ART 4 2-DAY 08 April v.9.31
Baptized as an infant on 08 April 1605:
Lodewijk (or Lodewyk) de Vadder,
Brussels Flemish painter, draftsman, engraver, and tapestry designer,
who died on 10 August 1655. [Not to be confused with >>>]
— On 15 May 1628 he was received as a master in the Brussels Guild of Saint Luke, probably, like his brother Hubert de Vadder, after an apprenticeship to his elder brother, Philippe de Vadder. Lodewijk de Vadder is best known as a landscape painter, although he also made landscape engravings and drawings. He was granted a privilege to make tapestry cartoons by the Brussels city magistrate in 1644. In this capacity he worked mainly for weavers such as Jean Courdijn and Baudouin van Beveren. The latter referred to him as the best landscape painter in the country and in 1644 paid him 1000 florins for a series of designs of The Story of Diana and Pan.
— Landscape before the Rain (32x46cm; 604x955pix, 82kb)
— The Soignes Forest (175x230cm; 830x1095pix, 190kb) _ A number of Brussels artists developed an individual landscape style with which to convey the characteristic appearance of the heavily forested area around their city — the 'Soignes forest painters' produced large and elegant wooded landscapes using an oil painting technique recalling that of Rubens. The human figures in their paintings are customarily shown as tiny compared to the luxuriant nature that fills the compositions with large, dark bodies of trees. The leading Brussels landscape artists were, besides de Vadder: Jacques d'Arthois [12 Oct 1613 – 1686] and Lucas Achtschellinck [bap. 16 Jan 1626 – bur. 12 May 1699]. Their landscapes have something of the character of tapestries and probably had a similar decorative function.
— Landscape (24x27cm; 600x686pix, 72kb)
Died on 08 April 1973: Pablo
painter and sculptor, born on 25 October 1881. [< click
on image for full self-portrait and more at picasso0408].
Picasso is considered the greatest artist of the 20th century, by fools who found greater fools to pay exorbitant prices after being led to believe that Picasso was unique as an inventor of forms, as an innovator of styles and techniques, and as a master of various media. In fact, he misused his artistic talent and became one of the worst, best marketed, longest lived, and most prolific artists in history. He produced more than 20'000 “works” (using the word loosely).
Training and Early Work
Born Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso,in Málaga on 25 October 1881, Picasso was the son of José Ruiz Blasco, an art teacher, and María Picasso y López. Until 1898 he always used his father's name, Ruiz, and his mother's maiden name, Picasso, to sign his pictures. After about 1901 he dropped “Ruiz” and used his mother's maiden name to sign his pictures. Picasso's genius manifested itself early: at the age of 10 he made his first paintings, and at 15 he performed brilliantly on the entrance examinations to Barcelona's School of Fine Arts. His large academic canvas Science and Charity (1897), depicting a doctor, a nun, and a child at a sick woman's bedside, won a gold medal.
In October 1900, Picasso left for Paris, together with his close friend Carles Casagemas [1880 – 17 Feb 1901], a Catalan painter whom he had met when he was a teenager hanging out at Els Quatre Gats in Barcelona. Picasso was extremely upset by the suicide of Casagemas in Paris, while Picasso was in Madrid, and dedicated several paintings to his memory. In Picasso's major Blue Period painting, La Vie (1903), he first painted the male figure as a self-portrait but later gave it the features of Casagemas.
Picasso made two more trips to Paris, finally settling there in October 1902. He found the city's bohemian street life fascinating, and his pictures of people in dance halls and cafés show how he assimilated the postimpressionism of the French painter Paul Gauguin and the symbolist painters called the Nabis. The themes of the French painters Edgar Degas and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, as well as the style of the latter, exerted the strongest influence. Picasso's Blue Room (1901) reflects the work of both these painters and, at the same time, shows his evolution toward the Blue Period, so called because various shades of blue dominated his work for the next few years. Expressing human misery, the paintings portray blind figures, beggars, alcoholics, emaciated vagrants, and old prostitutes, their somewhat elongated bodies reminiscent of works by El Greco [1541 – 07 Apr 1614].
Shortly after moving, in April 1904, into a shabby Paris building known as the Bateau-Lavoir (which it resembled), Picasso met Fernande Olivier, a young artist, the first of many mates to influence the theme, style, and mood of his work. When his career began to prosper, the couple was able to move out of the Bateau-Lavoir into an apartment with a maid near Place Pigalle, where they held an open house every Sunday. In 1911, they split up.
Happy with the beginning relationship, Picasso changed his palette to pinks and reds; the years 1904 and 1905 are thus called the Rose Period. Many of his subjects were drawn from the circus, which he visited several times a week; one such painting is Family of Saltimbanques (1905). In the figure of the harlequin, Picasso represented his alter ego, a practice he repeated in later works as well. Dating from his first decade in Paris are friendships with the poet Max Jacob, the writer Guillaume Apollinaire, the art dealers Ambroise Vollard and Daniel Henry Kahnweiler, and the US expatriate writers Gertrude Stein and her brother Leo, who were his first important patrons; Picasso did portraits of them all.
In the summer of 1906, during Picasso's stay in Gosol, Spain, his work entered a new phase, marked by the influence of Greek, Iberian, and African art. His celebrated portrait of Gertrude Stein (1906) reveals a masklike treatment of her face. The key work of this early period, however, is Les demoiselles d'Avignon (1907), so radical in style its picture surface resembling fractured glass that it was not even understood by contemporary avant-garde painters and critics. Destroyed were spatial depth and the ideal form of the female nude, which Picasso restructured into harsh, angular planes.
Cubism Analytic and Synthetic
Inspired by the volumetric treatment of form by the French postimpressionist artist Paul Cezanne, Picasso and the French artist Georges Braque [1882-1963] painted landscapes in 1908 in a style later described by a critic as being made of little cubes, thus leading to the term cubism. Some of their paintings are so similar that it is difficult to tell them apart. Working together between 1908 and 1911, they were concerned with breaking down and analyzing form, and together they developed the first phase of cubism, known as analytic cubism. Monochromatic color schemes were favored in their depictions of radically fragmented motifs, whose several sides were shown simultaneously. Picasso's favorite subjects were musical instruments, still-life objects, and his friends; one famous portrait is Daniel Henry Kahnweiler (1910). In 1912, pasting paper and a piece of oilcloth to the canvas and combining these with painted areas, Picasso created his first collage, Still Life with Chair Caning. This technique marked a transition to synthetic cubism. This second phase of cubism is more decorative, and color plays a major role, although shapes remain fragmented and flat. Picasso was to practice synthetic cubism throughout his career, but by no means exclusively. Two works of 1915 demonstrate his simultaneous work in different styles: Arlequin is a synthetic cubist painting, whereas a drawing of his dealer, Ambroise Vollard, is executed in his Ingresque style, so called because of its draftsmanship, emulating that of the 19th-century French neoclassical artist Jean August Dominique Ingres.
Picasso created cubist sculptures as well as paintings. The bronze bust Fernande Olivier (also called Head of a Woman, 1909) shows his consummate skill in handling three-dimensional form. He also made constructions such as Mandolin and Clarinet (1914) from odds and ends of wood, metal, paper, and nonartistic materials, in which he explored the spatial hypotheses of cubist painting. His Glass of Absinthe (1914), combining a silver sugar strainer with a painted bronze sculpture, anticipates his much later found object creations, such as Baboon and Young (1951), as well as pop art objects of the 1960s.
Realist and Surrealist Works
During World War I (1914-1918), Picasso went to Rome, working as a designer with Sergey Diaghilev and the Ballets Russes. He met, in February 1917, and, on 12 July 1918, married the Ballets Russes dancer Olga Koklova. She had social ambitions; it was during their marriage that Picasso first started living in fancy apartments and going to fashionable resorts. Unfortunately, the marriage soon began to crumble; the two considered and rejected divorce and decided to separate, in June 1935. Koklova's behavior later became psychotic. She died on 11 Feb 1955.
In a realist style, Picasso made several portraits of Olga about in 1917, of their son Paulo [04 Feb 1921~] (for example, Paulo as Harlequin; 1924), and of numerous friends. In the early 1920s he did tranquil, neoclassical pictures of heavy, sculpturesque figures, an example being Three Women at the Spring (1921), and works inspired by mythology, such as The Pipes of Pan (1923). At the same time, Picasso also created strange pictures of small-headed bathers and violent convulsive portraits of women which are often taken to indicate the tension he experienced in his marriage. Although he stated he was not a surrealist, many of his pictures have a surreal and disturbing quality, as in Sleeping Woman in Armchair (1927) and Seated Bather (1930).
Paintings of the Early 1930s
Several cubist paintings of the early 1930s, stressing harmonious, curvilinear lines and expressing an underlying eroticism, reflect Picasso's pleasure with Marie Thérèse Walter, whom he swept off her feet in January 1927. As she told the story: “When I met Picasso, I was seventeen. I was an innocent child. I knew nothing — about life, about Picasso. Nothing. I had been shopping in the Galeries Lafayette, and Picasso saw me coming out of the métro. He just took me by the arm and said: ‘I am Picasso! You and I are going to do great things together’.” The two fell very much in love and her presence permeated his art during the time of their liaison. At no other moment in his life was his painting so undulating, all sinuous curves, rolling arms, and swirling hair. Two portraits of Marie-Thérèse dozing, both filled with bright, pure colors, smooth lines, and an atmosphere of serene sensuality more typical of Matisse than of Picasso, typify his work under her museship. She also was the model for the famous Girl Before a Mirror (1932). But the relationship was not as untroubled as it may appear in these paintings; Picasso met Dora Maar in 1936 and so the liaisons overlapped and Picasso shuttled back and forth. Later, Marie-Thérèse killed herself. Marie-Thérèse gave birth to their daughter Maïa (or Maya) on 05 October 1935.
In 1935 Picasso made the etching Minotauromachy, a major work combining his minotaur and bullfight themes; in it the disemboweled horse, as well as the bull, prefigure the imagery of Guernica, a mural often called the most important single work of the 20th century.
Picasso was moved to paint the huge mural Guernica shortly after German planes, acting on orders from Spain's authoritarian leader Francisco Franco, bombarded the Basque town of Guernica on 26 April 1937, during the Spanish civil war. Completed in less than two months, Guernica was hung in the Spanish Pavilion of the Paris International Exposition of 1937. The painting does not portray the event; rather, Picasso expressed his outrage by employing such imagery as the bull, the dying horse, a fallen warrior, a mother and dead child, a woman trapped in a burning building, another rushing into the scene, and a figure leaning from a window and holding out a lamp. Despite the complexity of its symbolism, and the impossibility of definitive interpretation, Guernica makes an overwhelming impact in its portrayal of the horrors of war.
In 1936, Picasso had begun an affair with Dora Maar [1909~], a Surrealist painter and photographer. Their affair overlapped his liaison with Marie-Thérese Walter. Since Dora was brought up in Argentina, the two could speak Spanish to each other. She photographed the progress of Guernica, showing the different stages of the work, and participated in the private reading of Picasso's play Desire Caught by the Tail. With the end of WW II came the end of their relationship; later, she had a nervous breakdown.
World War II and After
Picasso's palette grew somber with the onset of World War II (1939-1945), and death is the subject of numerous works, such as Still Life with Steer's Skull (1942) and The Charnel House (1945). He formed a new liaison with the painter Françoise Gilot [1921~], whom he met and seduced in May 1943. The two began living together in 1946; they had two children, Claude [15 May 1947~] and Paloma [19 Apr 1949~]. Picasso was most active in the Communist Party during the span of this relationship, Picasso was most active in the Communist Party, which he had joined on 05 October 1944. Gilot, ambitious and sick of living in Picasso's shadow, left him and took the children in September 1953. Picasso, although he had several artist-mistresses — before Gilot, there had been Olivier and Maar — was always dismissive of women artists. For him, women were, as he famously remarked, either "goddesses or doormats." Gilot, it seems, preferred leaving him to becoming a "doormat" ex-muse. She later wrote Life with Picasso (1964) and Matisse and Picasso: A Friendship in Art; and in 1970 married Jonas Salk [28 Oct 1914 – 23 Jun 1995], developer of the polio vaccine. Claude and Paloma appear in many works that recapitulate Picasso's earlier styles. [Françoise Gilot with Claude and Paloma (1951)]
The last of Picasso's mates to be portrayed was Jacqueline Roque, a young divorcée with a small daughter, whom he met in 1953, and who moved in with him in June 1954. In 1955 they moved together to a villa called La Californie, at Cannes; then, looking for someplace quieter, they moved in September 1958 to the Château de Vauvenargues. After Koklova's 11 February 1955 death, Picasso was free to marry again; Jacqueline and Picasso had a quiet marriage ceremony on 02 March 1961 and stayed together until his death. Later she committed suicide.
Many of Picasso's later pictures were based on works by great masters of the past Diego Velazquez, Gustave Courbet, Eugene Delacroix, and Edouard Manet. In addition to painting, Picasso worked in various media, making hundreds of lithographs in the renowned Paris graphics workshop, Atelier Mourlot. Ceramics also engaged his interest, and in 1947, in Vallauris, he produced nearly 2000 pieces. Picasso made important sculptures during this time: Man with Sheep (1944), an over-life-size bronze, emanates peace and hope, and She-Goat (1950), a bronze cast from an assemblage of flowerpots, a wicker basket, and other diverse materials, is humorously charming. In 1964 Picasso completed a welded steel maquette for the 18.3-m sculpture Head of a Woman (unveiled in 1967). In 1968, during a seven-month period, he created an amazing series of 347 engravings, restating earlier themes: the circus, the bullfight, the theater, and lovemaking. Picasso died in his villa Notre-Dame-de-Vie near Mougins.
Yo, Picasso (1901)
Self and Monster
— Standing Figure (86x65cm; 1201x800pix, 195kb _ ZOOM to 1753x1168pix, 351kb) _ This painting of a nude woman (so abstract as to be absolutely decent) with her arms crossed behind her head was created during a key period of invention and experimentation, as Picasso began to construct his paintings in a new way. The woman is translated into simplified, geometric forms, reflecting Picasso's interest in the art of Africa and Oceania. Using only a few colors, he focuses our attention on the intersection of these forms, linking figure and ground in a dynamic, curving rhythm. _ The pseudonymous Pasbeau Osaquip has removed all pretense of representation from this picture when he transformed it into the colorful, symmetric, and frankly abstract
_ Understanding Figs aka Gift Fig (2006; screen filling, 229kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1475kb) and
_ Sanding Thicker aka Golf Log (2006; screen filling, 262kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1836kb).
— Abduction of the Sabine Women (1908, 150x100cm; 1144x770pix, 236kb _ ZOOM to 1678x1126pix, 419kb)
— Les Plastrons (1900, 14x23cm; 477x800pix, 89kb _ ZOOM to 1104x1854pix, 337kb)
— Fumeur (1964, 41x30cm; 3000x2146pix, 1294kb) color aquatint
Boy With Dog
Saint Antoine et Pierrot
Déjeuner Sur l'Herbe (après Manet)
Mort de Marat
Paulo en Pierrot (1925)
Jeunes Filles au Bord de la Seine (après Courbet)
Boy Leading a Horse
Burial of Casagemas (1901)
Chat Saisissant un Oiseau (1939, 81x100cm)
Le Coq de la Libération (1944)
La Corrida (1934, 33x41cm)
Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
La Femme au Corbeau
Maya Holding Doll
Nude in Red Armchair
The Old Guitarrist (1903, 122x82)
Pipes of Pan
Chapeau à Plume
Sabartes con su Cerveza
Famille de Saltimbanques
Daniel~Henry Kahnweiler (1910, 101x73)
Composition With Skull (1908, 116x89cm)
Ulysse et les Sirènes
Ambroise Vollard (1910, 92x65cm)
Women Running on the Beach (1922)
— Mujer llorando (1937, 60x49cm; 800x634pix, 168kb)
Femme dans un Fauteuil (1908, 116x89cm)
— Françoise, Claude and Paloma (1951)
— Françoise, Claude and Paloma (1954)
— Paloma and Claude, Children of Picasso (1950)
— Claude et Paloma [dans leurs autos-jouets] (1950, 118x145cm)
— Claude, Son of Picasso (1948)
— Claude en costume polonais (23 Oct 1948, 120x50cm)
— Claude à deux ans avec son cheval à roulettes (09 Jun 1949, 133x98cm)
— Claude écrivant (11 Jan 1951, 46x38cm).
— Paloma Picasso (1956)
— Paloma Playing with Tadpoles (1954)
— Paloma with Celluloid Fish (1950)
— Girl with a Boat (Maya Picasso) (1938)
— Maya, Picasso's Daughter with a Doll (1938)
— a different Maya with a Doll (1938)
— Garçon à la Pipe (1905, 100x81cm; 844x678pix, 96kb) _ No greater fool has yet been found than the one who paid $104'168'000 for this at Sotheby's on 05 May 2004. _ One of the iconic images of the Blue and Rose periods, Garçon à la pipe probably began as a study from life in Picasso’s immediate surroundings but was dramatically transformed in a moment of sudden inspiration. After a delightful series of metaphysical acrobats, dancers like priestesses of Diana, delightful clowns and ‘wistful Harlequins,’ Picasso had painted, without a model, the purest and simplest image of a young Parisian working boy, beardless and in blue overalls: having indeed, more or less the same appearance as the artist himself during working hours. One night, Picasso abandoned the company of his friends and their intellectual chit-chat. He returned to his studio, took the canvas he had abandoned a month before and crowned the figure of the little apprentice lad with roses. He had made this work a masterpiece thanks to a sublime whim. Picasso’s work of the Rose period has always been admired for its melancholy charm and haunting poetry, contrasting with the deep gloom of the immediately preceding Blue period, yet in both instances the source of inspiration was in his immediate surroundings. Since 1904 he had been living in the Bateau Lavoir in Montmartre, so named because of its resemblance to a Seine washing barge, and when not socializing there he would meet his friends in inexpensive restaurants and cabarets such as Le Zut and Le Lapin Agile. Montmartre, being a village within a city, was almost self-contained. Within a small distance a great variety of amusements and theaters were at hand. For some years the most popular place of entertainment was the Cirque Medrano, which to this day still continues to enchant successive generations of Parisians. Its clowns, acrobats and horses had delighted Degas, Toulouse-Lautrec, Forain, Seurat and many others. There, behind the scenes and outside among the sideshows of the fair that traditionally occupies the whole boulevard during the winter, Picasso made friends with the harlequins, jugglers and strolling players. Without their being conscious of it, they became his models. The entertainment provided by street fairs and the acrobats who performed there provided inspiration for many of the works created in 1905-1906, culminating in the great Saltimbanques.
Although the model for the present work has sometimes been identified as an actor, it seems likely that he was an adolescent known as “p’tit Louis,” who was frequently to be found at the Bateau Lavoir along with, in Picasso’s own words, other “local types, actors, ladies, gentlemen, delinquents… .He stayed there, sometimes the whole day. He watched me work. He loved that” . A number of preliminary studies for the present painting show Picasso depicting his model in a variety of different positions, standing, sitting, leaning against a wall, lighting a pipe or simply holding it in his hands. The most painstakingly worked study depicts the boy seated in the pose utilized in the final composition, although he clasps his left elbow with his right hand instead of letting it hang down in front of him.
The painting differs radically from any of the preliminary studies, transforming the young boy who might light his pipe into a slightly more mature adolescent who gazes absently into space. Even before the addition of the garland of flowers, any trace of the anecdotal had been removed. The pipe is held in the left hand with the stem pointing away from the youthful smoker, as an emblem of maturity, perhaps, rather than a purveyor of tobacco smoke. “P’tit Louis” has become a mysterious presence, crowned with roses and framed with two large bouquets on the wall behind him. The effect is not unlike that of some of the late portraits of Odilon Redon who frequently surrounded his sitters with masses of flowers. On a few occasions Redon even created flowers for his sitters- not a bouquet in a vase, but a luminous floral mass, suspended in mid-air, such as that which enframes Mme. Arthur Fontaine; while flowers surge before the young Yseult Fayet and Violette Heyman. They appear as though a projection of the sitter’s dreams, or perhaps that of the artist-poet who captured them.
Garçon à la pipe might have been inspired by a poem of Verlaine, ‘Crimen Amoris,’ about a palace in Ecbatana where ‘adolescent satans’ neglect the five senses for the seven deadly sins, except for the most handsome of all these evil angels, who is sixteen years old under his wreath of flowers, and who dreams away, his eyes full of fire and tears”. This is plausible although it was precisely at this moment that Picasso began to show signs of dissatisfaction with the literary direction in his work, turning away from the stylization of his emaciated figures of the previous eighteen months in favor of a more harmonious classicism. Painted at the same time as Garçon à la pipe, Femme à l’éventail is evidence of a renewed interest in Egyptian bas-reliefs and the expression of volumes on a flat surface. Although not depicted in profile, the present work is related to Femme à l’eventail in its concentration on a single figure, mysterious in gesture and detached from the everyday world. It is this haunting ambiguity that has ensured for Garçon a la pipe its status as one of Picasso’s most celebrated images of adolescent beauty and as a masterpiece of his early years.
–- S*#> Les Femmes d'Alger (26 Jan 1955, 114x146cm; x799pix, 95kb) ($18'608'000 at Sotheby's on 03 May 2005) _ Between 13 December 1954 and 14 February 1955, Picasso produced a series of paintings, drawings, etchings, aquatints, and lithographs depicting the exoticism and pleasures of a harem. Among the most visually enticing of the opus is a group of fifteen oils, numbered with letters A through O, known as Les Femmes d'Alger. Thirteen of these canvases present a group of three or four women -- one seated and one reclining, one smoking a narghile and one serving tea -- while the other two depictions focus on a single figure in isolation. The present work, which is one of the most detailed depictions of the full quartet, is the tenth from the series and is often referred to as Les Femmes d'Alger (J). Although the poses of the women are consistent throughout, each rendition in the series is fresh with various levels of abstraction and detail. Not since his Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907) did an ensemble of women so intensely occupy Picasso's attention and command his artistic devotion. An immediate sensation when they were exhibited at the Musée des Arts Décoratifs in Paris, Les Femmes d'Alger became the most important series of Picasso's post-war production.
Picasso was not alone in his fascination with this subject. The harems of North Africa and their connotations of sexual abandon were of overwhelming interest to many artists of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The artist's specific inspiration for Les Femmes d'Alger came from Eugène Delacroix’s picture of the same title from the 1830s. Delacroix had painted two famous oil versions of this subject, and Picasso was intimately familiar with both of them. His interest in these pictures originated in the 1940s, but it was not until 1954 after the death of Henri Matisse that he even attempted his own interpretations of these works. Matisse most famously explored themes of orientalism in the 1920s in Nice, transforming the exotic odalisque into one of the most recognizable emblems of eroticism in Modern art. Both he and Picasso had prided themselves on deriving much of their artistic knowledge from their study of the old masters. After Matisse's death, Picasso, one of the few living artists of his generation, may have felt compelled to keep the art of these painters alive. This picture is one of the most "Matissian" in its use of color and the suppleness of its forms.
Throughout the 1950s and 1960s Picasso completed several series based on old master paintings, such as Velázquez’s Las Meninas and Manet’s Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe. His production inspired by Delacroix's Les Femmes d’Alger, however, was the debut of Picasso’s efforts at reinterpretation. Stripping the women of their clothing and their modesty, Picasso's harem is replete with a type of eroticism that Delacroix himself would have never attempted. Picasso also derived certain structural elements of this picture from other sources. The placement of his figures specifically recalls Odalisque avec esclave by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, a painter whom Picasso idolized throughout his life. So entrenched was he in quoting the Old Masters in this series that Picasso even imagined the following scenario, which he told his friend Hélène Parmelin: "I have a feeling that Delacroix, Giotto, Tintoretto, El Greco, and the rest, as well as all the modern painters, the good and the bad, the abstract and the non-abstract, are all standing behind me watching me at work".
Picasso’s main model and muse for his Les Femmes d’Alger series was his companion, Jacqueline, whom he would marry in 1961. Jacqueline was a demure, submissive person with dark features, and both her appearance and temperament were in contrast to Picasso’s former lover, the strong-willed Françoise Gilot. In her memoirs, Gilot recalled accompanying Picasso to the Louvre on many occassions to see Delacroix's Les Femmes d'Alger, and how he often spoke about painting his own version one day. When she asked him how he felt about Delacroix's work, he allegedly narrowed his eyes and said, "That bastard. He's really good". Picasso and Gilot ended their relationship around 1953, the same year that he met Jacqueline, and by 1955, he and Jacqueline were living together at Picasso’s villa, La Californie. It was during these first months of his relationship with Jacqueline that he was inspired to begin working on this series.
In Paris, Picasso embarked on a series of variations of Delacroix’s Women of Algers, which he had long had in mind. Picasso had often spoken to Françoise Gilot of making his own version of The Women of Algers and had taken her to the Louvre on an average of once a month to study it. However, Françoise had not been the Delacroix type. Jacqueline, on the contrary, epitomized it – and not just in physiognomy. All three of Delacroix’s Women of Algers have the same squat, short-wasted torso that we find in the numerous paintings of Jacqueline. All three Women of Algers likewise manifest Jacqueline’s submissiveness towards that absent but ever-present pasha, the painter. And then, there is the African connection: Jacqueline had lived for many years as the wife of a colonial official in Upper Volta, now called Burkina. As Picasso remarked, “Ouagadougou may not be Algiers, nonetheless Jacqueline has an African provenance”
After he completed this series, Picasso asked his dealer, Daniel Henry Kahnweiler, what Delacroix would probably have thought of these new paintings. Kahnweiler replied that Delacroix would most likely have understood them. “Yes, I think so.” Picasso said. “I would say to him, ‘You had Rubens in mind and painted Delacroix. I paint with you in mind and make something different again”.
— 1214 images at Ciudad de la Pintura
— Online Picasso project: one-page-per-year-(or quarter) biography, 6060 tiny (not more than about 400x400 pixels) images.
Born on 08 April 1631: Cornelis
Janszoon de Heem, Dutch painter specialized in Still
Life who died on 17 May 1695, son of Jan
Davidszoon de Heem, brother of Jan
Janszoon de Heem [bapt. 02 Jul 1650 – 1695].
Dutch painter, son of Jan Davidszoon de Heem [1606-1684], one of the greatest Baroque painters of still life in Holland whose most numerous and characteristic works are arrangements of fruits, metal dishes, and wine glasses; compositions of books and musical instruments; and examples of the popular "vanity of life" theme, with such symbolic articles as skulls and hourglasses. Cornelis de Heem, was not quite the equal of Jan. Jan's younger brother, David Davidsz. de Heem, and Jan's eldest son, David Janszoon de Heem, were also well-known painters.
— Still-Life with Fruits (600x849pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1982pix, 458kb)
Still-Life with Flowers and Fruit (56x74cm) _ detail _ This still-life represents a masterly display of technical ability placed in the service of a poetic and melancholy reflection on nature. De Heem was a Dutchman who worked in Antwerp with his father, Jan Davidszoon de Heem.
Still-Life with Flowers (1660) _ The success of Jan Davidsz. de Heem's flower pieces won him many students and imitators both in Flanders and in the northern Netherlands, and occasionally it is difficult to separate his hand from works done by his followers. His son Cornelis de Heem can come dangerously close to his father, like in this picture.
Vanitas Still-Life with Musical Instruments (after 1661, 153x166cm) _ The artist belonged to the second generation of the famous dynasty of still-life painters. He spent his youth in Leiden and as demonstrated by this work, he established close connection with the Leiden school of painting. This splendid painting invokes the memory of the golden age of Dutch still-life painting. The sumptuousness of the instruments is especially fascinating. Most prominent among them is the six-stringed, inlaid viola da gamba leaning against the chair, with a lion's head for decoration and an "S" shaped sound hole (more characteristic of violin). Next to it on the ground are two types of lutes, a trumpet, a flute and a mandolin; in a chair on the left, a violin, a bagpipe and a small pocket violin. On the table, richly laid with fruits and golden objects, are the traditional symbols of Vanitas. To illustrate the transitoriness of pleasures gained from wealth, plentitude and eating and drinking, there is an up-ended wine jug from which its content have spilled onto the ground, symbolizing that earthly pleasure is short-lived and man will return to dust. In this context the instruments are symbols of physical love. Next to them the painter depicted a snail on the ground. It was generally believed that this animal was born of mud, thus it became the symbol of sin. In contrast, the ivy crawling up the wall in the background promises immortality. The peach, melon and fig, since they are cut open and their seeds are revealed, symbolize reviviscence and resurrection. This image make the message of the painting less somber, although its warning intent is unmistakably recognizable.
Born on 08 April 1861: Irving
Ramsey Wiles, US painter, mostly of portraits, who died
— Born in Utica, New York, Irving Wiles was educated at the Sedgwick Institute, Great Barrington, Massachusetts. He learned the basics of art from his father, Lemuel Maynard Wiles [1826-1905], who maintained a studio on Washington Square in New York City, and then studied in New York City for a year in 1879 at the Art Students League under Thomas Wilmer Dewing [1851-1938], J. Carroll Beckwith [1852-1917], and William Merritt Chase [1849-1916]. The fledgling school, incorporated the year before, had recently added several new instructors to its staff, including Chase who had just returned from Munich. Wiles continued his studies in Chase's opulent Tenth Street Studio, where he was exposed to European paintings, including Chase's own copies of the old masters.
Encouraged by Chase and other League instructors, Wiles decided to complete his studies abroad in 1882. In Paris, he continued his training in drawing at the École des Beaux-Arts, at the same time pursuing a more direct approach to painting under the guidance of Sargent's teacher, Carolus-Duran. He went to Paris for a year as a student of Carolus-Duran [1838-1917] and Jules Lefebvre [1836-1911]. He also studied under Léon Bonnat and Ernest Hebert.
When Wiles returned to New York in 1883 he supported himself as an illustrator, and in 1884, he also assumed a post at the Art Students League. In 1887, he opened his studio at 103 West Fifty-fifth Street, where he gave painting lessons. He also assisted at his father's art school in Upstate New York at Silver Lake, where regular classes were held each summer through 1894. During the 1890s, with a free, dashing style, he established himself as a portrait, landscape, and genre painter in New York. He won numerous prestigious prizes in New York and at the Paris Salon. He was one of eight painters commissioned by the National Art Committee to paint the history of World War I. He also did a portrait of William Jennings Bryan. In about 1895, he and his father began conducting summer art classes on the North Fork of Long Island, and subsequently Irving purchased land and built a studio at Peconic and was there until his death.
— In 1879 Irving Ramsey Wiles followed his father's advice and moved to New York. He entered the Art Students League, where he spent two years studying under Thomas W. Dewing, J. Carroll Beckwith, and William Merritt Chase, who was to become his friend and mentor. He went to Paris in 1882, and spent his first months there at the Academie Julian under the direction of Gustave Boulanger and Jules Joseph Lefebre, before being admitted to the private atelier of Emile Auguste Carolus-Duran.
After returning to the US in 1884 Wiles resumed study at the League, and began to exhibit at the National Academy of Design, the American Water Color Society, and, from 1886 until 1906, the Society of American Artists. Wiles supplemented his income by producing illustrations for Harper's Magazine, The Century Magazine, and Scribner's Monthly. From 1884 to 1894 he spent summers operating the Silver Lake Art School at Ingham, New York, with his father. Shortly after his return to the US he won a number of prestigious awards, including a bronze medal at the 1893 Chicago World's Columbian Exposition.
Wiles was elected an associate member of the National Academy of Design in 1889, and became a full member in 1897. Beginning in the early 1890s, Wiles achieved recognition for his fashionable interior genre scenes and society portraits of women and children. His professional reputation was assured after 1902, when his portrait of the actress Julia Marlowe was exhibited at the National Academy. From then until the late 1920s, when old age and ill health forced him to retire, Wiles received portrait commissions from the US's most wealthy and socially prominent citizens. Highly competent in the field of male portraiture, he was one of eight US artists selected in 1919 by the National Art Committee to paint portraits for a pictorial history of World War I.
Toward the end of his career Wiles was noted for the plein-air land and seascapes he painted at his home in Peconic, Long Island, where he died in 1948.
Along with John White Alexander and Cecilia Beaux, Wiles was one of the most popular US portraitists active during the first quarter of the twentieth century. He was an exponent of grand manner portraiture as it had been redefined during the late nineteenth century by John Singer Sargent, Giovanni Boldini, and James Whistler. Wiles produced convincing likenesses without detracting from them by placing undue emphasis on technical virtuosity. Like Sargent, he was influenced by the expressive painterly technique of Hals and Velasquez, and his style bears the strong imprint of Chase. Although he freely incorporated impressionist color and brushwork into his technique, Wiles remained a conservative artist who never became associated with any of the avant garde movements that developed during his lifetime.
— Mrs. Edward W. Redfield (91x71cm)
— Marie Antoinette (1910, 66x96cm)
— Sunshine and Shadow (1895, 34x41cm) [below] _ It was auctioned for $207'500 on 03 December 2002 at Phillips de Pury & Luxembourg in New York. ($8779 placed at 3% annual interest starting on 03 December 1895 would have grown to that much by then, but at 6% $407 would have sufficed.)
— Miss Julia Marlowe, (1901, 188x140cm)
— Her Leisure Hour (1925, 69x57cm)
— The Absinthe Drinkers (1887, 46x61cm; 470x640pix, 55kb)
— Interior (61x56cm; 480x512pix, 27kb)
— Russian Tea (122x92cm)
— Young Girl (1914, 23x18cm drawing)
— Seated Nude (36x30cm) 3/4 back view
— Scallop Boats, Peconic (1910)
— The Wharf, Greenport (1890, 25x35cm)
— Regret – A Summer Idyl (36x30cm; 520x450pix, 61kb) _ a young woman, sitting on the steps of a house, facing a garden with an empty chair and flowers.
Sunshine and Shadow, by Wiles