans of cubism and pointillism, while the other half is for those who prefer free-flowing forms: Poor Goat in the Camp, a Gem in Alternate Read-Only Memory aka Time Mat (1864x2636pix, 2078kb); because of its wealth of fine detail it can be properly appreciated only in the full-size image; however for those want no more than a screen filling image the best choice is the full-size detail Time Mad (211kb _ it can even be ZOOMed to 1864x2636pix, 1501kb), though there is also the too small Time Mat (253kb)
Ludwig I. von Bayern im Krönungsornat (1826, 244x171cm; 900x631pix, 105kb)
Amalie von Schintling (1831, 1068x877pix, 81kb) _ one of the portraits of the Schönheitengalerie. The sitter who died young.
Nanette Heine, née Kaula (1829, 1069x875pix, 69kb) _ one of the portraits of the Schönheitengalerie. The sitter, Nanette Kaula [1812–], daughter of the head of the Jewish community, was married to a nephew of Heinrich Heine.
^ Died on 09 April 1882: Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti, English Pre-Raphaelite poet and painter  born on 12 May 1828.
      Rossetti's father was an Italian patriot exiled to England. The family's household became a center of liberal politics and lively conversation and produced several talented children, including Dante Gabriel Rossetti, his sister, poet Christina Rossetti, and his brother, art critic and editor William Rossetti.
      Dante Rossetti, put off by his father's passionate politics, came to believe that art and literature should pursue beauty for beauty's sake and not try to be moral, instructive, or politically useful. Rossetti was already writing poetry and translating Italian verse by the time he was 20. He studied art and became a founder of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, an art group embracing art for art's sake.
      Rossetti contributed poems to the group's magazine, The Germ, and published a translation called Early Italian Poems, which brought him modest recognition and success. In 1860, Rossetti married a beautiful model named Elizabeth Siddal. Two years later, she died from an accidental overdose of laudanum. Rossetti, devastated, buried the only complete manuscript of his poetry with her. The manuscript was later unearthed and published during his lifetime. His Ballads and Sonnets (1881) included his sonnet sequence The House of Life.
—    Rossetti decided to become an artist before he had any actual experience of painting. He enrolled in the Royal Academy Schools, but did not stay long. He then studied for a short time with Ford Madox Brown [16 April 1821 – 11 Oct 1893], before transferring his allegiance to William Holman Hunt [02 Apr 1827 – 07 Sep 1910]. His friendship with Hunt and subsequent meeting with John Millais [08 Jun 1829 – 13 Aug 1896] were the major factors in the creation of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.
     During the late 1850s he took to painting in watercolors, in which he felt that his shortcomings of technique were less apparent. Many of his pictures at this time, concerned his lifelong fascination with Dante.
click for Beata Beatrix      In the early 1850s Rossetti met Elizabeth Siddal, the model for Millais famous picture Ophelia. She became his lover, and after an on-off relationship he married her in 1860, when she was already very ill, probably with tuberculosis. Rossetti made many pencil drawings of Lizzie (such as one of 06 Feb 1855), which are extremely beautiful and sensitive. In 1862, after the still birth of their child, Lizzie committed suicide by taking an overdose of laudanum. The grief-stricken Rossetti, had a manuscript version of his poems buried with his wife. In 1862 he produced the famous picture Beata Beatrix [< click image for version 1] nominally a Dantesque picture, but in reality a tribute to his dead wife, who was quite obviously the model for Beatrix. Following this trauma, he moved to a house in Cheyne Walk, where he lived for the most of the rest of his life. He lived in a curious fashion, with a menagerie of wild animals in his garden. His main companion was Fanny Cornforth [1862 portrait 25x10cm — 1868 drawing 50x34cm], a basic cockney girl, and your archetypal “tart with a heart.” In the late 1860s, Rossetti had his wife's body exhumed, to recover his poems. From this unhappy and bizarre event, the mental problems, which ultimately destroyed him, are most likely to have come.
      Rossetti became increasingly burdened with an obsession for Jane Morris, née Burden [1860 drawing — 1868 portrait “Aurea Catena” 77x63cm], the wife of his friend William Morris [1834-1896]. For most of the last twenty years of his life, his pictures were of lone women, sumptuously colored, in luxurious, but often claustrophobic surroundings. Most of these pictures had as their model, a stylized Jane Morris. In the 1870s Rossetti became addicted to chloral ( a narcotic) and alcohol. Jane Morris broke with him, as he started to lose his reason. His health broken, he died at Birchington-on-Sea at Easter 1882. His younger brother, William Michael Rossetti [1829-1919] was an art critic, and the main chronicler of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. He married the daughter of Ford Madox Brown.
—     Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti was an English poet, painter and translator. He was born to the family of an Italian political immigrant Gabriel Rossetti, poet, scholar and revolutionary. There were three more children in the family: Maria (1827-76) who became an Anglican nun and author of a literary commentary A Shadow of Dante; William Michael (1829-1919), critic, civil servant and Pre-Raphaelite historian, and Christina Georgina (1830-94), English poet. The household was artistic and more Italian than English.
       Rossetti began his training in 1841 in Sass’s Drawing School; in 1846 he was accepted by the Royal Academy Antique School in London. Then he persuaded Ford Madox Brown to tutor him, but this was short-lived. In 1848, he became a co-founder (with William Holman Hunt and John Millais) of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood; the painters of the trend turned away from neo-classicism and its models of Greco-Roman antiquity and the High Renaissance, and revived interest in the Middle Ages, especially in Gothic art.
       Most of Rossetti’s work was produced in the spirit of this movement, despite his leaving it at an early date. Many of his themes were taken from the Old and New Testament, Dante, or the medieval legends about the King Arthur and his knights, Malory's Morte d’Arthur in particular, and treated with strong overtones of symbolism.
       In 1850, he met Elisabeth Siddal, who sat for many of his pictures: The First Anniversary of the Death of Beatrice: Dante Drawing the Angel (1853), Dante's Vision of Rachel and Leah (1855), Beata Beatrix (1870) and for some by Hunt and Millais’s Ophelia, and whom he married in 1860 after a fraught and prolonged courtship. Already an invalid, she died in 1862 from an overdose of laudanum. Although it was an accident, the thought that his wife had committed suicide haunted Rossetti for the rest of his life.
       He met Ruskin in 1854. Largely because of Ruskin, Rossetti was gaining a reputation as the ‘leader’ of the Pre-Raphaelites. He turned more and more in the direction of poetic painting, which he emphasized by attaching sonnets to the frames of his pictures. In 1861, The Early Italian Poets was published, translations from 60 poets such as Dante and Cavalcanti. Rossetti's Poems appeared in 1870. His wife’s death, however affected him deeply and his work took a taint of pessimism and morbidity. Dante's Dream at the Time of the Death of Beatrice (1871), Proserpine (1874). He fell into depression and attempted suicide in 1872. Nevertheless, Ballads and Sonnets with the sonnet sequence The House of Life and The King’s Tragedy appeared in 1881. In his later years Rossetti concentrated on studies of single, allegorical female figures: Monna Vanna (1866), Mariana (1870), La Ghirlandata (1873, The Day Dream (1880).
      At odds with Victorian morality, his work is lush, erotic and medieval, romantic in spirit, and of abiding interest and fascination.
       Rossetti died on Easter Sunday, 09 April 1882, of glomerulonephritis (a diffuse inflammation of the kidneys' glomeruli usually brought on by immunological processes; it is also known as Bright’s disease after Dr. Richard Bright [28 Sep 1789 – 16 Dec 1858]).
Portrait of Rossetti (1883, 30x23cm; 725x550pix, 38kb _ ZOOM to 1088x825pix, 94kb _ ZOOM+ to 1632x1238pix, 177kb) by his friend William Holman Hunt [02 April 1827 – 07 Sep 1910]

The Rossetti Archive
//— writings:
Selected Works and Criticism.The Blessed DamozelThe House of Life Jenny Poems (first edition; 1870) (illustrated) — translator of Bürger's Lenore

//— artwork:
How Sir Galahad, Sir Bors, and Sir Percival were Fed with the Sanc Grael; but Sir Percival's Sister Died by the Way (1864, 29x42cm)
Sybilla Palmifera (1870, 94x83cm)
Venus Verticordia (1868, 98x70cm)
— The Beloved aka The Bride (1866, 83x76cm; _ ZOOMable)
— Il Ramoscello (1865, 48x39cm _ ZOOMable)
— Beata Beatrix (1870, 87x69cm _ ZOOMable) _ Beatrice Portinari, loved from afar by Dante [Jun 1265 – 13 Sep 1321], died on 08 June 1290, at the age of 24. For Rossetti she represents his dead wife, Elizabeth Eleanor (née Siddal) [1829 – 11 Feb 1862]. Rossetti had begun the picture many years before her death, but took it up again in 1864 and completed it by 1870. It is one of his most intensely visionary, Symbolist pictures, and marks a new direction in his for full painting The painting represents the death of Beatrice in Dante's Vita Nuova. Beatrice sits in a death-like trance, while a bird, the messenger of Death, drops a poppy into her hands. In the background the figures of Love and Dante gaze at each other, with the Ponte Vecchio and the Duomo of Florence silhouetted behind them.
— Beata Beatrix (1882, 87x68cm _ ZOOMable) _ The frame has these words above the picture:
Quomodo sedet sola Civitas !    Veni, Sponsa, de Libano.
and below the picture:
“Quella beata Beatrice, la cuale vive nel cielo cogli angioli, e nella terra colla mia anima.” Dante: Convito

[< click image for this version]
— Morning Music (1864, 30x28cm _ ZOOMable)
Aurelia (1873, 43x38cm _ ZOOMable)
Proserpine (1874, 126x61cm; 1633x689pixels; _ ZOOMable) _ Rossetti wrote this poem to accompany the painting:
Afar away the light that brings cold cheer
Unto this wall, - one instant and no more
Admitted at my distant palace-door
Afar the flowers of Enna from this drear
Dire fruit, which, tasted once, must thrall me here.
Afar those skies from this Tartarean grey
That chills me: and afar how far away,
The nights that shall become the days that were.

Afar from mine own self I seem, and wing
Strange ways in thought, and listenfor a sign:
And still some heart unto some soul doth pine,
O, Whose sounds mine inner sense in fain to bring,
Continually together murmuring) --
'Woe me for thee, unhappy Proserpine'

Proserpine (1877, 117x56cm; 1084x520pix, 127kb)
— Proserpine (1882, 79x39cm) _ the three Proserpine paintings differ only in size, hue and intensity of colors, and amount of cropping (perhaps only in these images), and minute details. The dark, naturally chthonic {from Greek chthôn, earth: of or relating to the underworld: infernal} face of Jane Morris made her the perfect model for Proserpine in which the classical goddess of the underworld is dressed in a dark blue dress, while holding an open pomegranate towards the viewer. Rossetti explained how she was represented in a gloomy corridor of her palace, with the fatal fruit in her hand. As she passes, a gleam strikes on the wall behind her, admitting for a moment the light of the upper world.’ For Rossetti, the image had a second meaning, as he was in love with Jane, who spent the winter months in London with her husband William Morris, but modeled for him in the summer at Kelmscott Manor. Persephone in Greek, Proserpine in Latin, was a daughter of Demeter. Hades fell in love with his niece and abducted her when she was playing on a meadow with her nymphs. Hades made her his wife, the Queen of the Underworld. Demetra was in grief, and the earth froze. Zeus ordered Hades to return the daughter to her mother. But this was no longer possible, as Persephone unintentionally ate a seed of pomegranate, which was enough to tie her to the Underworld. Since then she spends half a year with her mother, and the earth blossoms, and half a year with her husband, and the earth becomes barren. _ Compare The Abduction of Proserpine by Rembrandt.

Elizabeth Siddal (02 June 1854) _ Elizabeth Siddal (1865) _ A red-haired beauty, she became first Rossetti's model and then his mistress before she became his wife. She was then forced to play the role of an unattainable goddess while Rossetti associated with prostitutes in private. His love for Elizabeth was genuine enough, but it was rooted in a form of high romanticism which had little to do with everyday living. When he confessed to her that the intense love he felt for her would become even stronger if she were to die, she took him at his word. Trapped in an unreal world of romantic passion, she made her escape by taking an overdose of laudanum. She was only 31. Then the intensity that marked so much of Rossetti's work disappeared, and he became a somewhat mechanical painter, although he was still highly successful.
The Day Dream (1880, 158x93cm)
La Donna della Finestra (1879, 101x74cm)
Pandora (1879)
— A Vision of Fiammetta (1878, 146x89cm)
A Sea Spell (1877, 107x89cm)
— Astarte Syriaca (1877, 183x107cm)
— La Bella Mano (1875, 158x117cm)
— The Blessed Damozel (1878, 174x84cm)
— Proserpine (1874, 126x61cm)
— Sancta Lilias (1874, 48x46cm)
— La Ghirlandata (1873, 116x88cm)
— Veronica Veronese (1872, 109x89cm)
— Dante's Dream at the Time of the Death of Beatrice (1871, 211x318cm) _ detail
— The Bower Meadow (1872, 85x67cm)
— La Donna della Fiamma (1870, 101x75cm)
— La Pia de' Tolomei (1880, 105x121cm)
— Monna Vanna (1866, 89x86cm)
— Regina Cordium (1866, 60x50cm)
— Girl at a Lattice (1862, 29x26cm)
— Saint George and the Princess Sabra (1862, 52x31cm)
— Bocca Baciata (1859, 32x27cm) _ ‘Bocca Baciata’ is a quotation from the 14-th century Italian poet and writer Giovanni Boccacio, which Rossetti inscribed on the back of the painting; in full it reads: “The mouth that has been kissed loses not its freshness; still it renews itself even as does the moon.” The model was Fanny Cornforth, born Sarah Cox in 1824.
— Dantis Amore(1860, 75x81cm)
The Salutation of Beatrice (1859, 75x160cm)
— Before the Battle(1858, 42x28cm)
— The Seed of David (1858, 229x277cm) _ The subject of the picture is adoration of baby Christ by both shepherds and kings. The symbolism is based on David’s dual identities of shepherd and king. The infant Jesus is worshiped by both kings and shepherds.
— The Tune of the Seven Towers (1857, 31x36cm) _ The subject was invented by Rossetti himself; a king listens to the music, played by his queen. The medievalism of the picture is characteristic of Pre-Raphaelists.
— The Blue Closet(1856, 34x25cm) _ The subject has no apparent literary source; two women play upon a strange medieval instrument, which combines clavichord, carillon and harp. Behind the musicians stand two singers. The painting inspired Morris’s poem of the same name, but, as Rossetti remarked, ‘The poems were the result of the pictures, but don’t at all tally to any purpose with them though beautiful in themselves.’
Lady Alice, Lady Louise,
Between the wash of the tumbling seas
We are ready to sing, if so ye please;
So lay your long hands on the keys;
Sing, Laudate pueri.

— Found (1854, 91x80cm) _ The subject, inspired by William Bell Scott’s poem Rosabell, later re-titled Maryanne, is that of a prostitute recognized by her former fiancé, a young farmer. She cowers beside the wall of a graveyard, symbolizing death and damnation.
— The First Anniversary of the Death of Beatrice(1854, 42x61cm)
— [Memories?]

— The Girlhood of Mary Virgin (1849, 83x65cm; 1000x725pix, 338kb) _ This image is slightly cropped right and left, and has a greenish tinge. See this smaller but more correct image: The Girlhood of Mary Virgin (550x440pix, 74kb) or this one The Girlhood of Mary Virgin (512x402pix, 40kb). This was Rossetti’s first completed oil painting. It was also the first picture to be exhibited with the initials ‘PRB’ (for Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood) inscribed on it. The picture is filled with Christian symbolism: the palm branch and thorny briar refer to the Passion, the lily to the Madonna’s purity, and the dove is a herald of the Holy Spirit. Rossetti’s sister Christina modeled for the Virgin, and his mother Frances for Saint Anne (the Virgin’s mother); the family’s odd job man sat for Saint Joachim (Mary’s father), and the angel was a child found by Rossetti’s friend James Collinson. The Virgin appears embroidering a red stole with a lily, using a lily in a red jar, clasped by an angel, as the model. The image is one that echoes the art of the middle ages, both in its style, and in its veneration of Mary; something relatively alien to the Protestant world of Victorian England. Rossetti wrote these two sonnets to accompany the painting:
This is that blessed Mary, pre-elect,
   God's Virgin. Gone is a great while, and she
   Dwelt young in Nazareth of Galilee.
Unto God's will she brought devout respect,
Profound simplicity of intellect,
   And supreme patience. From her mother's knee
   Faithful and hopeful; wise in charity;
Strong in grave peace; in pity circumspect.

So held she through her girlhood; as it were
   An angel-watered lily, that near God
      Grows and is quiet. Till, one dawn at home,
She woke in her white bed, and had no fear
   At all, -- yet wept till sunshine, and felt awed;
      Because the fulness of the time was come.

These are the symbols. On that cloth of red
   I' the centre is the Tripoint: perfect each,
   Except the centre of its points,to teach
That Christ is not yet born. The books -- whose head
Is golden Charity, as Paul hath said --
   Those virtues are wherein the soul is rich;
   Therefore on them the lily standeth, which
Is innocence, being interpreted.

The seven-thorn'd brier and palm seven-leaved
   Are here great sorrow and her great reward
      Until the end be full, the Holy One
Abides without. She soon shall have achieved
   Her perfect purity: yea, God the Lord
      Shall soon vouchsafe His Son to be her Son.

— Ecce Ancilla Domini! (1850, 73x42cm) _ The images of The Girlhood of Mary Virgin recur in Ecce Ancilla Domini, the Annunciation. In this painting, Rossetti premised the directness and force of emotion that would come to typify Pre-Raphaelite art. Instead of a vulgar and clawing sentimentality, Rossetti approached the subject as one of real human emotion, in which the Virgin again modeled by Christina, reacts with shock, and almost fear, at being told she will be the mother of Jesus. The painting is tall and narrow, which adds to the tension of the work, with the Virgin in a white night-gown, shrinking against the wall, while the angel Gabriel floats to the left of the bed. In his hand, he holds a lily which is pointing directly at the Virgin’s womb, and to which her eyes are fixed, almost in dread. That the Virgin is shown seated on her bed adds to the sense of intimacy and realism. The painting is one of vivid human emotion, rather than a simple romanticized or veiled depiction of the event, in which the reality of divine-human sexual intercourse is depicted in all its terrifying potential

— Lady Lilith (1868, 95x81cm) _ Rossetti wrote this poem to accompany the painting:
Of Adam's first wife, Lilith, it is told
  (The witch he loved before the gift of Eve.)
  That, ere the snake's, her sweet tongue could deceive,
And still her enchanted hair was the first gold.

And still she sits, young while the earth is old,
  And, subtly of herself contemplative,
  Draws men to watch the bright web she can weave,
Till heart and body and life are in its hold.

The rose and poppy are her flowers; for where
  Is he not found, O Lilith, whom shed scent
And soft-shed kisses and soft sleep shall snare?
  Lo! as that youth's eyes burned at thine, so went
  Thy spell through him, and left his straight neck bent,
And round his heart one strangling golden hair.

167 images at the Athenaeum
^ Died on 09 April 1588: Paolo Caliari “Veronese”, Venetian Mannerist painter born in Verona in 1528.
— Paolo Veronese was an Italian Renaissance painter; one of the great masters of the Venetian school. Originally named Paolo Caliari, he was called Veronese from his native city of Verona. He learned painting in Verona from Antonio Badile, a capable exponent of the conservative local tradition. That tradition remained fundamental to Veronese's style throughout his career, even after he moved to Venice in 1553. His students included Jacopo Ligozzi [1547-1626].
Early Work
      The painters of Verona between about 1510 and 1540 favored firm, regular volumes, strong colors that function largely in terms of contrasts, and conventionalized figures. Veronese combined these elements of the local High Renaissance style with Mannerist elements, including complex compositional schemes that often employ a “worm's-eye view” perspective and Michelangelesque figures in powerful foreshortened or contorted poses. The resulting amalgam was handled with increasing mastery in The Temptation of St. Anthony, done for the Cathedral of Mantua in 1552, and ceiling paintings (1553-1554) for the Palazzo Ducale, Venice.
Mature Style
      The first phase of Veronese's artistic maturity, about 1555-65, is well represented by his many canvases for the Church of San Sebastiano in Venice. Their high-keyed interweavings of brilliant, luminous hues are harmonies of contrast in the tradition of Verona rather than Venetian harmonies of tone. The striking compositions often involve multileveled settings and dramatically steep perspectives, especially effective in the ceiling paintings. From this period comes Veronese's fresco decoration (circa 1561) of the Villa Barbaro at Maser, the one such cycle by him to survive. Here he extended the actual architecture of the villa (1555-59) built by Andrea Palladio with painted illusory architecture and populated these illusions with both mythological personages and fictional equivalents of the villa's real inhabitants.
      Veronese's growing interest in scenographic architecture, inspired partly by the real architecture of such contemporaries as Palladio and partly by contemporary stage settings, is spectacularly evident in the vast Marriage at Cana (1563), virtually a cityscape with incidental figures. It initiated a series of paintings of biblical feasts, which Veronese represented in terms of opulent Venetian patrician life; actual portraits are included.
      The work of Veronese's full maturity, from about 1565 to 1580, is marked by quieter, more classical compositions, an even greater ceremoniousness of tone, and still more dazzling light and color harmonies. This resplendent style is occasionally modulated into a lowered tonality, as when the artist dealt with subjects such as The Crucifixion (1572). Such paintings, in which a new emotional commitment to the subject appears, multiplied toward the end of his career. By about 1583, luminous twilight replaced noonday splendor as the norm, and festivity was replaced by seriousness. The moonlit Pietà (1585) is an extreme example. From this period, however, comes the most overwhelming of his ceilings, The Triumph of Venice in the Palazzo Ducale. Here, Venice, personified, floats on clouds halfway up a towering, two-tiered architectural construction thronged with people, all seen from below in steep perspective against a sapphire sky.
      Veronese died in Venice. Although highly successful, he had little immediate influence. To the Flemish baroque master Peter Paul Rubens and to the 18th-century Venetian painters, especially Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, however, Veronese's handling of color and perspective supplied an indispensable point of departure.

St John the Baptist Preaching (1562) _ The extraordinary beauty of the Venetian fabrics already to be found in the work of Palma il Vecchio is brought to unrivalled perfection by Paolo Veronese. In the St John the Baptist Preaching, which heralds the coming of Christ, the figures are wrapped in magnificent oriental silk robes and three are wearing turbans. Their differing reactions to the sermon are reflected in their facial expressions. The skilful composition of the painting creates a balance between the weight of the group of figures on the right and the perspective on the left.
The Marriage at Cana (1563) _ This immense picture portrays a sumptuous imaginary palace with about a hundred and thirty guests, portraits of celebrities of the period, of Veronese himself and of his friends dressed in richly colored costumes. _ detail 1 _ detail 2 _ detail 3 — another The Marriage at Cana (1560, 207x457cm)
The Marriage of St Catherine (1575, 337x241cm) _ In this work, originally the altar-screen of the church of St. Catherine, Veronesian color reaches a peak of richness and splendor. Along the diagonal of the composition which terminates in the drapes billowing around the columns, new chromatic notes are struck; the 'fortissimo' of the steps and figures in the foreground harmonizes with the 'pianissimo' of angels and cherubs which emerge from the grey-gold clouds of the celestial kingdom in the background. Linking the two planes of color are two cherubs holding the martyr's palm and the heavenly crown above the Virgin and St. Catherine while the angel below lifts her head and holds out her arms to receive the sign and the reward of martyrdom. All three are portrayed with Apollonian purity against the intense blue of the sky, an unforgettable example of Veronese's exquisite use of color. It is almost as if the painter to create his effects used gold, pearls and rubies, emeralds sapphires and purest, most perfect diamonds. _ detail
Feast in the House of Levi (1573, 555x1280cm) _ This work, painted for the Dominican order of SS. Giovanni e Paolo to replace an earlier work by Titian destroyed in the fire of 1571, is the last of the grandiose "suppers" painted by Veronese for the refectories of Venetian monasteries. The sumptuous banquet scene is framed by the great arches of a portico. Against the pale green shotsilk effect of the background architecture, the figures on either side of Christ move in a turbulence of polychromatic splendor and interaction of pose and gesture. We seem to see here the sublime notions of form and color of Piero della Francesca. The interaction of form and color is calculated to contain the monumental figuration within the terms of a fascinating and imaginitive decorative painting.
      The expressive hedonism so alien to the religious context — the subject in fact appears to be a purely pagan one in exaltation of love of life in 16th century Venice — aroused the suspicions of the Inquisition. On 18 July 1573 Veronese was summoned by the Holy Office to appear before the Inquisition accused of heresy. If the questions of the inquisitors show the first signs of the rigors of the Counter-reformation, Veronese's answers show clearly his unfailing faith in the creative imagination and artistic freedom. Not wishing to yield to the injunction of the Inquisition to eliminate the details which offended the religious theme of the Last Supper, he changed the title to Feast in the House of Levi, a subject which tolerated the presence of fools and armed men dressed up “alla tedesca”. _ detail
Allegory of Virtue and Vice (the choice of Hercules) (1580, 219x170cm; 400x313pix, 33kb) _ This painting reflects an intimate knowledge of its literary precursors. This portrayal of Hercules goes back to Prodicus’ story as recorded by Xenophon. The narrative is considered a paradigmatic ethical dilemma. The protagonist, at the crossroads between the two allegorical figures Virtue and Vice, opts for the arduous road of virtue, turning away from a lifestyle of lust and pleasure. The same subject would be treated by Paolo di Matteis [09 Feb 1662 – 26 Jul 1728] in The Choice of Hercules (1712; 461x600pix, 81kb) and by Batoni [25 Jan 1708 – 04 Feb 1787] in Hercules at the Crossroads (1748, 99x74cm; 1250x920pix, 260kb _ ZOOM to 2500x1840pix, 1017kb).
^ Born on 09 April 1908: Victor Vasarely, Hungarian French School of Paris abstract painter and screenprintmaker, specialized in Optical Art, who died on 15 March 1997.
— He studied in Budapest at the Academy of Painting (1925-1927) and under Sándor Bortnyk [03 Jul 1893 – 03 Dec 1976] at the ‘Mühely’ Academy, also known as the Budapest Bauhaus (1929-1930). In 1930 he moved to Paris and worked as a graphic designer for the next decade. He was thus able to commit himself seriously to the task of devising a new pictorial language only in the period following World War II. After what he regarded as a false start in 1944-1946, he began the process of lengthy and methodical abstraction from particular features of his environment that resulted in his pure and individual style of the 1960s.

IX (1966; 572x594pix)
–- Peer-Bleu (800x382pix, 35kb)
–- Versakk (800x793pix, 85kb)
–- Cocherelle (441x800pix, 34kb)
–- Axoomak (800x460pix, 28kb) _ The pseudonymous Victus Brymmawrely has metamorphosed this picture by introducing a variety of hues and colors, and enriching it with fine details and textures, resulting in the almost symmetrical (for those who enjoy hunting for the minute differences between the sides):
      _ Sawoomak (2007; 714x1024pix, 230kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 493kb _ ZOOM+ to 2636x3728pix, 3576kb) and
      _ Ask Who Makes (2007; 714x1024pix, 230kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 493kb _ ZOOM+ to 2636x3728pix, 3576kb)
Official Vasarely Site
click for THE SHEPHERD BOY^ Died on 09 April 1807: John Opie, English portrait and historical painter born in May 1761.
— Opie received art instruction from John Wolcot (“Peter Pindar”) in Truro from about 1775 and in 1781 was successfully launched in London as the “Cornish wonder,” a self-taught genius. Opie attempted fashionable portrait painting but was most at ease with unsophisticated subjects, where his gifts for depicting rough textures in strong chiaroscuro could best be displayed. The works of Rembrandt,Caravaggio, and Velázquez were strong formative elements in his art. In 1786 he was commissioned to paint seven illustrations for John Boydell's Shakespeare Gallery. His first exhibited historical work was the Assassination of James I of Scotland (1786), followed by The Murder of Rizzio (1787), which secured his election in 1787 as a member of the Royal Academy. He was made a professor of painting at the academy in 1805.
— He was born in St. Agnes, in a tin-mining district of Cornwall, where his father was a mine carpenter. He had a natural talent for drawing and was taken up by an itinerant doctor, John Wolcot (the poet Peter Pindar, 1738–1819), who was an amateur artist and had a number of well-connected friends. Wolcot taught Opie the rudiments of drawing and painting, providing engravings for him to copy and gaining him access to country-house collections. Opie’s early portraits, such as Dolly Pentreath (1777), are the work of a competent provincial painter and owe much to his study of engravings after portraits by Rembrandt.
      His attempts at chiaroscuro and impasto in Rembrandt’s manner gave his pictures a maturity that clearly startled contemporary audiences expecting to see works by an untutored artist. Thus in 1780, when a picture by him was exhibited in London at the Society of Artists with the description A Boy’s Head, an Instance of Genius, not having ever seen a picture, Opie was hailed as “the Cornish Wonder”. When he himself arrived in London, where he was promoted by Wolcot and his paintings were exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1781 and 1782, he was seen as a phenomenon, impressing even Joshua Reynolds [1723-1792], who is reputed to have said that Opie was like Caravaggio [1571-1610] and Velásquez [1599-1660] in one. Opie was greatly influenced by Reynolds, and even more by Gainsborough [1727-1788], whose “fancy pictures” of idealized rustic characters were universally admired.
     Opie died in London.

Self~Portrait (1790, 41x33)
Henry and Emma _ A printed engraving by F. Bartolozzi was accompanied by this verse: “A shepherd now along the plain he roves: / And, with his jolly pipe, delights the groves, / The neighbouring swains around the stranger throng, / Or to admire, or emulate his song: / While with soft sorrow he renews his lays, / Nor heedful of their envy, nor their praise. / But, soon as Emma's eyes adorn the plain, / His notes he raises to a nobler strain, / With dutiful respect and studious fear: / Lest any careless sound offend her ear.”
Mary Wollstonecraft (1791, 76x64cm) _ Mary Wollstonecraft (1797, 77x64cm) _ Mary Wollstonecraft [27 Apr 1759 – 10 Sep 1797] was born in London. In 1784 she set up a school in Newington Green. Here she met Richard Price, a leading political reformer and supporter of the Americans in their war of independence against Britain. Contact with Dissenters gave Mary a clear sense that the lot of individuals could be improved and that women were certainly not inferior to men. Her most famous book is A Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792). Before this she wrote Original Stories and a defense of the French Revolution. Her publisher was the radical Joseph Johnson for whom Blake also worked in the 1780s and 90s. She became the lover of diarist, novelist (Things as They Are, or The Adventures of Caleb Williams, 26 May 1794), and philosopher William Godwin [03 Mar 1756 – 07 Apr 1836] on 21 August 1796 and, after becoming pregnant, married him in 1797 but died of an infection contracted when she gave birth to their daughter, the future Mary Shelley [31 Aug 1797 – 01 Feb 1851], author of Frankenstein; or The Modern Prometheus (11 March 1818). The 1797 portrait of Wollstonecraft was painted during her pregnancy.
The Peasant's Family (1785, 154x184cm) _ This work of Opie's early London years is perhaps his masterpiece, and clearly shows his debt to Gainsborough. His strong eye for character is much in evidence, even in portraits of children, and preserves this serene composition from any hint of sentimentality. In spite of the generalized title, the children retain their individuality, reflecting Opie's abilities as a portrait painter.
Master William Opie (1788, 52x42cm)
The Artist's Mother (1791, 77x64cm)
The Shepherd Boy (126x95cm) _ The boy is sitting, frowning, looking upset, a dead lamb at his feet.

Died on a 09 April:

1895 Gunnar-Fredrik Berndtson, Swedish-Finnish French painter and illustrator born on 24 October 1854. He studied under Adolf von Becker [1831–1909] at the drawing school of the Finnish Art Association in 1869 and in the drawing class of Helsinki University from 1872 to 1875, also studying privately with E. J. Löfgren (1825–84) and Bernhard Reinhold (1824-1892). In 1876 Berndtson was awarded a scholarship to Paris, and he spent most of his time there studying at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Jean-Léon Gérôme [11 May 1824 – 10 Jan 1904], whose influence can be seen in such works as Berndtson’s Game of Chess (1878). Berndtson was also much influenced by the detailed genre and costume paintings of Ernest Meissonier [21 Feb 1815 – 31 Jan 1891], as seen for example in Art Lovers in the Louvre (1879), shown at the Salon of 1879, which reveals his technical skill and accuracy in the treatment of costume and interiors. The Bride’s Song (1881), which depicts a wedding breakfast, is one of his first attempts at handling light in a way learnt from the Impressionists.

>1857 Antonio María Esquivel y Suárez de Urbina [08 Mar 1806–], Spanish painter.
Los Poetas Contemporáneos (1846; 2007x3051pix, 661kb) they are: Antonio Ferrer del Río [1814-1872], Juan Eugenio Hartzenbusch [1806-1880], Juan Nicasio Gallego [1777-1853], Antonio Gil y Zárate [1793-1861], Tomás Rodríguez Rubí [1817-1890], Isidoro Gil y Baus [1814-1866], Cayetano Rosell y López [1817-1883], Antonio Flores [1818-1866], Manuel Bretón de los Herreros [1796-1873], Francisco González Elipe, Patricio de la Escosura [1807-1878], José María Queipo de Llano, conde de Toreno [1786-1843], Antonio Ros de Olano [1808-1887], Joaquín Francisco Pacheco [1808-1865], Mariano Roca de Togores [1812-1889], Juan González de la Pezuela [1809-1906], Ángel de Saavedra, duque de Rivas [1791-1865], Gabino Tejado [1819-1891], Francisco Javier de Burgos [1824-1902], José Amador de los Ríos [1818-1878], Francisco Martínez de la Rosa [1787-1862], Carlos Doncel, José Zorrilla [1817-1893], José Güell y Renté [1818-1884], José Fernández de la Vega, Ventura de la Vega [1807-1865], Luis de Olona [1823-1863], Antonio María Esquivel, Julián Romea [1818-1863], Manuel José Quintana [1772-1857], José de Espronceda [1808-1842], José María Díaz († 1888], Ramón de Campoamor [1817-1901], Manuel Cañete [1822-1891], Pedro de Madrazo y Kuntz [1816-1898], Aureliano Fernández Guerra [1816-1891], Ramón de Mesonero Romanos [1803-1882], Cándido Nocedal [1821-1885], Gregorio Romero Larrañaga [1814-1872], Bernardino Fernández de Velasco y Pimentel, duque de Frías [1873-1851], Eusebio Asquerino (h.1822-1892], Manuel Juan Diana [1814-1881], Agustín Durán [1793-1862]. —(090408)

^ 1837 Domenico Quaglio, German painter, draftsman, and printmaker, born on 01 January 1787. His family of artists originally came from Laino, a small village in Valle d’Intelvi near Como. The first known artist of the family was Giulio Quaglio I (1601-1658+]. Domenico studied first under his father, Giuseppe Quaglio [02 Dec 1747 – 23 Jan 1828], and then with Johann Michael Mettenleiter [1765–1853] and Carl Ernst Christoph Hess [1755–1828]. From 1803 he painted scenery for architectural stage sets at the Hoftheater in Munich and in 1819 he finally turned to drawing and painting architecture and landscapes (e.g. Phantasiearchitektur, 1819). In 1823 he founded the Munich Kunstverein, along with Joseph Karl Stieler [01 Nov 1781 – 09 Apr 1858], Peter von Hess [1792–1871] and Friedrich von Gärtner, to create better opportunities for artists to sell and exhibit their works. From the 1820s he traveled through central Europe recording such well-known monuments as the cathedrals of Strasbourg, Cologne and Reims (e.g. Reims Cathedral, 1833). During these years he also painted numerous views of Munich, e.g. The Old Riding School with the Café Tambosi in the Year 1822, recording the city’s appearance before King Ludwig I’s architectural changes. As in the views of Canaletto, these scenes, for which he used uniformly warm, earthy colors, are enlivened by a shifting play of light and shade. The figures in them are also interesting from the point of view of costume history. He had a love of Gothic buildings and showed his debt to Romanticism by painting images of medieval hermitages and castles (e.g. Die Ulrichsburg bei Rappoltsweiler, 1825). In 1833 Crown Prince Maximilian of Bavaria (later Maximilian II) commissioned him to take charge of the restoration of the ruin of Schloss Hohenschwangau, and in 1833 he began the project, with Georg Friedrich Ziebland as his assistant. Quaglio also began the redesigning of the interior; it was finished after his death by Moritz von Schwind. An example of one of his prints is The Door of Augsburg Cathedral (1816, chalk lithograph).

1852 Antoine Joseph Michel Romagnesi, French sculptor born in 1782. — {Originaire de la Romagne?}

1839 Jean-Georges Hirn, French artist born on 15 December 1777.

1829 Joseph-François Ducq, French artist born on 10 September 1762.

Born on a 09 April:

1835 Willem Karel Nakken, Dutch British artist who died (main coverage) on 04 January 1926. —(080407)

^ 1824 John George Naish, British painter who died in 1905. — LINKS
–- Evening Red, Near Lydford, Dartmoor (900x1440pix, 188kb _ color corrected by Natch: 196kb) _ There is no red in the image. There is a whole violet mountain, and a tiny amount of pink in foxglove flowers, but nothing closer to red than that. The yellow color of the sky is just as false. This has motivated the pseudonymous Curius George Natch to put a good amount of red, and a variety of other colors into the picture and to transform it thoroughly into the symmetrical abstractions
      _ Even Red, When You Read Red, Must Be Red, Never Near Red aka Never Even (2006; screen filling, 280kb _ ZOOM to 1318x1864pix, 978kb) and
      _ Evening Raid, Nearly Led by the Art of a Moor aka Reloj Oler (2006; screen filling, 345kb _ ZOOM to 1318x1864pix, 1423kb).
Elves And Fairies: A Midsummer Night's Dream (35x46cm)
Midsummer Fairies (36x46cm)
Titania (round; 596x596pix, 110kb)

^ 1813 Jan Michiel Ruyten, Belgian artist who died on 12 November 1881.
–- Along the River Schelde, Antwerp (761x1050pix, 57kb) the river is frozen; there is a koek en zopie in the background. —(080408)

1656 Francesco Trevisani, Italian painter who died (full coverage) on 30 July 1746. —(070109)

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