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ART “4” “2”-DAY  06 April v. 9.61
DEATHS: 1667 TASSEL— 1660 CERQUOZZI — 1520 RAPHAEL — 1931 WYLLIE 1893 COLE  1528 DÜRER
^ Died on 06 April 1667: Jean Tassel, French artist born on 20 March 1608. — {There once was a painter named Tassel / Who lived high up in a castle. / Some say the art was facile / Of that French artist named Tassel.}
— Of all the French provinces, Burgundy had the most significant cultural history in the late Middle Ages. The capital, Dijon, had been the center of a glittering court which ruled over what had become, by the middle of the fifteenth century, an empire that included much of the Netherlands. The stability of the region came to an abrupt end with the death of Charles the Bold at the Battle of Nancy in 1477, when Burgundy was immediately absorbed into France. Artistic activity ended equally abruptly, and in the sixteenth century there were no painters of significance in Dijon.
      In the first half of the seventeenth century only one painter of significance emerged in the whole of Burgundy, Jean Tassel of Langres. He was trained by his father Richard Tassel [1582 – 1660], and until the 1950s the two painters were totally confused with one another. By 1634 Jean Tassel was recorded in Rome, where he came into contact with his fellow Frenchmen Claude Lorrain, Nicolas Poussin, and Sébastien Bourdon. Like the last he was influenced by the Bamboccianti. No picture from his Italian period has yet been identified with certainty, but they probably include a number of low-life genre scenes such as Singers in a Tavern and Travelers Attacked, and possibly the small group of pictures of' “The Master of the Judgment of Solomon”.
      Tassel had returned to Langres by 1647, the date of his marriage, and, working also in Troyes and Dijon, continued to paint genre pictures, such as The Sawyers and The Marauders. Other influences from Rome include Caravaggio, strong in a picture such as the Fortune-teller (sold Paris, Drouot, 01 April 1987, lot 20), The Presentation of the Infant Jesus and Tobias and the Angel. However, the most lasting influence was that of the Romano-Bolognese school, seen in later pictures such as the Annunciation (1653), the Virgin and Child and the Adoration by the Magi and the Stoning of Saint Stephen.
      He acquired considerable skill in Italy, but his style remained totally out of touch with developments, even in the rest of France. The fascination of his work lies in his ability to create a mood of brooding and exaggeration, partly through his trick of painting his figures with slanting eyes. Jean Tassel's art is characterized by bold expressions, cold color schemes and a generally 'provincial' air which is difficult to define, but in modern terms akin to the wearing of out-of-date garments away from the centre of fashion. Tassel has been left out of anthologies of French painting because his work is so unlike that of his contemporaries, and he is not yet fully appreciated.

Catherine de Montholon (54x40cm; 990x710pix, 81kb) _ Catherine de Montholon [–1650] founded the Ursulines of Dijon. She was the widow of René le Beau, Seigneur de Sanzette. This is the only portrait which is known with certainty to be by Tassel. The sense of grave austerity which pervades the portrait is usually interpreted by French writers as 'classicism' in the broadest sense of the term. What is most striking about the picture is its lack of reference to contemporary fashions, both in art and life. There is an uncompromising power of observation unadorned by artistic clichés.
A Young Man (1632, 56x44cm; 1177x917pix, 138kb) _ The attribution to Tassel is based on stylistic comparison. The old attribution to the Le Nain brothers has long since been abandoned.
Three soldiers at an inn Canvas (46x58 cm; 600x769pix, 96kb) _ This and the next two paintings were formerly attributed to Jan Liss, later to Jean Tassel's father.
The cartwright (55x76cm) _ A 'bambocciade' - a street scene similar to those created by Van Laer in the 1630's in Rome.
Moses strikes the rock for water (97x120cm)
^ Born on 06 April 1766: Wilhelm Alexander Wolfgang von Kobell, German painter, printmaker, and teacher, who died on 15 July 1853.
— First taught by his father, Ferdinand [1740-1799], and his uncle Franz [1749-1822], both professional painters, Wilhelm attended the drawing academy in Mannheim, where he mainly learned the technical aspects of the métier. Artistically his father's teaching had greater impact, for he encouraged his son to copy Dutch seventeenth-century landscapes. The young Kobell's drawings, prints, and paintings indeed showed much indebtedness to artists such as Nicolaes Berchem [1620-1683] and Philips Wouwermans [1619-1668].
      From 1789 Kobell collaborated on landscapes with his father, such as the Aschaffenburg cycle. He also traveled to Munich, where in 1790 the Elector Palatine Karl Theodor bought two of his landscapes and provided him with stipends to travel to England and Italy. Kobell used the money to finance his move to Munich in 1793, however, where he became court painter for Karl Theodor. The change of scenery influenced his art tremendously, and it was in Munich that Kobell developed full artistic independence, concentrating on the effects of natural light and the use of bright colors.
      In 1797 he married Anna Maria Theresa von Krempelhuber. Besides landscapes and portraits of family members, he also painted military scenes. In 1806 Kobell received a commission from Maximilian I Joseph, king of Bavaria, to paint a cycle of seven paintings commemorating the Napoleonic Wars. Two years later Crown Prince Ludwig I commissioned another cycle of twelve works, on which Kobell worked for seven years. During this period he traveled to Vienna (1809) and Paris (1809-1810). From 1814 to 1826 he taught landscape painting at the Munich Academy, where he failed to have much impact. During the last part of his career, Kobell typically painted encounters between citizens and farmers in the countryside near Munich.
— The Kobell family was originally from Frankfurt am Main and was active in Mannheim and Munich in the 18th and 19th centuries. Wilhelm von Kobell was the son of Ferdinand Kobell who was primarily a landscape painter and was profoundly influenced by 17th-century Dutch painting and the work of Claude Lorrain. Wilhelm was taught first by his father and by his uncle Franz Kobell. He then studied at the Zeichnungsakademie in Mannheim under Franz Anton von Leydendorf [1721–1795] and Egid Verhelst, learning the basics of engraving. During this period he familiarized himself with the various artistic trends of his time and earlier periods, including 17th-century Dutch painting and 18th-century English art. In this early period he began to experiment with prints, producing aquatints after 17th-century Dutch paintings in the galleries of Mannheim and Munich.
      From 1789 Kobell collaborated with his father on a series of landscapes, including the Aschaffenburg Cycle showing the surroundings of Schloss Johannisburg at Aschaffenburg. In 1790 Elector Palatine Charles Theodore, convinced of the young artist’s talent, purchased two landscapes, and the following year granted him 400 florins to travel to England and Italy; instead, Kobell used the money to finance a move (1793) to Munich. From 1792 Charles Theodore paid him an annual sum of 500 florins on condition that he deliver one picture each year to the Elector’s Gallery. Wilhelm developed his father’s style of landscape painting as well as producing a number of battle pictures. Stylistically, Kobell based his work on Dutch art.

Self Portrait
The Siege of Cosel (1808, 202x305cm; 820x1252pix, 116kb) _ Kobell spent time in Paris, but evaded the influence of the theatrical battle scenes in vogue there, as this painting shows. He has placed his groups of horses like figures on a chess board, and the painting can be read like a strategic map.
Gentleman on Horseback and Country Girl on the Banks of the Isar near Munich (1831, 24x31cm; 770x1059pix, 89kb) _ Over a number of decades Kobell produced variations on the theme of "the encounter", which he had developed around 1800. This picture is one of the best examples of this. Immobile and aloof, peasants and a member of the upper classes face each other in this minutely observed scene.
View of Lake Tegern (1833, 38x33cm; 1088x900pix, 128kb) _ Kobell's appealing, sunny landscapes are crystal clear, motionless immortalisations of the area around Munich. In this View of Lake Tegern the elimination of anything that is not essential is remarkable, as is the artificial compilation of typical local elements.. This is an almost schematic, Biedermeier world, clean and sunlit.
Hunting Party at Lake Tegernsee (1824)
Riders at Lake Tegernsee (1825)
Riders at Lake Tegernsee II (1825)
Rider at Lake Tegernsee (1832; 600x524pix)
Hunter and Lord at the River Isar with View of Munich (1823, 25x21cm)
^ Died on 06 April 1660: Michelangelo Cerquozzi “delle Battaglie”, Roman painter born on 02 February 1602.
— He spent his entire life in Rome, but had considerable contact with Dutch and Flemish painters living there, which profoundly affected his artistic development. Cerquozzi's friendship with the Dutchman Pieter van Laer [1593-1642] led to his becoming the leading Italian exponent of bambocciate (small pictures low-life and peasant scenes). He also painted battles (for which he had a predilection), small religious and mythological works, and still-lifes. He was born of Roman parents and baptized (on 18 February 1602?) in the parish of San Lorenzo in Lucina. A member of the Accademia di San Luca since 1634, Cerquozzi attended meetings of the society as late as 1652. His friends included Domenico Viola, Pietro da Cortona, and Giacinto Brandi. More significant were his associations with foreign residents in Rome. Cerquozzi had special affection for the Spanish, owing to the patronage he received from the major-domo of the Spanish Embassy as a youth, and would often don Spanish attire as a sign of his sentiment. His Spanish connections may partly account for the many commissions he later received from patrons identified with Rome’s pro-Spanish political faction. Cerquozzi enjoyed equally good rapport with northern European residents of Rome. He is documented as having quartered with artists from beyond the Alps, including Paulus Bor and Cornelis Bloemaert, for the bulk of his career. His contacts with Dutch and Flemish painters living in his native city profoundly affected his artistic development.

Dance in the Trattoria (1850; 600x813pix, 153kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1898pix, 358kb)
View in the Roman Forum (1657, 130x105cm; 960x777pix, 436kb _ ZOOM to 2250x1820pix, 2577kb) collaboration with Viviano Codazzio.
Rural Scene (1646, 130x97cm; 1047x750pix, 131kb) _ Collaboration with Giovanni Angelo “Angeluccio”, [1622-1647], another bambocciante, who painted the landscape; Cerquozzi painted the figures. The majority of Angeluccio's collaborations were with Cerquozzi.
Figures in a Tree-lined Avenue (1646, 130x97cm; 1032k750pix, 144kb) _ Another collaboration with landscapist Angeluccio.
^ >Born on 06 April 1849: John William “Nino” Waterhouse, English painter who died on 10 February 1917.
— Waterhouse was born in Rome to British parents. He lived there for the first 6 years of his life, absorbing the character of Italian culture until his family's return to England.
     Waterhouse, known to his family as 'Nino', was an avid scholar of ancient history during his youth, and unlike most members of the Royal Academy his only tutorage in art was from his father. His first submission of a drawing to the R.A. was rejected, prompting him to seek admission as a sculptor. When admitted as a probationer in the Sculpture School in July of 1870 he was fortunately sponsored by a painter, F.R. Pickersgill [1820-1900]. It was he who returned young Nino's attentions back to the art of painting.
      One of his earliest paintings to be purchased by a private collector was La Fileuse, a lovely painting done in 1874 whose qualities include a perfectly graceful approach to the styling of a woman's figure — particularly notable are her hands, and the addition of a Greco-Roman setting — a testament to Watherhouse's love of the city he was to return to over and over again throughout his lifetime.
     His first exhibit to the Royal academy, The sensitive Sleep and his Half-Brother Death, was a result of the recent deaths of his two younger brothers who were taken by tuberculosis. It is an unusual painting for this period, resting in a much sadder vein than most of his works.
     1882 brought us Diogenes, one of the works of Waterhouse closest resembling the work of the highly respected (by artists, not critics) Alma-Tadema [1836-1912].
     By this time Nino was exhibiting regularly and was making a fairly lucrative living from his art. Around 1885 he was finally elected as an Associate of the Royal Academy. In 1888 he exhibited a painting at the Academy which was to become his most famous masterpiece, The Lady of Shalott. Although most of the critics praised it only lightly, it was later bought by the Tate Gallery for far above the standard prices of the day.
      The Shrine came out in 1895, the same year that he was finally elected a Full Academician. His election stirred little excitement as it had been considered a certainty for years.
      Hylas and the Nymphs has been the most widely exhibited of all his works.
      A Mermaid (1901) was praised by the Art Journal: "The whistful-sad look of this fair mermaid, seated in her rock-bound home, combing the dull-red hair ere she studs it with pearls that lie in the iridescent shell, is potent in suggestion. It tells of human longings never to be satisfied... The chill of the sea lies over her heart; the endless murmur of waters is a poor substitute for the sound of human voices; never can this beautiful creature, troubled with emotion, experience on the one hand unawakened repose, on the other the joys of womanhood.".
      Similarly Echo and Narcissus, a huge canvas measuring 109x189cm, was called by the Art Journal "One of the best examples of imaginitave art which can be found in the Academy".
      Windflowers (1902) began a new theme of beauty and flowers which was to be practiced on and off for the next ten years in such works as Vanity and My Sweet Rose.
      The Hendersons were one of Waterhouse's main commissioners. The lady in the 1908 portrait, Mrs. A.P. Henderson, died young — only 4 years after the portrait was completed. "
      I am Half Sick of Shadows was Nino's 3rd painting on the subject of Tennyson's Lady of Shallot. This painting represents the line in the poem when the Lady, destined to be forever alone, expresses her loneliness: "I am half-sick of shadows, said the Lady of Shalott". "
      Miranda:The Tempest has always been considered one of the finest works painted in the last year of Nino's life. Miranda stands swaying against the storm while under the high cliffs the doomed ship plunges downwards — a scene filled with all the drama fit to portray such a subject.
      In a tribute which relates with what esteem this artist was held by his peers, the painting The Enchanted Garden was shown after his death at the Academy of 1917 — even though it remained an unfinished work.
      Although it has only been long after that Waterhouse's death that his work has resurfaced into the mainstream, he was, in his own lifetime, considered to be one of the greatest living artists. Often he is considered to be a Pre-Raphaelite artist, but in reality he never belonged to the Brotherhood and was always original; inspired by his own love of history and myth. His paintings are successful due not only to their perfection in the academic sense, but also because they reach to us- even goddesses have that 'girl next door' quality that we recognize and can relate with in our own world. He died after a long illness.

Jason and Medea (1907, 131x105cm; 3161x2530pix, 1241kb)
Saint Cecilia (1895, 123x201cm; 2434x3930pix, 1221kb)
Circë offering the Cup to Ulysses (1891, 149x92cm; 1000x596pix, 287kb _ ZOOMable to 2858x1703pix, 1457kb). _ The drink is intended to transform into a pig Odysseus (aka Ulysses), who is seen reflected in the mirror behind Circë . According to Greek legend (see Ovid Metamorphoses XIV 223-319), Circë could change humans into animals such as lions, wolves, bears or, as she did to the companions of Odysseus, pigs (one of them is at her side). However Odysseus himself was immune, thanks to the herb moly which Hermes had given him, and he compelled Circë to change the pigs back into men.
     _ See also the painting Circe half-covered with pigs (700x543pix, 76kb _ ZOOM to 1050x815pix, 83kb) by Mossa [28 Jan 1883 – 25 May 1971] and Circe (1890, 138x200; 425x602pix, 80kb) bare-breasted, among lions into which she has changed some humans, by Wright Barker [1863 – 10 Mar 1941].
Circë Invidiosa (1892, 179x85cm; _ ZOOMable)
Echo and Narcissus (1903, 109x189cm; _ ZOOMable) _ In Greek mythology, the unhappy nymph Echo was condemned to repeat the last words spoken to her. She fell in love with the beautiful youth Narcissus. He rejected her and was punished by falling in love with his own reflection. He was trapped by the sight of his own beauty and died. Yellow narcissus flowers grew where he died and Waterhouse has included these in the painting.
Tristan and Isolde with the Potion (109x81cm; _ ZOOMable) _ Isolde, Princess of Ireland, has been entrusted to the care of Tristram, the nephew of the king of Cornwall, to take her safely to Cornwall to marry the king. However, Tristram loves Isolde himself and Isolde loves him in return. Tristram and Isolde decide to die together rather then be separated and choose to drink a poison. However, unbeknownst to them the poison was switched for a love potion. After they both drink it they fall even more madly in love and run off together into the forest. Tristram (Tristan) and Isolde, is a legend depicted in many Victorian paintings. Waterhouse captures the two lovers together on the boat just before drinking the potion, thinking they are about to die. The desperation in Isolde’s face can be clearly seen as she clutches the goblet with both hands. In Tristram we see a distinct look of resignation as he accepts it. Waterhouse also points out the separation that has been forced between them. They stand on either side of the painting with the cup and the bottle of potion between them. On Tristram’s side lies his helmet and sword with a rope coiled underneath. In the background the castle can be seen illustrating a tie to his duty in bringing Isolde safely to the king. On Isolde’s side sits a throne like chair symbolizing her duty to marry the king once she gets there. Also, there is a very distinct line representing a plank which runs between them, directly under the goblet, further emphasizing their separation. As Tristram accepts the cup his foot “steps over the line”, foreshadowing that the separation between them is about to end. Waterhouse painted a second version of this painting entitled Tristram and Isolde, which has the bottle of potion behind Tristram and less of the castle visible. There is also a crown on Isolde’s head and a book which lies open at her feet. The edge of the plank separating the two is even more pronounced with Isolde actually appearing to be slightly elevated.
The Danaïdes (1904, 154x111cm; _ ZOOMable)
Destiny (1900, 68x55cm; _ ZOOMable)
Fair Rosamund (1917, 96x72cm; _ ZOOMable)
Penelope and the Suitors (1912, 131x191cm; _ ZOOMable)
Dante and Beatrice ( _ ZOOMable)
Maidens picking Flowers by a Stream [Study] (1911, 94x80cm; _ ZOOMable)
Saint Eulalia (1885, 186x118cm; _ ZOOMable)
Listening to His Sweet Pipings (1911, 69x109cm) _ A woman lies distraught among nature. A mythical pan piper (a naked boy) plays to the girl in a vain attempt to comfort her. This painting is a good example of how Waterhouse can capture a sense of self-reflection in a figure’s countenance and eyes. The viewer can tell that even though our subject is looking out, she is not looking at anything in particular, just deep in thought with a glazed expression on her face. Other great examples of this can be seen in his Ophelia (1894), Ophelia (1910), and I am Half Sick of Shadows another version he did of the Lady of Shallot.
The Annunciation (1914, 99x135cm)
Phyllis Waterlo (102x168cm)
Hylas and the Nymphs (1896, 98x163cm) _ detail (505x850pix, 139kb) _ Imaginary scene depicting Hylas being tempted to his death by river nymphs. A young man, with short dark hair, kneels at edge of river bank to left, dressed in blue drapery with a red sash around his waist, a jug in his left hand. He leans forward towards one of the naked nymphs in the water, who holds onto his arm. She is surrounded by five more nymphs, all naked with white and yellow flowers entwined in their long hair, entreating him into the water, a sixth behind him on the far left. The water's surface is covered with lily pads and flowers, the gaps between the plants showing clear reflections of the lush green river bank and tree trunks in the background.
La belle dame sans merci (1893, 112x81cm)
The Lady of Shalott (1888, 153x200cm)
The Lady of Shalott (1894, 142x86cm; _ ZOOM to 3087x1811pix, 878kb) _ The legend of the Lady of Shalott is set in the time of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table. The lady is imprisoned in a small castle by a fairy who tells her that if she looks upon Camelot a curse will come upon her, but she does not know what the curse is. In the castle the Lady of Shalott has a mirror in which she can see the reflection of what is happening in Camelot. She weaves on a magical loom images of what she sees. One day she sees the knight Lancelot through the mirror and falls in love with him. She decides to leave Shalott and take the chance that she will be able to look at him and to enter Camelot. As soon as she steps out of the castle the mirror cracks and she realizes that the curse has fallen upon her. She runs down to the river, boards a small boat, and heads off towards Camelot, but sadly she dies just before reaching it. Her dead body is found in the boat which floats to Camelot’s shore, her name written around its prow. The Lady of Shalott episode foreshadows the downfall of Camelot. Just as Sir Lancelot was the Lady of Shalott’s destruction, his affair with Queen Guinevere leads to the destruction of Camelot. Waterhouse fully captured the Lady in her crazed, frantic state, desperately trying to reach Camelot, dying as she goes. On the front of the boat surrounded by candles lies a cross, with the image of Jesus nailed to it, symbolizing her willingness to sacrifice her life for love. The tapestry she is sitting on is one which she wove on her loom, depicting scenes of Camelot. The two images that can be seen on the tapestry are the Lady of Shalott herself riding toward Camelot in the boat, and sir Lancelot on a horse surrounded by other knights. Waterhouse also painted The Lady of Shalott (1888), and I’m half-sick of shadows (1915) whose title is a quote from “The Lady of Shalott” (1833, 1842) by Tennyson.
Saint Cecilia (1895) _ Saint Cecilia, patron saint of music, is lying asleep in a chair. Two angels kneel by her side, both playing stringed instruments. The angels as well as Cecilia herself share a look of gentle innocence and vulnerability. The angels look at Cecilia admiringly for her strong faith and lasting virginity. The book in her hand is most likely the holy gospel which the actual saint always carried concealed from her non-Christian family. Saint Cecilia converted many to Christianity, which eventually cost her her life. She was ordered to be suffocated by steam, but survived and was found smiling inside the chamber. She was then ordered to be beheaded, but the executioner could not sever her head with the three blows allowed. She supposedly survived for three days, throughout which she was said to be fully coherent and joyful. She finally died after being blessed by the holy Pontiff Urban. _ In the summer of 2001 the painting Saint Cecilia established a world record auction price for a 19th century Victorian or non-Impressionist painting: $10 million.
“I am Half-sick of Shadows,” said the Lady of Shalott (1915, 100x74cm; 800x624pix, 113kb)
Diogenes (1882, 208x135cm)
La Fileuse (1874, 32x26cm)
Cleopatra (1888)
Ulysses and the Sirens (1891, 101x199cm) _ In the Odyssey, Homer tells the story of Ulysses and the Sirens. Ulysses, knowing of the sirens' musical way of entrancing sailors to come to them, so that they can kill them, orders all his men to cover their ears as not to be carried away by the sirens beautiful song. Ulysses himself, wanting to hear, tells his men to tie him to the mast and not to release him no matter what he tells them. When the ship approaches the sirens' island, their song floats across the water. Ulysses is overtaken by it and struggles desperately, begging his men to release him. Waterhouse uses this myth to create an inspirational and compelling composition. The Sirens, as birds, flock around the ship singing with there melodic voices, the men gazing at them with awe. Ulysses himself, arms and legs tense, leans towards the mythical creatures with curious longing. The ship itself is beautifully designed with the oars protruding out of lions' heads on the sides, deep rich red sails, and its arching prow. Waterhouse painted other images inspired by the Odyssey, including Penelope and the Suitors, Circë Offering the Cup to Ulysses, and The Siren (1900).
Gather Ye Rosebuds (1908)
Gather ye rosebuds while ye may _ This previously unknown painting was dircovered in a Canadian farmhouse and soon after, in November 2003, (for around $7 million) auctioned at Christie's in London. The title comes from a poem by Robert Herrick:
Gather ye rosebuds while ye may
Old time is still a-flying;
And the same flower that smiles today
Tomorrow will be dying.

81 images at the Athenaeum
^ Born on 06 April 1483
Died on 06 April 1520: Raffaello Sanzio “Raphael”, great painter.

      Raffaelo Sanzio dies in Rome, on his 37th birthday. He was born on in Urbino, and received his first instruction in the techniques of painting from his father, Giovanni Santi [1435 – 01 Aug 1494], a minor artist. In Urbino, young Raffaelo was introduced to the works of such artists as Paolo Uccello [1397 – 10 Dec 1475], Luca Signorelli [1441 – 16 Oct 1523], Melozzo da Forlí and Francesco di Giorgio, as well as the Flemish artists Hieronymus Bosch [1450-1516] and Joos van Gent
     At age 17, Raphael became for four years an apprentice of Pietro Perugino [1445-1523], in Perugia. He gradually modified Perugino's style under the influence of Leonardo [15 Apr 1452 – 02 May 1519] and Michelangelo [06 Mar 1475 – 18 Feb 1564].
     The conception, structure and style of his early, famous Sposalizio (Marriage of the Virgin) of 1504 correspond closely to those of the work of the same name by Perugino, and it is assumed that Raphael was here executing a repeat commission passed on to him by his teacher. But while the faces of the figures, such as that of the girl on the left, could have been painted by Perugino [1446-1523], Raphael can elsewhere be seen to introduce elements which reveal his interest in the achievements of the new age. The domed building in the semicircular upper half of the picture may be derived from Bramante's contemporary ideal of architecture, as expressed in his round tempietto at S. Pietro in Montorio in Rome. The scene is one of tranquility. Mary graciously receives the ring from Joseph, who is depicted barefoot in accordance with the custom of oath-taking ceremonies at that time. In contrast to the calm figures of the main group, one young man in the foreground is shown in motion; angered at his failure to win Mary, he is breaking a dead stick over his knee. Joseph's stick, on the other hand, has blossomed afresh in accordance with apocryphal legend, indicating that he has chosen for Mary. 
     In 1509, Raphael began work on a papal commission to decorate a suite of rooms. From the very start broke away from the passionate love of detail so characteristic of Florentine painting, and thus away from the style of Ghirlandaio, Botticelli [1445 – 17 May 1510] and Piero della Francesca [1415-1492]. He developed instead an expansive style of composition which presented itself as a homogeneous and easily intelligible whole. In large, arched frescoes Raphael brought to life the subjects he had been instructed to paint: the theological Disputa (Disputation Concerning the Holy Sacrament) and its pendant, The School of Athens, portraying the secular sciences of philosophy. Aristotle and Plato are seen in conversation at the centre of the picture. just as one might imagine a scholarly discourse taking place in Ancient Greece, they are walking - in true Peripatetic manner - through a lofty lyceum. The gesture which Plato is making with his upward-pointing finger is symbolic in meaning: he is pointing to the source of higher inspiration, the realm of ideas. Aristotle, on the other hand, is gesturing downwards, towards the starting-point of all the natural sciences. Like Michelangelo in the Sistine Ceiling, Raphael also incorporates a number of his contemporaries into his fresco. This Plato is probably a portrait of Leonardo, while Archimedes, bending down to draw on a slate tablet with a pair of dividers, may be recognized as Bramante. The figure immediately behind and slightly above is that of Federico Gonzaga. In addition to these and many others whose identities are now lost to us, Raphael also included himself: together with Sodoma, he looks out towards the viewer from beside the pillar at the extreme right-hand edge of the picture. 
      Triumph of Galatea (1512) is perhaps the supreme evocation of the glorious spirit of antiquity. Much of the beauty of Galatea's face lies in its hint of shyness and innocence, as if she were utterly unaware of her physical charms; the expression of devotion on her face is not unlike that of Leonardo's angel in the Baptism of Christ by Verrocchio [1435 – 07 Oct 1488]. The composition is clearly constructed upon the interplay of diagonals. The arrows strung in the bows of the putti establish directional lines which are taken up in the lower half of the picture. Thus the diagonal issuing from the arrow top left, for example, is continued in the dolphins' reins, while the arrow top right is restated in the body of the twisting sea nymph. Raphael positions the head of the beautiful Galatea subtly but clearly at the exact centre of the composition. 
     The influence of Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling is clear when comparing the Sibyls and Prophets painted by Raphael in the Capella Chigi in S. Maria della Pace (1512) with those by Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel. 
     After becoming architect of St. Peter's in 1514, Raphael left the remaining frescos in the Papal apartments more and more to his assistants, including his important student Giulio Romano, although he provided the design for the Burning of the Borgo
     Other works of Raphael during his time in Rome include a series of famous portraits, such as those of Baldassare Castiglione, and of Pope Leo X with Cardinals Giulio de'Medici and Luigi de'Rossi, and a tapestry cycle depicting scenes from the lives of the Apostles
     One of the most frequently discussed and best-loved paintings of the Renaissance is Raphael's so-called Sistine Madonna. Some see a portrait of Pope Julius II in the figure of Saint Sixtus on the left. The painting was intended to go above an altar, facing a crucifix.

—       Raffaello Sanzio (or Santi), known as Raphael, or Raphael of Urbino, was born in Urbino on Good Friday 06 April 1483, the son of Magia di Battista di Nicola Ciarla and Giovanni Santi di Pietro. His father was a painter and poet at the court of Frederico da Montefeltre, one of the most famous princes and art patrons of Early Renaissance Italy. Raphael's father was not an outstanding painter, though he was a man of good sense. Raphael started helping out in Santi's studio at a very early age. It is believed that Raphael learnt the fundamentals of art in his father's studio. But it is still unclear where Raphael received his training after this early period in his father's workshop, as Giovanni Santi died in 1494. According to his first biographer Vasari Raphael was apprenticed to Perugino, although there are no sources, which confirm that he worked with Perugino before 1500. Among Raphael's early works, we know about Baronci Altarpiece, which was commissioned in 1501. It was badly damaged in an earthquake in 1789 and only some of its sections survived and now are kept in different collections. All Raphael's surviving works from 1502 to 1504 show Perugino's influence, the most notable are Crucifixion (1503), Coronation of the Virgin (1504), Marriage of the Virgin (1504), St. George (1504), St. Michael (1504), The Three Graces (1504), Allegory (The Knight's Dream) (1504), Madonna and Child (1503), Madonna Connestabile (1504).
      In 1504, Raphael moved to Florence, where he remained until 1508. These years were very important for his development. He studied works of Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo there, by which he was greatly influenced. Yet he proved, that his ability to adapt from others what was necessary to his own vision and to reject what was incompatible with it was faultless. In Florence he started his series of Madonnas, whose charm has captured popular imagination ever since: Madonna del Granduca (1505), Madonna of the Meadow (1506), Madonna with the Goldfinch (1506), La Belle Jardinière (1508). He created several portraits, which also had Leonardo's impact  Portrait of Agnolo Doni (1506), Portrait of Maddalena Doni (1506), Portrait of a Lady with a Unicorn (1506), Portrait of a Pregnant Woman (1506). Other notable pictures from his Florence period are St. George and the Dragon (1506), Entombment (1507), St. Catherine (1508), Madonna with the Baldachino (1508).
      Within four years Raphael had achieved success in Florence and his fame had spread abroad. By the autumn of 1508, he was in Rome and was entrusted by Pope Julius II with the decoration of the Stanze, the new papal apartment in the Vatican Palace, an enormous commission for the 26-year-old artist. It was nevertheless a triumph. The first room Stanza della Segnatura was completed by 1511. This room was probably Julius II's private library and it was decorated in the traditional way of decorating libraries, which went back to the Middle Ages. Each of the four walls was allocated one faculty from the spectrum then available: Theology, Philosophy, Poetry and Jurisprudence (as Justice) and presented as female figures. They all appear in four large tondi on the ceiling. Along the walls are allocated to them the appropriate images of men and women from history who had won fame in each of these fields. The School of Athens (1509) as the depiction of philosophy and Disputa (Disputation over the Sacrament) (1510-1511) as the depiction of theology are a culmination of High Renaissance principles. They stand for the intellectual reconciliation of Christianity and classical antiquity. Both frescos are miracles of harmony, of movement within strict symmetry, of the union of the real and the ideal.
      The second room was Stanza di Eliodora, named after the main fresco The Expulsion of Heliodorus (1512), on which Raphael worked from 1511 till 1514. The general theme of the room is that of God's intervention in human destiny. The third room Stanza dell'Incendio was probably finished by his assistants after his sketches in 1514-1517. Other important commissions in this period include The Triumph of Galatea (1511) for Villa della Farnesina, frescoes for the church of Saint'Agostino, frescoes for the Sala di Costantino and the decoration of Loggie of Vatican Palace.
      Under the new Pope Leo X  Raphael held an important position in the papal court. Besides combining positions of painter, architect (he was Chief Architect of St. Peter's cathedral) and archeologist, he initiated the first comprehensive survey of the antiquities of Rome. Although Raphael's main task during this period was to decorate Stanza, he still found time for a subject, which preoccupied him for a long time: Madonna and Christ Child. He created Madonna Alba (1513), Madonna della Tenda (1514), Madonna della Sedia (1514), Madonna di Foligno (1512) and the most famous of all Sistine Madonna (1514). The most notable portraits of this period were Portrait of a Cardinal (1511), Portrait of Tommaso Inghirami (1511), Portrait of Pope Julius II (1512), Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione (1516), La Donna Velata (1516), Portrait of Pope Leo X with Cardinals Giulio de' Medici and Luigi de' Rossi (1519). He created 10 cartoons for the tapestries, ordered by Leo X for the Sistine Chapel, 7 of which have survived and now in Victoria and Albert Museum in London. The tapestries themselves were woven by Pieter van Aelst and are now in the Vatican Museums.
      The Transfiguration (1520), was the last work Raphael painted. It was commissioned by Cardinal Giulio de' Medici. Raphael died unexpectedly on Good Friday 06 April 1520. The Transfiguration was complete. Vasari wrote: "He was laid out in the room where he last worked, and at his head hung his painting of the transfigured Christ, which he completed for Cardinal de' Medici. The contrast between the picture, which was so full of life, and the dead body filled everyone who saw it with bitter pain."
—     Raphael's students included Giulio Romano [1499 – 01 Nov 1546], Giovan Francesco Penni [1488-1528], Garofalo [1481-1559], Perino del Vaga, Polidoro da Caravaggio.

Virgin and Child (86x65cm; 1043x800pix, 91kb _ ZOOM to 1634x1253pix, 183kb) This painting was formerly incorrectly believed to be by Andrea del Sarto.
— different Virgin and Child (2053x1500pix, 416kb _ .ZOOM to 3592x2625pix, 632kb)
The Transfiguration on the Mountain (1520, 405x278cm; 1177x801pix, 174kb) _ detail 1 (958x977pix, 120kb) an apostle _ detail 2 (1130x750pix, 128kb) Christ rising _ detail 3 (1085x802pix, 124kb) miracle of the possessed boy _ Cardinal Giulio de' Medici commissioned The Transfiguration in 1517 to Raphael for the French Cathedral of Narbonne. Bad health prevented Raphael from finishing it. The painting, however, remained in Rome in San Pietro in Montorio after 1523. Taken to Paris 1797, it was brought back to Rome in 1815. The composition of The Transfiguration is divided into two distinct parts: the Miracle of the Possessed Boy on a lower level; and the Transfiguration of Christ on Mount Tabor, in the background. The transfigured Christ floats in an aura of light and clouds above the hill, accompanied by Moses and Elijah. Below, on the ground, are his disciples. Some are dazzled by the light of glory, others are in prayer. The gestures of the crowd beholding at the miracle link the two parts together: the raised hands of the crowd converge toward the figure of Christ. In this very grand composition Raphael has summed up all the elements present in the best of contemporary painting, including references to classical antiquity, Leonardo da Vinci (without doubt based on his recall of impressions garnered during his stay in Florence) and - not without a certain narcissism - himself. The works set the stage (just as surely as Michelangelo's Doni Tondo) for Mannerism. The numerous drawings (both by Raphael and students) for the persons in the painting, together with the number of variants of the first draft which were revealed by restoration work in 1977, show just exactly how carefully meditated a composition it is. The restoration also dispelled any doubts as to the authenticity of the attribution to Raphael; the retouching and corrections are proof that the painting (although unfinished) is actually entirely in his hand. The Transfiguration is the last bequest of an artist whose brief life was rich in inspiration, where doubt or tension had no place. Raphael's life was spent in thoughts of great harmony and balance. This is one of the reasons why Raphael appears as the best interpreter of the art of his time and has been admired and studied in every century.
Head of a Woman (1520 drawing, 33x24cm) _ A study of a woman's head seen from behind. The woman's head is turned to show her in profile. Raphael used fine lines drawn in black and white chalk on light beige paper. He created shading by placing lines close together and blurring them in some places with a brush or a finger. The drawing is a study for the woman at the bottom center of his Transfiguration on the Mountain who points to the epileptic boy. In the drawing, Raphael studied the angle of the woman's elbow and the lighting on her face and neck. The careful attention to shading makes the drawing very lifelike. The turn of her body is extremely natural and the skin-folds along her neck seem almost three-dimensional. This play of light and shade is reproduced in the painting. In the painting, the woman's hair is done more precisely; and has added shading to her face and intensified her facial expression.
     Painters like Raphael often made numerous preparatory drawings before starting on the actual painting. In general, artists would make a number of small sketches of people in a variety of positions; then one or more compositional studies to experiment with the painting's layout. The final design was eventually set out in 'cartoons' - full-size drawings often done on card or carton - and, from there, transferred directly onto the canvas. Because of their size, a series of studies like this takes on a special importance. For a study of a single figure, this drawing is quite big. It seems to be an intermediate form between the smaller sketches and the cartoons for life-size figures on the canvas.
A Man (1504, 47x37cm; 460x359pix, 29kb _ ZOOM to 1600x1250pix, 396kb _ ZOOM+ to 3200x2500pix, 1475kb, and admire the pattern of aging cracks all over the painting) _ This picture was long considered a portrait of Guidobaldo I di Montefeltro because an inscription added on the back of the painting at a later date describes the subject of the work as the Duke of Urbino. Today, however, the similarities with portraits known to be of Guidobaldo are not sufficient and the identity of the man in the picture remains a mystery. The man is seen standing in front of a dark parapet above which appears a separate visual area created by the view over a bright, expansive landscape. This landscape section frames the man’s head. The downward glance at the viewer and his noble dress combine to portray a distinguished, consciously distant man who is well aware of his social standing.
99 ZOOMable images at Wikimedia
^ Born on 06 April 1595: Pieter de Molyn, English-born Dutch landscape painter who died on 22 March 1661.
— He was active mainly in Haarlem. With Jan van Goyen and Salomon van Ruysdael [1602-1670], also active in Haarlem, he ranks as one of the pioneers of naturalistic landscape painting in Holland. It is not known if these three painters worked together, if they arrived at similar solutions independently, or if one of them began experiments with monochromatic pictures of dunes and cottages and the others followed his lead. Molyn's later career was less distinguished, and he seems then to have worked more as a draftsman then a painter. He also etched.
— His students included Gerard Terborch [1617-1681].

Dunes (1626, 26x36cm; 750x1075pix, kb) almost monochrome _ Pieter Molyn was born of Flemish parents in London. Neither the date of his emigration to Holland nor the name of his teacher are known. There is no documentary evidence for the assertion found in the early literature that he studied with Frans Hals [1582-1666], however, he did provide landscapes for a few of Hals's portraits. In 1616 he joined the guild at Haarlem, where he spent most of his life. His earliest works show the influence of Mannerists, such as Bloemaert [1564-1651] and Savery [1576-1639], but much more important for him was the impact of Esaias van de Velde's art. Van de Velde [1587-1630] was active in Haarlem when Molyn joined the guild there. Not much later, Molyn probably met Jan van Goyen [1596-1656], who was sent to Haarlem about in 1617 to study with van de Velde. Molyn's innovations are first seen in his modest Dunes, which abandons the device of breaking up a landscape into many layers. Scattered details seen from a low point of view have been subordinated to large areas of light and shadow, and the scene has been unified by prominent diagonals which lead the eye over the dunes past the small figures into the distance.
Landscape with Conversing Peasants (90x98cm) _ Peasants returning from the fields have stopped for a moment by an old man sitting by the side of the road. The juxtaposition of young and old, which is a frequent motif in Dutch art, is in this case quite fortuitous. In fact the picture records a brief instant and is so generalized that it lacks all narrative quality. The painter expresses neither scorn, pity nor tenderness for his figures; his attitude is completely objective. Nevertheless the people portrayed are in one respect different from the tillers of the land usually seen in Dutch peasant genre : they are drawn on a larger scale. Here the landscape is less important than the figures and there is more attempt at characterization.
Dunes Landscape With Peasants' Farm Houses (1832; 600x852pix)
Landscape with River Dam (1832; 600x852pix)
^ Died on 06 April 1931: William Lionel Wyllie, English marine and coastal painter, watercolorist, etcher, drypoint artist, and writer, born on  06 July 1851.
— He was the son of Katherine (née Benham) Wyllie and a prosperous, minor genre painter, William Morrison Wyllie (fl 1852–1890). He spent most of his childhood summers in France, where his parents owned houses on the coast, first at Boulogne and later at Wimereux. He began plein-air drawing and painting at an early age, encouraged by both his father and his stepbrother, the landscape and rustic genre painter Lionel Percy Smythe [1839-1918]. After studying at Heatherley’s Art School in London, about 1863, he entered the Royal Academy Schools in 1866 and two years later exhibited his first picture, Dover Castle and Town, at the summer exhibition. Though his precocious talent was again rewarded in 1869, when he won the Turner Gold Medal for Landscape with his Dawn after a Storm (engraved for the Illustrated London News, Jan 1870), the 1870s were to bring some disappointment: the Academy refused two of his pictures for exhibition in 1875, and his angry reaction was to declare the end of his artistic career and the beginning of one at sea.
      Though the promise was short lived it did fulfil a lifelong ambition to sail. Several cruises in British and European waters provided the inspiration and material for his continuing career as a marine painter. He painted coastal, harbor, and London dock scenes, as well as pictures of the British fleet. These became well known through engravings. His Toil, Glitter, Grime and Wealth (1883), a view in oils of the Thames at Greenwich, was his first major work to receive general critical acclaim. Like so many of Wyllie’s works in oil, the painting seems to be laboriously handled and lacking in both the subtlety of subject and delicacy of treatment characteristic of his more accomplished watercolors; however it was clearly well attuned to the more jingoistic currents of Victorian taste. So too, albeit at another level, were his first naval subjects, two large representations of the bombardment of Alexandria, also painted in 1883. He was elected ARA in 1889, no doubt further assisted by the success of his exhibition of 69 watercolors at the Fine Art Society in the previous year.
      His son, Lt. Col. Harold Wyllie [1880–], was a marine painter, pencil artist, etcher and engraver.

–- Land of the Teal (36x82cm; 651x1575pix, 67kb)
Sunshine on the Solent (etching, 16x22cm; 768x1002pix, 88kb)
Fishing Boats Off Ryde (1927 etching; 462x1024pix, 51kb)
Yacht Racing, Squally Weather, Cowes (etching, 15x37cm; 443x1024pix, 37kb)
The Providence of Rochester (etching, 30x52cm; 587x1024pix, 96kb) _ The artist depicts himself (from the back) in the small boat in the foreground.
A Fleet of Barges Beating to Windward (etching, 24x37cm; 649x1024pix, 75kb)
Homeward Bound (photogravure with hand coloring, (73x50cm; 768x532pix, 54kb) _ Two pictures bound together by a rope frame: at the top, a sailing ship in rough sea; at the bottom, tug-of-war between men pulling back, and women (with one young child) pulling forward.
An Industrial Waterfront / Battleships and Other Vessels Offshore (two etchings in one image, each 8x33cm)
Masters of the Sea (329x600pix, 25kb)
First Journey of Victory (hand-colored engraving, 41x56cm; 435x378pix, 12kb)
Pass at Glencoe (etching, 24x35cm; 729x1024pix, 117kb)
London and Tower Bridges (etching; 308x699pix) apparently viewed from the air.
The Opening of Tower Bridge, 1894 (341x600pix, 14kb) _ On Saturday 30 July 1894 the sun is hot enough to raise a golden haze, but the breeze brisk enough to keep colors clear. Wyllie sees all that a historical painter's heart could desire: the many ships closely packed and varying in size and rigs, a temporary avenue of brilliant colors, with flags and bunting. The HMS Landrail dominates the river procession which is led by the admiralty yacht Irene passing under the uplifted bascules of the new 244-meter Tower Bridge, almost a wonder of the world, whose construction began in 1886. It is the gateway to the port of the capital city of the British Empire and the most industrially successful nation on Earth. It is at the time one of the most complex pieces of engineering ever. Designed by Sir Horace Jones and Sir John Wolfe Barry, it is a bascule bridge, built of steel and clad in brick. Partly because the 28 December 1879 Tay Bridge Disaster was fresh in everyone's minds when construction on the Tower Bridge began in 1886, this new bridge has been made twice as strong as needed. Designed and made by Sir William Armstrong's company to be fail-safe, all the steam driven hydraulic mechanical systems are duplicated. When the Prince of Wales (the future Edward VII) turns the silver cup which makes the bascules rise for the first time, the whistles of the steamers and the guns firing salutes from the nearby Tower of London are not as loud as the cheer of the crowd watching from great tiers erected on the river banks, roof tops, and steamships, barges, and sailing boats.
      London Bridge was the first, and for a long time the only crossing over the Thames. As London grew, more bridges were added, but these were all to the west of London Bridge, since the area east of London Bridge had become a busy port. In the 19th century, the east end of London became so densely populated that the crossing by pedestrians and vehicles was being delayed by hours. In 1876, the Corporation of London, responsible for that part of the Thames, formed the "Special Bridge or Subway Committee", and opened the design of a new bridge to public competition. The biggest problem was how to build a bridge downstream from London Bridge without disrupting river traffic. Over 50 designs were proposed. In October 1884, Horace Jones, the City Architect, in collaboration with John Wolfe Barry, offered the chosen design, twice as strong as needed, partly in order to guard against a repetition of the 28 December 1879 Tay Bridge Disaster.
     Construction began in 1886 and it took 5 major contractors and the labor of 432 construction workers to complete it. Two massive piers had to be sunk into the river bed to support the construction, over 11'000 tons of steel provided the framework for the towers and walkways. This was then clad in Cornish granite and Portland stone, both to protect the underlying steelwork and to make the bridge harmonize with the Tower of London and the rest of its surroundings. Tower Bridge was the largest and most sophisticated bascule bridge ever built. Designed and made by Sir William Armstrong's company to be fail-safe, all the hydraulic mechanical systems were duplicated. Steam powered the enormous pumping engines. The energy created was then stored in six massive accumulators so that, as soon as power was required to lift the bridge, it was readily available. The accumulators fed the driving engines, which drove the bascules up and down. The bascules took about a minute to rise to their maximum 86 degrees. The bascules are still operated by hydraulic power, but since 1976 they have been driven by oil and electricity rather than steam. Tower Bridge copes well, more than 100 years later, with heavy modern traffic, little imagined by its designers. _ Photo of Tower Bridge
Home from the Brazils - refitting (1883) _ The painting shows a sailing ship being refitted in a small dry dock. Such ships made long-distance voyages - not only to Brazil, but also to Asia and Australia - throughout the 19th century, long after the arrival of steamships.
6 images at the National Marine Museum


Died on a 06 April:

^ 2007 Roy Moyer [1921–], US painter of landscapes, still lifes, and genre pictures. Groomed from childhood for a life as a concert pianist, Roy Moyer was essentially self-taught as a visual artist. He received undergraduate and graduate academic degrees from Columbia University and, following military service during World War II, studied at the University of Oslo.
Autumn Still Life (1980, 77x77cm; 1390x1400pix, 181kb.)
Diagonal Shaft of Light (1967, 75x75cm; 1374x1400pix, 181kb) Still life of three flowers blanked out in flat white by the flat white shaft.
Four Plums (1960, 67x90cm; 1040x1400pix, 126kb) monochrome violet
Lovers in the Snow II (1980, 71x76cm; 832x895pix, 140kb) monochrome blue. —(070419)

1893 George Vicat Cole, English painter born (full coverage) on 17 April 1833.

^ >1825 Willem van Leen, Dutch still-life painter born on 19 February 1753. He studied in Paris, went to Rotterdam, and returned to Paris in 1787. The outbreak of the Revolution in 1789 caused him to go back to Holland. There he painted exclusively still lifes of flowers and fruit. He also painted them as miniatures on the covers of boxes.
–- Two Green Parrakeets on a Branch (974x656pix, 47kb _ .ZOOM to 1705x1150pix, 127kb)
–- Still Life of Fruit, Flowers, etc. (900x701pix, 70kb) _ On a marble ledge there are grapes, a peach, a slice of melon being sampled by a fly, a greenish-white butterfly hovering over the flowers, and leafy vines.
Still Life with Flowers on the base of a statue in a park (1790, 68x55cm; 630x513pix, 57kb) _ same before restoration (55kb) - The statue itself, a lion, which had been painted over, is barely seen in the restored painting. The park is an eighteenth-century English landscape garden. There are several exotic species of flowers which were unknown in the Netherlands in the seventeenth century. It was only in the eighteenth century that various asters and poppies were only imported to Europe by the Dutch East India Company (VOC) thereby breathing new life into paintings of flowers. —(070405)

^ >1808 Jan Evert Morel, Dutch still-life painter born on 08 February 1777. — Not to be confused with landscape painter Jan Evert Morel [24 Feb 1835 – 14 May 1905]
–- Still Life of Fruits, Flowers, and an Ear of Corn (73x52cm; 799x571pix, 64kb _ .ZOOM to 1398x999pix, 130kb) The fruits include a pineapple, grapes, peaches, opened oranges. —(070405)

1684 Domenico Maria Canuti, Bolognese painter born (main coverage) on 05 April 1625.

1624 Jean-Baptiste Saive Sr. de Namur, Flemish painter born in 1540. Father of Jean-Baptiste Saive Jr. [1597-1642+] whose work is sometimes difficult to distinguish from his own. An example of the father's work is a series of six canvases representing the Months of the year (1590-1591), which show a clear influence of Lucas van Valckenborch. — Balthasar Huys [1590-1652] was a student of Saive Sr. in 1908. —(060405)

1528 Albrecht Dürer, German painter born (full coverage) on 21 May 1471. —(080107)

Born on a 06 April:

^ 1851 Raffaele Ragione, Italian painter and poet who died in November 1925.
At The Fairground (10x18cm)
A Woman (26x21cm)
Villa Comunale (1901, 20x32cm; 492x799pix, 117kb) _ L'artista raffigura un angolo della Villa Nazionale (ora Comunale), dov'è collocata la fontana di Angelo Viva con il gruppo scultoreo del "Ratto di Europa". L'opera, eseguita prima del soggiorno pargino del maestro, durato dal 1902 al 1923, è testimonianza della sua adesione alle poetiche del verismo imperanti nell'ambiente artistico napoletano di fine Ottocento. —(060405)

1826 Gustave Moreau, French painter who died (full coverage) on 18 April 1898.

^ 1824 Lucas Victor Schaefels, Antwerp Belgian painter and engraver who died on 17 Sep 1885. He was trained by his father Hendrik Raphael Schaefels, a decorative painter of the Neo-Classical period. His brother, Hendrik Frans “Rik” Schaefels [1827-1904], a painter of city and seascapes, was a popular and talented member of the artistic circles of Antwerp. Lucas Schaefels was the most important floral and still life painter of his generation in Antwerp. He began as a student of the Antwerp Academy and later taught ornamental design there. His decorative style and strong sense of design earned him a commission to paint the chapels at Sainte-Anne à Anvers and at Notre-Dame. As the unofficial town festival designer, he took it upon himself to design and organize the street decorations for the many special occasions that took place in Antwerp; a center of flower growing, competitions, and shows, as well as art competitions and exhibitions. Schaefels style is Neo-Baroque, reflecting the 17th century Antwerp style of painting. His works feature elaborate and opulent interiors with a wealth of game, produce and flowers arranged in a traditional pyramid-shaped composition. Although painted in the mid-19th century, they appear to have been painted two centuries before. — Jules Schaumburg [15 Jul 1839 – 17 Feb 1886] was a student of Schaefels.
Still Life of Fruit and a Goblet Upon a Draped Stone Ledge (79x128cm; 614x1024pix, 94kb)
Still Life With Fruit, Fish, Game and a Goldfish Bowl (1871, 160x199cm) —(060405)

^ 1822 Jan David Col, Belgian painter who died in 1900. — {Si su madre se apellidaba Flor, él era Col y Flor}
Refreshment After the Shoot (31x25cm)
Retour de Chasse (1885 (72x84cm)
En Pénitence (29x22cm; 612x468pix, 30kb)

^ 1819 Georg Bergmann, German painter who died on 14 October 1870. — Relative? of Max Bergmann [1884-1955]?
Der Erzahler (122x155cm)

^ 1589 Jan Tilens, Flemish painter who died (main coverage) on 25 July 1630. —(090724)

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