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ART “4” “2”-DAY  02 April v.9.70
^ Born on 02 April 1827: William Holman Hunt, English Pre-Raphaelite painter who died on 07 September 1910. — Not to be confused with US painter William Morris Hunt [31 March 1824 – 08 September 1879]
— William Holman Hunt was born in London. A clerk for several years, he left the world of trade to study at the British Museum and the National Gallery. In 1844 he entered the Royal Academy. Here he joined with Millais and Rossetti to develop the Pre-Raphaelite theories of art and, in 1848, to found the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. His first painting to interpret these themes was Rienzi, exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1849. In 1854 Hunt went to the Holy Land to portray scenes from the life of Christ, aiming to achieve total historical and archaelogical truth. He returned to Palestine in 1869 and again in 1873. Throughout his life Hunt remained dedicated to Pre-Raphaelite concepts, as exemplified in such works as The Light of the World, The Scapegoat, and The Shadow of Death. Hunt died in Kensington, London.
— Hunt worked as an office clerk in London from 1839 to 1843, attending drawing classes at a mechanics’ institute in the evenings and taking weekly lessons from the portrait painter Henry Rogers. Holman Hunt overcame parental opposition to his choice of career in 1843, and this determined attitude and dedication to art could be seen throughout his working life. In July 1844, at the third attempt, he entered the Royal Academy Schools. His earliest exhibited works, such as Little Nell and her Grandfather (1846), reveal few traces of originality, but the reading of John Ruskin’s Modern Painters in 1847 was of crucial importance to Holman Hunt’s artistic development. It led him to abandon the ambitious Christ and the Two Marys in early 1848, when he realized its traditional iconography would leave his contemporaries unmoved. His next major work, The Flight of Madeline and Porphyro during the Drunkenness Attending the Revelry (1848), from John Keats’s Eve of Saint Agnes, though displaced into a medieval setting, dramatized an issue dear to contemporary poets and central to Holman Hunt’s art: love and youthful idealism versus loyalty to one’s family. His first mature painting, it focuses on a moment of psychological crisis in a cramped and shallow picture space. The Keatsian source, rich colors and compositional format attracted the attention of Dante Gabriel Rossetti, leading to his friendship with Holman Hunt and thus contributing to the formation of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in the autumn of 1848.
— In 1844, Hunt was admitted as a student to the Royal Academy, where he met John Millais [08 Jun 1829 – 13 Aug 1896] and Dante Gabriel Rossetti [12 May 1828 – 09 Apr 1882]. For some time he shared a studio with Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and the pair, along with Millais and a few others, who had a common contempt of contemporary English art and its academic rules, started the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, which aimed at restoring English painting to its former heights. John Ruskin supported the group and supplied a theoretical foundation for its aims.
          Hunt believed that renewal of art must involve a return to honored religious and moral ideals, and these became the center of his work. He used biblical subjects; to paint scenery for these themes he visited Palestine several times, see The Scapegoat (1856) and The Finding of Savior in the Temple (1860). He also frequently took themes from old English myths and sagas, from Shakespeare, and Keats, filling them with an intense symbolism in which every small detail contributed to the picture's message and which is not easy to understand to a modern viewer. The years 1866-1868, he worked in Florence.
        At first Victorian England did not accept his works. Thus The Awakening Conscience (1853) infuriated the public; it was normal for a Victorian man to keep a mistress, but nobody spoke about it aloud and who was this Hunt to accuse others? When the public gradually grew to accept to Hunt his work was highly regarded. Hunt's series of magazine articles gathered in the book Pre-Raphaelitism and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (1905) is a valuable record of the movement.
— Hunt, a founder of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was born in London, the son of a warehouse manager. Throughout his life he was a devout Christian. He was also serious minded, and lacking in a sense of humor. Hunt joined the Royal Academy Schools in 1844, where he met Millais and Rossetti, and, in fact brought them together. In 1854 Hunt decided to visit the Holy Land, to see for himself the genuine background for the religious pictures he intended to paint. The first tangible results of this journey were two paintings, The Scapegoat, and The Finding of the Saviour in the Temple, which was exhibited nationally to great acclaim in 1860, and sold for the sum of 5500 guineas, Hunt was advised on the price by Charles Dickens.) This sale, which included the copyright established the painter both financially, and artisticly. Hunt’s famous picture The Light of the World, was one of the greatest Christian images of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Hunt worked at night on this picture, in an unheated shelter in a wood near Ewell in Surrey.
      Hunt did not have the natural talent of Millais, or the intellect and vision of Rossetti. He made up for this by sheer hard work and commitment. He could have been a very successful portrait painter had he chosen to be so. In later years, as his sight started to fail, perhaps, his colors became increasingly harsh. He was still capable of great things, however, as shown by his wonderful late picture The Lady of Shallott, surely one of the most powerful Pre-Raphaelite images. In his last years Hunt became the patriach of Victorian painting. He was awarded the Order of Merit by King Edward VII in 1905. Hunt married firstly Fanny Waugh, and after her death in childbirth her younger sister Edith. He was also a far more attractive personality than is generally supposed, with a wide range of interests, which included horse racing and boxing.

Self-Portrait (1845, 46x39cm; _ ZOOMable)
The Light of the World (1853, 126x60cm; _ .ZOOM to 3236x1544pix, 734kb) _ This allegory of Christ knocking at the door of the human soul, was championed by the critic, painter, and writer John Ruskin [08 Feb 1819 – 20 Jan 1900] and brought Hunt his first public success.
Aspargus Island _ ZOOMable)
Eve of Saint Agnes; The Flight of Madeleine and Porphyro during the Drunkenness attending the Revelry _ ZOOMable)
Fairlight Downs, Sunlight on the Sea _ ZOOMable)
Fishingboats by Moonlight _ ZOOMable)
John Ruskin's dead chick _ ZOOMable) _ What Ruskin had to do with a dead chick, I have not been able to find out.
–- Isabella, or the Pot of Basil (1867; 192x91cm) _ This painting is based on .Isabella, or the Pot of Basil by John Keats [31 Oct 1795 – 23 Feb 1821].
–- May Morning on Magdalen Tower, Oxford (1890, 155x200cm, 840x1092pix — ZOOM to 1700x2205pix, 2178kb)
–- smaller, very slightly different, version: May Morning on Magdalen Tower, Oxford (1893, 39x49cm, 931x1177pix, 184kb) _ Following a custom thought to derive from the ancient druids, a service was held on the tower of Magdalen College, Oxford, on May Day morning. Choristers and college staff sang hymns to welcome spring at the break of day. The light blue sky and pink clouds convey the freshness of the early morning light, while the abundant flowers remind us of the imminent arrival of summer. At the far right is an Indian Parsee, or sun-worshipper.
–- Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1883, 30x23cm; 725x550pix, 38kb _ ZOOM to 1088x825pix, 94kb _ ZOOM+ to 1632x1238pix, 177kb _ The painter and poet Rossetti [12 May 1828 – 09 April 1882] was a friend of Hunt.
–- Valentine Rescuing Silvia from Proteus (1851; 641x876pix, 154kb _ ZOOM to 962x1314pix, 325kb _ ZOOM+ to 1443x1972pix, 497kb _ ZOOM++ to 2164x2957pix, 1021kb) _ On the frame is written this quotation from the last scene of Two Gentlemen of Verona (Act 5 Scene 4) by Shakespeare, which the picture illustrates:
  Valentine:                            Now I dare not say
I have one friend alive: thou wouldst disprove me.
Who should be trusted, when one's own right hand
Is perjur'd to the bosom?           Proteus:
I am sorry I must never trust thee more,
But count the world a stranger for thy sake.
My shame and guilt confounds me.
Forgive me, Valentine; if hearty sorrow
Be a sufficient ransom for offence,
I tender't here; I do as truly suffer
As e'er I did commit.
Proteus had abandoned his first love, Julia, and fallen in love with Silvia, the girl loved by his best friend, Valentine. Silvia was the daughter of the Duke of Milan. Proteus connived to have Valentine, now his rival, banished by the Duke. Silvia went looking for Valentine, but was abducted by outlaws who took her into a forest. Proteus finds her, rescues her, and demands sex as a reward; Silvia refuses. Valentine happened to be close by and to observe that from hiding. He comes out, and in the scene pictured, angrily confronts Proteus. Julia also happens upon them, as she, disguised as a man (at left in the picture) was searching for Proteus. At the end everything will get straightened out, and there will be a happy double wedding: Valentine with Silvia, and Proteus with Julia.
–- The Dead Sea from Siloam (1855, 25x35cm; 608x857pix, 127kb _ ZOOM to 913x1285pix, 201kb _ ZOOM+ to 1370x1928pix, 329kb)
The Scapegoat (1854) _ Hunt made this painting during a two-year visit to Syria and Palestine.
On the shores of the Dead Sea, it shows Sa'ir La-'aza'zel (“the goat for Azazel”), which has been symbolically burdened with the sins of the Jewish people who are freed of them as the goat is driven out into the wilderness, domain of the demon Azazel (possibly identified with Satan):
     From the Israelite community Aaron shall receive two male goats for a sin offering. Taking the two male goats and setting them before YHWH at the entrance of the meeting tent, he shall cast lots to determine which one is for YHWH and which for Azazel. The goat determined by lot for Azazel he shall set alive before YHWH, so that with it he may make atonement by sending it off to Azazel in the desert. (from Leviticus 16:5–10)
The Lady of Shalott (1892)
Shadow of Death (1873, 93x73cm)
Il Dolce Far Niente (1866)
The Lantern Maker's Courtship (1854)
The Awakening Conscience (1853)
A Converted British Family Sheltering a Christian Missionary from the Persecution of the Druids (1850, 111x141cm)
On English Coasts (1852) _ sheep
The Triumph of the Innocents (157x248cm)
The Hireling Shepherd (1851, 77x110cm)
Claudio and Isabella (1853, 78x46cm)
^ Died on 02 April 1709: Giovanni-Battista Gaulli “Il Baciccio”, Italian Baroque painter born on 08 May 1639.
— Italian painter, born in Genoa (Giovanni Battista Gaulli) and active mainly in Rome, where he settled in 1657 and became a protégé of Bernini. He achieved success as a painter of altarpieces and portraits (he painted each of the seven popes from Alexander VII to Clement XI), but is remembered mainly for his decorative work and above all for his Adoration of the Name of Jesus (1679) on the ceiling of the nave of the Gesu. This is one of the supreme masterpieces of illusionistic decoration, ranking alongside the slightly later ceiling by Pozzo [30 Nov 1642 — 31 Aug 1709] in S. Ignazio. The stucco figures that are so brilliantly combined with the painted decoration (from the ground it is not always possible to tell which is which) are the work of Bernini's student Antonio Raggi [1624-1686].
— It is believed that Gaulli, known as Baciccio (the Genoese nickname for Giovanni Battista), left his native Genoa after his entire family perished, presumably in the plague of 1657. At that time he moved permanently to Rome. During the decade of the 1660s Baciccio established himself as one of the leading artists working in the Eternal City, most particularly as the result of the favor of the illustrious sculptor Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Baciccio became a member of the Academy of Saint Luke in 1662 and held several offices in that body. Through Bernini's recommendation Baciccio was chosen over such competitors as Carlo Maratta [15 May 1625 – 15 Dec 1713], Giacento Brandi, and Ciro Ferri [1634-1689] to execute the decorative cycle for the interior of the church of the Gesù, the recently completed mother church of the Jesuit order. Begun in 1676, the nave vault fresco, The Triumph of the Name of Jesus, was unveiled on New Year's Eve of 1679. In this work, universally considered the culmination of baroque illusionistic ceiling painting, Baciccio masterfully orchestrated painting and sculptural details within the architectural context. He created a tumultuous scene of figures who seem to hover over or tumble into the viewer's space. Baciccio continued to work in the Gesù until 1685, frescoing nave, dome, pendentives, apse, and transept vaults. The total ensemble is one of the glories of the Counter-Reformation. Stylistically Baciccio's works reveal the lasting influence of his Genoese heritage. This early exposure to fellow Genoese artists, including Valerio Castello [1624-1659] and Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione [1616-1670], is evident in the vibrant coloring, activated drapery, and fluid figural lines. In addition Baciccio employed the energetic brushstroke introduced to Genoa in the 1620s by the Flemish artist Anthony van Dyck [22 Mar 1599 – 09 Dec 1641]. In his later works Baciccio set aside the flamboyant rhythms and colors of the high baroque, conceding to the ascendancy of late baroque classicism.

Diana the Huntress (1690, 161x211cm; 952x1243pix, 703kb _ ZOOM to 1771x2312pix; 2406kb) with a dead (recently killed as shown in a miniature scene in the background) and two dogs, one of which, a white greyhound, seems to want to be breast-fed.
Landscape with Tobias and the Angel (600x1841pix, 289kb _ ZOOM not recommended to blurry 1400x4296pix, 602kb)
Pietà (1667, 183x116cm) _ The canvas is identifiable as the "Dead Christ in the arms of the weeping Virgin with two little angels", for which the painter received payment on 25 May 1667. The painting was carried out for Cardinal Flavio Chigi, along with another canvas of The Assumption of the Virgin. It is a fundamental work for the career of Gaulli, and looks back to the famous Pietà of Annibale Carracci. Gaulli, however, translates the carracciesque language to achieve one of the highest examples of "baroque classicism". His synthesis also shows the influence of Van Dyck's art.
Apotheosis of the Franciscan Order (1707) _ Pietro da Cortona's illusionistic effects were taken to extremes by the religious decorators of the second half of the 17th century. Baciccio and Andrea Pozzo were the most successful among them. Bacciccio's masterpiece was the painted ceiling in the Church of Il Gesù in Rome.
Apotheosis of Saint Ignatius (1685, 48x64cm) _ This is a bozzetto — a preparatory sketch for the fresco Baciccio painted for the vaulting of the left transept of the Jesuits' principal church of Il Gesù in Rome. The bozzetto differs from the fresco only in a few of the angel figures and in the use of stronger colors. Although the apotheosis of the saint has a firm place in the overall ecclesiastical design of the church, from which it cannot be dissociated, this oil study is nevertheless an independent painting, executed with greater care than one might expect of a sketch. The saint is carried heavenwards by a group of music-making, flower-strewing angels that are inebriated with joy. His arms spread wide, he soars towards a golden stream of light that is breaking through from the depths of the heavens. Baciccio does not treat this supernatural triumphal procession as a transcendental vision, but as a real occurrence. The body of the saint and the angels are not transcended by light, but are sculpturally tangible, and in its earthly corporeality, the painting mediates between the world of the spectator and the light whose source remains invisible to us, but which is perceptible in the figure of the saint.
— Portrait of Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1665, 72x61cm) _ This painting has been connected to a drawing at Windsor dated 1665, evidence which led to date the painting to that year. The preparatory design for the portrait is a drawing at the Palazzo Bianco in Genoa: a drawing derived from it is conserved at Weimar. First considered a self-portrait of Bernini, the painting was only later given to Baciccio. Gaulli carried out several other portraits of Bernini, his teacher and friend. One example, coming from the Altieri collection, dates to around 1673. Another version, once belonging to Queen Christina of Sweden, was in the Geymuller collection. The first Gaulli portrait of Bernini was executed some time before Christmas, 1669, as it is mentioned in a dated letter from Rangoni to the Duke of Modena.
Cardinal Leopoldo de' Medici (1667; 550x432pix, 42kb)
^ Born on 02 April 1688: John Smibert (or Smybert), Scottish and Colonial Baroque painter specialized in Portraits, who died on 02 (24?) March 1751. — {Did people think that his first name was Bert because his mom would proudly say of his paintings: “It's Smybert”?}
— From 1702 to 1709 he was apprenticed to a house painter and plasterer in Edinburgh. He set out for London at the end of his apprenticeship, about which time he began recording in a Notebook the events of his life and in succeeding years the details of his travels and records of his painting activities. The appearance of a professionally trained British painter in the American colonies in 1729 marks a crucial point in the history of US art. Smibert not only imported the skills necessary to convey the impression of substantial, rounded forms in a picture, but his commercial success also inspired others to contemplate careers as painters. Born in Edinburgh and schooled in London and Italy, Smibert attracted numerous clients upon his arrival in Boston.
— John Smibert divided his early career between Edinburgh, his birthplace, and London, where he variously studied art, worked as a plasterer, painted houses and coaches, and eventually set up as a portrait painter and copyist. He arrived in Italy in 1717, copied master paintings in Florence and Rome for his patron Cosimo III de' Medici, and then returned to London. By 1722 he had a studio there and was considered a leading portraitist. Smibert arrived in the American colonies in 1728, attracted by climate, opportunity, and the promise of employment in a visionary utopian colony to be established in the Bermudas. It failed to materialize, but he remained, the first fully trained artist in the colonies. He established a highly successful portrait practice in Boston.
— A native of Edinburgh, Scotland, Smibert received his professional training in London at Sir Godfrey Kneller's Great Queen Street Academy. In 1716, after three years at the academy, he painted in Scotland, Italy, and London, and achieved a reputation as a painter of some note. He arrived in Boston in 1728 as part of the venture of Dean George Berkeley [12 Mar 1685 – 14 Jan 1753] to establish an academy in Bermuda, where Smibert was to be the professor of painting. The venture was commemorated with his influential group portrait The Bermuda Group (1728); the academy, however, never materialized, as Berkeley did not receive the £20'000 grant he expected from the British Parliament, and returned to England in October 1731. Smibert stayed in Boston, making his living as the portraitist of Boston's leading citizens and as the owner of a shop that sold prints and artists' supplies. He is noted as the first academically trained painter to carve out a career as a portraitist in the British colonies in America.

The Bermuda Group (Dean Berkeley and his Entourage) (1730; 594x800pix, 94kb) _ George Berkeley [12 Mar 1685 – 14 Jan 1753] was an Anglo-Irish Anglican clergyman, philosopher, and scientist, best known for his Empiricist philosophy (A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge), which holds that everything except the spiritual exists only insofar as it is perceived by the senses. He became bishop of Cloyne in 1734. He is shown in Newport, Rhode Island, with his wife holding their young son, and others who accompanied him on his unsuccessful American venture.
      The frenzied speculation that preceded the September 1720 bursting of the South Sea Bubble had shaken Berkeley's faith in the Old World, and he looked in hope to the New. His Essay Towards preventing the Ruin of Great-Britain (1721) was succeeded by his prophetic verses “Westward the course of empire takes its way; The four first acts already past, A fifth shall close the drama with the day: Time’s noblest offspring is the last.” in On the Prospect of Planting Arts and Learning in America (1726). By 1722 he had resolved to build a college in Bermuda for the education of young Amerindians, publishing the plan in A Proposal For the better Supplying of Churches in our Foreign Plantations and Converting the Savage Americans to Christianity by a College to be Erected in the Summer Islands, otherwise called the Isles of Bermuda. (1724).
     While Berkeley touted slavery as the best way to Christianize Blacks, he proposed a different way for Amerindians. He thought the best people to convert Amerindians to Christianity would be the Amerindians themselves. He recommended recruiting potential missionaries "by peaceable methods" if possible, but by "taking captive the children of our enemies" if necessary. For the success of his school, he suggested enrolling “only such savages as are under 10 years of age, before evil habits have taken a deep root” . Bermuda was the perfect setting for his social experiment. “Young Americans, educated in an island at some distance from their own country, will more easily be kept under discipline till they have attained a complete education." While on the continent, they (unlike Blacks) “might find opportunities of running away to their countrymen,” while, captive on the island, they would be prevented them from “returning to their brutal customs, before they were thoroughly imbued with good principles and habits.”
      The scheme caught the public imagination; the King granted a charter; the Archbishop of Canterbury acted as trustee; subscriptions poured in; and Parliament passed a contingent grant of £20,000. But there was opposition; an alternative charity for Georgia was mooted; and Sir Robert Walpole [26 Aug 1676 – 18 Mar 1745], the Prime Minister (from 1721 to 1742), hesitated.
      In 1728 Berkeley married Anne, daughter of Chief Justice Forster, a talented and well-educated woman, who defended her husband's philosophy after his death. Soon after the wedding, they sailed for America, settling at Newport, R.I., where Berkeley bought land and slaves for his Whitehall plantation, where he built a house, and waited. Berkeley preached often in Newport and its neighborhood, and a philosophical study group met at Whitehall. Eventually, word came that the grant would not be paid, and Berkeley returned to London in October 1731. Several American universities benefited by Berkeley's visit, Yale in particular, to which he donated his Whitehall plantation and its slaves upon his departure. Yale's first scholarship was funded for up to 50 years with money earned from slave labor.
     Berkeley's correspondence with Samuel Johnson, later president of King's College (now Columbia University), is of philosophical importance. Berkeley's Alciphron; or, The Minute Philosopher (1732) was written at Newport, and the setting of the dialogues reflects local scenes and scenery. It is a massive defense of theism and Christianity with attacks on deists and freethinkers and discussions of visual language and analogical knowledge and of the functions of words in religious argument.
     While at his Whitehall plantation in Newport, on 04 October 1730, Berkeley purchased "a Negro man named Philip aged Fourteen years or thereabout." A few days later he purchased "a negro man named Edward aged twenty years or thereabouts." On 11 June 11 1731, “Dean Berkeley baptized three of his negroes, 'Philip, Anthony, and Agnes Berkeley' ” . Berkeley's sermons explained to the colonists why Christianity supported slavery, and hence slaves should become baptized Christians. He said that it would be of advantage to their slave masters' affairs to have slaves who should “obey in all things their masters according to the flesh, not with eye-service as men-pleasers, but in singleness of heart, as fearing God;” and that gospel liberty is consistent with temporal servitude; and that their slaves would only become better slaves by being Christian.
George Berkeley (1727; 350x255pix, 18kb) alone
Benjamin Colman (1740; 350x279pix, 19kb) _ A member of Boston's colonial elite, Benjamin Colman [1710-1765] was the nephew of Reverend Dr. Benjamin Colman [19 Oct 1673 – 29 Aug 1747], one of the most distinguished citizens of Boston, a founder of the Church in Brattle Square, and a voluminous writer on colonial economics. As did most young Boston men of his social station, Colman attended Harvard College. He graduated in 1727, despite being fined for "being once at a Tavern unseasonably & drinking strong drink & with Companions of ill fame as also for being with More when he cut Mr Gookins's sadle & killed his Peahen as also for Lying at first to conceal these crimes." A merchant like his father, Colman formed a partnership with Nathaniel Sparhawk of Kittery. Both were related to Lieutenant General Sir William Pepperill, a commander in the British army, through whose influence they obtained a government contract to outfit Massachusetts troops and to supply construction materials and workers for the garrison at Louisbourg, Nova Scotia. They also sold legal advice in business matters and collected debts for London merchants. The firm, however, declared bankruptcy in 1758, and in 1765 Colman was identified by his obituary in The Boston Gazette as "formerly a noted Merchant in this Town." Smibert's portrayal of Colman records both his high social status and his occupation as a merchant. Dressed in a frock coat and matching waistcoat of a rich burgundy color, Colman stands beside a table and proffers a letter. Based on portraits of British nobility, the pose indicates Colman's status as a gentleman. The letter was also a well-established convention, both for indicating the sitter's trade and for recording his identity. Colman's letter is inscribed "To Mr. Benjn Colman Mercht Boston." Painted near the end of Smibert's career, the portrait of Benjamin Colman is similar to Smibert's other merchant portraits, including Peter Fanueil (1740) and Richard Bill (1733). This repetition of pose and costume was an accepted convention in colonial society, for as citizens of the British crown, the colonists above all aspired to imitate the customs of the British aristocracy and the tastes of London's fashionable society.
Judge Samuel Sewall (1729, 76x63cm; 457x379pix, 44kb) _ On 27 May 1692 Samuel Sewall [28 Mar 1652 – 01 Jan 1730] was appointed by Gov. William Phips [02 Feb 1651 – 18 Feb 1695], who was in his second week on the job, as one of the eight men who were to act as judges to try the Salem witchcraft cases, in which 140 innocent persons were accused, and 20 of them were put to death from 10 June 1692 to 22 September 1692, while up to 17 others died in prison. Sewall was the only judge to admit the error of these decisions, standing silently in the Old South Church in Boston in 1697 while his confession of error and guilt was read aloud. He was an eminent citizen of colonial Boston: a member of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, manager of Boston’s only licensed printing press, and chief justice of the Superior Court. His diaries provide a lively record of the social, political, and religious life of his time. His writings include an early anti-slavery appeal, The Selling of Joseph (1700), and A Memorial Relating to the Kennebeck Indians (1721), an argument for humane treatment of Amerindians,
      This was among the first of almost 250 portraits that Smibert made in Boston during his seventeen-year residence. His ability to capture character as well as appearance and his deft modeling of three-dimensional form caused a sensation in Boston, and his studio in Scollay Square became a mecca for aspiring artists.

^ Baptized as an infant on 02 April 1648: Cornelis Huysmans van Mechelen, Flemish painter who died on 01 June 1727.
— He was the son of a builder, Hendrik Huysmans, and Catharina van der Meyden. After their deaths he was brought up by his uncle, who may have apprenticed him to the landscape painter Gaspard de Witte [1624–1681] or to Cornelis Huysman’s half-brother Pieter. He moved to Brussels to be trained by Jacques d’Arthois, who, on Huysmans’s own testimony, was the most important influence on his development as a painter. On 24 January 1682 he married Maria Anna Schepers in Mechelen and in 1688 signed an agreement with the Mechelen painters’ guild, which allowed him, upon payment of 24 guilders and 14 stuivers, to practise his trade there. Perhaps some difficulties he experienced with the guild encouraged his move to Antwerp, where he became a master in 1706–1707. In 1716 he returned to Mechelen, where he took on Augustus-Casimir Redel and Jean Edmond Turner as students.
— Born in Antwerp, son of the architect Hendrick Huysmans. Student in Antwerp of Jasper de Witte and then in Brussels of Jacques d’Arthois for whom he also worked as an assistant for a time. He was still living in Brussels in 1681, but in 1682 he settled in Mâlines, where he married Anna Scheppers on 26 January that year. It may be that he also spent a time in England. In 1702 he went to Antwerp and in 1706-1707 became a master in the Antwerp Guild of St Luke, but returned to Mâlines in 1716, working there until his death.
     Cornelis Huysmans, who was called Huysmans van Mechelen, was a landscape painter and represents the Brussels-influenced decorative landscape painting in Antwerp and Mâlines [= Mechelen]. To a later age he has become an artist to whom over the years a large number of landscapes of a specific character have with more or less justification been attributed, while signed works by him are extremely rare. His younger brother, and possibly student, Jan~Baptist Huysmans [1654-1716] was a landscape painter, too, but has been overshadowed by Cornelis, and it has earlier been difficult to distinguish their works from each other. Now, however, we know of a modest number of signed works by Jan Baptist (dated between 1690 and 1700), just sufficient for outlining his style. It may become possible to distinguish some of the works now known under the name of Cornelis as being by Jan Baptist, thereby contributing to a clearer picture of Cornelis’ oeuvre. A landscape which until recently was for considered typical of Cornelis Huysmans, now seems to be of Adriaen van der Cabel [1631-1705].

— Mountainous Landscape (561x700pix, 149kb)
— Forested Landscape (639x725kb, 156kb)
— Landscape with a Horseman in a Clearing (764x688pix, 141kb)
Landscape with a Ruined Tower (81x118cm; 575x825pix, 212kb)
— Paysage Animé (56x72cm; 410x530pix, 58kb)
Wooded Landscape I (81x116cm; 575x841pix, 220kb)
— Wooded Landscape II  (55x81cm; 285x416pix, 26kb)

Died on a 02 April:

^ >2004 Beatrice Riese [1917–], of abdominal cancer, abstract artist and collector born in The Hague, Netherlands. In the 1930's she studied art in Paris, where she was introduced to African art. In 1940, shortly before the Germans invaded France, she escaped with her parents to Africa, then to Richmond, Virginia. There, Riese married a Spanish anarchist she had met on the voyage. She attended art classes of Clyfford Still at Virginia Commonwealth University. She divorce and moved to New York City, where she supported herself and her young son by working as a textile designer. The abstract painting and drawing style she eventually developed, with its gridded geometric forms filled with finely worked calligraphic lines, suggested the patterns of woven fabric and stitchwork, as well as densely written musical notation and micrography. She collected African and Amerindian art, which, in her later years, she donated to museums.
–- Syntax, Souvenir and Symbol (1996, 73x87cm; 988x1200pix, 70kb) —(080216)

^ >1956 Luigi Filippo Tibertelli “Filippo de Pisis”, in Milan, Italian painter and writer born on 08 (11?) May 1896 in Ferrara. During his adolescence he wrote poetry and studied painting under different masters, among whom Odoardo Domenichini. He loved to surround himself with rare and curious objects and old books. He also had a collection of butterflies and wild flowers which he donated to the Padua University in 1915. De Pisis was affected with nervous disorders and in 1915 he was recovered in the psychiatric hospital in Venice. As a result he was exempted from military service. He later lived and divided his time between Ferrara and Bologna, studying literature and philosophy at the universities of these towns from 1916 to 1919. He met Morandi, wrote articles for “La Raccolta” of Giuseppe Raimondi and “La Brigata” of Dino Binazzi. The Ferrara poet Corrado Govoni introduced him into the futurist circle. In 1915 de Chirico and Savinio were transferred to Ferrara for their military service. Together with de Pisis and Carrà, who joined them in 1917, they formed the nucleus of the metaphysical “school”. De Pisis wrote collections of lyrical prose and poetry: “Canti della Croara” and “Emportio” in 1916, “La città dalle 100 meraviglie” in 1920, influenced by the nostalgic and melancholy vision of the de Chirico brothers. It was only in 1919 when he moved to Rome that he dedicated himself to painting. He frequented the “Valori Plastici” environment and became friendly with the painter Armando Spadini. During this period he started to work on his still life paintings putting together in a evocative form many different types of objects, held together by a light and sensual craftsmanship, filled with the “Stimmung” of metaphysical painting The literary element, the theme of a book, fragments of poetry or visual references to the works of artists that had preceded him remained a central component in his work. De Pisis searched for secret aspects, the dramatic forces in things, considering that the lyrical and intrinsic value of a still life had the precedence over the pictorial or constructive quality. The pleasure that de Pisis took from “la bonne peinture” was stimulated when he moved to Paris in 1925. He lived in the French capital for fourteen years. His admiration for Eugène Delacroix, Eduard Manet and Camille Corot, as well as for Henri Matisse and the “Fauves” was reflected in a gestural use of colour and brilliant coloured accents. Besides still life he painted urban scenes, male nudes and hermaphroditic images. His most important works during the ‘twenties were marine still life, dream-like images of estranged objects set out on a beach in a disquieting spatial relationship with the seascape background. It was de Chirico who presented the first personal exhibition of de Pisis at the Galerie au Sacre du Printemps in 1926. Two years later the French critic Waldemar George wrote the first monograph about him. De Pisis continued to exhibit in Italy and to write articles for L’Italia Letteraria, L’orto and La Revista di Ferrara. He became part of the “Italians in Paris” group that included de Chirico, Savinio, Campigli, Mario Tozzi and Renato Paresce. For them, Waldemar George presented the”Appels d’Italie” exhibition at the Venice Biennial in 1930. In 1931 de Pisis painted a series of watercolors to illustrate the volume Questa è Parigi written by Giovanni Comisso, his very good friend. He also co-operated with his fellow countryman Mario Caviglieri, who lived in the south-west of France. During the ‘thirties he visited England on three occasions, making friends with Vanessa Bell and Duncan Grant. De Pisis returned to Milan at the outbreak of the second World War and in 1944 he settled in Venice, where he was inspired by the paintings of Francesco Guardi and other Venetian Masters of the XVIII century. As during his stays in London, de Pisis always dedicated much care in portraying the atmospheric environment, dissolving monuments in rare, calligraphic brushstrokes and luminous graduations of tones. In the last ten years of his life he suffered poor health, due to nervous problems. His work obtained the consideration it deserved especially at the Venice Biennial exhibitions of 1948 and 1954.
— A soli otto anni comincia a prendere lezioni di disegno dal professore ferrarese Edoardo Domenichini, in seguito sostituito dai fratelli Longanesi. Durante la giovinezza, si dedica prevalentemente alla letteratura e nel 1914 si iscrive alla Facoltà di Lettere dell'Università di Bologna; in questo periodo si interessa alla poesia futurista, sebbene i suoi autori prediletti rimangano Leopardi e Pascoli. Continua a dipingere, e, due anni più tardi, conosce Giorgio de Chirico e Alberto Savinio: la pittura metafisica dei due fratelli influenza l'organizzazione spaziale delle opere del giovane artista ferrarese, il quale, tuttavia, non rinuncia mai ad una pittura profondamente impregnata della sua personalissima sensibilità e della sua poetica visione della realtà. Si avvicina al movimento dadaista capeggiato da Tristan Tzara, al quale scrive, con una certa regolarità, fino al 1920. Durante il periodo universitario frequenta i giovani intellettuali e gli artisti residenti nella città emiliana, scrive articoli, tiene conferenze, compone novelle e pubblica la raccolta I Canti della Crosara con la prefazione di C. Govoni. Nel 1919 compie il suo primo viaggio a Roma, durante il quale conosce Giovanni Comisso, che gli resterà amico affezionato per tutta la vita. L'anno successivo si stabilisce nella capitale, dove frequenta numerosi artisti e la buona società romana: finalmente si propone al pubblico come pittore, allestendo le sue prime esposizioni presso la Galleria Bragaglia. Laureatosi, nel 1923 insegna ad Assisi e l'anno successivo a Poggio Mirteto: questo stretto contatto con la natura delle campagne e delle colline umbre e laziali influenza e ingentilisce le sue tele che abbandonano progressivamente le atmosfere metafisiche e si avvicinano al linguaggio poetico e sognato che caratterizza gran parte della produzione di de Pisis. Nel 1925 si stabilisce a Parigi: le sue lunghe visite ai musei gli rivelano la lezione dei pittori romantici (Il Ponte di Narni - Omaggio a Corot, 1926, Mart, Collezione Giovanardi), degli impressionisti e di tutta la pittura moderna fino al classicismo di Matisse. L'anno successivo è invitato ad esporre alla I Mostra del Novecento, organizzata da Margherita Sarfatti, e per la prima volta partecipa alla Biennale di Venezia. Pur tornando con frequenza in Italia, soprattutto durante il periodo estivo che trascorre in montagna con la madre, De Pisis continua a vivere nella stimolante capitale francese, nella quale conosce Svevo, Joyce, Babel, Braque, Picasso e Matisse; la sua casa di Rue Servandoni 7 diviene punto d'incontro d'artisti e letterati e la fama del pittore ferrarese, dopo l'esposizione Les artists italiens de Paris del 1928, cresce notevolmente sia in Italia sia all'estero, dove viene frequentemente invitato alle più importanti manifestazioni artistiche. Negli anni Trenta è impegnato in numerosi viaggi nelle capitali europee, che puntualmente ritrae nei loro aspetti più suggestivi e poetici, e dove è accolto con calore dagli artisti più noti: a Londra, ad esempio, è ospite di Vanessa Bell, la quale gli concede di dipingere nel suo atelier londinese. Allo scoppio della seconda guerra mondiale torna in Italia, e, dopo un viaggio che tocca le città di Venezia, Rimini, Bologna e Vicenza, si stabilisce a Milano. Nel 1942, Vallecchi pubblica le poesie del pittore, che egli legge in pubblico durante alcune serate a Venezia e a Roma. A causa dei bombardamenti, nel 1943 si trasferisce a Venezia, dove acquista una casa a S. Sebastiano 1709. In questo periodo, oltre alla pittura si dedica anche all'illustrazione di testi letterari. Al termine del conflitto le condizioni di salute di De Pisis peggiorano sensibilmente, e l'aggravarsi della sua malattia nervosa lo costringono a lunghi periodi di riposo in clinica: infatti, l'artista trascorre gli ultimi anni della sua vita, praticamente isolato, presso la casa di cura Villa Fiorita di Bugherio, dove organizza il suo ultimo atelier e dove dipinge le sue ultime struggenti nature morte.
— La sua pittura è legata al processo dell'arte italiana dal momento metafisico al Novecento. L'opera letteraria di De Pisis è rappresentata da scritti di critica d'arte e da raccolte di liriche (Poesie, 1942), nelle quali il gusto impressionistico e visivo trova espressioni di singolare vivacità. — Negli anni della giovinezza ferrarese de Pisis porta a termine gli studi regolari, ma coltiva ad un tempo molteplici interessi: dalla botanica alla storia dell’arte, dalla pittura alla letteratura. Molte di queste esperienze, e in particolare quella letteraria, riaffiorano e tornano utili in seguito al suo lavoro pittorico. Altrettanto vale per l’incontro avvenuto a Ferrara, nella seconda metà degli anni Dieci, con i padri della pittura metafisica: De Chirico, Savinio e Carrà. Anche i frutti di quell’esperienza maturano più avanti, negli anni di Parigi.
      Nel 1920 si trasferisce a Roma, dove lavora alla definizione di un proprio linguaggio figurativo. Esiti interessanti di quel periodo non mancano, ma è a Parigi, dove si trasferisce nel 1925, che, anche grazie allo studio dei grandi ottocentisti francesi e dei contemporanei, raggiunge la piena padronanza dei suoi mezzi, avviando uno dei più straordinari itinerari della pittura del Novecento, non solo italiano. Il suo pennello diventa infatti una sorta di sismografo capace di registrare con inimitabile immediatezza ciò che accade nell’attimo dell’ incontro-scontro tra la sensibilità dell’artista e l’emozione che gli procurano le cose, anche le più umili: una semplice penna d’oca a terra, nel mezzo di una strada, o una conchiglia abbandonata su una spiaggia. Paesaggi, nature morte, frutti, fiori, animali e uomini sono tratteggiati, sulle sue tele, con pennellate lievi, vibranti, luminose, fragili in apparenza, ma dure in realtà come il fil di ferro. È così per tutto il quindicennio trascorso a Parigi, e poi anche in Italia, a Milano e Venezia, dove risiede principalmente a partire dal 1939. Vengono, infine, gli anni di Villa Fiorita. Anni di sofferenze che si riflettono nelle opere di quel tempo estremo della sua arte, ma che non gli impediscono di prosciugare la sua febbrile "stenografia pittorica", costruendo una sintassi figurativa ridotta all’essenziale, una sorta di personalissimo alfabeto Morse drammaticamente pausato, capace di esiti all’altezza di quanto di più grande e di più moderno andava avvenendo in pittura, in Italia e fuori. — LINKS
Lungosenna (1927; 620x522pix, 97kb)
Il Canale della Giudecca ai Gesuiti (1943)
Portrait of Labre (1942, 80x65cm; 1007x760pix, 117kb)
Un vecchio gondoliere (1947)
Ritratto di Pospisil (1943)
Piatto e bottiglia (1943)
Still Life with Pheasant (459x576pix, 34kb)
–- Banlieue de Paris (1934, 43x51cm; 777x900pix, 117kb) Sold at a Sotheby's auction on 23 November 2004 for €84'000.
— (A street in an earthquake?)
— (can, bottle, candle?) —(070401)

1905 Hjalmar “Magnus” Munsterhjelm, Finnish painter born (main coverage) on 19 October 1840. —(090330)

^ >1901 Claude Thomas Stanfield Moore, British painter, specialized in ships on the Thames, born on 10 June 1853. — {It is a pity that there are no more Moore moor paintings}— Relative? of Albert Joseph Moore [04 Sep 1841 – 25 Sep 1893]? Henry Moore [1898-1986]?, or another Henry Moore [1831-1895]?
–- The Thames at Greenwich (900x1324pix, 97kb)
–- Shipping on the Thames Near Tower Bridge (582x900pix, 56kb)
Shipping on Thames River near the Tower of London (1891, 51x76cm; 420x640pix, 46kb)
H.M.S. Warspale off Greenwich (1881, 13x19cm)
— (2 ships at sea) (22x33cm; 400x618pix, 40kb) —(070401)

1881 Johannes (or Jan) Tavenraat (or Tavenraet ), Rotterdam Dutch painter born on 20 March 1809. — {Was Tavenraat a tavern rat?} — He was intended to succeed his father in the family cloth-dyeing business. In the evenings he attended classes of the genre painter Cornelis Bakker [1771–1849] at the Rotterdam Hierdoor tot Hoger society (‘The way to higher things’). In 1839 he decided to paint full time and continued his training under Willem Hendrik Schmidt [1809–1849]. Throughout his life Tavenraat traveled in order to paint, visiting Belgium, Germany (following the Rhine), Bohemia, and the Tyrol. From 1842 to 1846 he lived in Antwerp working with Felix de Bovie [1812–1880], a student of Barend Cornelis Koekkoek. He also continued his training under Eugène de Block [1812–1893].

1872 Samuel Finley Breese Morse, US painter, telegraph pioneer, born (full coverage) on 27 April 1791.

1596 Jacopo Zucchi dies in Rome, artist born in Florence about 1540.

Born on a 02 April:

1891 Max Ernst, German French painter and sculptor who died (full coverage) on 01 April 1976.

^ 1837 Johan Conrad Greive, Dutch painter, draftsman, and printmaker. People did grieve for Greive when he died on 14 May 1891. — He initially wanted to be a musician like his father, but he decided to become a painter and was taught his uncle, the genre and figure painter P. F. Greive [1811–1872]. Thereafter he became a student of Cornelis Springer [25 May 1817 – 20 Feb 1891], and about 1861 he worked with L. Lingeman [1829–1894] in the latter’s studio.
Een visser die zijn netten te drogen hangt, een stad op de achtergrond (24x38cm; 279x439pix, 38kb)
Gezigt op het Westerdok, Amsterdam (color lithograph, 27x43cm; 531x823pix, 54kb). — (060405)

1811 William Joseph Shayer Junior, British artist who died in 1892.

1810 Kaspar Karsen (or Karssen), Dutch artist who died on 24 July 1896. — {Do NOT give his initials as KKK}
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